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16-01-2022 | Research Article

Time-estimation process could cause the disappearence of readiness potential

Authors: Lipeng Zhang, Haikun Ren, Rui Zhang, Mingming Chen, Ruiqi Li, Li Shi, Dezhong Yao, Jinfeng Gao, Yuxia Hu

Published in: Cognitive Neurodynamics | Issue 5/2022

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Abstract

Generally, the readiness potential (RP) is considered to be the scalp electroencephalography (EEG) activity preceding movement. In our previous study, we found early RP was absent among approximately half of the subjects during instructed action, but we did not identify the mechanism causing the disappearance of the RP. In this study, we investigated whether the time-estimation process could cause the disappearance of the RP. First, we designed experiments consisting of motor execution (ME), motor execution after time estimation (MEATE), and time estimation (TE) tasks, and we collected and preprocessed the EEG data of 16 subjects. Second, we compared the event related potential (ERP) waveform and scalp topography between ME and MEATE tasks. Then, to explore the influence of time-estimation, we analyzed the difference in ERP between MEATE and TE tasks. Finally, we used source imaging to probe the activation of brain regions during the three tasks, and we calculated the average activation amplitude of eight motor related brain regions. We found that the RP occurred in the ME task but not in the MEATE task. We also found that the waveform of the difference in ERP between the MEATE and TE tasks was similar to that of the ME task. The results of source imaging indicated that, compared to the ME task, the activation amplitude of the supplementary motor area (SMA) decreased significantly for the MEATE task. Our results suggested that the time estimation process could cause the disappearance of the RP. This phenomenon might be caused by the counteraction of neural electrical activity related to time estimation and motor preparation in the SMA.

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Metadata
Title
Time-estimation process could cause the disappearence of readiness potential
Authors
Lipeng Zhang
Haikun Ren
Rui Zhang
Mingming Chen
Ruiqi Li
Li Shi
Dezhong Yao
Jinfeng Gao
Yuxia Hu
Publication date
16-01-2022
Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Published in
Cognitive Neurodynamics / Issue 5/2022
Print ISSN: 1871-4080
Electronic ISSN: 1871-4099
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11571-021-09766-y

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