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2023 | Book

TMS 2023 152nd Annual Meeting & Exhibition Supplemental Proceedings


About this book

This collection presents papers from the 152nd Annual Meeting & Exhibition of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society.

Table of Contents


2D Materials: Preparation, Properties, Modeling, and Applications

An Overview of Graphene-Based Nanomaterials in Electronic Skin Biosensing

Skin, the largest organ in the body, is capable of detecting and reacting to a variety of external stimuli. The development of electronic skinElectronic skin (E-skin) for the imitation of the human sensory system has recently gained a lot of attention due to its potential applications in wearable human health monitoring and care systems, advanced robotics, artificial intelligence, and human–machine interfaces. Electronic skin sensing devices have accelerated due to graphene’s capacity to achieve unique functionality using a variety of assembly processable processes. Consequently, the use of graphene and the components that make it up in biomedicine is growing. This review focuses on high-performance electronic skinElectronic skin that has been developed for biosensingBiosensing applications through a number of research projects. Additionally, a brief discussion of electronic skin’s production processes, research obstacles, and future prospects was included.

Raphael O. Ekun, Eribe M. Jonathan, Okeke I. Emmanuel, Best Atoe, Ikhazuagbe H. Ifijen
Highly Exfoliated 2D Nanosheets of MnO2 Assembled Alternatively with Carbon Layers for High Performance of Thick Electrode (at High Loading Mass)

Owing to high theoretical capacitance and high natural abundance, manganese dioxide (MnO2)Manganese dioxide (MnO2) has received great attention as a promising pseudocapacitive material. Unfortunately, the charge storage performance of MnO2 is usually limited for commercially available mass loading electrodes because of the significant decrease of electron and ion migration kinetics in thick electrodes. Here, we report an alternatively assembled two-dimensional (2D) layered material consisting of exfoliated MnO2Manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanosheets and nitrogen-doped carbon layers for ultrahigh-mass-loading supercapacitorsSupercapacitor without sacrificing energy storage performance. A layered birnessite-type MnO2Manganese dioxide (MnO2) is efficiently exfoliated and intercalated by carbon precursor of dopamine using a fluid dynamic-induced process, resulting in interlayer-expanded MnO2/nitrogen-doped carbon (MnO2/C) materials after self-polymerization and carbonization. The alternatively intercalated carbon layers between MnO2Manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanosheets enable to expand interlayers of MnO2, thus providing a fast and efficient electron and ion pathways.

Jae-Min Jeong, Ho Jun Kim, Bong Gill Choi
Spectroscopic Studies on Sulfides and Selenides of Mo and W for Photoabsorbers

In this work, we present our findings on spectroscopic studies conducted on two transition metal sulfides and selenides formed with Mo and W. In the first part of the work, we present the temperature-dependent (~80 K to 573 K) frequency shifts of the Raman-active $${E}_{\text{2g}}^{1}$$ E 2g 1 and A1g modes of multilayer molybdenum disulfideMolybdenum disulfide (MoS2) formed using solution exfoliation, where a red-shift in the peak locations was observed with increasing temperature. After these spectroscopic studies, the semiconducting dispersion of MoS2 was then integrated with graphene ink, to create an integrated inkjet-printed heterostructure photodetector onto flexible substrates, that was responsive within the visible regime. In the second part of the work, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopyPhotoluminescence spectroscopy was utilized to analyze the phononic and electronic parameters in suspended bulk WSe2 sheets, fabricated utilizing photolithography and wet chemical etching. The response of the PL spectra for WSe2 on supported and suspended regions showed the indirect I-peak and the excitonic A-peak to be red-shifted in the latter case, with an increase in the emission intensity as well.

Anupama B. Kaul
Super-Capacitor Based on Hybrid Architecture with 2D Materials

Electrochemical super-capacitorsSuper-capacitor (SCS) show high energy density and very long cyclability due to high power density. However, the key challenge for further enhanced capacitance of SCS lies in fabricating stable structure which can provide large chemically active surface area of materials for SCS. Two-dimensional (2D) layers in such hybrid structure may come into contact unavoidably, which may lead to ‘aggregation’. We are developing processes for fabrication of hybrid architectureHybrid architecture with 2D materials2D materials (such as grapheneGraphene)-based nanocomposite structures for application of novel SCS. Graphene–carbon nanotubesCarbon nanotubes (CNT) nanocomposite hybrid structures are novel materials for SCSSuper-capacitor which possess: (1) large chemically active surface area for large capacitance; (2) high electrical conductivity in all directions; (3) enabling novel thermal management; and (4) realizing enhanced mechanical and chemical stability of devices. As preliminary results, the average measure capacitance of the hybrid grapheneGraphene–CNTCarbon nanotubes composite structure was 725 µF/cm2 at 10 mV/s with a standard rectangular voltammetry curve.

Daniel Choi
Utilizations of Graphene-Based Nanomaterials for the Detection and Treatment of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

In low-income countries, where the infection is more widespread and varied, tuberculosis (TB) is still one of the most lethal infectious diseases in the world. In recent years, there has been a significant growth in the number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains that are resistant to first-line anti-TB drugs, which has prompted the development of novel therapies. This work presents a brief overview of recent advances in the use of grapheneGraphene-based nanoparticles for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosisMycobacterium tuberculosis. Graphene-based nanomaterialsNanomaterials alone or in combination with presently available anti-TB drugs were also investigated as a potential treatment for tuberculosis (NMTs). In the future, we predict that grapheneGraphene-based nanomaterials will lead the way in the early identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the fight against the spread of Mtb. However, toxicity and biodegradation studies need to be carried out before they can be applied in therapeutic settings.

Nyaknno U. Udokpoh, Jacob N. Jacob, Ukeme D. Archibong, Gregory E. Onaiwu, Ikhazuagbe H. Ifijen

Accelerated Discovery and Insertion of Next Generation Structural Materials

Computational Design of an Ultra-Strong High-Entropy Alloy

We present a combined experimental and computational investigation of the mechanical properties of a CoCrFe $$_{0.75}$$ 0.75 NiNb $$_{0.125}$$ 0.125 Mo $$_{0.3}$$ 0.3 high-entropy alloy additively manufactured via cold spray. We find that the sprayed alloy exhibits extraordinary mechanical properties under compression, reaching yield stress of $$\sim $$ ∼ 1745 MPa, ultimate stress of $$\sim $$ ∼ 2622 MPa, and a maximum strain at failure of $$\sim $$ ∼ 9%. These exceptional mechanical properties are the result of four independent hardening mechanisms. Using a novel design condition, an optimal solid solution and precipitation strengthening alloy are obtained from ab initio simulations. We show how the microstructure can be tailored to develop optimal mechanical strength using additive manufacturing. These subtle atomic and microstructural features result in outstanding experimentally evaluated yield and ultimate stresses compared to other high-entropy alloysHigh-entropy alloys with similar compositions.

M. Ponga, O. K. Orhan, D. Funes Rojas

Additive Manufacturing and Innovative Powder/Wire Processing of Multifunctional Materials

FeSiBCCr Amorphous Fine Powders with High Saturation Magnetization Based on Particle Size Classification and Its Magnetic Powder Cores with Low Core Loss

FeSiBCCr gas–water combined atomization amorphous powdersAmorphous powder were divided into five size groups (1#: ≥104 μm; 2#: 74–104 μm; 3#: 48–74 μm; 4#: 38–48 μm; 5#: ≤38 μm) to study the relationship between powder properties and size distribution, and then to prepare high-performance magnetic powder cores (MPCs) through particle size classification. The results of powder characterization show that the circularity of the powder increases with the decrease of the particle size. Due to the finest particle size, the comprehensive properties of 5# powder are better than other powders, with the saturation magnetizationSaturation magnetization of 144.2 emu g–1 and the coercivity of 0.13 Oe. MPCs prepared by a cold pressing process using 5# powder show excellent soft magnetic properties. The effective permeability is 19.62, and the core losses are 224.10 mW cm–3 (Bm = 0.05 T, f = 100 kHz) and 1441.5 mW cm–3 (Bm = 0.02 T, f = 1 MHz), respectively.

Yan-nan Dong, Zheng-qu Zhu, Jia-qi Liu, Huan Zhao, Jing Pang, Pu Wang, Jia-quan Zhang
Study on the Optimization of Fe Content of FeSiBC Amorphous Powders

In this paper, four types of amorphous spherical powders with different Fe contents were produced by a novel gas–water combined atomization process, and the corresponding magnetic powders coresMagnetic powders core (MPCs) were fabricated. It was found that as Fe contentFe content was increased from 92.66 to 94.55 wt%, both the D50 and enthalpy of crystallization of the powders decreased and then increased, while the coercivity increased and then decreased together with a linearly enhanced saturation magnetizationSaturation magnetization. Among them, Fe94.55Si1.05B4.3C0.1 amorphous powdersAmorphous powders have smaller particle size (D50 = 31.67 μm), excellent circularity (0.95), good thermal stability (∆T = 46 K), and highest saturation magnetization (172 emu g−1), thus showing the most excellent overall properties. The core loss and the permeability of the corresponding MPCs for the Fe94.55Si1.05B4.3C0.1 amorphous powders are 79.76 kW m−3 (0.02 T, 100 kHz) and 25.95, respectively, which shows the possibility to develop amorphous powdersAmorphous powders and MPCsMagnetic powders core with high Fe contentFe content through the present gas–water combined atomization.

Zheng-qu Zhu, Yan-nan Dong, Jia-qi Liu, Jing Pang, Pu Wang, Jia-quan Zhang

Additive Manufacturing Fatigue and Fracture: Effects of Surface Roughness, Residual Stress, and Environment

High-Cycle Fatigue Property of Ferrite–Pearlite Steel for Engineering Machinery and Effects of Strengthening Mechanisms

The aim of this work is to evaluate the high-cycle fatigueHigh-cycle fatigue property of the experimental steel for engineering machinerySteel for engineering machinery, investigate the initiation of fatigue fracture, and establish a stress–life curve (S–N curveS-N curve) with high confidence. With smooth specimens, the rotating bending fatigue tests were carried out on the steels used for movable arms of excavator, and the different fatigue fractures were observed. The S–N curveS–N curve and expression in the form of a three-parameter power function were obtained by using MATLAB. The results showed that fatigue cracks mainly originated from the surface of the samples in the studied strength range. The microstructure characteristics of the steels are the main reasons for the difference in fatigue strength. The addition of microalloying element Nb (0.01%) can refine ferrite grains and improve fatigue strength. The increase of Mn content (0.35, 1.02, 1.44%) is beneficial to the fatigue strength by increasing the solid solution strengthening. Apart from this, the fatigue strength ratio (fatigue strength/tensile strength) of the steel with the continuous band structure formed by the segregation of Mn is higher than that of the steel with the discontinuous segregation bands.

Shuo Gong, Haijuan Wang, Fuming Wang, Ming Li, Yong Feng, Liang Su
On the Fatigue Performance of Additively Manufactured Metamaterials: A Combined Experimental and Simulation Study

Architected metallic metamaterials fabricated by additive manufacturingAdditive manufacturing are called to expand infinitely the variety of available properties observed in bulk alloys. However, the high surface-to-volume ratio of the architected metamaterials due to their intricate geometries and the surface inherited of the AM process is translated to a complex fatigueFatigue behaviour when compared with bulk conventional alloys. This is a serious concern in the use of this new class of architected AM materials in technological applications. In this work, this problem is tackled by a systematic multiscale study of the metamaterial design—processing and defects—fatigueFatigue properties’ interconnection. Commercial aluminiumAluminium alloy, AlSi10Mg, processed by selective laser melting is used as the base material. By means of combined fatigue experimentation, computational modelling and defect identification, the effect of processing conditions and design geometry on microstructural defects and surface quality is rationalised and connected with the fatigue life of metamaterials.

Daniel Barba, Antonio Vazquez-Prudencio, Conrado Garrido, Sergio Perosanz-Amarillo
Surface Roughness Measurements of Laser Deposited AlCoCrFeNiTi and AlCoCrFeNiCu High Entropy Alloys for Aerospace Applications

Investigating the surface roughnessSurface roughness of metals in the field of precision engineering is vital because surface roughness explains if there are any irregularities on the surface of the as-built aerospace components, which can be nucleation sites for corrosion. In this study, AlCoCrFeNiTi and AlCoCrFeNiCu high entropy alloysHigh entropy alloys were produced via laser metal deposition and the comparative study of two surface roughnessSurface roughness (Ra) measuring instruments were used; Gwydion software and a stylus Profilometer. The results showed that the AlCoCrFeNiTi HEA had a higher degree of surface roughnessSurface roughness variation; hence, a rougher surface than the AlCoCrFeNiCu HEA, however, the 3D plots and data analysis showed the AlCoCrFeNiCu HEAHigh entropy alloys had more texture. This study also showed that the surface measurements taken from the stylus Profilometer were comparable and in good correlation with the statistical analysis.

Dada Modupeola, Popoola Patricia

Additive Manufacturing of Metals: Applications of Solidification Fundamentals

Assessment of Phase Evolution in Titanium-Niobium-Based Alloys During Rapid Solidification

In this work, microstructural evolution in β-Ti alloysBeta-Ti alloys during solidification is studied as the cooling rate increases, approaching the cooling rates found in additive manufacturing processes. Using suction casting of thin rods, high cooling rates can be studied and compared, to find a trend in how these phases evolve under a broad range of solidification conditions. The effect of varying cooling rates is studied on the microstructural evolution of Titanium-NiobiumNiobium (Ti-Nb)-based alloys with Tantalum (Ta) additions. A combined simulation and experimental approach is used to investigate the predictability of differences in microstructural evolution during rapid-solidification casting. Rods of binary Ti–25Nb and ternary Ti–20Nb–10Ta (wt% and hereafter) alloys were synthesized in diameters of 3, 5, and 10 mm using suction casting into copper moulds. Finite element (FE) and thermodynamic modelling was used to calculate the cooling rates and temperature gradients of the alloys. The microstructural and mechanical differences were determined via XRD, SEM/EDS, and mechanical testing.

Theo Mossop, David Heard, Mert Celikin
Challenges in Wire-Arc Additive Manufacturing of Fe-Based Shape Memory Alloy

Iron-based shape-memory alloysShape-memory alloy are considered as an inexpensive alternative to Ni–Ti alloy suitable for seismic isolation application in civil structures. Fe–17Mn–10Cr–5Si–4Ni–0.5V–0.5C alloy contains 37 wt% of total solute elements. Such rich multi-component metallurgical system leads to wide solidification temperature range which often subsequently leads to severe solute segregation and solidification crackingSolidification cracking. Wire-arc additive manufacturingWire-arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) of Fe–17Mn–10Cr–5Si–4Ni–0.5V–0.5C alloy was attempted using a cold-wire fed plasma arc torch attached to a CNC gantry. Self-standing walls were manufactured. The melt-pool solidification conditions were modelled using Schiel Gulliver model to generate the solute segregation profiles and solidification paths. Later, different solidification crackingSolidification cracking theories were used to calculate the cracking propensity at different locations of the wall or at different process conditions.

Soumyajit Koley, Kuladeep Rajamudili, Supriyo Ganguly
Experimental Study on the Influence of Surface Curvature and Cladding Position on Geometric Accuracy for T15 Laser Cladding Layer

Laser claddingLaser cladding is a kind of surface strengthening process to improve the mechanical properties of transmission part. The effects of process parameters and materials on geometric accuracyGeometric accuracy and microstructure are studied to increase the cladding layer quality. The cladding layer geometry is also affected by the surface morphology and cladding position of substrate. In this paper, laser claddingLaser cladding process with T15 powder is applied at the different radial positions of 42CrMo cylindrical samples with different diameters. The influence of surface curvature and cladding position on the cladding layer shape is studied. The single layer asymmetryAsymmetry is directly influenced by the angle between vertical direction and radical direction of cladding position. With the increase of the angle from 0° to 50°, the asymmetryAsymmetry increases from 0% (symmetry), up to 14.3%. The cladding layer microstructures consisted of dendrite, columnar crystal, and equiaxed crystal.

