The first microscopic three-phase traffic flow model that can reproduce empirical features of traffic breakdown and resulting spatiotemporal congested patterns was developed by Kerner and Klenov in 2002 . Some months later, Kerner, Klenov, and Wolf developed a cellular automata (CA) three-phase traffic flow model (KKW CA model) . Later other traffic flow models in the framework of three-phase traffic theory have been developed: Davis  as well as Kerner and Klenov  have proposed different three-phase microscopic deterministic models; Jiang andWu , Lee
. , and Gao
.  have developed various CA three-phase traffic flow models; Laval  and Hoogendoorn
.  have developed macroscopic three-phase traffic flow models.