Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the articles of this issue

Published in: Asian Journal of Business Ethics 1/2022

20-05-2022

The social and ethical issues of online learning during the pandemic and beyond

Authors: Sonali Bhattacharya, Venkatesha Murthy, Shubhasheesh Bhattacharya

Published in: Asian Journal of Business Ethics | Issue 1/2022

Login to get access
share
SHARE

Abstract

This article describes how the COVID-19 pandemic has forced the higher education institutes in developing nations like India to relook at pedagogical approaches. Due to government imposing nationwide lockdown, higher educational institutes were quickly adopting to imbibe online learning medium. This research takes a qualitative thematic analytical approach to explore the facilitators and challenges to online learning from the perspectives of both learners and educators in higher education institutes. We have specifically explored the ethical and social concerns related to online learning and the possible solution for the same.
Literature
go back to reference Agostinho, S. (2005). Naturalistic inquiry in e-learning research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 4(1), 13–26. CrossRef Agostinho, S. (2005). Naturalistic inquiry in e-learning research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 4(1), 13–26. CrossRef
go back to reference Alessio, H. M., Malay, N., Maurer, K., Bailer, A. J., & Rubin, B. (2017). Examining the effect of proctoring on online test scores. Online Learning, 21(1), 146–161. CrossRef Alessio, H. M., Malay, N., Maurer, K., Bailer, A. J., & Rubin, B. (2017). Examining the effect of proctoring on online test scores. Online Learning, 21(1), 146–161. CrossRef
go back to reference Arnold, D. F., Bernardi, R. A., Neidermeyer, P. E., & Schmee, J. (2007). The effect of country and culture on perceptions of appropriate ethical actions prescribed by codes of conduct: A Western European perspective among accountants. Journal of Business Ethics, 70(4), 327–340. CrossRef Arnold, D. F., Bernardi, R. A., Neidermeyer, P. E., & Schmee, J. (2007). The effect of country and culture on perceptions of appropriate ethical actions prescribed by codes of conduct: A Western European perspective among accountants. Journal of Business Ethics, 70(4), 327–340. CrossRef
go back to reference Aung TN, Khaing SS (2015) Challenges of implementing e-learning in developing countries: A review. In International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing (pp 405–411). Springer, Cham Aung TN, Khaing SS (2015) Challenges of implementing e-learning in developing countries: A review. In International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing (pp 405–411). Springer, Cham
go back to reference Baumgartner, S. E., Weeda, W. D., van der Heijden, L. L., & Huizinga, M. (2014). The relationship between media multitasking and executive function in early adolescents. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 34(8), 1120–1144. CrossRef Baumgartner, S. E., Weeda, W. D., van der Heijden, L. L., & Huizinga, M. (2014). The relationship between media multitasking and executive function in early adolescents. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 34(8), 1120–1144. CrossRef
go back to reference Becker, R., & Mehlkop, G. (2006). Social class and delinquency: An empirical utilization of rational choice theory with cross-sectional data of the 1990 and 2000 German General Population Surveys (ALLBUS). Rationality and Society, 18(2), 193–235. CrossRef Becker, R., & Mehlkop, G. (2006). Social class and delinquency: An empirical utilization of rational choice theory with cross-sectional data of the 1990 and 2000 German General Population Surveys (ALLBUS). Rationality and Society, 18(2), 193–235. CrossRef
go back to reference Binkley, S., & Capetillo, J. (Eds.). (2009). A Foucault for the 21st century: Governmentality, biopolitics and discipline in the new millennium. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Binkley, S., & Capetillo, J. (Eds.). (2009). A Foucault for the 21st century: Governmentality, biopolitics and discipline in the new millennium. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
go back to reference Bozalek, V., Gachago, D., Alexander, L., Watters, K., Wood, D., Ivala, E., & Herrington, J. (2013). The use of emerging technologies for authentic learning: A South African study in higher education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(4), 629–638. CrossRef Bozalek, V., Gachago, D., Alexander, L., Watters, K., Wood, D., Ivala, E., & Herrington, J. (2013). The use of emerging technologies for authentic learning: A South African study in higher education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(4), 629–638. CrossRef