Yingtao Zhang, Guangming Lv, Lijuan Zhao, Charlie Li, Gang Wang
Impact of Laser Power and Scanning Velocity on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Inconel 738LC Alloys Fabricated by Laser Powder Bed Fusion

The microstructureMicrostructure and mechanical propertiesMechanical properties of Inconel 738LCInconel 738LC fabricated by laser powder bed fusionLaser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) (LPBF) were investigated in this work. Three processing parameters were chosen with a specific volumetric energy density of 55.56 J/mm3 input but varying scanning velocityScanning velocity and laser powerLaser power. The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) results revealed that the fraction of the recrystallized grains increased by 15% and the average grain size became smaller with the increased scanning velocity and laser powerLaser power. Moreover, it was found that the first dendrite arm spacing also showed a slight difference caused by cooling rate variation. Vickers hardness of three sets of parameters varied from 367.6  ± 8.0HV to 396.5  ± 10.9HV. The tensile test results also indicated that better mechanical propertiesMechanical properties were achieved by choosing a high-speed scanning speed strategy. In addition, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was performed to verify the melt pool morphology and cooling rate distribution. The CFD results revealed that the more uniform cooling rate distribution caused by low-speed scanning velocityScanning velocity in the melt pool resulted in smaller surface tension of the liquid phase.

Yixuan Chen, Weihao Wang, Yao Ou, Yingna Wu, Zirong Zhai, Rui Yang
LPBF Fabrication of Thin Cross Sections: Challenges and Printability

Additive ManufacturingAdditive manufacturing (AM) as a prototyping technique has recently evolved into a stand-alone manufacturing process. Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF), also known as Selective Laser Melting (SLM), as the most commonly used technique for metal additive manufacturingAdditive manufacturing uses a laser as the energy source to melt and shape complex designs. The increased freedom in design has offered a shorter assembly line, lower parts weight, shorter lead time, and efficient materials usage. However, the high demand in the aerospace, medical, and automotive industries for even lighter artifacts has opened a new field for designing and fabricating lattice-architectured metamaterials. These miniature networked designs have been mainly researched to establish the variation in the macro-mechanical properties while ignoring the strut’sStrut topological integrity and microstructure, all controlled by the process parameters. To have a clearer understanding of the topological and microstructural evolution in thin sections, this work aims at studying the geometrical and microstructural features of single struts of varying diameters ranging from 0.1 to 1 mm within the XY plane and angles from 10° to 90° in the z-direction to establish the capability of LPBF machines in printing struts as the essential constituent of the lattice structures. In this regard, the printability of struts with respect to their diameter, length, angle of inclination, circularityCircularity, and surface integrity are studied and discussed. The analysis of the results suggests that to successfully manufacture a lattice structure, strutsStrut as the main constituent of lattice architecture should have any diameter above 0.2 mm with an angle of inclination between 40° and 60° to exhibit good geometrical accuracy, lower surface roughness, and lower hardness.

John Daniel Arputharaj, Shahrooz Nafisi, Reza Ghomashchi
Modification of H950 Condition for 17-4 PH Stainless Steel Processed by DED

The current study embarked on developing the H950H950 aging condition for 17-4 PH stainless steel17-4 PH stainless steel that was manufactured through the DEDDirect energy deposition (DED) process. The driving force for carrying out this study was that, when the H950 condition was applied to 17-4 PH that was processed by DED, then the mechanical properties were not similar to those of 17-4 PH (as-received) manufactured through the traditional method. The printing of tensile specimens was done using the LENSLaser engineered net shaping (LENS) technique. Subsequently, the specimens were subjected to homogenization treatment (1100 °C for 2 h followed by air cooling) and aging treatment at A, B, and C °C for a specific period followed by air cooling. Additionally, a material characterization which includes porosityPorosity evaluation mechanical properties testing, and microstructural evolution analysis was done. It was established that the specimens were 99.9% denser and A °C was the aging temperature that produced specimens with mechanical properties similar to the as-received specimens.

I. Mathoho, N. Arthur, M. Tlotleng
Prediction of Solidification Cracking in Rene 80 Superalloy During the Directed Energy Deposition Process

Avoiding solidification cracksSolidification cracking is one of the requirements to successfully manufacture high gamma prime superalloys by Additive ManufacturingAdditive manufacturing (AM). In this research, an analytical model based on the classic Rappaz–Drezet–Gremaud (RDG) model coupled with thermal simulation was developed to predict the susceptibility of solidification cracks in Rene 80 in the directed energy depositionDirected Energy Deposition (DED) process. Taking into account the solidification path, local thermal history via the process model for DEDDirected Energy Deposition, and thermal strain via finite element models, the analytical model shows a promising capability to estimate the crack formation in Rene 80. This predictive model was examined over selected print parameters, including laser power, speed, spot size, and feed rate, to account for different local cooling rates and thermal gradients. Thin wall samples of Rene 80 were fabricated to calibrate and validate the proposed model. This development provides a practical and physics-based method to evaluate the solidification crackingSolidification cracking in additively manufactured alloys.

Hamed Hosseinzadeh, Lang Yuan, Luke Mohr, Lee Kerwin, Anindya Bhaduri, Arushi Dhakad, Chen Shen, Shenyan Huang, Changjie Sun, Alexander L. Kitt

Additive Manufacturing: Length-Scale Phenomena in Mechanical Response

A Multiscale Study of the Interconnection Between Unit Cell Design, Processing Conditions, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Titanium Metamaterials

Additive ManufacturingAdditive Manufacturing technologies, such as Laser Powder Bed Fusion, have enabled the creation of complex geometrical designs which can be used for lightweighting purposes across multiple industries. One of the most common methods to reduce weight in the design stage is the use of topological optimization or lattice structures. Lattice structuresLattice Structure consist of nodes connected with struts in different orientations in space, with the configuration of the unit cell varying depending on the final application. It is an established fact that the mechanical properties of additively manufactured components vary as a function of the size and orientation of the printed part. This inhomogeneity in properties is often neglected by material models implemented in finite element analysis, which normally just consider the mechanical properties of the bulk material. In this work, single struts of different diameters (0.5 and 1 mm) and orientations (0° and 45°) were tested to determine the corresponding mechanical properties and use them as an input to construct a material model to predict the mechanical properties of lattice structuresLattice Structure. Validation against experimental behavior of two different lattice structures shows improved accuracy over bulk properties material models.

Massimiliano Casata, Conrado Garrido, Enrique Alabort, Daniel Barba

Additive Manufacturing: Materials Design and Alloy Development V—Design Fundamentals

Additive Manufacturing of Inconel 718 by Meltpool and Grain Boundary Engineering

Additive Manufacturing (AM) achieves significant cost savings and enables complex geometries that are otherwise impossible to fabricate using conventional manufacturing processes. AM offers a new paradigm in design of additive alloys with complex microstructure by using rapid solidification, meltpool dynamics, and cyclic heat treatment of AM processes. The objective is to minimize the trial-and-error prints and improve quality of alloys by using a building block strategy with verification and test validation. This includes meltpool engineeringMeltpool Engineering for each layer, fabrication of coupons with desired microstructure, and novel alloy design for improved components. Integrating materials technology, materials design, and manufacturing innovation is a new frontier of AM development. AM process parameters are characterized in a case study for (1) meltpool engineeringMeltpool Engineering (MPE) and prediction of the process thermal map, density mapProcess and density Map, and temperature time transformation history to establish a roadmap for fabrication; (2) grain boundary engineeringGrain Boundary Engineering (GBE) to perform micro-scale material modeling of alloy composition and predict the grain size, mechanical strength, fracture, fatigue, and creep crack growth properties due to defects and precipitates; and (3) thermal-structural analysis incorporating MPEMeltpool Engineering and GBEGrain Boundary Engineering to assess part quality, reduce costs, and accelerate qualification of AM components. This includes (i) void prediction at the coupon level, (ii) macro-void print error calculations at element level, (iii) scatter in material strength and establishment of allowable, (iv) prediction of fracture control plan, (v) computing part distortion and inherent strain due to different print strategies and baseplate removal residual stressesResidual stress, and (vi) net-shape and warpage measurements. Different AM process parameters result in unique alloy composition and microstructure due to different thermal history, precipitation, and property response surfaces. AM process maps hasten new additive alloy development and help characterize new alloy design envelopes. 3D-printed parts produced by Laser Power Bed Fusion (LPBF) need to be qualified and may suffer from: (i) defects (micro, macro), (ii) net-shape warpage, (iii) high residual stresses, (iv) surface roughness, (v) inconsistent density and voids, (vi) anisotropic microstructures due to variable cooling rates, (vii) scatter in mechanical properties, and (vii) poor fracture and fatigue performance. AM defects (e.g., unfused powder, balling, humping, and keyholing) are affected by variations in power and speed as well as hatch spacing that result in pores, thermal cracks, rough surface finish, and warping. Some of these defects are closely related to thermal behaviors during printing, in which materials go through multiple stages of heating, melting, and cooling resulting in the final microstructure of alloy. Prediction of these outcomes leads to optimization and build solutions.

Mallikharjun Marrey, Amir Eftekharian, Vasyl Harik, Abhishek Kumar, Rashid Miraj, Frank Abdi
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Arc-Melted NiSi11Cx Alloys

Functional materials such as nickel silicidesNickel silicide (Ni3Si) are considered promising materials for building complex and strong structures. They have proven to have a high melting point, low electronic resistivity, excellent corrosion resistance, and thermally stability, however, their overall performances are still challenging due to their brittleness. Therefore, it is essential to prepare high-strength nickel silicideNickel silicide-based materials to improve their toughness. In the present study, arc meltingArc melting has been utilized to synthesize nickel silicideNickel silicide (NiSi11, wt%) and carbon (C) alloyedCarbon alloying nickel silicideNickel silicide (NiSi11Cx, x = 0.2, 1 wt%) with varying amounts of C aiming to improve the microstructureMicrostructure and mechanical propertiesMechanical properties of the alloy. The NiSi11 and NiSi11Cx alloys were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and microhardness tests. Results show that the NiSi11 alloy comprises lamellar-like eutectic Ni3Si and Ni solid solution phases. After alloying with C, the microstructureMicrostructure of the Ni-rich solid solution and Ni3Si phase is changed to a relatively fine-scale morphology, and C is mainly dissolved in the Ni-rich solid solution phase. The microhardness of the alloys is increased with the addition of C, which is mainly attributed to the microstructureMicrostructure refinement and solid solution strengthening obtained through C addition.

Foysal Kabir Tareq, Even Wilberg Hovig, Ragnhild E. Aune, Geir Grasmo

Advanced Biomaterials for Biomedical Implants

Application of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanostructures in Drug Delivery: A Compact Review

MagneticMagnetic iron oxideIron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) stand out among a plethora of drug nanocarriers as sturdy nanoplatforms due to exceptional magneticMagnetic and biological properties, which allow them to achieve significant drug loading as well as targeting capabilities. These applications necessitate accurate nanoparticle design in terms of numerous characteristics that must be evaluated in tandem to achieve maximum therapeutic efficacy. This concise overview summarizes recent advances in the roles of untreated and modified iron oxideIron oxide nanoparticles for drug deliveryDrug delivery. These modifications included chitosan, poly(vinylpyrrolidone), poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), and poly(ethylene glycol). One of the key areas of research in the targeted drug deliveryDrug delivery domain is the invention of nanocarriers that allow for the efficient delivery of therapeutic chemicals to specific sites. Drugs loaded onto iron oxideIron oxide nanoparticles can be efficiently guided and selectively delivered to selected sites by precisely altering the structural features of the nanoparticles.

Inono C. Omoruyi, Jeffery I. Omoruyi, Oscar N. Aghedo, Ukeme D. Archibong, Ikhazuagbe H. Ifijen
Candida Albicans Biofilm Formation on an Additive-Manufactured Titanium Alloy
Mari Koike, Tetsuro Horie, Susan K. Hummel, Richard J. Mitchell, Toru Okabe
Characterization of Spicule Structure

Nature has been a great source of inspiration for engineers and scientists for centuries. It provides unique ideas to overcome the unmet needs of human beings. SpiculesSpicules are structural elements of Euplectella Aspergillum sponges that reside in the deep ocean. They have an exceptional microstructure that provides excellent mechanical propertiesMechanical Properties. Although spicules are composed of a brittle material, silica (SiO2), they behave differently under load compared to other ceramics. This behavior is due to their concentric cylindrical structure. To produce a similar structure with potential engineering and biomedical applications, one needs to investigate its microstructure in depth. In this study, we examined the microstructure of spiculesSpicules to understand their architecture as a foundation to better design biomedical implantsImplants for tissue engineeringTissue Engineering applications.

Fariborz Tavangarian, Jennifer L. Gray, Trevor Clark, Chao Gao
Polymeric Biodegradable Biomaterials for Tissue Bioengineering and Bone Rejuvenation

The necessity for multiple surgeries is decreased by tissue engineering techniques, which also lessen donor site morbidity in graft procedures. Biodegradable scaffolds are created to contain cells; as new tissue develops; it gradually replaces the biodegradable scaffold to restore full bodily function. Due to their resemblance to extracellular matrices, high biocompatibility and biodegradability, natural and synthetic polymeric materials have been used extensively in bone tissue engineering. To adapt polymeric materials to the unique needs of bone regeneration, a range of approaches have been used to modify their characteristics. This review focused on current research on collagen and synthetic polymer-based scaffolds for tissue bioengineeringTissue bioengineering and bone regeneration, such as polycaprolactone, poly(glycolic acid), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), and poly(lactic-acid-glycolic acid) (PCL). If we can better manage the interface between the material and the surrounding bone tissue, the next generation of biodegradable materials may benefit from our understanding of how cells interact with materials.

Eribe M. Jonathan, Andrew O. Ohifuemen, Jacob N. Jacob, Aaron Y. Isaac, Ikhazuagbe H. Ifijen
The Effects of Thermal Treatment on the Properties and Performance of Hot Extruded Zn-Based Bioresorbable Alloy for Vascular Stenting Applications

A new series of zinc alloysZinc alloys is in development for bioresorbable stent implantation to alleviate the current materials’ long-term complications. Characterization and optimization of the microstructure and corresponding mechanical propertiesMechanical properties during manufacturing stages will help researchers meet the required values. In this study, the effect of hot extrusion on the Zn-Ag-Mn-Cu-Zr-Ti alloy is characterized. Additionally, thermal treatments at 390 °C for 15, 25, 40, 60, and 120 min were performed to evaluate the effect of intermetallic phase fractions on the corrosion resistance and mechanical strength. Quantitative analysis of X-ray diffraction data demonstrates that the fractions of the MnZn13, ZrZn22, and Zn0.75Ag0.15Mn0.10 intermetallic phases decrease as the thermal treatment time increases. Corrosion tests reveal a reduction in the corrosion rate of the extruded alloy after thermal treatment. The results of uniaxial compression tests and tensile tests show lower strength and higher ductility in all heat-treated conditions compared with the as-extruded condition.

Henry D. Summers, Morteza S. Ardakani, Jaroslaw W. Drelich
ZnO-NPs-Coated Implants with Osteogenic Properties for Enhanced Osseointegration

The failure of orthopedic implantsImplant due to prosthesis-associated infections and aseptic loosening emphasizes the pressing need to enhance their antibacterial capacity and osseointegration. The biomedical field has extensively studied zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs). ZnO-NP-coated implants have drawn a lot of interest for their increased osseointegrationOsseointegration due to their low toxicity, biocompatibility, high selectivity, good biological functions, and antibacterial and osteogenic properties. The use of ZnO-NPs in covering implants for better osseointegration has undergone significant advances, which were examined in this review. According to studies, ZnO-NPs coating on metal surfaces enhanced osteogenesis and soft tissue integration, which improved implantImplant fixation. Additionally, osteoconductive nanoparticles create a chemical interaction with bone in order to achieve a strong biological attachment for implants. Implants with ZnO-NPs applied to their surfaces have a lower risk of infection, which unquestionably leads to better clinical results.

Kate E. Mokobia, Ikhazuagbe H. Ifijen, Esther U. Ikhuoria

Advanced Characterization Techniques for Quantifying and Modeling Deformation

Characterization and Mechanical Testing of Ordinary Chondrites

Understanding the deformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of asteroids that are Near-Earth ObjectsNear-Earth objects is crucial in developing hazard mitigation strategies, as well as unraveling their potential engineering applications. A comprehensive study of the microstructure and mechanical behavior of Viñales (L6) ordinary chondrite is conducted. First, elastic wave velocity measurements are conducted to determine the mechanical properties and the material symmetry of Viñales. Next, optical microscopy is applied for microstructure characterization to identify the primary mineral phases and corresponding texture. Additionally, the composition of each mineral is determined using a scanning electron microscope equipped with wavelength-dispersive spectrometers, where an X-ray intensity map is plotted for ordinary chondrites elements of interest. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method is used to measure the average pore surface area and adsorption pore volume. Finally, quasi-static compression tests, accompanied with in-situ digital image correlationDigital image correlation are utilized to investigate the failure type as well as localizing the regions of excessive deformation and failure.

