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About this book

This is the first authored English book completely focused on global navigation satellite system reflectometry (GNSS-R). It consists of two main parts: the fundamental theory; and major applications, which include ocean altimetry, sea surface wind speed retrieval, snow depth measurement, soil moisture measurement, tsunami detection and sea ice detection. Striking a healthy balance between theory and practice, and featuring in-depth studies and extensive experimental results, the book introduces beginners to the fundamentals, while preparing experienced researchers to pursue advanced investigations and applications in GNSS-R.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Global navigation satellite system (GNSS) was originally designed and developed to provide positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) services. In addition to the fundamental PNT services, GNSS has been exploited for other applications and services such as surveillance, communications and remote sensing.
Kegen Yu

Chapter 2. Navigation Satellite Constellations and Navigation Signals

Abstract
Ground-based radio navigation had been used for more than half a century before the first GPS satellite was launched in the late 1970s. Many radio navigation systems have been developed and put into use since the early of 20th century, including Telefunken Kompass Sender (radio direction finder), Decca (Decca Navigator System), (VOR) VHF Omnidirectional Range, TACAN (Tactical Air Navigation System), LORAN (LOng RAnge Navigation), and OMEGA. Most of the systems ceased to provide navigation service, although some of them have been used for other purposes.
Kegen Yu

Chapter 3. Signal Scattering and Reception Schemes

Abstract
After emitted from the antenna onboard a GNSS satellite with a transmission power such as about 25 Watts, the GNSS signal propagates towards the Earth.
Kegen Yu

Chapter 4. Theoretical Fundamentals of GNSS Reflectometry

Abstract
GNSS reflectometry usually relies on a model or a criterion which is established in advance, to measure geophysical parameters or detect natural phenomena or man-made objects. The models and criteria can be theoretical or empirical depending on the application scenario and the observation platform.
Kegen Yu

Chapter 5. Sea Surface Altimetry

Abstract
Altimetry is often used to obtain the accurate topography of land and ocean, which can be utilized for various applications and services. Altimetry can also be used to gain information on the variation in mean sea level, to investigate the global climate change.
Kegen Yu

Chapter 6. Sea Surface Wind Speed Estimation

Abstract
One of the most useful applications of GNSS-R is the measurement of speed of sea surface wind, especially the tropical cyclone, Typhoon, or Hurricane. Precise measurement and prediction of these disastrous winds is very important to timely warning and thus to avoiding or reducing the loss of economy and life. Different technologies including satellite remote sensing have been used to measure wind speed.
Kegen Yu

Chapter 7. Sea Ice Detection

Abstract
Information on sea ice coverage and concentration is important for a range of applications and services such as climate change study, ship routing and oil and gas exploration.
Kegen Yu

Chapter 8. Snow Depth and Snow Water Equivalent Estimation

Abstract
Variation in regional and global snowfall significantly affects the ecological and climate systems, which is usually used for policy-making in water resource management and disaster prevention. The amount of snowfall is measured by two different parameters, snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE). SWE is defined as the product of snow depth and snow density, which is also equal to the depth of water after the snow completely melts without evaporation, penetration and run-off. In this chapter, the focus is on the use of GNSS-R for estimating snow depth and SWE. Four different methods of snow depth estimation are studied with details, while only one SWE estimation method is described, indicating more investigations are needed to enhance SWE estimation.
Kegen Yu

Chapter 9. Soil Moisture Measurement

Abstract
Knowledge of soil moisture content is critical for drought and irrigation management, so as to increase crop yields and to gain a better understanding of natural processes linked to the water, energy and carbon cycles.
Kegen Yu

Chapter 10. Tsunami Detection and Parameter Estimation

Abstract
A Tsunami can be really disastrous, causing tremendous damage and much loss of life, such as that triggered by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the 2011 Japan's Tohoku earthquake.
Kegen Yu
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