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About this book

This volume describes the construction of the territorial identity of the southern end of South America and analyzes the cartographic territorialization of Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and the “Terra Australis” continent. Different spatial representations and territorial nature coexisted in this process as a result of the spatial interpretation and value modes as well as the projects and strategies of various actors.

The book discusses the formal and symbolic incorporation to the Spanish dominion and its inclusion in the imperial design built over a new image of the world. Examining Jesuit cartography it considers both the indigenous territoriality and the dynamics of relations between natural and social components in the continental hinterland. The process of cartographic differentiation for this southern Atlantic region is analyzed in the framework of early Antarctic exploration and competing use of navigation routes and maritime resources. The book emphasizes the role geopolitical and economic interests play in these developments.

The formation of territorialities of various origins has particular contents and logic, which are built upon imaginary subordination to political and economic interests. Cartographic language in the 19th century, associated with political and commercial motivations and the (British) imperial ideology, stimulated the territorial expansion. The book argues why in the late 1800's this was an important factor in the integration process of the southern indigenous territories and the national territoriality.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
We present a research project that aims to facilitate the understanding of territorial processes and ponder the relationships between space and power, by studying historical cartography. We approach the integration of the southernmost tip of America into western referential systems, political territorial expansion projects and the capitalist system, focusing on space representations and territorialities in different moments of the process, from the 16th century to 19th century. We display the perspectives and concepts that guided this approach and the analysis methodology of cartographic sources.
Luis Ignacio de Lasa, María Teresa Luiz

Chapter 2. The First Territorialization of Southern Lands and Seas in Modern Cartography

Abstract
Upon the discovery of the Magellan Strait, Renaissance authoritative sources of knowledge considered the adjacent lands as potential evidence of the existence of a fifth continent stretching to the Pole. We examine the outset of the territorial construction of America’s southernmost end regarding these alleged polar lands within the debate on the geographical configuration of southern lands and the nature of said territory. We considered the role played by maps in this first territorialization and in featuring a representation framework of southern space as the border of the ecumene and the passage to other worlds. We explore formal and symbolic integration of Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and Terra Australis into colonial dominion and its inclusion in the imperial designs built upon the novel sketch of the world.
Luis Ignacio de Lasa, María Teresa Luiz

Chapter 3. Cartographic Construction of a South Atlantic Region

Abstract
The study of cartography offers valuable information on the territorial genesis of the southern tip of America and enables us to observe the transformation of a space perceived as finisterre or border of the ecumene into a territory shaped on converging economic and strategic interests of different actors. We explore the cartographical distinction of a South Atlantic Ocean region in the context of the competition for the use of navigable routes and, from the end of the 18th century, for the marine-faunal resources. We consider the role of map as a key instrument for keeping certain dominion over the southern space and we explore how the cartographic discourse works in the valorization of the territory, provides a set of references that identifies it and conditions the interventions’ nature and scope.
Luis Ignacio de Lasa, María Teresa Luiz

Chapter 4. Cartographic Representations of Indigenous Territoriality

Abstract
The debate on Patagonia as a useful (less) place re-created views of an inhospitable land inhabited by savages. Instead, cartography and Jesuit accounts depicted a land inhabited by people who built their territory in accordance with their own interests. We delve into the production conditions of maps, strategies for collecting information, indigenous knowledge interpretation and the harmonization of different spatial conceptions. We examine the imperial use of Jesuit cartography when exploring the interior of Patagonia, border policies design and the construction of a cartographic discourse that contributed to the intellectual and symbolic appropriation of space. We consider other sources that evince native informants’ participation in mapmaking and provide elements to access to the territoriality of the peoples of the southernmost end.
Luis Ignacio de Lasa, María Teresa Luiz

Chapter 5. Southern Patagonia, Tierra Del Fuego, the South Atlantic and The Antarctic Lands Within Global Strategies

Abstract
In this chapter, we approach the integration of the southern region into the capitalist system and the state territorial designs in the 19th century. The study of cartography, based on other documental sources, enables the recognition of spatial representations with underlying ideologies and interests of different actors. Similarly, we consider the coexistence of territorialities with several origins and their own contents and logics, which define the specific rationality of a space of growing geopolitical and economic importance. We identify a cartographical narrative that, together with the imperial ideology of its authors and/or promoters, served the purposes of the British expansion propaganda in the southern hemisphere. Apart from state territorialities—which are shaped on indigenous territories and overlap with each other, triggering sovereignty disputes—we note the development of private projects that influence the valorization of the southern tip of the continent and account for the territorial dynamics throughout the last decades of the 19th century.
Luis Ignacio de Lasa, María Teresa Luiz
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