Mohamed H. Hamza, Charles A. Galluscio, M. F. Rabbi, Laurence A. J. Garvie, Desireé Cotto-Figueroa, Erik Asphaug, A. Chattopadhyay
Influence of Different Temperatures on Mechanical Properties of Flexible Screen

At different temperatures in daily life, the flexible AMOLEDAMOLED screen is prone to device damage and peeling of the adhesive layer during the bending process. The primary way to solve this problem is to explore the stress of the display layer and the strain of the optically clear adhesive (OCA) adhesive layer at the optimal temperature for flexible screen bending. In this paper, a bending simulation model of an AMOLEDAMOLED screen was established to analyze each film layer at different temperatures. Then, the thickness of different layers (the OCA adhesive layer, the back plate, and the protective cover) was investigated. Furthermore, it shows the bending radius at the optimal temperature. The results present that the Mises stress of the flexible screenFlexible Displays increases significantly at a high temperature of 100 °C. At a low temperature of −20 °C, there is a significant stress reduction, and the probability of mesh deformation is reduced by 10% compared to −10 °C. The stiffness of the protective cover and the thickness of the OCA adhesive layer do not affect the position of the display layer's stress-neutral layer. The increase in the thickness of the back plate makes the position of the stress-neutral layer of the display layer move downward, and the increase in the bending radius reduces the structural stress. The decrease in board stiffness, the increase of OCA adhesive layer thickness, and the decrease of back plate thickness all benefit the reduction of OCA adhesive layer strain.

Qiujun Wang, Weiwei Su, Zeyu Zhang, Di Zhang, Bo Wang, Fang Zhang

Advanced Functional and Structural Thin Films and Coatings and Honorary Palkowski Session

A Review of P(St-MMA-AA) Synthesis via Emulsion Polymerization, 3D P(St-MMA-AA) Photonic Crystal Fabrication, and Photonic Application

The possible applications of photonic crystalsPhotonic crystals (PhCs) in photonics and optics have increased their relevance in recent times. The propensity of PhCs to interact with light in their structure has led to a variety of thrilling and extraordinary features, which have shown possible usage in the generation of full-colour displaying films, coatings, switches, filters, photonic papers, responsive optical devices, etc. Polymeric materials have played an important part in the fabrication of PhCsPhotonic crystals owing to exceptional properties such as high strength, resistance to corrosion, resilience, colour, transparency, processing, and low cost. Among the utilized polymers, poly(styrene-methylmethacrylate-acrylic acid) (P(St-MMA-AA)Poly(Styrene-MethylMethacrylate-Acrylic Acid) (P(St-MMA-AA) has been utilized by several studies to generate photonic crystalsPhotonic crystals with unique structural coloursStructural colours for photonic application due to the exceptional features introduced by its functional groups. This paper provided a brief explanation of the synthesis P(St-MMA-AA) of colloidal particles via emulsion polymerization, 3D photonic crystal fabrication, and photonic application.

Ikhazuagbe H. Ifijen, Esther U. Ikhuoria, Stanley. O. Omorogbe, Godfrey O. Otabor, Aireguamen I. Aigbodion, Salisu D. Ibrahim
Effect of Drying on Textured Coat Synthesized from Waste Glass for Building Application

Interior and exterior coat samples were collected and subjected to viscosity (ASTM D-4741), adhesion (ASTM D-3359), dry-time (ASTM D-1640 M), and abrasion (ASTM D-4060) analysis, respectively to determine its dryingDrying effect on application. The result shows that both interior and exterior coatings had 35poise viscosity, 4A adhesion, dry-time of 5 min set-to-touch time, 10 min dust-free time, 20 min tack-free and 530 min hard-dry time, and 0.2 g (interior coating) and 0.35 g (exterior coating) abrasion rate which correspond with the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) and Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) standard values of 40 ± 0.5poise for viscosity, 1A–5A adhesion rate, 30 ± 5 min set-to-touch time, 30 ± 5 min dust-free time, 60 min tack-free, 1440 ± 5 min hard-dry time, and 4 ± 5 g abrasion rate. These indicate that the dryingDrying effect of synthesized building textured coatingTextured coating has a workable viscosity with zero orange peeling upon dryingDrying, a less than 5% flick rate on adhesion, and excellent abrasion resistance attributable to sufficient dryingDrying on application.

Andrew Ojonugwa Adejo, Jeff Kator Jomboh
In-Situ Alloy Formation During Selective Laser Melting with CuSn10 and Aluminum Powders

Thanks to metal additive manufacturing (AM)Additive manufacturing (AM), the way metal parts are made has changed in recent decades. Almost unlimited designs are possible, and local material properties such as microstructural properties can be realized through regional process variations. Although many scientists and engineers have worked and are working on AM and their efforts have led to the commercialization of AMAdditive manufacturing (AM) metal technologies, the effort required to create new and customized alloys is still high. This is due to the fact that a completely created alloy has to be brought into the powdered initial form before it can be manufactured, which involves quite a lot of effort. In-situ alloys can remedy this situation by mixing powder particles of different materials with each other before production and the actual target material is only created during the production process when it is melted by the laser beam. This paper gives a brief overview of the in-situ alloyingIn-situ alloying of a CuAl12Sn9 alloy by selective laser meltingSelective laser melting of CuSn10 and pure aluminum powder.

Farzad Foadian, Robert Kremer
Nanosized Cadmium Selenide Thin Coatings for Possible Utilization in Optoelectronics

The performance of energy conversion and storage technologies such as solar cells, supercapacitors, and batteries is the subject of a lot of research. Cadmium selenideCadmium Selenide (CdSe) thin films are appropriate for the next generation of chalcogenide-based photovoltaic and electrochemical energy storage systems because of their narrow bandgap and high absorption coefficient in the visible range, as well as their low electrical resistivity. This paper provided a concise background on the chemical synthesis of CdSeCadmium Selenide nanoparticlesNanoparticles as well as information on the filmFilms properties generated at temperatures that are reproducible, effective, and affordable for optoelectronicOptoelectronic applications. Due to the bandgaps, which were established by many evaluated studies, being adequately located in the visible solar energy region, these CdSe thin films are suitable for electrochemical energy storage systems, such as in solar energy harvesting.

Ikhazuagbe H. Ifijen, Bala Anegbe
Optical Properties of Crystalline Silicon in the Infrared

SiliconSilicon has been one of the most well-understood semiconductor materials in the literature. In spite of its mature know-how and technology, there is an absence of reliable values of its wavelength-dependent optical constants, i.e., refractive index and extinction coefficient of monocrystalline silicon in the wavelength range of 1–10 μm, in the literature. These values are critical to fully simulate, model, and understand the optical propertiesOptical properties of siliconSilicon in the infraredInfrared range of wavelengths, as well as to be able to design devices of interest, particularly in the infrared. In this study, the Forouhi–Bloomer dispersion equations have been utilized to predict the functions of the refractive index and extinction coefficient for the entire wavelength spectrum, including the sought 1–10 µm range. The calculated reflectivity and transmissivity are then analyzed and compared to prior findings in the literature.

Allyson Tarifa, Nuggehalli M. Ravindra
Prediction of Grain Size Evolution During Hot Rolling of HSLA Steels Considering Precipitation

A physical-based model for predicting grain size evolution during multi-pass hot rollingHot rolling of HSLA steels has been developed, consisting of two coupled modules. The first is a microstructureMicrostructure module based on modelingModelling the interaction of an ensemble of multiple grains. It considers strain hardening, dynamic recovery, and dynamic recrystallizationRecrystallization during plastic deformation, as well as static recovery, static recrystallization, metadynamic recrystallization, and grain growth after straining. In the second module, the KWN multiclass approach was used together with classical nucleation theory for simulations of precipitationPrecipitation kinetics during thermomechanical processing. The parameters of the model were obtained through extensive experiments with the Gleeble-machine, thermodynamic calculations with Thermo-Calc software, and microstructural characterizations of selected HSLA steel grades. A user-friendly application for simulating the hot rollingHot rolling schedule was developed for industrial use. The results of the simulations show good predictability of the simulation system compared to industrial results for different hot rollingHot rolling schedules.

Goran Kugler, Jan Foder, Boštjan Bradaškja, David Bombač
Reduction of Friction and Adhesion in Copper and Brass Extrusion by Application of Boron Containing Surface Modifications

Due to extensive abrasion and adhesion, tools for copper and brass extrusionCopper and brass extrusion are subject to considerable wear. In the present study, the effect of boron containing surface modificationsBoron containing surface modifications on friction and adhesionFriction and adhesion was investigated by means of a high-temperature, high-speed friction test for extrusion. A Ti-Si-B-C-N nanocomposite coating and a boridic diffusion layer were applied to hot work toolTool wear steel 1.2367 and nickel-based alloy 2.4668, respectively. Using billets made of copper alloy CW024A and brass alloy CW724R, the friction tests were performed at high temperatures and normal pressures typical of the extrusion process. The evaluation of the obtained test data indicates a significant influence of the Ti-Si-B-C-N nanocomposite coating on the friction and adhesion behavior of the investigated material pairings. While friction and adhesionFriction and adhesion are greatly reduced for the Ti-Si-B-C-N coating, the effect of the boridic diffusion layer is substantially less.

Stefan Lechner, Alexander Thewes, Sören Müller
Thermal Fatigue of Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron

Using high Si spheroidal graphite cast ironSpheroidal graphite cast iron (SGI), thermal fatigueThermal fatigue tests at a temperature of 600 ºC were carried out. Surface layer degradationSurface degradation on test samples was studied, i.e., degradation of graphitesGraphites, initiation and growth of cracks in relation to specific characteristics of graphites as well as oxidationOxidation process. Special attention was devoted to the oxidation progress of degenerated graphite nodules (complex structured graphiteGraphites that contains also small ferrite particles), whereas their oxidationOxidation rate is accelerated in comparison to usual graphite nodules. Crack initiation and growth are accelerated in case of the successive arrangement of graphite, by the process of graphiteGraphites-matrix debonding. The complex process of oxidation is related to the characteristics of graphite particles as well as their distribution in the matrix.

Primož Mrvar, Mitja Petrič, Milan Terčelj
Utilization of Plant Oil-Based Fatliquor in the Processing of Leather

The chemical and mechanical steps in the leather-producing process—soaking, unhairing/liming, deliming/bating, pickling, tanning, neutralization/dyeing, fatliquoring, drying, and finishing—transform hides and skin into leather. The fatliquor, which is often injected into the collagen fibers to lubricate them without leaving an oily residue on the surface of the leatherLeather, is composed of many plants sulfonated oils. Plant sulfonated oil has been shown to improve the tensile strength, flexibility, and softness of leathers, as well as their lubricating capabilities. This investigation focused on the lubricating qualities of leatherLeather that had been treated with various fatliquored oils. The physicochemistry, difficulties, and potential uses of fatliquorFatliquor in the manufacturing of leather were also emphasized.

I. H. Ifijen, I. O. Bakare, E. O. Obazee, O. C. Ize-Iyamu, N. U. Udokpoh, A. O. Ohifuemen, F. U. Mohammed, E. A. Fagbemi, P. O. Ayeke

Advanced Joining Technologies for Automotive Lightweight Structures

Joint Strength Optimization of Single-Lap Al 5052-H36 Adhesively Bonded for Off-Road Vehicle Chassis Components

The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of the key parameters on the mechanical strength of adhesively bonded Al 5052-H36 joints. The key parameters are adhesive type, curing temperatureCuring temperature, and geometrical parameters. To evaluate the effect of these parameters on the performance of bonded joints, single lap joints (SLJ) coupons were prepared and tested under tension. The adhesives 852/25 GB and Ep 5089 were studied to analyze the effect of the polymer type on the mechanical behavior of bonded joints. The effect of geometrical parameters and curing temperatureCuring temperature of adhesive were investigated for joints assembled with 852/25 GB. The distribution of stresses within the bond area was assessed numerically using a linear model and validated with an analytical model. 852/25 GB makes weaker joints and shows cohesive failure, while EP 5089 adhesive resulted in stronger joints and interface failure. Samples exposed to heating cycles generated the strongest joints compared to those cured @ RT and 35 °C. Increasing the length of the overlap, decreasing the adhesive thickness, and the presence of spew fillet improved the joint resistance. The stress distributions from the numerical modeling showed very good agreement with the results of the analytical model. The numerical and analytical models were used to interpret the experimental results.

M. Nodeh, A. Maslouhi, A. Desrochers
Recent Advances in the Transformative Non-fusion Weld-Brazing Process Used to Join Thin-Gauge Alloys Used in the Automotive Industry

As we rapidly move towards the electrification of modern vehicles, making them lighter and stronger has become as important as ever. This means that the welding and joining techniques we use to build these structures need to evolve to be able to successfully join the advanced materials used for these applications. Weld-brazing (WB) is a novel non-fusion joining technique that has shown excellent promise in the joining of similar and dissimilar metallic alloys. However, existing literature on WB has either treated this process as a form of traditional torch brazing or a form of fusion welding which has made the optimization of the process a significant challenge. Researchers at the University of Waterloo have shown that WB is a joining technique that is fundamentally different from the traditional joining techniques it has been derived from. This study investigates recently discovered critical factors that control the joint integrity for WB applications.

M. Shehryar Khan, Y.-H. Cho, F. Goodwin, Y. Norman Zhou
Study on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloy 5754 to Advanced High Strength Steel by the Laser Welding-Brazing Technique

The overlap jointsOverlap joint of aluminum alloy 5754 and galvanized advanced high strength steel (AHSS) are prepared by the laser welding-brazingLaser welding-brazing technique. The microstructure in each characteristic zones of aluminum alloy 5754-AHSS dissimilar welded jointDissimilar welded joint is observed. The α-Al is the main microstructure in the weld metal (WM), and Al–Si eutectics distributed in the grain boundary are also found. The microstructure of AHSS base metal (BM) is determined as martensite and ferrite. The tensile test results show that the aluminum alloy 5754-AHSS dissimilar welded jointDissimilar welded joint fractured in the aluminum alloy BM with tensile strength of 238.4 MPa. The suitable thickness of the intermetallic compoundIntermetallic compound (IMC) layer makes the BMs effectively bonded and difficult to initiate cracks. Thus, the formation of the continuous IMCIntermetallic compound layer is regarded as the main factor to improve the mechanical propertiesMechanical property of the overlap jointOverlap joint.

Tianhan Hu, Zheng Li, Wufeng Dong, Kai Ding, Yulai Gao

Advanced Materials for Energy Conversion and Storage 2023

Aluminum-Anodes for Metal-Air-Batteries

Aluminum-AirAluminum-Air-BatteriesBattery are a promising alternative to Lithium-Ion-Batteries. The theoretical specific energy density of aluminum at 8100 Wh/kg passes over 600 Wh/kg of Lithium-Ion-Batteries, significantly. Aluminum offers the second-highest metal deposit in the Earth’s crust. A low density of 2,7 g/cm3 offers further potential for weight reduction. The major challenges with Aluminum-AirAluminum-Air-Batteries are the unwanted development of a passivating oxide layer on the anode’s surface and the “Parasitic Corrosion”, a hydrogen evolution caused by free electrons released by corrosion. Research works have shown that a reduction of an anode’s grain size will achieve a higher energy density and a lower hydrogen evolution. In addition, a 3-D-surface-structured anode provides a bigger active surface, and therefore a higher performance. ExtrusionExtrusion was chosen as a well-known process meeting the potential of a production at industrial scale. Al-Anodes manufactured from cast (Al 99.8%, extruded (Al 99.8%), and foam (Al 99.5%) were compared in corrosion- andBattery battery-performance-tests.

Janne Max Heydrich-Bodensieck, Maik Negendank, Sören Müller
Triple-Cation Perovskite Photoabsorbers and Solar Cells

We present our results on the photoabsorber characterization of triple-cationTriple-cation perovskite and their integration into solar cells. The photabsorbers were fabricated using the spin coating approach and constructed into two-terminal devices. After outlining the fabrication process of our three-dimensional perovskiteThree-dimensional perovskite photodetectors, their photo response to incoming radiation was measured using broadband illumination through temperature-dependent measurements. We also discuss our efforts on the integration of the triple-cationTriple-cation absorbers into solar cells in the n-i-p architecture and compare the response of the triple-cation solar cells with those fabricated using MAPbI3MAPbI3 absorbers. Our results presented here provide a fabrication and characterization framework for the three-dimensional perovskiteThree-dimensional perovskite structures in photoabsorber and solar cell devices.