go back to reference Burrus, R. T., McGoldrick, K., & Schuhmann, P. W. (2007). Self-reports of student cheating: Does a definition of cheating matter? The Journal of Economic Education, 38(1), 3–16. CrossRef Burrus, R. T., McGoldrick, K., & Schuhmann, P. W. (2007). Self-reports of student cheating: Does a definition of cheating matter? The Journal of Economic Education, 38(1), 3–16. CrossRef
go back to reference Chudzicka-Czupała, A., Grabowski, D., Mello, A. L., Kuntz, J., Zaharia, D. V., Hapon, N., ... & Börü, D. (2016). Application of the theory of planned behavior in academic cheating research–cross-cultural comparison.Ethics & Behavior 26(8), 638-659 Chudzicka-Czupała, A., Grabowski, D., Mello, A. L., Kuntz, J., Zaharia, D. V., Hapon, N., ... & Börü, D. (2016). Application of the theory of planned behavior in academic cheating research–cross-cultural comparison.Ethics & Behavior 26(8), 638-659
go back to reference CNNIC (2020). The 45th China statistical report on internet development. Beijing: CNNIC. CNNIC (2020). The 45th China statistical report on internet development. Beijing: CNNIC.
go back to reference Collis, C., Foth, M., & Schroeter, R. (2009). The Brisbane media map: Participatory design and authentic learning to link students and industry. Learning Inquiry, 3(3), 143–155. CrossRef Collis, C., Foth, M., & Schroeter, R. (2009). The Brisbane media map: Participatory design and authentic learning to link students and industry. Learning Inquiry, 3(3), 143–155. CrossRef
go back to reference Daffin, L. W., Jr., & Jones, A. A. (2018). Comparing student performance on proctored and non-proctored exams in online psychology courses. Online Learning, 22(1), 131–145. CrossRef Daffin, L. W., Jr., & Jones, A. A. (2018). Comparing student performance on proctored and non-proctored exams in online psychology courses. Online Learning, 22(1), 131–145. CrossRef
go back to reference Day, N. E., Hudson, D., Dobies, P. R., & Waris, R. (2011). Student or situation? Personality and classroom context as predictors of attitudes about business school cheating. Social Psychology of Education, 14(2), 261–282. CrossRef Day, N. E., Hudson, D., Dobies, P. R., & Waris, R. (2011). Student or situation? Personality and classroom context as predictors of attitudes about business school cheating. Social Psychology of Education, 14(2), 261–282. CrossRef
go back to reference Diep, N. A., Cocquyt, C., Zhu, C., & Vanwing, T. (2016). Predicting adult learners’ online participation: Effects of altruism, performance expectancy, and social capital. Computers & Education, 101, 84–101. CrossRef Diep, N. A., Cocquyt, C., Zhu, C., & Vanwing, T. (2016). Predicting adult learners’ online participation: Effects of altruism, performance expectancy, and social capital. Computers & Education, 101, 84–101. CrossRef
go back to reference Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532–550. CrossRef Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532–550. CrossRef
go back to reference Fask, A., Englander, F., & Wang, Z. (2014). Do online exams facilitate cheating? An experiment designed to separate possible cheating from the effect of the online test taking environment. Journal of Academic Ethics, 12(2), 101–112. CrossRef Fask, A., Englander, F., & Wang, Z. (2014). Do online exams facilitate cheating? An experiment designed to separate possible cheating from the effect of the online test taking environment. Journal of Academic Ethics, 12(2), 101–112. CrossRef
go back to reference Finchilescu, G., & Cooper, A. (2018). Perceptions of academic dishonesty in a South African university: A Q-methodology approach. Ethics & Behavior, 28(4), 284–301. CrossRef Finchilescu, G., & Cooper, A. (2018). Perceptions of academic dishonesty in a South African university: A Q-methodology approach. Ethics & Behavior, 28(4), 284–301. CrossRef
go back to reference Fitzgerald, A., Dawson, V., & Hackling, M. (2013). Examining the beliefs and practices of four effective Australian primary science teachers. Research in Science Education, 43(3), 981–1003. CrossRef Fitzgerald, A., Dawson, V., & Hackling, M. (2013). Examining the beliefs and practices of four effective Australian primary science teachers. Research in Science Education, 43(3), 981–1003. CrossRef
go back to reference Golden, J., & Kohlbeck, M. (2020). Addressing cheating when using test bank questions in online Classes. Journal of Accounting Education, 52, 100671. CrossRef Golden, J., & Kohlbeck, M. (2020). Addressing cheating when using test bank questions in online Classes. Journal of Accounting Education, 52, 100671. CrossRef
