In this article, we show three examples for the application of pedestrian flow simulation and analysis: the Haj to Makkah, the World Youth Day 2005 in Cologne, and the egress (non-emergency) from a football stadium. The former two are among the largest events in the world — concerning the number of participants. Various circumstances are specific for religious events. The persons might perform rituals and therefore the patterns of movement or gathering are governed by rules that go beyond simple necessity or comfort. Furthermore, the persons are usually very much attracted by the (idealistic) aim of their pilgrimage. For the Haj to Makkah, the Jamarat Bridge, where the symbolic stoning of the devil takes place, is the most interesting part concerning crowd dynamics. The same holds for the final service at the World Youth Day 2005 in Cologne, celebrated by the Pope. The paper is divided into five parts: The first section is concerned with model building and the second with the calibration of parameters by empirical data. The following two sections are dealing with simulation results and their verification. The final section summarizes the results, provides recommendations and concludes with the most important implications for the field of crowd dynamics simulation.
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