Mahdi Temsal, Sujan Aryal, Anupama B. Kaul

Advances in Magnetic Materials

Incisive Review on Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Use in the Treatment of Bacterial Infections

Magnetic nanoparticlesMagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have shown great promise in a variety of biomedical applications, including magnetic hyperthermia, improving MRI data, augmenting tissue engineering efforts, and boosting medication delivery to difficult-to-reach microniches. Their integration in diverse illnesses’ treatment pathways demonstrates an exponential increase in trend toward the incorporation of innovative biotechnologies in medical and pharmaceutical systems. Clinicians can use superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNs) to create a localized thermo-ablative impact that destroys bacterial biofilms. SPNs can also sensitize resistant bacterial cells to antibacterial chemicals by physically disrupting bacterial membranes. IONPS have also enhanced the transport of bactericidal chemicals to microniches, and could thus be used to treat disorders that require therapeutic intervention that must be able to pass through the blood–brain barrier. This Review carried out an incisive study on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and their use in the treatment of bacterial infections. This study also focused on the mechanisms underlying the antibacterial action of magnetite iron oxide (IONPS) against microorganisms.

Muniratu Maliki, Stanley O. Omorogbe, Ikhazuagbe H. Ifijen, Oscar N. Aghedo, Augustine Ighodaro

Advances in Multi-principal Element Alloys II

Data-driven Search and Selection of Ti-containing Multi-principal Element Alloys for Aeroengine Parts

There is rapidly growing interest in Ti-containing multi-principal element alloysTi-containing multi-principal element alloys (MPEA), due to their distinct combination of the room- and elevated-temperature mechanical properties and corrosion resistance for a wide range of potential applications. This has motivated us to analyze the literature data of the Ti-containing MPEAs to unearth the composition-processing-microstructure-property relationships for aeroengine applications. We synergistically applied advanced statistical analyses—including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering (HC)—and multiple-attribute decision makingMultiple attribute decision making (MADM) to hear the voice of the data. The ranks assigned by several MADMs, including ARAS (additive ratio assessment), ROVM (range of value method), and MEW (multiplicative exponent weighing), were consistent. However, the ranks of the alloys varied upon varying the relative weights of various properties, which revealed several MPEAs’ potential to substitute superalloys for a range of aeroengine parts. The analyses suggest potential replacement substitutes and provide possible directions for the design and improvement of Ti-containing MPEAsTi-containing multi-principal element alloys.

Tanjore V. Jayaraman, Ramachandra Canumalla

Advances in Surface Engineering V

Effective Utilization of Metallurgical Characterization for Oxidation Resistance Coatings

OxidationOxidation resistance and corrosionCorrosion resistance coatingsCoatings are commonly applied over the base material (hardware) in new parts and as a possible alternative repair of the hardware after service. A detailed characterization of different thermal sprayThermal spray coatingsCoatings on Inconel and stainless-steel substrates of different thicknesses (up to ~1 mm) were carried out, for analyzing the coating porosity, electro-chemical behavior (cyclic polarization), mechanical properties including bond strength and microstructureMicrostructure (phase stabilityPhase stability), in the as-sprayed condition. The coating relaxation behavior and thermal stability were studied, after heat treatment at the relevant temperatures. Detailed characterization of the coatingCoatings behavior, interdiffusion characteristics with the substrate, and residual stress, enabled an understanding of the effectiveness of the coating application. OxidationOxidation resistance coatingsCoatings evaluated by electro-chemical analysis, cyclic polarization, and galvanic potential evaluation, on the stainless-steel substrates helps in improved understanding of the overall coatingCoatings application both in new make and repair of turbo-machinery components.

Hariharan Sundaram, Veerakumar Kandaraj

Advances in Titanium Technology

Effect of the Vibratory Peening Parameters on Surface Properties of Ti-6Al-4 V

Vibratory peening is an emerging process which aims to combine both beneficial effects of shot peening and vibratory finishing. The process modifies the surface properties by inducing compressive residual stress and creating better surface finish, causing an overall improvement in the fatigue life of the treated components. However, the process parameters of vibratory peening individually influence the efficacy of peening, which needs to be studied properly. This work aims to understand the effect of the process parameters on surface integritySurface integrity and Vibratory peening of Ti-6Al-4Ti-6Al-4V V, a candidate aerospace grade on which surface properties are considered very essential during service. Mill machined and mirror polished specimens were vibratory peened with two different eccentricities and for two different processing times. Surface roughness was initially evaluated using roughness profilometer. Surface topography was then observed using optical microscope and optical interferometry. The initial surface preparation had the most important effect on the surface roughness after vibratory peening. Mirror polished specimens resulted in the optimum surface finish that can be achieved for a given set of process parameters. Low vibratory peening eccentricity produced smoother surface finish on mirror polished specimens than high eccentricity. The increase of processing time for vibratory peening at high eccentricity on mill machined specimen allowed to reach the optimum surface finish. In addition, micro-hardness measurements and SEM-EBSD cartographies were performed. It was highlighted that the XRD method is recommended to assess the plastic strain induced by vibratory peening in Ti-6Al-4Ti-6Al-4V V.

Maxime Paques, Benoit Changeux, Anindya Das, Hongyan Miao, Martin Levesque, Sylvain Turenne, Etienne Martin
Investigation to Density and Metallurgical Characteristics of Selective Laser Melted Ti-5Al-5 V-5Mo-3Cr Versus Ti-6Al-4 V

Ti-5Al-5 V-5Mo-3Cr (Ti-5553) isTi-5553 a metastable near beta titaniumTitanium alloy with excellent fatigue performance and corrosion resistance. Hence, it is of significant importance in several high-performance aerospace applications such as aircraft landing gear components. The selective laser meltingSelective laser melting (SLM) technique shows great potential compared to subtractive methods in generating complex geometries. However, the poor surface finish of the SLMed Ti-5553 components means that post-machining is required to achieve the desired surface quality and dimensional accuracy. Although there is a profound knowledge about the surface integrity of SLMed α + β Ti alloys (typically Ti-6Al-4 V), there is a lack of understanding regarding the microstructure of internal subsurface layers of SLMed Ti-5553 components. In this paper, experimental studies were performed on SLM of Ti-5553Ti-5553 and Ti-64 to determine the effect of SLM parameters on the surface integrity of SLMed Ti components. The density and subsurface microstructureSubsurface microstructure of printed Ti components were measured and evaluated in relation to the SLMSelective laser melting conditions.

David Yan, Roman Bolzowski
Systematic Review of the Synthesis of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles via Plant Mediation Green Approach

In recent years, environmental deterioration has become a major concern. Green chemistry, which has many applications in many fields of science, is the subject of numerous investigations, some of which involve nanotechnology. Numerous physical and chemical methods are regularly used to create nanoparticles (NPs). Recently, green synthesisGreen synthesis technologies that are more straightforward, resource-efficient, and affordable have been created. In the most recent quarter, there has been a lot of interest in the environmentally friendly/sustainable synthesisSynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticlesTitanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs). The bio-reduction and capping processes of metal precursors are made easier by phytochemical components found in plants. This study focused on the recent plant-mediated synthesisPlant-mediated synthesis of TiO2 NPs carried out by various research scientists in 2021 and a substantial part of 2022. In this review, the potential uses for plant-mediated TiO2 NPsTitanium dioxide nanoparticles as well as potential future difficulties were also covered.

Ifeanyi J. Odiachi, Oghomwen C. Ize-Iyamu, Osaro K. Ize-Iyamu, Chikaodili D. Ikechukwu, Ikhazuagbe H. Ifijen

AI/Data Informatics: Computational Model Development, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification

Data Assimilation for Microstructure Evolution in Kinetic Monte Carlo

Modeling grain growthGrain growth has been a subject of interest in computational material science, as it occurs in thermal-based processing methods such as annealing and sintering. Kinetic Monte CarloKinetic Monte Carlo with Potts model is often used as an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) grain growthGrain growth model and can generate high-fidelity synthetic microstructures. In this paper, we offer a data-driven stochastic calculus perspective on the kinetics of grain growthGrain growth and model the microstructure evolution through the lens of stochastic differential equations, based on Langevin dynamics and Fokker-PlanckFokker-Planck equation to forecast the grain size distribution. We demonstrate that our proposed approach agrees reasonably well with the hybrid Potts-phase field model using SPPARKSSPPARKS in forecasting the long-term evolution of grain size distribution.

Anh Tran, Yan Wang, Theron Rodgers
Towards Machine Learning of Crystal Plasticity by Neural Networks

The use of crystal plasticity models in macroscopic numerical analysis still poses challenges. Component and crystal structures have different scales by several orders of magnitude. For this reason, a discretization of the crystal structure within the framework of the component is not reasonably possible. Therefore, for each integration point its microstructure is represented by a representative volume element. Due to the computational effortComputational efficiency associated with this coupling, the use of crystal plasticityCrystal plasticity models has been limited. They are mainly used in academia and with little application in component and process design. The approach taken here is to decouple computational effortComputational efficiency through machine learningMachine learning by training a neural networkNeural networks that eventually serves as a material model in macro-scale analysis. Based on the deformation gradient and the microstructure, the trained neural networkNeural networks reproduces the resulting stress response, where the conducted investigations also cover consecutive deformation patterns and general stress states.

Christoph Hartmann

Algorithm Development in Materials Science and Engineering

Differential Property Prediction: A Machine Learning Approach to Experimental Design in Advanced Manufacturing

Advanced manufacturingAdvanced manufacturing techniques have enabled the production of materials with state-of-the-art properties. In many cases however, the development of physics-based models of these techniques lags behind their development in the lab. This means that material and process development proceeds largely via trial and error. This is sub-optimal since experiments are cost-, time-, and labor-intensive. In this work, we propose a machine learning framework, differential property classification (DPC), which enables an experimenter to leverage machine learning’sMachine learning unparalleled pattern matching capability to pursue data-driven experimental design. DPC takes two possible experiment parameter sets and outputs a prediction which will produce a material with a more desirable property specified by the operator. We demonstrate the success of DPC on AA7075 tube manufacturing process and mechanical property data using shear-assisted processing and extrusionShear assisted processing and extrusion (ShAPE) (ShAPE), an emerging solid phase processing technology. We show that by focusing on the experimenter’s need to choose between multiple candidate experimental parameters, we can reframe the challenging regression task of predicting material properties from processing parameters, into a classification task on which machine learning models can achieve good performance.

Loc Truong, WoongJo Choi, Colby Wight, Elizabeth Coda, Tegan Emerson, Keerti Kappagantula, Henry Kvinge
Multi-faceted Uncertainty Quantification for Structure-Property Relationship with Crystal Plasticity Finite Element

The structure-property linkage is one of the two most important relationships in materials science besides the process-structure linkage, especially for metals and polycrystalline alloys. The stochastic nature of microstructures begs for a robust approach to reliably address the linkage. As such, uncertainty quantificationUncertainty quantification (UQ) plays an important role in this regard and cannot be ignored. To probe the structure-property linkage, many multi-scale integrated computational materials engineeringIntegrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) (ICME) tools have been proposed and developed over the last decade to accelerate the material design process in the spirit of Material Genome Initiative (MGI), notably crystal plasticity finite element modelCrystal Plasticity Finite Element Model (CPFEM) (CPFEM) and phase-field simulations. Machine learningMachine learning (ML) methods, including deep learning and physics-informed/-constrained approaches, can also be conveniently applied to approximate the computationally expensive ICMEIntegrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) models, allowing one to efficiently navigate in both structure and property spaces effortlessly. Since UQ also plays a crucial role in verification and validation for both ICMEIntegrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) and ML models, it is important to include UQ in the picture. In this paper, we summarize a few of our recent research efforts addressing UQ aspects of homogenized properties using CPFEMCrystal Plasticity Finite Element Model (CPFEM) in a big picture context.

Anh Tran, Pieterjan Robbe, Hojun Lim
Prediction of Cutting Surface Parameters in Punching Processes Aided by Machine Learning

Punching represents one of the most frequently used manufacturing processes in the sheet metal processing industry. As an important quality criterion for shear cutting processes, the geometric shape of the cutting surface is considered. In this regard, the edge draw-in height, the clean cut proportion, the fracture surface height, and the burr are relevant parameters for monitoring the production quality in punching processes. These parameters can easily be measured in shear cutting processes with an open cutting line (e.g. using laser triangulation). For processes with a closed cutting line, however, such a measurement is often not possible due to the limited accessibility. The present paper therefore proposes a machine learningMachine learning approach, which enables a data-driven prediction of cutting surface parameters based on measurable process data. The new approach presented in this paper is to pre-train a neural network on numerically determined cutting force curves. As an output, the neural network predicts the mentioned quality parameters of punched sheet metal component edges. The output of the numerically pre-trained neural network is evaluated for numerically and experimentally determined process data and cutting surface parameters.

A. Schenek, M. Görz, M. Liewald, K. R. Riedmüller

Alloy Development for Energy Technologies: ICME Gap Analysis

Molecular Dynamics Study of Gradient Energy Coefficient and Grain-Boundary Migration in Aluminum Foam

Aluminum foam is one of the widely known metallic foamsMetallic foam that has recently attracted many researchers’ attention due to its unique combination of properties derived from its cellular structure. Previous studies have shown that the foaming process is responsible for the resulting microstructure, which in turn determines the properties of the metal foams and affects their applicability in industry. In order to facilitate the understanding of process-structure–property-performance relations of metal foams, a phase-field (PF) model predicting the microstructural evolution of these materials during the foaming process, must be developed. And to develop such a PF model, the gradient energyGradient energy coefficient and grain boundary (GB) mobility of foaming materials must be obtained. In this paper, a series of molecular dynamicsMolecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed on a system of aluminum and silicon (Al–Si) atoms in order to determine those parameters. The obtained results will be used to parametrize the PF model.

Chaimae Jouhari, Yucheng Liu, Doyl Dickel
Phase-Field Modeling of Aluminum Foam Based on Molecular Dynamics Simulations

This paper presents a phase-field modelPhase-field model that is consistent with the multiphase systemMultiphase system of aluminum foam to predict the microstructural evolution involved in the foaming process of the aluminum foamAluminum foam and its final microstructure. The phase-field model characterizes the microstructure of the foam material with a set of material constants calibrated through experiments and molecular dynamicsMolecular dynamics (MD) calculations. A series of MD simulations were performed on a group of aluminum and silicon (Al–Si) atoms, whose potentials were defined using the angular dependent potentialAngular dependent potential (ADP). The MDMolecular dynamics results such as diffusion and specific heat capacity are used as input parameters for the developed phase-field modelPhase-field model. The developed phase field model will predict the microstructural evolution of metal foams during foaming processes and will be further used to establish a multiscale computational framework that bridges the process, structure, property and performance of metal foams.

Chaimae Jouhari, Yucheng Liu, Doyl Dickel

Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications XI

Stability Study of Cesium-Based Triple Cation Perovskite Solar Cells in Elevated Environmental Ambients

For the hybrid organic–inorganic systems, cesiumCesium-based triple cationTriple cation perovskitePerovskite solar cellsSolar cells (Cs0.05 FA0.79 MA0.16 PbI2.45 Br0.55) have recently received a great deal of attention in view of their greater stabilityStability compared to the historically significant methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) absorber, given the vulnerability of the latter to moisture, oxygen, and ultraviolet radiation. In this work, we have studied the long-term stability of Cs0.05 FA0.79 MA0.16 PbI2.45 Br0.55 under various stress conditions to accelerate degradation which provides clues into enhancing their stabilityStability further. The cesiumCesium-based triple cationTriple cation absorber is integrated into the n-i-p solar cell architecture with gold as the collector electrode, and the stabilityStability was gauged using in-use testing with maximum power point trackingMaximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT), as well as in elevated thermalThermal ambients.

Sujan Aryal, Mahdi Temsal, Ehsan Ghavaminia, Anupama B. Kaul

Biological Materials Science

A Concise Review of the Antibacterial Action of Gold Nanoparticles Against Various Bacteria

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been proven to be a remarkable choice for utilization as an antibacterialAntibacterial agent. AuNP has been demonstrated to have a satisfactory performance against several types of pathogens, and analysis of its antibacterial action has also become a trending subject in contemporary times. In terms of the toxicityToxicity effects, results are sometimes ambiguous and contradictory due to the lack of a standardized experimental methodology; different research have utilized diverse techniques, delivery routes, and doses, and comparable tests may provide different results. This study describes the antibacterialAntibacterial action of gold nanoparticlesGold nanoparticles against several types of bacteria in order to give a concise overview of and insight into the existing knowledge for researchers committed to this field. The potential of gold nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent and the toxicityToxicity of gold nanoparticlesGold nanoparticles, both in vitro and in vivo, were both emphasized as important topics that need additional research.