go back to reference Herrington, J., McKenzie, S., Pascoe, R., Woods-McConney, A., MacCallum, J., & Wright, P. (2010, May). A whole-school approach to technological literacy: Mobile learning and the iPhone. In  Global Learn (pp. 181–186). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Herrington, J., McKenzie, S., Pascoe, R., Woods-McConney, A., MacCallum, J., & Wright, P. (2010, May). A whole-school approach to technological literacy: Mobile learning and the iPhone. In  Global Learn (pp. 181–186). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).
go back to reference Jian, H., Li, G., & Wang, W. (2020). Perceptions, contexts, attitudes, and academic dishonesty in Chinese senior college students: A qualitative content-based analysis. Ethics & Behavior, 30(7), 543–555. CrossRef Jian, H., Li, G., & Wang, W. (2020). Perceptions, contexts, attitudes, and academic dishonesty in Chinese senior college students: A qualitative content-based analysis. Ethics & Behavior, 30(7), 543–555. CrossRef
go back to reference Johnston, E., Olivas, G., Steele, P., Smith, C., & Bailey, L. (2018). Exploring pedagogical foundations of existing virtual reality educational applications: A content analysis study. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 46(4), 414–439. CrossRef Johnston, E., Olivas, G., Steele, P., Smith, C., & Bailey, L. (2018). Exploring pedagogical foundations of existing virtual reality educational applications: A content analysis study. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 46(4), 414–439. CrossRef
go back to reference Kwon, M., Lee, J. Y., Won, W. Y., Park, J. W., Min, J. A., Hahn, C., ... & Kim, D. J. (2013).Development and validation of a smartphone addiction scale (SAS). PLoS ONE 8(2), e56936 Kwon, M., Lee, J. Y., Won, W. Y., Park, J. W., Min, J. A., Hahn, C., ... & Kim, D. J. (2013).Development and validation of a smartphone addiction scale (SAS). PLoS ONE 8(2), e56936
go back to reference Lee, K., Fanguy, M., Bligh, B., & Lu, X. S. (2022). Adoption of online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic analysis of changes in university teaching activity.  Educational Review, 1–24. Lee, K., Fanguy, M., Bligh, B., & Lu, X. S. (2022). Adoption of online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic analysis of changes in university teaching activity.  Educational Review, 1–24.
go back to reference Li, L., & Lin, T. T. (2016). Exploring work-related smartphone dependency among young working adults in China: A qualitative approach. International Journal of Communication, 10, 19. Li, L., & Lin, T. T. (2016). Exploring work-related smartphone dependency among young working adults in China: A qualitative approach. International Journal of Communication, 10, 19.
go back to reference Lonsdale, D. (2017). Intentions to cheat: Ajzen’s planned behavior and goal-related personality facets. The Journal of Psychology, 151(2), 113–129. CrossRef Lonsdale, D. (2017). Intentions to cheat: Ajzen’s planned behavior and goal-related personality facets. The Journal of Psychology, 151(2), 113–129. CrossRef
go back to reference Machles, D. (2003). Situated Learning. Professional Safety, 48(9), 22–28. Machles, D. (2003). Situated Learning. Professional Safety, 48(9), 22–28.
go back to reference Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Sage. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Sage.
go back to reference Nathanson, C., Paulhus, D. L., & Williams, K. M. (2006). Predictors of a behavioral measure of scholastic cheating: Personality and competence but not demographics. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 31(1), 97–122. CrossRef Nathanson, C., Paulhus, D. L., & Williams, K. M. (2006). Predictors of a behavioral measure of scholastic cheating: Personality and competence but not demographics. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 31(1), 97–122. CrossRef
go back to reference Nyst, C., & Falchetta, T. (2017). The right to privacy in the digital age. Journal of Human Rights Practice, 9(1), 104–118. CrossRef Nyst, C., & Falchetta, T. (2017). The right to privacy in the digital age. Journal of Human Rights Practice, 9(1), 104–118. CrossRef
go back to reference Ozverir, I., Herrington, J., & Osam, U. V. (2016). Design principles for authentic learning of English as a foreign language. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(3), 484–493. CrossRef Ozverir, I., Herrington, J., & Osam, U. V. (2016). Design principles for authentic learning of English as a foreign language. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(3), 484–493. CrossRef