Ikhazuagbe H. Ifijen, Muniratu Maliki, Nyaknno U. Udokpoh, Ifeanyi J. Odiachi, Best Atoe
A Review of Nanovanadium Compounds for Cancer Cell Therapy

Several vanadium compounds have shown promise as chemotherapeutics during the last few years. Vanadium compounds’ rapid elimination from the body and potential toxicity have, nevertheless, impeded their ongoing expansion. In addition to circumventing these constraints, vanadium-based nanomaterials benefit from the intrinsic photics and magnetic properties of vanadium, which make them a multimodal platform for the detection and treatment of cancer. This review outlined the numerous studies that looked into the prospect of treating cancer cells with nanovanadiumNanovanadium compounds over the years. The essential biological and pharmacological activities of vanadium-nanobased materials in cancerCancer treatment are also highlighted. The numerous studies that looked into the prospect of treating cancerCancer cells with nanovanadium compounds found a novel alternative channel for cancer-fighting medicinal techniques.

Ikhazuagbe H. Ifijen, Nyaknno U. Udokpoh, Muniratu Maliki, Esther U. Ikhuoria, Efosa O. Obazee
Biodegradation of Petroleum-Based Plastic Using Bacillus sp.

Over the last few decades, petroleum-based plasticsPlastic have been used in an uncontrolled manner due to their attractive characteristics, posing severe environmental challenges that need to be immediately addressed. Literature indicates some microorganisms for plastic degradation. Bacillus sp. was found capable of degrading various polymersPolymers such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, and polyurethane. This study investigated the growth and morphological features of Bacillus sp. culture, and its ability to decompose untreated polypropylene (PP) plastics using a mineral salt medium in an incubator shaker at 37 ºC with 120 rpm for 4 weeks. The bacterial growth was spectrophotometrically measured at OD595nm. pH and weight loss measurement provided the extent of plasticPlastic degradation. The significant increment in pH of the media towards alkalinity confirmed the degradation of the PP plastics. The preliminary results of 1-week and 4-weeks long incubation suggest that Bacillus sp. assisted plasticPlastic degradation might be a feasible approach for diminishing this environmental challenge.

Rahulkumar Sunil Singh, Eddie Bryan Gilcrease, Ramesh Goel, Michael L. Free, Prashant K. Sarswat
Comparative Characterization and Assay of Cow Horn Waste and Fish Feed as Biomaterials for Reinforcement in Aquaculture Feeds

In this study, some biomaterialsBiomaterials (cow hornCow-horn waste and some fish feed)Fish-feed were characterized and compared. The aim was to investigate the possibility of using cow hornCow-horn wastes as reinforcementReinforcement feed in aquaculturesAquaculture thereby minimizing the indiscriminate or unsightly disposal as wastes in some abattoirs. The assay revealed that the cow hornCow-horn contained very high carbohydrate, fat, magnesium and iron contents whereas, ash, moisture and protein were low compared with the fish feedFish-feed. Results obtained suggests that cow hornCow-horn wastes compared with fish feedFish-feed will serve as useful reinforcementReinforcement in the diet of fishes with low protein and high carbohydrate requirement. The use of cow hornCow-horn wastes as feed reinforcementReinforcement will also help to reduce the unsightly nuisance created by its disposal in some abattoirs and create a more friendly and healthy environment.

Ita E. Uwidia, Onyeka K. Chisom, Osalodion E. Uwidia
Effect of Some Bio-Stimulants in the Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

The aim of this study was to use some bio-materials (pig waste mixed with cassava peel bio-char) as stimulants for enhanced remediationRemediation of crude oilCrude oil contaminated soil. Following standard procedures the raw materials (soil, crude oilCrude oil, pig waste and cassava peel bio-char) were characterized. The experiment was designed using Response surface methodology (RSM) for two variables at five levels. Higher values of properties in the raw materials: pH, nitrogen, phosphorous and sodium, potassium and magnesium compared with the contaminated soil suggested their potential to facilitate contaminant degradation. Result of the amended soil showed that the composition of bio-stimulantsBio-stimulants used for remediationRemediation had significant effects on the total petroleum hydrocarbon content of the soil. The analysis revealed that the bio-stimulantsBio-stimulants used for this study have the potential to effect remediationRemediation of the hydrocarbon contaminated soils.

Ita E. Uwidia, Uzuazor O. Eyibara, Osalodion E. Uwidia

Composite Materials for Sustainable and Eco-Friendly Material Development and Application

Application Study of Fe-MOF Material for Fluoride Removal from Hydrometallurgy Waste Liquid

FluorideFluoride contamination in hydrometallurgy waste liquidWaste liquid is a primary environmental issue across the world, with health hazards such as dental and skeletal fluorosis. In this work, Fe-MOFFe-MOF synthesized by the solvothermal method was used as an adsorbent to remove fluorideFluoride from hydrometallurgyHydrometallurgy waste liquidWaste liquid. Different parameters including contact time, adsorbent dosage, solution pH and initial fluoride concentration were investigated synthetically. The adsorption of fluorideFluoride by Fe-MOF reached 43.732 mg/g when the contact time was 30 min, the adsorbent dosage was 200 mg/L, the solution pH was 6 and the initial fluoride concentration was 60 mg/L. The results revealed that Fe-MOFFe-MOF can effectively remove fluoride from the solution and has great application prospects in hydrometallurgyHydrometallurgy waste liquid treatment.

Wenjuan Wang, Yanfang Huang, Guihong Han
Detection and Mitigation of Radionuclides in the Environment: Toward a Clean Ecosystem

This research describes a straightforward approach to producing surface-engineered nanomaterialsNanomaterials for the detection and mitigation of radionuclides generated in nuclear facilities. A micelle forming surfactant ligand, namely cetyltrimethylammonium bromideCetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) (CTAB), was engineered on the surface of iron oxideIron oxide nanoparticles and explored for the removal of radioactive materials, such as pertechnetate (TcO4−), from aqueous environments. A series of analytical tools were employed to characterize the nanocomposite materials, such as SEM, EDS, UV-Vis spectroscopy, DLS, and PALS, and evaluated for their ability to capture a model analyte, perrhenate (ReO4−) ions. The iron oxideIron oxide magnetic nanoparticles retain their magnetic properties after surface functionalization and can be easily manipulated and collected with a magnet. Therefore, these nanocomposite materials can be used to remotely remediate environments by scavenging and collecting radionuclide species at the desired location.

Simona E. Hunyadi Murph, Cristian Maldonado-Figueroa
Effect of Waste Glass and Waste Tyre on the Workability and Strength of Concrete

Waste glassWaste glass (WG) and waste tyreWaste Tyre (WT) were processed into aggregates of 4.75 mm and 19.00 mm. Using volume mix design (BS5328:Part 2:1991), 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% partial replacements of both fine and coarse aggregates were used to cast Grade 25 concrete and cured for 28 days. Vebe, compressive strengthStrength, tensile strength, and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests were conducted. Results show that vebe consistometer time falls within the specified time range of 30–300 s. Compressive strengthStrength decreases with an increase in WG and WT as 5% replacement has 27.69 N/mm2. A tensile strengthStrength of 2.39 N/mm2 which is within the control of 2.51 N/mm2 and an ultrasonic pulse velocity of 3900 m/s show better conductivity. This study reveals that concrete with aggregates of WG and WT has improved workabilityWorkability with a lowered strengthStrength which is within acceptable standards making it an alternative building material.

O. S. Olasehinde, A. D. Garkida, C. M. Gonah, Y. D. Amartey
Facile Ball-Milling Synthesis of Cellulosic Metal Oxide Composite for Removal of Tetracycline Antibiotic from Aqueous Solution

Ethyl cellulose-titanium dioxide (EC-TiO2) composite was synthesized by ball-milling strategy for the first time. XRD technique was applied for characterizing the crystalline structure of the compositeComposites. Adsorption experiments were performed to measure the adsorption efficiency of EC-TiO2 and various kinetic models were used to describe the mass transfer of the adsorption process. Pseudo-second order kinetic model was fitted kinetic results. The effect of initial concentration was studied and the adsorption character was explained by using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. In addition, the effects of pH and temperature on adsorption were also investigated. The adsorption process complied with the Langmuir model and the calculated maximum adsorption capacity was 23.26 mg/g.

Nergiz Kanmaz, Mehmet Buğdaycı, Pelin Demirçivi
Fiber-Reinforced Polymeric Composites for Low-Carbon Construction Applications

Buildings consume nearly half of the energy produced globally and are built with highly energy-intensive materials. An urgent global sustainability challenge in developing an innovative, low-carbon constructionConstruction material is the lack of effort that takes advantage of polymerPolymer material technologies, clean energy, high-fidelity multi-physicsMultiphysics models, and life cycle assessment tools. The specific goals and corresponding methods are: (1) design polymerPolymer-based architectural compositesComposite that last long, are safe, and have lower environmental impact compared to conventional building materials. (2) Develop a physics-based model for leveraging the sustainability of new materials in the process of material design and manufacturing, while guaranteeing long-term building safety under environmental aging.

Zhiye Li, Michael Lepech
Nanocomposite Materials for Accelerating Decarbonization

DecarbonizationDecarbonization is demonstrated by catalytic conversion of CO2 to fuel by means of exposure of cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantumCadmium selenide-titania nanocatalysts dots-titania (TiO2) nanophotocatalystsNano-photocatalysts to sunlight illumination. The primary products resulted from this chemical reactions are methanol, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen after several hours of exposure to sun light. The overall CO2 conversionCO2 conversion efficiency of such quantum dot-titania nanostructures was compared with that of pure TiO2 nanorod array photocatalyst. Data shows an improved conversion efficiency when composite quantum dot-titania nanostructures were used in comparison with titania nanophotocatalystsNano-photocatalysts. It is postulated that this is due to the additional absorbance of visible light by the quantum dots and generation of additional charge separation at the CdSe-TiO2 interfaces. The conversion efficiency of such an artificial photosynthesis process remains to be optimized for practical applications.

Simona E. Hunyadi Murph, Henry Sessions Jr.
New Eco-Friendly Inorganic Polymeric Materials for the Passive Fire Protection of Structures

Passive fire protection of structures is of great importance nowadays. Several fires that broke out in buildings and other structures like tunnels, worldwide, resulted in the destruction of structures and more importantly, in the loss of human lives. However, the high cost of commercial fire-resistant products for construction often makes their application prohibitive. This paper deals with the development of new fire-resistant inorganic polymersInorganic polymers (or geopolymers) based on recycled construction and demolition ceramic wastes, through the geopolymerization technology, which achieves a drastic reduction of energy use and CO2 emissions, in comparison to the production technologies currently used for commercial fire-resistant products. The developed materials were tested at high temperatures, which simulated the anticipated temperatures developed in a fire case and their mechanical and physical properties were evaluated. According to the results, the developed geopolymers kept their form and shape up to 1050 °C, appearing with only negligible surface cracks, without phenomena of apparent deformation or creeping. The residual compressive strength of the developed materials ranged from 20 to 38 MPa, while their density was measured from 1430 to 1570 kg/cm3, and their mass loss in between 4 and 10%, after their thermal testing at 1050 °C. Based on the findings of this study, the new materials are promising for the passive fire protection of buildings and constructions in comparison with conventional materials currently used in such applications.

Ponsian M. Robert, Ioanna P. Giannopoulou, Pericles Savva, Konstantinos-Miltiades Sakkas, Michael F. Petrou, Demetris Nicolaides
Optimization of Post-consumer Glass and Sawdust Reinforced Polyester Hybrid Composites by Mixture Design Analysis

D-Optimal Mixture experiment was used to formulate an optimum composition of the post-consumer glassPost-consumer glass (PCG) and sawdustSawdust (SD) reinforced polyester (UPR) hybrid compositeComposites using the resin casting technique. A total of 16 runs comprising of 6 required model points, 5 Lack of fit points, and 5 replicate points were formed with a particle range of 0.5–0.25 mm using Design Expert13 software. Four response parameters were investigated, namely; tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength, and hardness. ANOVA was used to statistically analyse and optimize the responses. Run 11 (SD/13, PCG/27, UPR/60) was reported as the optimum composition with an impact strength of 0.21 kJ/m−2, hardness value of 74.12 HV, tensile strength of 14.64 MPa, and flexural strength of 20.35 MPa. ANOVA reported that the cubic model suited best for both tensile and flexural strength, quadratic and special quartic models for impact strength with quadratic model been the best for hardness test. Generally, tensile and flexural strength decreased with an increase in reinforcements. The impact strength was highly improved with the hybrid composition. The study reported good hardness values for all samples with design predictions and actual values in agreement.

Kator Jeff Jomboh, Adele Dzikwi Garkida, Emmanuel Majiyebo Alemaka, Mohammed Kabir Yakubu, Vershima Cephas Alkali, Wilson Uzochukwu Eze
Solvent-Free Ball-Milling Synthesis of BaO Modified Zeolite for Tetracycline Adsorption

Removal of pollutants requires cost-effective technologies, adsorption is known to be a simple and effective technique for wastewater treatment, and the success of the technique largely depends on the development of an efficient adsorbent. Herein, BaO-zeolite composite was synthesized by solvent-free ball-milling method for removal of tetracycline (TC) from water. The crystalline structure of the compositeComposites was analyzed and explained by XRD. Adsorption studies were conducted to analyze the effect of different parameters on TC removal, such as adsorbent dosage, time effect and temperature. Also, kinetic data revealed that TC adsorption was well described by pseudo-second order kinetic model and maximum adsorption capacity was found 71.4 mg g−1.

Pelin Demircivi, Nergiz Kanmaz, Mehmet Bugdayci
Stain Resistant of Building Textured Coatings Developed from Recycled Glass

Yellow, red, blue, and black texture coating was produced from waste glassWaste-Glass recycling. Coatings were evaluated for viscosity (ASTM D4741) and specific gravity (ASTM D854), applied to primed surface, and dried for seven days at 23 ± 2 °C. Directional reflectance (A1) was measured at 45°. Soilant was applied uniformly to the coatings, dried within 16-24 h at 23 ± 2 °C, and then directional reflectance (A2) was measured again. Washability (ASTM D3450) and abrasion (ASTM D4060) tests were conducted. The results shows a viscosity of 35 ps and a specific gravity of 1.26, which is in line with 40 ± 0.5 ps and 1–1.5 specific gravity standard. Also, a washability of 60.6–76.0% (non-abrasive scrubs) and 75.8–95.0% (abrasive scrubs) reflectance recovery rate and a abrasion of 0.2 g which is in line with 4–97% reflectance recovery and 4 ± 0.5 g abrasion standards were recorded. The ease of removing stain that is close to 100% reflectance recovery rate shows that the coatings are stain resistantCoatings and Stain Resistant.

Andrew Ojonugwa Adejo, Bidemi Omowunmi Elesho, Adele Dzikwi Garkida
Study on the Removal of Cr(VI) Ions by Fe-MOF from Simulated Hydrometallurgy Wastewater

Large amounts of wastewater containing chromium ions at low concentrations are frequently generated during the hydrometallurgy process, posing serious threats to the environment. Hence, the development of adsorbents with a strong affinity for chromium ion removal is a critical challenge. In this work, Fe-MOF was prepared by a hydrothermal method and then used as an adsorbent to remove chromium ions from simulated hydrometallurgy wastewater. The effects of solution pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time on the removal efficiencies of Cr(VI) ions were investigated synthetically, and the optimal adsorptionAdsorption conditions were obtained. The results indicated that Fe-MOFFe-MOF material could realize the effective removal of Cr(VI) ions from hydrometallurgy wastewater. The optimum adsorptionAdsorption efficiency of Cr(VI) ions reached 63.47% when the pH was 4 and the contact time was 1 h. Therefore, it has potential applications in hydrometallurgy wastewater purification.

Junpeng Zuo, Wenjuan Wang, Yanfang Huang, Guihong Han
Weather Aged Fique Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Composite: Impact Property Analysis

Natural materials have become quite common in recent years and are a major concern of the scientific community. In this sense, lignocellulosic fibers as substitutes for various synthetic reinforcements in polymer composites have shown great potential for technological applications. In particular, the applicability designated in this work are ballistic panels in which reliability, weight reduction, cost reduction and material sources are critical points for evaluation. Thus, the present work aimed to evaluate the impact energy of the epoxy matrix composite reinforced with 40 vol% of fique fabricFique fabric in the natural agingAging materials condition for 2,160 h (90 days). As main results, a significant degradation by photo-oxidative process was observed, as well as the appearance of micropores with concave shape and epoxy matrix microcracks. The energy absorption decreased by ~53% for Charpy test and ~12% for Izod test after the weathering of 2,160 h compared to the non-aged composite. Weibull shape parameter increased after the aging, indication of a premature failure issue. Different behavior between the Charpy and Izod tests was pointed out by ANOVA, suggesting the interference of sample size and exposure area.

Michelle Souza Oliveira, Fernanda Santos da Luz, Artur Camposo Pereira, Noan Tonini Simonassi, Lucio Fabio Cassiano Nascimento, Sergio Neves Monteiro

Computational Thermodynamics and Kinetics

Effect of Different Desulfurizers on Hot Metal Pretreatment

In the process of hot metal pretreatment desulfurization, it is necessary to add desulfurizerDesulfurizer to promote the desulfurization reaction. At the same time, as the key to measure the sulfur content in molten iron, the study of sulfur distribution ratio is of great significance to achieve the goal of desulfurization. Based on the theoretical sulfur ratio of desulfurization molecules and the theoretical sulfur ratio of ionsIon theoretical sulfur ratio, this paper analyzes the factors affecting the sulfur content in molten iron, and concludes that the suitable desulfurization conditions are high temperature, low oxygen level and high oxygen anion concentration. Thermodynamic analysis and related introduction of common desulfurization are carried out, and it is pointed out that CaO–Mg composite desulfurizerDesulfurizer has the highest removal efficiency and the lowest consumption, which is conducive to desulfurization.

Liang Tian, Wufeng Jiang, Suju Hao, Yuzhu Zhang
Modeling of Slag Modification on Inclusions in 54SiCr6 Spring Steel

A kinetic model of slag-steel-inclusion reactions in 54SiCr6 spring steelSpring steel was established to predict the effect of slag composition on inclusions using FactSage Macro Processing. The dissolved aluminum, total oxygen, and inclusionInclusion composition with varying slags were calculated using the current model. The predicted results are in accordance with the lab-scale experimental ones. Furthermore, the effect of refining slag on the transformation of inclusions was predicted. For 54SiCr6 spring steelSpring steel during slag modificationSlag modification process, the composition of CaO–SiO2–Al2O3–5%CaF2 slag was optimized to suppress the Al pick-up from top slag and promote the formation of low-melting-point inclusionsInclusion in molten steel.

Xuefeng Bai, Yanhui Sun, Huibin Wu

Deformation-Induced Microstructural Evolution During Solid Phase Processing: Experimental and Computational Studies

Analysis of Coarse Crystal Defect During Rolling of 3J1A Alloy

In this study, the stainless steel 3J1A alloy bar rolling coarse grain defects were analyzed. The coarse grain defect area is located in the edge of the alloy bar position; coarse grain level of 3.5 does not meet the production contract requirements of grade 6 above uniform organization requirements. The original billet composition, rolling temperatureRolling temperature, rolling deformationRolling deformation, heat treatment temperature, and other factors on the microstructure were analyzed. The causes of coarse grain defects in the rolling process were identified and corresponding improvement measures were proposed. The results show that the cause of coarse grain defects is the lack of deformation of coarse grains during the rolling process, and the chance of coarse grain defects is reduced by subsequent heat treatment rolling or heat treatment before rolling. Suitable hot working process parameters for 3J1A3J1A stainless steel are recommended, i.e., a suitable rolling temperatureRolling temperature of 1050 °C and a suitable solid solution treatment temperature of 950 °C for the rolled bar under fixed deformation conditions, which provides a technical reference for the rolling of subsequent alloy bars.

Jing Jianfa, Wang Shuai, Chen Feng, Yang Lingzhi, Fu Baoquan

Electrical Steels

Constitutive Modelling of High-Temperature Flow Behavior of a Non-oriented Electrical Steel with 3.2 wt% Si

Hot rolling is an indispensable thermomechanical processing step in the manufacturing of electrical steel sheets, which plays a vital role in forming the final microstructure and texture of the steel, hence affecting the final magnetic properties. The strain rate, the amount of strain, and the deformation temperature are important operational parameters that not only influence the hot rolling microstructure and texture, but also affect the rolling operations since the material behaves differently under different deformation conditions and requires appropriate control of the rolling forces and speeds. These are important operational parameters to be determined during electrical steel production but have not yet been paid close attention to in electrical steel research. In this study, hot compression tests were performed on a non-oriented electrical steelNon-oriented electrical steel containing 3.2 wt% Si. The samples were deformed up to a true strain of 0.7 at strain rates varying between 0.01 and 1 s−1, and temperatures ranging from 850 to 1050 °C. The experimental stress–strain data was fitted using a number of constitutive modelsConstitutive modelling, e.g., Zener–Hollomon, Johnson–Cook, and Hensel–Spittel. The accuracy of each model with varying strain, strain rates, and temperatures was evaluated using the correlation coefficient (R) and average absolute relative error (AARE). The Hensel–Spittel model is found to give the best fitting for most of the conditions. The results may be used to determine the hot rolling operation parameters during the production of non-oriented electrical steelNon-oriented electrical steel with 3.2 wt% Si.

Gyanaranjan Mishra, Kanwal Chadha, Youliang He, Clodualdo Aranas
Effect of Melt Superheat on Microstructure and Texture of Non-oriented Electrical Steel Sheet Produced by the Ultra-Thin Strip Casting

As a new technology, the ultra-thin strip castingUltra-thin strip casting technology has inherent advantages in the production of non-oriented silicon steel, with excellent initial textureTexture and a short process. The effect of melt superheatMelt superheat on the texture and microstructureMicrostructure of 3.5% non-oriented silicon steel produced by the ultra-thin strip was studied. The experimental results showed that the superheat significantly affects the microstructure and textureTexture. With the increase of superheat, the equiaxed crystal microstructure decreased and the columnar crystal microstructure increased. And a strong {100} 〈uvw〉 texture was formed. The results were of great significance for controlling the textureTexture and microstructureMicrostructure by adjusting the melt superheatMelt superheat in the process of non-oriented silicon steel strip casting.

Lulu Song, Wanlin Wang, Peisheng Lyu, Huhu Wang, Xueying Lyu, Yunli Zhang
Effect of Natural Deposited Films on Interfacial Heat Transfer During Sub-rapid Solidification of Non-oriented Electrical Steel

As an emerging process, the ultra-thin strip castingUltra-thin strip casting has significant advantages in the production of non-oriented electrical steelNon-oriented electrical steel with a short process flow. However, there is a problem of poor surface quality of casting product, which is significantly influenced by the interfacial heat transferInterfacial heat transfer. During the production of ultra-thin strip castingUltra-thin strip casting, natural deposition films are deposited while the steel solidifies on the water-cooled copper rolls. The deposited films between the molten steel and the rolls significantly affect the interfacial heat transferInterfacial heat transfer. In this study, the copper substrate used for the experiments was modified to make them more accurate. The effect of naturally deposited filmsNaturally deposited film on the interfacial heat transferInterfacial heat transfer during sub-rapid solidification of non-oriented electrical steelNon-oriented electrical steel was investigated by means of the droplet solidification technique. On the basis of the temperature data collected by one pair of high-sensitivity thermocouples, the heat flux are calculated by the Inverse Heat Conduction Program (IHCP). It was found that the heat flux of the high-silicon steel showed a trend of decreasing, then increasing and finally decreasing as the number of depositions increased.

Yunli Zhang, Wanlin Wang, Peisheng Lyu, Huihui Wang, Xueying Lyu, Lulu Song
Effects of Normalization Process on Microstructure and Texture of Non-oriented Electrical Steel Produced by Ultra-Thin Strip Casting

The ultra-thin strip castingUltra-thin strip casting technology has unique advantages in the production of non-oriented electrical steels with strong λ-fiber textureTexture. This article looked at non-oriented electrical steel with 2.43 wt% Si. Dip tester was used to simulate strip casting process for obtaining the electrical steel cast strip, and then hot rolling was performed at various reduction rates. Effects of normalizingNormalizing temperatures and soaking time on microstructure and textureTexture of electrical steel samples were investigated across full thickness. The results show that the grain size changes little, and the normalized texture is similar to that of the hot-rolled sheet, but the normalization can enhance the strength of the λ-fiber textureTexture and improves magnetic properties. In addition, increasing soaking time is beneficial to the nucleation and growth of recrystallized grains, which has less effect compared to normalization temperature.

Huihui Wang, Wanlin Wang, Hualong Li, Peisheng Lyu, Shengjie Wu, Xueying Lyu, Lulu Song, Yunli Zhang
The Role of Temper Rolling and Annealing on the Magnetic Property Improvement of a Low Si Non-oriented Electrical Steel

Temper rollingTemper rolling is a light cold deformation process (normally under tension, with less than ~10% thickness reduction) applied to annealed non-oriented electrical steelNon-oriented electrical steel sheets to improve the surface quality of the final product. The small plastic deformation and the subsequent annealingAnnealing, however, have a considerable effect on the magnetic propertiesMagnetic properties of electrical steels. This is because the strain introduced in the temper rollingTemper rolling process changes the distribution of the stored energy in grains with different orientations, which significantly affects the grain growth and textureTexture development during final annealingAnnealing, thus influencing the magnetic propertiesMagnetic properties. In this study, a low Si non-oriented electrical steelNon-oriented electrical steel was hot rolled, cold rolled, and batch annealed to produce 0.5-mm-thick sheets. Temper rolling (~6% reduction) was then applied to the annealed sheets and annealed again at different temperatures (500–900 °C) for a fixed time (2 h) or at a fixed temperature (800 °C) for different times (0.5–24 h). It was found that temper rollingTemper rolling and annealing could significantly improve the magnetic properties, i.e., decreasing the core loss by up to ~22% and increasing the relative peak permeability by up to 68% at 1.5 T and 60 Hz, as compared to that without temper rolling. The improvement of magnetic propertiesMagnetic properties was correlated to the changes in microstructure and textureTexture induced during the temper rollingTemper rolling and final annealingAnnealing processes.

Youliang He, Tihe Zhou, Haden Lee, Chad Cathcart, Peter Badgley

Electronic Packaging and Interconnection

Dynamic Material Characterization Through In-Situ Electrical Resistivity Measurements of High Temperature Transient Liquid Phase Sinter Alloys

As part of the effort to implement additive manufacturing techniques into the world of power electronics devices and materials that can operate at harsh environments, researchers and industry must mitigate multi-level challenges that span processing techniques, manufacturing scaling, manufacturing mobility, cost reduction, optimal material properties, and reliable material performance. This study presents a new method to dynamically test the electrical properties of a given solder alloy. The method is capable of testing the electrical properties from the moment in which the solder is pasty and mixed with multiple organics, to the point where the organics are evaporated and reacted, and the remaining material is only diffused metal powder. This new testing method allows to quantify multiple effects such as organic–metallic interactions, chemical effects, metallurgical effects, and in the context of additive manufacturingAdditive Manufacturing, this testing method provides a new design tool for faster processing, temperature profiles designs, and paste formulation design.

G. Nave, P. McCluskey
Effects of Diameter on Copper Pillar with Solder Cap Interconnections During Reflow Soldering Process

Recently, the copper pillar with solder cap interconnection has been introduced as an alternative for the solder bump interconnection to tackle the limitations, such as the collapsing nature of the solder bump and larger pitch size. This paper presents an effective simulation tool to evaluate the effects of different diameters of the copper pillar with solder capCopper pillar with solder cap during the reflow soldering process. A three-dimensional numerical approach is used to investigate the thermal behavior of the copper pillar with solder caps with different diameters. The interconnection bump diameters are 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 μm. The model is developed and meshed using the Computational Fluid DynamicsComputational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The temperature distributions of the copper pillar with solder capsCopper pillar with solder cap with different diameters during the reflow soldering process are predicted. The paper aims to provide an understanding of the effect of diameters on the temperature distribution of copper pillars with solder caps during reflow soldering.

Jing Rou Lee, Mohd Sharizal Abdul Aziz, Mohd Arif Anuar Mohd Salleh, Chu Yee Khor, Mohammad Hafifi Hafiz Ishak
The Effect of Grain Boundary Type on Void Formation in a Through Silicon Via (TSV)

In the 3D IC packaging technology, to achieve mechanical and electrical interconnection in the vertical direction, the chips are stacked by Through Silicon ViasThrough-Silicon-Vias (TSV) (TSV). As the fundamental structure of 3D IC packaging, TSV reliability plays a critical role in the service life of the chip. Void nucleationVoid nucleation is considered the initial phase of various failure mechanisms in TSVs. Void nucleationVoid nucleation is a complex process to study experimentally and there are conflicting views on the impact of crystallographic textures and type of grain boundary on void formation. Through Molecular Dynamics (MD)Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, in-situ analysis of atomic arrangement in specially designed bicrystals of copperCopper (the main material of TSVThrough-Silicon-Vias (TSV)) is carried out for various misorientation tilt angles with crystallographic misorientation axes of <100> in the tilt grain boundaryTilt grain boundary in order to systematically study the effect of texture and detect the initial phase of void nucleationVoid nucleation. The effect of grain orientations and grain boundary characteristics on vacancy diffusion, which leads to void nucleationVoid nucleation, is investigated, and it is concluded that the tilt angles of 11.421 and 36.87° have the lowest and highest resistance toward void nucleationVoid nucleation, respectively.

Armin Shashaani, Panthea Sepehrband

Environmental Degradation of Multiple Principal Component Materials

High Temperature Oxidation of CoNiFeMnCr High Entropy Alloys Reinforced by MC-Carbides

CoNiFeMnCr alloys are possibly alternative solutions to cast cobalt or nickel superalloys able for service at 1000 °C and beyond. The partial substitution of Co and Ni by Fe and Mn allow lower dependence on the Co and Ni critical elements. In this work, equimolar CoNiFeMnCr alloys without or with added carbon and tantalum or hafnium were elaborated by high-frequency induction melting under inert atmosphere. Script-like eutectic TaC or HfC were obtained in the grain boundaries of the concerned alloys, forming a strengthening carbides network. Oxidation tests were carried out in air at 1000 °C and at 1100 °C for 50 h. The oxide scale externally formed is made of (Cr,Mn)2O3. Internal oxidation led to CrTaO4 or HfO2 oxides. Numerous deep oxidation penetrations were noted for the CoNiFeMnCr alloy while the MC-containing alloys were not affected by this phenomenon, evidencing a possible beneficial influence of the presence of the carbides on the oxidation behavior.

Patrice Berthod

Environmentally Assisted Cracking: Theory and Practice

Hydrogen Effects on Mechanical and Toughness Properties of Pipeline Steels

This paper reviews commonly used hydrogen charging methods and effects of hydrogen on Charpy toughnessToughness. Preliminary ex-situ Charpy testsCharpy test of electrolytically pre-charged specimens of three pipe steels were performed at room temperature. The gaseous hydrogen charging method is directly applicable to hydrogen pipelines but the lack of testing capability has limited its utilizations in R&D and qualification. The electrolytic charging method can be convenient and appropriate for investigating the effects of hydrogen especially if correlations between current density or potential and gaseous pressure are established. Preliminary experimental results have shown that the Charpy absorbed energy (CVN) of the electrolytically pre-charged specimens were lower than those of uncharged specimens by 8–20% for the steels investigated. Based on the load–deflection curves, the effects of hydrogen on Charpy toughnessToughness were to facilitate fracture initiation from the notch and accelerate fracture propagation after fracture initiation. In-situ Charpy and fracture toughnessToughness testing at slow rates would be more suitable for pipeline applications than impact testing.

Xin Pang, Su Xu
Improvement of Pitting Corrosion Resistance of 304 Stainless Steel with Lanthanum Addition

In the current study, inclusionsInclusions and the pitting corrosion resistancePitting corrosion resistance of 304 stainless steelsStainless steel with and without lanthanumLanthanum addition were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope attached with an energy dispersive spectrum and an anodic potentiodynamic polarization test in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. Inclusions of (Mn, Cr, Si, Al, Ca)-oxides were modified to (La, Al, Si)-oxides in the stainless steel by the addition of lanthanumLanthanum. The number density and area fraction of oxide inclusions increased from 8.6 mm−2 and 165 ppm to 29.9 mm−2 and 153.5 ppm, respectively, while those of pure MnS decreased from 36.9 mm−2 and 162.9 ppm to 22.6 mm−2 and 101.7 ppm, respectively. Due to the variation in the chemical composition of oxide inclusionsInclusions and the decrease in the amount of MnS, the potential of pitting corrosion was increased from 0.167 VSCE to 0.303 VSCE.

Qiang Ren, Lifeng Zhang
Influence of High-Temperature Tempering Treatment on Hydrogen Diffusion Behavior in X80 Pipeline Steel Containing Different Vanadium Contents

The influence of before and after high-temperature temperingHigh-temperature tempering treatment on hydrogen diffusionHydrogen diffusion behavior in X80 pipeline steelPipeline steel containing different vanadium contents has been studied through hydrogen permeation test. The results show that with the increase of vanadium content in steels, the hydrogen diffusion coefficient decreases because of the increase of precipitatesPrecipitates and low angle grain boundariesGrain boundaries (LAGBs) and special grain boundaries (special GBs). The high-temperature temperingHigh-temperature tempering treatment promotes the formation of precipitates, but reduces the number of LAGBs and special GBs. The binding and trap energies of LAGBs and special GBs with hydrogen atoms are much lower than that of precipitatesPrecipitates in steels, and thus the hydrogen diffusionHydrogen diffusion coefficient in high-temperature temperingHigh-temperature tempering samples is lower, which decreases the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in high-temperature temperingHigh-temperature tempering samples.