go back to reference Parker, J., Maor, D., & Herrington, J. (2013). Authentic online learning: Aligning learner needs, pedagogy and technology. Issues in Educational Research, 23(2), 227–241. Parker, J., Maor, D., & Herrington, J. (2013). Authentic online learning: Aligning learner needs, pedagogy and technology. Issues in Educational Research, 23(2), 227–241.
go back to reference Patterson, T., & Han, I. (2019). Learning to teach with virtual reality: Lessons from one elementary teacher. TechTrends, 63(4), 463–469. CrossRef Patterson, T., & Han, I. (2019). Learning to teach with virtual reality: Lessons from one elementary teacher. TechTrends, 63(4), 463–469. CrossRef
go back to reference Peled, Y., Eshet, Y., Barczyk, C., & Grinautski, K. (2019). Predictors of academic dishonesty among undergraduate students in online and face-to-face courses. Computers & Education, 131, 49–59. CrossRef Peled, Y., Eshet, Y., Barczyk, C., & Grinautski, K. (2019). Predictors of academic dishonesty among undergraduate students in online and face-to-face courses. Computers & Education, 131, 49–59. CrossRef
go back to reference Postma, L., Blignaut, A. S., Swan, K., & Sutinen, E. A. (2013). Reflections on the use of grounded theory to uncover patterns of exclusion in an online discussion forum at an institution of higher education. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 12(1), 529–550. CrossRef Postma, L., Blignaut, A. S., Swan, K., & Sutinen, E. A. (2013). Reflections on the use of grounded theory to uncover patterns of exclusion in an online discussion forum at an institution of higher education. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 12(1), 529–550. CrossRef
go back to reference Prosser, M., & Trigwell, K. (1999). Understanding learning and teaching: The experience in higher education. McGraw-Hill Education (UK). Prosser, M., & Trigwell, K. (1999). Understanding learning and teaching: The experience in higher education. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
go back to reference Pu, Y. H., Wu, T. T., Chiu, P. S., & Huang, Y. M. (2016). The design and implementation of authentic learning with mobile technology in vocational nursing practice course. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(3), 494–509. CrossRef Pu, Y. H., Wu, T. T., Chiu, P. S., & Huang, Y. M. (2016). The design and implementation of authentic learning with mobile technology in vocational nursing practice course. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(3), 494–509. CrossRef
go back to reference Pulfrey, C. J., Vansteenkiste, M., & Michou, A. (2019). Under pressure to achieve? The impact of type and style of task instructions on student cheating. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1624. CrossRef Pulfrey, C. J., Vansteenkiste, M., & Michou, A. (2019). Under pressure to achieve? The impact of type and style of task instructions on student cheating. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1624. CrossRef
go back to reference Qiao, P., Zhu, X., Guo, Y., Sun, Y., & Qin, C. (2021). The development and adoption of online learning in pre-and post-COVID-19: Combination of technological system evolution theory and unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 14(4), 162. CrossRef Qiao, P., Zhu, X., Guo, Y., Sun, Y., & Qin, C. (2021). The development and adoption of online learning in pre-and post-COVID-19: Combination of technological system evolution theory and unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 14(4), 162. CrossRef
go back to reference Reamer, F. G. (2013). Social work in a digital age: Ethical and risk management challenges. Social Work, 58(2), 163–172. CrossRef Reamer, F. G. (2013). Social work in a digital age: Ethical and risk management challenges. Social Work, 58(2), 163–172. CrossRef
go back to reference Sinkovics, R. R., Penz, E., & Ghauri, P. N. (2008). Enhancing the trustworthiness of qualitative research in international business. Management International Review, 48(6), 689–714. CrossRef Sinkovics, R. R., Penz, E., & Ghauri, P. N. (2008). Enhancing the trustworthiness of qualitative research in international business. Management International Review, 48(6), 689–714. CrossRef
go back to reference Steele, P. B., Burleigh, C., & Young, E. A. (2020). Considering educators’ perceptions of ethics and safety in virtual learning environments (VLEs). Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 10(1), 404–418. CrossRef Steele, P. B., Burleigh, C., & Young, E. A. (2020). Considering educators’ perceptions of ethics and safety in virtual learning environments (VLEs). Journal of Educational Research and Practice, 10(1), 404–418. CrossRef