Wensen Cheng, Bo Song, Jinghong Mao
Liquid Metal Embrittlement Behavior of Dual-Phase Steels: The Influence of Microstructure and Strain Rate

This study describes the liquid metal embrittlementLiquid Metal Embrittlement (LME) of dual-phase steels and its relationship with the steel microstructure. These steels are zinc coated for corrosion protection, but during welding, they can experience LMELiquid Metal Embrittlement. The LME response was studied by hot ductility testing using a Gleeble thermomechanical simulator. The DP1000HD steel exhibited severe LME susceptibility; in contrast, DP800 steel was immune to LME. The DP1200LY steel had a LMELiquid Metal Embrittlement response in between these two steels. The LME severity was temperature-dependent and was limited to a range of temperatures, 750–900 °C. SEM-based fractography showed that when LME occurred, it advanced in an intergranular fashion. Environmental fracture, such as LME, is generally strain rate sensitive, and we will discuss the impact of strain rate on the LMELiquid Metal Embrittlement fracture over a range of 10–3 to 10 s−1. Detailed microscopic investigation of the parent and retained austenite using EBSD was used to link the steel microstructure to its LME response.

Pallavi Pant, B. Hilpert, H. Schubert, L. N. Brewer

Fatigue in Materials: Fundamentals, Multiscale Characterizations, and Computational Modeling

Characterization of Low-Cycle Fatigue Deformation Behavior at RT/200 °C of FeMnAlC Lightweight Steel for Low-Pressure Turbine Blade

In this study, low-cycle fatigueLow-cycle fatigue tests were performed at room temperature/200 °C in total strain range, Δεt = 0.6–2.0% on lightweight steelLightweight steel for low-pressure turbine blade application. The tensile results of Fe–22Mn–8Al–0.9C lightweight steelLightweight steel that show good tensile properties, yield strength and tensile strength were respectively 818 MPa and 1051 MPa, and elongation was 46%. And during low-cycle fatigueLow-cycle fatigue, cyclic softening occurred at room temperature and 100 °C, whereas cyclic hardeningCyclic hardening and Dynamic strain aging occurred at 200 °C in all the investigated total strain ranges, Δεt = 0.6–2.0%. In addition, the serrated flows were observed in the hysteresis loop at 200 °C which is occurred cyclic hardening. However, serrated flows were not observed at RT and 100 °C which is occurred cyclic softening. As a result of TEM observation, the multi-directional slip band and wavy dislocations were observed in the low-cycle fatigueLow-cycle fatigue at RT and 200 °C. However, in the low-cycle fatigue at 200 °C, more frequent wavy dislocations were observed. It seems to be caused by the carbon atoms with a faster diffusion rate effectively fixed dislocations which leads to dynamic strain agingCyclic hardening and Dynamic strain aging and high density of dislocation and resulted in cyclic hardening.

Eui-Seok Ko, Chi-Won Kim, Seong-Jun Park, Hyun-Uk Hong
Experimental Study on the Influence of Surface Carbon Content on Crack Initiation for 20Cr2Ni4A Steel

20Cr2Ni4A20Cr2Ni4A steel is a kind of low-carbon steel mainly used in manufacturing heavy-duty transmission gears. The carburizing and quenching process is a common strengthening method for gears to get the fine mechanical properties. For the reason of quenching deformation, grinding is used to improve tooth surface accuracy, leading to uneven distribution of surface carbon concentration. In this paper, the different carburizing processes are applied for the 20Cr2Ni4A20Cr2Ni4A samples. Different surface carbon contentSurface carbon content is obtained by grinding with different depths. Three-point bending fatigue test is conducted to study the relationship between crack initiation and surface carbon concentration. The crack initiationCrack initiation and propagation process is monitored by industrial cameras and strain gauges. The number of cycles of crack initiationCrack initiation is positively correlated with the surface carbon content within the range of 1%. And the carbide particles are the main fatigue source.

Yingtao Zhang, Benxiang Gong, Yunpeng Guo, Gang Wang, Xiulin Ji
Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Thermal Evolution of Voids in Cu Bulk and Grain Boundaries

The formation of voids in fcc metals is thought to result from the accumulation of vacancies, although the exact mechanisms underlying their formation, stabilization, and evolution remain unknown. Due to the stabilizing effect of H on voids, H embrittlement is regarded as a primary cause of self-induced voiding (SIV). In the present study, we looked into how voids evolve/decay in the bulk and at the grain boundaries of Cu during thermal annealing molecular dynamics simulations up to 800 K. At temperatures above 500 K, voids of up to 100 vacancies were found to totally dissolve. H was shown to have a stabilizing effect in the voids, with voids withstanding temperatures close to 750 K without dissociating. This was observed both in the bulk and at grain boundaries.

Vasileios Fotopoulos, Corey S. O’Hern, Alexander L. Shluger

Frontiers in Solidification: An MPMD Symposium Honoring Jonathan A. Dantzig

Design and Technology Research of Copper Ingot Mold for Water-Cooled Mold

According to the shortcomings of the conventional ingot mold, inspired by the continuous castingCasting mold, the process design of the ingot mold size and follow-up extrusion of the water-cooled moldWater-Cooled Mold is carried out by using the AnyCastingCasting castingCasting simulation software, and the production equipment of the water-cooled moldWater-Cooled Mold is developed, which has the advantages of short production cycle, low investment cost of the ingot mold, improvement of on-site environment, high rolling yield, and simple production process. It ensures that the extra-thick steel plate has the characteristics of light internal segregationSegregation, excellent internal quality, uniform performance, and good reproducibility.

Zhenglei Tang, Fuming Wang, Ran Guo, Zheng Yaxu, Shaopu Xu, Hongyang Li
Design of Light Wind Turbine Parts by Simulation-Based Machine Learning

The steady increase in the size and power of modern wind turbinesWind turbine has led to the need to reduce the weight of their castings. Topology optimizationTopology optimization leads to thinner parts that are lighter and solidify faster. Faster solidification often leads to better local material properties, which in turn enable further size reductions. By integrating casting simulationCasting simulation with property prediction into topology optimizationTopology optimization, this link between size and properties can be used to design lighter parts. To achieve this goal, multiphase casting simulationCasting simulation is combined with a microscopic diffusion-driven growth model for eutectic grains in nodular cast iron to calculate microstructure parameters and estimate local material properties of wind turbineWind turbine components. Based on many precomputed simulation data, a machine learningMachine learning algorithm is trained to predict grain structure parameters and mechanical properties. First promising results of this simulation-based machine learningMachine learning (SMiLe) approach are reported and compared with simulation and experimental results.

Y. Bami, C. Huang, E. Subasic, F. Weber, J. Zimmermann, V. Züch, J. Jakumeit
Rationalization of the Modelling of Stress and Strain Evolution in Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing—A Perspective from a Background in the Simulation of Casting Processes

There has been a tremendous body of work recently appearing in the literature focused on Additive ManufacturingAdditive Manufacturing (AM) (AM) including experimental-based investigations, numerical investigations, and combinations of the two. These studies generally focus on understanding and mitigating defect generation to improve product quality while minimizing cost. One defect of concern is residual component distortion and stress. In this paper, a strategy is proposed for developing a computationally efficient approach to predict residual stressesResidual Stress and distortion in a component manufactured using the Electron Beam Powder Bed FusionElectron Beam Powder Bed Fusion (EB-PBF) (EB-PBF) process. The major challenges in developing an accurate model are discussed with reference to the lessons learned in modelling thermal stress generation and in-elastic strain accumulation in casting processes. Key areas requiring careful consideration include the high temperature constitutive and thermal strain behaviour as the material transitions from powder, through a semi-solid state, to a fully liquid, and finally to solid material.

Pegah Pourabdollah, Farhad Rahimi, Asmita Chakraborty, Farzaneh Farhang Mehr, Daan Maijer, Steve Cockcroft

Functional Nanomaterials 2023

Semiconductor Nanomaterials and 3D Systems

Here we summarize a collection of advances that provides broad access to diverse classes of three-dimensionalThree dimensional (3D) architectures in advanced materials, including semiconductorSemiconductor nanomaterialsNanomaterials, with characteristic dimensions that range from nanometers to centimeters and areas that can span square centimeters or more. Experimental and theoretical studies demonstrate the capabilities in a diversity of structures with various forms and functions. The collective results establish unique possibilities for unusual classes of 3DThree dimensional microsystems technologies—as demonstrated in examples ranging from electronic microfliers, to sub-millimeter scale robots, and mesoscale biointerfaces.

J. A. Rogers

High Performance Steels

Effect of MgO, Ti2O3, and Al2O3 Inclusions on the Formation of Manganese-Depleted Zones Through First-Principles Calculation

Using inclusions with a certain composite, which act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for intragranular acicular ferriteFerrite (IAF), has been acknowledged as an effective way for grain refinement. In this study, we investigated the strength of interaction between Mn solute atoms and different oxide inclusionsOxide inclusions (such as MgO, Ti2O3, and Al2O3) experimentally and using first-principles calculationsFirst-principles calculation, to identify the ability that oxides that can lead to the formation of local Mn-depleted zones (MDZ) promoting the nucleation of intragranular ferriteFerrite. The calculated results show that Ti2O3 are easy, MgO are moderately easy, and Al2O3 are invalid to form Mn-doped inclusions. Furthermore, the experimental results confirm that a wide MDZ appear at Ti2O3–steelSteels interface, which effectively induces the nucleation of ferriteFerrite.

Er-kang Liu, Qi Wang, Chen-yu Ma, Zhi-hong Guo, Ya-xu Zheng, Li-guang Zhu
Microstructure and Property Uniformity of 07MnNiMoDR Low Carbon Bainitic Steel Plate

Impact toughness stability has always been an important issue in the production of low carbon bainitic steelLow carbon bainitic steel plate. In this paper, the microstructureMicrostructure uniformity of 07MnNiMoDR low carbon bainitic steelLow carbon bainitic steel plate in the width and thickness directions was studied. The results show that the grain size near the surface in the thickness direction of the steel plate is smaller and the hardness is lower; the grain size at the center thickness is larger, and the hardness is higher due to the segregationSegregation of carbon. In addition to the structure and hardness, there are also large fluctuations in the chemical composition along the width direction. The segregationSegregation elements at 1/2 of the thickness of the tempered steel plate are mainly carbon, sulfur, manganese, niobium, etc. They exist in the form of MnS and NbC compounds, which significantly increases the probability of intergranular fracture during the impact process.

Xiaoqing Zhou, Li Shi, Ruihao Zhang, Sheng Liu, Hongpo Wang
Mechanical Properties and Microstructures Development of Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) Steels During Galvannealing Process

Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) steels are regarded as one of the promising candidates for 3rd generation advanced high strength steels (AHSSs) for their lean alloy elements and excellent mechanical properties. Carbon partitioning from the quenched martensite to the retained austeniteRetained austenite during annealing is believed as a key process for Q&P steelQ&P steel mass production. However, galvannealingGalvannealing (GA) process of Q&P steels is quite challenging. The mechanical property of Q&P steels tends to degrade when they are galvanized via the traditional GA process because the heat cycle in this process is unfavorable for carbon partitioning. In the present work, we applied various modified GA heat cycles to two grades of Q&P steel, studied the effects of the GA process on the tensile properties and microstructures of the samples, and proposed optimal GA heat cycles for both grades of Q&P steels. It is found that high alloying temperature in GAGalvannealing process promotes carbide precipitation and retained austeniteRetained austenite decomposition, and is the main reason for mechanical properties degradation of galvannealed Q&P steelsQ&P steel.

Lei Chen, Kyeong Sik Shin, Han Sol Maeng, Chun Ku Kang

High Temperature Creep Properties of Advanced Structural Materials

Creep Behavior at Elevated Temperatures of Several Polycrystalline Ni-based Superalloys Strengthened by MC-Carbides

Conventional casting allows producing components with complex geometries and coarse grains favorable for good creep-resistanceCreep resistance at high temperaturesHigh temperature. Their weak points are generally their intergrains and interdendritics boundaries. Introducing carbon and MC-former metals can achieve the development of an intergranular and interdendritic network of eutectic carbides bringing the double benefit of a script-like geometry for the interdendritics cohesion, and of a good morphological and volume fraction stability on long times at high temperatureHigh temperature. In this work two kinds of superalloys were obtained by high frequency induction foundry under inert atmosphere. The first ones are nickel-based superalloysCast Ni-based superalloys reinforced by ZrC carbides. The second ones are also nickel-based alloys but strengthened by (Ta, Hf)C carbides. All were subjected to 3-points bending creep tests at 1100 °C for a maximal induced tensile stress equal to 20 MPa. They demonstrated high resistance despite the test temperature particularly high for superalloys produced by classical foundry.

Patrice Berthod, Safa Tlili, Dame Assane Kane
Strengthening Against Creep at Elevated Temperature of HEA Alloys of the CoNiFeMnCr Type Using MC-Carbides

Cast high entropy CoNiFeMnCr alloys can become alternative solutions to cast cobalt-based and nickel-based superalloys able to resist creep at 1000 °C and beyond. The partial substitution of Co and Ni by Fe and Mn allows lower cost and lower dependence on the Co and Ni critical elements. However, their grain boundaries need to be strengthened. In this work, equimolar CoNiFeMnCr alloys were elaborated by high-frequency induction melting under inert atmosphere, after having added carbon and either Ta or Hf, in quantities rated to favor the development of an intergranular network of script-like eutectic carbides, either TaC or HfC. These carbides were successfully obtained with the required location and morphology. 3 points bending creep tests were carried out at 1100 °C for an induced maximal tensile stress equal to 20 MPa. Interesting resistance was noted for some of these alloys, taking into account the high levels of applied stress and temperature.

Patrice Berthod

High Temperature Electrochemistry V

Chloro-Aluminate Species Distribution Correlation with Electrical Conductivity of 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl Imidazolium Chloride (EMIC)-Aluminum Chloride (AlCl3) System

The chloroaluminate species distributionSpecies distribution of EMIC-AlCl3EMIC-AlCl3 system was modeled using thermodynamic data for 0–1.0 mole fraction of AlCl3 at 110 °C. Thermodynamic modelThermodynamic model was developed considering the activity (ai) of species and equilibrium constant (K) for the polymeric reactions. The model species distributionSpecies distribution results were compared with the electrical conductivityElectrical conductivity data measured for the same system at 110 °C. The main anion species exist from 0 to 0.5 mol fraction of AlCl3 are Cl− and AlCl4−. Al2Cl7−, Al3Cl10−, and Al4Cl13− species exist at the higher concentrations of AlCl3. At 110 °C, the distribution peak maxima of AlCl4−, Al2Cl7−, Al3Cl10−, and Al4Cl13− occurred at 0.5, 0.67, 0.75, and 0.8 mol fraction of AlCl3 respectively. Electrical conductivity data correlation with the model revealed that conductivity decreased from 5.58 to 3.94 S/m when AlCl4− mole fraction reduced from 0.50 to 0.67. AlCl4− species concentration was found significant in controlling the electrical conductivityElectrical conductivity of the electrolyte.

A. N. Ahmed, M. K. Nahian, R. G. Reddy

Light Elements Technology

A New Method for Producing Hydrogen, Lithium Metal, and High-Purity Silicon from Spodumene Ore

There is a large amount of spodumene depositsSpodumene deposits in Ganzi Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. This project directly uses spodumene ore as raw material, produces aluminum–silicon alloyAluminum-silicon alloy by electrothermal method, and then separates aluminum and silicon by three-layer liquid method to obtain 3 N high-purity siliconHigh-purity silicon. Liquid aluminum is made into aluminum powder, which is transported to the place where hydrogenHydrogen is required hydrogen production is carried out; the smelting dust containing 20–30% of lithium oxide is collected, and the monohydrate lithium hydroxide is prepared by the alkaline method of micro-pressure heating, and the metal lithium is produced by the electrothermal method. HydrogenHydrogen, metallic lithiumMetallic lithium and high-purity siliconHigh-purity silicon are directly produced from spodumene ore, and the resources are comprehensively utilized.