go back to reference Steinmetz, K. F. (2012). Message received: Virtual ethnography in online message boards. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 11(1), 26–39. CrossRef Steinmetz, K. F. (2012). Message received: Virtual ethnography in online message boards. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 11(1), 26–39. CrossRef
go back to reference Suliman, M., Abdalrhim, A., Tawalbeh, L., & Aljezawi, M. (2022). The impact of online synchronous versus asynchronous classes on nursing students’ knowledge and ability to make legal and ethical decisions. Nurse Education Today, 109, 105245. CrossRef Suliman, M., Abdalrhim, A., Tawalbeh, L., & Aljezawi, M. (2022). The impact of online synchronous versus asynchronous classes on nursing students’ knowledge and ability to make legal and ethical decisions. Nurse Education Today, 109, 105245. CrossRef
go back to reference Tatum, H., & Schwartz, B. M. (2017). Honor codes: Evidence based strategies for improving academic integrity. Theory into Practice, 56(2), 129–135. CrossRef Tatum, H., & Schwartz, B. M. (2017). Honor codes: Evidence based strategies for improving academic integrity. Theory into Practice, 56(2), 129–135. CrossRef
go back to reference Teräs, H., Teräs, M., & Herrington, J. (2012, June). A reality check: Taking authentic e-learning from design to implementation. In  EdMedia+ Innovate Learning (pp. 2219–2228). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Teräs, H., Teräs, M., & Herrington, J. (2012, June). A reality check: Taking authentic e-learning from design to implementation. In  EdMedia+ Innovate Learning (pp. 2219–2228). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).
go back to reference Valtonen, T., Kukkonen, J., Kontkanen, S., Sormunen, K., Dillon, P., & Sointu, E. (2015). The impact of authentic learning experiences with ICT on pre-service teachers’ intentions to use ICT for teaching and learning. Computers & Education, 81, 49–58. CrossRef Valtonen, T., Kukkonen, J., Kontkanen, S., Sormunen, K., Dillon, P., & Sointu, E. (2015). The impact of authentic learning experiences with ICT on pre-service teachers’ intentions to use ICT for teaching and learning. Computers & Education, 81, 49–58. CrossRef
go back to reference Williams, M. W. M., & Williams, M. N. (2012). Academic dishonesty, self-control, and general criminality: A prospective and retrospective study of academic dishonesty in a New Zealand university. Ethics & Behavior, 22(2), 89–112. CrossRef Williams, M. W. M., & Williams, M. N. (2012). Academic dishonesty, self-control, and general criminality: A prospective and retrospective study of academic dishonesty in a New Zealand university. Ethics & Behavior, 22(2), 89–112. CrossRef
go back to reference Yang, S. C., Huang, C. L., & Chen, A. S. (2013). An investigation of college students’ perceptions of academic dishonesty, reasons for dishonesty, achievement goals, and willingness to report dishonest behavior. Ethics & Behavior, 23(6), 501–522. CrossRef Yang, S. C., Huang, C. L., & Chen, A. S. (2013). An investigation of college students’ perceptions of academic dishonesty, reasons for dishonesty, achievement goals, and willingness to report dishonest behavior. Ethics & Behavior, 23(6), 501–522. CrossRef
go back to reference Youn, S. (2009). Determinants of online privacy concern and its influence on privacy protection behaviors among young adolescents. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 43(3), 389–418. CrossRef Youn, S. (2009). Determinants of online privacy concern and its influence on privacy protection behaviors among young adolescents. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 43(3), 389–418. CrossRef
go back to reference Young, D. (2013). Perspectives on cheating at a Thai University. Language Testing in Asia, 3(1), 1–15. CrossRef Young, D. (2013). Perspectives on cheating at a Thai University. Language Testing in Asia, 3(1), 1–15. CrossRef
Metadata
Title
The social and ethical issues of online learning during the pandemic and beyond
Authors
Sonali Bhattacharya
Venkatesha Murthy
Shubhasheesh Bhattacharya
Publication date
20-05-2022
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Published in
Asian Journal of Business Ethics / Issue 1/2022
Print ISSN: 2210-6723
Electronic ISSN: 2210-6731
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s13520-022-00148-z

Other articles of this Issue 1/2022

Asian Journal of Business Ethics 1/2022 Go to the issue

Premium Partner