Huimin Lu, Neale R. Neelameggham
Electrochemical Technology for Lithium-Isotopes Separation

In terms of technology, it is essential to be able to produce materials with an enriched isotopic abundance. Nuclear fuels, isotope-substituted compounds for chemistry and biology studies, environmental, geochemical signature tracers, radioactive tracers, non-destructive tests, radiation in human medicine, and other applications are only a few of the many uses for isotopes. The isotopic separation of various elements, including uranium, hydrogen, lithium, and iodine, among many others, is a frequently discussed research topic. Lithium isotopes are particularly significant among these isotopes for a number of purposes, including military ones. Since these isotopes are light, it is difficult to enrich them. With a focus on electrochemical approaches for stable lithium isotope separation, we have presented some related methods in this article. In terms of technical dependability and environmental safety to meet future lithium isotopes requirements, the development of an enrichment technology constitutes an important milestone in the roadmap for the global supply of fusion energy.

Prashant K. Sarswat, Michael L. Free
High-Grade Li2SO4 from a Local Montebrasite Ore as Industrial Raw Material for Managing Bipolar Disorder

Montebrasite is an uncommon lithiumLithium phosphate mineral with about 10% Li2O composition which makes it an interesting source of lithium classified as critical metalCritical metal with increasing demand due to its applications in high-technology products. A Nigerian montebrasite oreMontebrasite ore with Li2O assayed 12.47% was examined in this study. The initial sulphate roasting technique employed varying the mass concentration (w/w) of ore: salt between 1:1 and 1:4, temperature range of 500–1000 °C, and roasting time up to 120 min. This was followed by an aqueous leaching reaction at a fixed temperature of 75 °C for 120 min with moderate agitation. At optimal conditions, 83% of lithiumLithium was extracted by this process and beneficiated to obtain almost 90% pure Li2SO4Li2SO4, well characterized for use in the treatment of the bipolar disorderBipolar disorder, as a potential component of conducting glasses, lithiumLithium-ion batteriesBatteries, and in the synthesis of defined organic compounds.

Alafara A. Baba, Daud T. Olaoluwa, Ayo F. Balogun, Oluwagbemiga A. Adebola
Process Simulation for Low Emission Hydrogen Production Using DWSIM

Low emission hydrogen and blended natural gas production technologies are at the forefront of meeting NETZERO50 objectives to mitigate climate change. This paper demonstrates how a chemical flowsheet simulator DWSIM (DWSIM – The Open Source Chemical Process Simulator “Chemical Process Simulation for Everyone: DWSIM for Desktop is free and open-source”, [online] Available at: [accessed August 18,1922]) is used in evaluating the effectiveness of material conversion and optimal energy requirements for thermochemical processes involving light elements C and H which are at the heart of zero or low emission fuel generation from hydrocarbons. DWSIM simulator is very flexible in that the focus can be on a single piece of equipment like a reactor where one can rigorously assess equilibrium or kinetic conversions or a complex network of an entire manufacturing facility with multiple comparison scenarios to evaluate economics.

Ganesan Subramanian, Neale R. Neelameggham
Recovery of Lithium from Waste LIBs Using Sulfuric Acid Roasting and Water Washing

LithiumLithium (Li) is one of the important elements used in the manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In view of increasing demand of Li, lack of natural resources and generation of huge spent LIBsSpent LIBs containing black massBlack mass (LiCoO2), present paper reports a developed process at CSIR-NML consist of sulfuric acid roasting followed by water leachingLeaching for selective recovery of Li from black massBlack mass (LiCoO2) of spent LIBsSpent LIBs. Different process parameters, viz., time, temperature, mass to volume (m/v) ratio were optimized for the roasting of cathode material. Result shows that roasting at 750 °C in 120 min maintaining m/v ratio of LiCoO2/H2SO4: 1/0.2, the Li2O of cathode material gets converted into Li2SO4. Further, 95.8% Li was dissolved from roasted mass at 75 °C using de-ionized water within 120 min. Thereafter, Li was precipitated as carbonate (Li2CO3) using Na2CO3 between pH 11 and 12 at 90 °C.

Manis Kumar Jha, Pankaj Kumar Choubey, Rekha Panda, Om Shankar Dinkar, Nityanand Singh
Spark Plasma Sintered Boron Carbide Ceramic Armor

Boron carbide (B4C) is one of the most commonly used materials for armor applications due to its low specific density and high hardness. However, the high material cost is preventing the wide use of Boron carbide. Numerous studies have been carried out on the production of B4C-containing composite materials by the addition of different compounds such as SiC and TiC. In this study, optimum boron carbide—silicon carbide—titanium carbide multi-phase ceramicCeramics composite compositions were designed and produced by spark plasma sintering to optimize cost and ballistic properties relationship for armorArmor applications. The addition of SiC did not affect the hardness and toughness, but the addition of TiC resulted in increased toughness in spite of decreased hardness. When SiC and TiC were added together, hardness decreased whereas fracture toughness increased. Additives studied in this study decreased the cost but increased the density of composite ceramic.

B. Gökçe Dara, Gamze Sapanci
Spark Plasma Sintering and Characterization of B4C-ZrB2 Composites

Boron carbide (B4C) is widely used in nuclear reactors, wear-resistant components, abrasive materials, and lightweight armors because of its outstanding properties such as high melting point, low density, high hardness, high neutron absorption capability, and good wear resistance. However, high temperatures and long sintering times are required to obtain dense structures via conventional pressure-assisted sintering methods and it has low fracture toughness which limits its applications. Therefore, addition of an appropriate second phase and novel methods such as spark plasma sinteringSpark plasma sintering (SPS) emerges in the latest studies to overcome the limitations of B4C. Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) is a candidate material to promote boron carbide’s consolidation and achieve good mechanical properties. In this study, B4C-ZrB2 compositesB4C-ZrB2 composites in square geometry with varying amounts of ZrB2 (0–15 vol. %) were prepared by SPSSpark plasma sintering. The effects of ZrB2 addition on the densification, hardness, and fracture toughness were investigated.

Leyla Yanmaz, Filiz Cinar Sahin
Thoughts on the Role of Light Elements as Alternative Reductants in Major Ferroalloy Production
Joalet Dalene Steenkamp, Xolisa Camagu Goso
Utilizing of Tincal Ore Wastes in Ceramic Industry

Boron mining is carried out as opencast/open pit mining in Turkey. The obtained boron ore is presented to the utilization of many industrial branches such as insulation fiberglass and ceramic glazes, after washing, distribution, and classification according to the size but most of commercial applications of borates require the use of refined borates (Briggs in Kirk–Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology, 2001). Approximately 4.2 million tons (2 million tons based on B2O3) of boron were produced globally in 2016. In worldwide B2O3-based boron production, Eti Maden (Turkey) ranks first with a 50% share, USA with 25%, and other countries with 25% are trailing Turkey (Bor Sector Report, Eti Mine, 2009). It is known that, during the production of boron containing chemicals, some of these are spreading to environment (Karahan et al. in J Colloid Interface Sci 293:36, 2006; Sahin in Desalination 143:35, 2002). Boron-containing wastes coming out of the exploitation facilities are generally solid and in small dimensions, and also in pulp state. The studies related with the evaluation of boron waste demonstrate that the most appropriate evaluation method for the boron waste is storing the waste without harming the environment or regaining the boron within the waste and making the remaining minerals including clay suitable for the utilization of appropriate sectors (Christogerou et al. in Ceram Int 35:447, 2009). Boron containing wastes generating from production facilities are suitable raw materials for appropriate sectors when environmental impacts are being taken into consideration, too. In this study, the effect of various amounts of boron waste added to the ceramic body on forming and firing processes have been analyzed. This study has been carried out in order to provide information for bringing in this inert potential resource to the advantage of the country’s economy.

Levent Özmen, Yıldız Yıldırım, Dilek Başoğlu, Onuralp Yücel

Materials and Chemistry for Molten Salt Systems

Study of the Assimilation of Inclusions in Molten Mold Flux Under the Action of Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

Based on the slag ion structure theory and electromagnetic field theory, an experimental slag electromagnetic fieldLow-frequency electromagnetic fields action device was established to study the interfaceInterface distribution characteristics of typical non-metallic inclusions during the dissolution process in the mold fluxMold flux under different electromagnetic parameters. The results show that the same transition layer exists when the inclusions dissolve in the mold flux, forming a composite oxide with the inclusions as the core. Increasing the magnetic field frequency and current facilitates the diffusion of the melt from the slag to the inclusions interfaceInterface.

Fushen Li, Mingxing Wang, Yu Wang, Bo Bai, Hongpo Wang, Yijia Wang, Jian Kang
Thermodynamic Analysis of CoCrFeNi High-Entropy Alloys Prepared by Molten Salt Method

CoCrFeNi high entropy alloys (HEAs) exhibit some unique properties, such as outstanding ductility, good wear, corrosion, and oxidation resistance, which make them have potential in electronics, aerospace, biomedicine, and other fields. The electro-deoxidation of Co3O4, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and NiO in NaCl–CaCl2 molten salt to obtain CoCrFeNi HEAsCoCrFeNi HEAs is analyzed by thermodynamic analysis. ThermodynamicThermodynamic calculation results show that NiFe2O4, NiCr2O4, CoFe2O4, and CoCr2O4 oxide spinels will be spontaneously generated, without applying voltage to Co3O4, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and NiO sintering. NiFe2O4, NiCr2O4, CoCr2O4, and CoFe2O4 are electrolyzed in turn after applying voltage. Finally, the theoretical reduction order of the four metal elements is Ni, Fe, Co, and Cr by comparing the theoretical decomposition potentialsDecomposition potential. This study provides theoretical support for the preparation of CoCrFeNi HEAsCoCrFeNi HEAs by molten salt electro-deoxidationMolten salt electro-deoxidation.

Hui Li, Sheng Zhang, Jinglong Liang

Mechanical Response of Materials Investigated Through Novel In-Situ Experiments and Modeling

Modeling of the Bending Behavior to Study Nested-Cylinder Structure in Spicules

The spicule structure of the Euplectella aspergillum sponge (EA) looks promising in the search for mechanical enhancements of brittle materials. Researchers have explored how the various structural levels of the EA affect the properties of the material. Specifically, the nested-cylinder structure of the EA’s spiculesSpicules increases the strength and toughness of the sponge. However, there is limited research on this structural level of the sea sponge. This research uses finite element analysisFinite element analysis (FEA) to model the spiculeSpicules structure in COMSOL, setting the stage for further research into this bio-inspired material. The results of the initial bending testsBending test prove this procedure of analysis is useful in the study of the spiculeSpicules structure.

Olivia Lowe, Christian Peco, Fariborz Tavangarian

Nanostructured Materials in Extreme Environments

Study on Advanced Cementing Practices Using Inert Graphene Nanoplatelets and Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids for Wellbore Integrity and Sustainability

Cementing geothermal wells that are used for energy production where higher temperatures have steam, or water and steam as continuous phases, is challenging. Lost circulation issues complicate cementing between rock formation and the casing as it could possibly damage the formation structure. Furthermore, these wellbores are exposed to fluids including but not limited to formation fluids, hydraulic fracturing fluidFracturing fluid contaminated cements, drilling fluids, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. These fluids are sources of contamination which may strengthen or deteriorate the structural integrity of the cements in the subsurface. In primary as well as secondary cementing operations, use of suitable and sustainable additives can potentially improve the pore structure and mechanical strength thus helping zonal isolation as well as enhancing improved mechanical strength. For the same purpose, two sets of samples with different cement slurry designs were investigated to evaluate the petrophysical, microstructural, and mineralogical transition relative to control neat cement sample, to evaluate the impact of fluid contamination and GNPGNP enhanced wellbore cement on mitigation of thermally induced weathering of wellbore cements at 7 and 28 days of hydration.

Gabriel Awejori, Havila Jupudi, Cody Massion, Mileva Radonjic

Natural Fibers and Its Composites: A Sustainable Solution

Corozo Palm Fibers: Mechanical Behavior and Potential Use for Composites

This research summarizes the characterization and the evaluation of corozo palmCorozo palm (Phytelephas schottii) fibers from the Colombian Caribbean Coast for compositeComposites materials. The characterization has been conducted with tensile single fiber tests, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. These palms are very abundant in the region, and their fibers are not sufficiently exploited in production processes, which could represent not only environmentally sustainable projects, but also the derived economics that could improve the economics of the local people. The potential use of these fibers discussed as well.

Henry A. Colorado, Jimmy Unfried-Silgado, Luis Armando Espitia-San Juan
Feasibility Study of Incorporation of Dyeing Sludge in Red Ceramics

Along with technological advances, the generation of residues from industry causes major concerns. However, by treating such wasteWaste it is possible to obtain clean disposal. Dyeing plants, during washing and dyeing, produce a solid sludge that cannot be discarded in nature due to the presence of metals from dyes and dyeing aids. Thus, this work evaluates the incorporation of dyeing sludgeDyeing Sludge in traditional ceramic products. Specimens were made varying the percentage by weight of residue in the red ceramicRed Ceramics, and fired at 850 °C. Evaluated properties: linear shrinkage, water absorption, and breaking strength. By applying a quantitative control of this sludge, it is possible to successfully obtain the properties required for ceramic products, which is an effect of the natural variability of clays. With this, in addition to gains for ceramics, the incorporation of the residue also contributes to the preservation of the environment.

H. C. Rangel, G. C. G. Delaqua, J. A. T. Linhares Jr, A. R. G. de Azevedo, S. N. Monteiro, M. P. Babisk, C. M. F. Vieira
Influence of the Incorporation of Particulates from the Pineapple Crown on the Impact Strength of Epoxy Systems

The study regarding the use of wasteWaste in compositeComposites materials has grown, and the pineapple crown fibers are an example. However, the processing of these fibers generates another solid residue in the form of particulatesParticulates. This work evaluates the influence of the incorporation of this residue in polymeric matrix compositesComposites on impact resistance. The matrix used was a DGEBA/TETA system, with a stoichiometric ratio equal to 20 phr. Using as a reference the maximum amount of particulates in which it was possible to incorporate, formulations varying from 0 up to 100 vol% were evaluated. The impact test performed was of the Izod type, which was carried out using a PANTEC Pendulum impact testing machine, model XC-50, according to the ASTM D256-10. Through these results, it was possible to observe the influence of the incorporation of these particulatesParticulates in the impact resistance of the compositesComposites.

D. C. R. Velasco, J. A. T. Linhares, N. T. Simonassi, C. M. F. Vieira, A. R. G. Azevedo, M. T. Marvila, S. N. Monteiro
Mitigation of Urban Noise Through the Implementation of Pumice with an Air Chamber on Building Facades

Noise pollution generated in the city is currently one of the main environmentalEnvironmental noise mitigation problems. Different studies try to address this type of pollution, which focuses mainly on noise sources from road trafficRoad traffic noise. The following work seeks to find solutions to this problem. Understanding that today a large percentage of car traffic noise is generated by the interaction between the tire and the ground, this work considers the possibility of mitigating this type of noise through the implementation of sound-absorbing facadesFacade baseboards in urban canyonsUrban canyons. For this, it is planned to use pumice stone with an air gap of 1 cm. To characterize the conditions of an urban canyon, information from a noise monitoring station of approximately 3 years was used. To evaluate the absorption conditions of the compounds, an impedance tube was used. Finally, to show the absorption of the facade, the Sabine equation was used. The results obtained show that absorption coefficients of up to 0.45 can be achieved in the 500 Hz band. The implementation of pumice stone with an air chamber in 90% of the facadesFacade baseboards of the buildings that form an urban canyonUrban canyons can achieve reductions of up to 0.17 s in the RT60 for the 500 Hz band.

Jeiser Rendón, Henry A. Colorado
Natural Vegetable Fibers Used from Colombia and Their Use as Potential Reinforcement for Composite Materials

This investigation presents results about the use of several natural fibersNatural fibers used in Colombia for centuries by ancient communities as cultural materials, some from the Andes mountains and others from the Amazonia region. Research present not only the traditional use, but also their potential use as reinforcement in natural compositeComposite materials. These fibers have been poorly explored from the engineering point of view. Indigenous people and farmers have used these fibers for millenniums as part of weapons, food preparation, ornaments, bags, and for cultural uses. These natural materials and their compositesComposite were studied with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, impact, and other performance tests.

Henry A. Colorado, Sergio Neves Monteiro, Geovana Carla Girondi Delaqua, Carlos M. Vieira

Phase Stability in Extreme Environments

Heat Treatment Design of Inconel 740H Superalloy for Microstructure Stability and Creep Properties Enhancement

In this study, three heat treatmentHeat treatment conditions selected from various heat treatment candidates for Inconel 740HInconel 740H, which are considered as materials for A-USC steam turbines, were exposed to long-term thermal conditions at 750 ℃ up to 5,000 h. The stability and mechanical characteristics of heat-treated microstructure were examined, and the optimal heat treatmentHeat treatment to maximize creep property was derived through the creepCreep test (750 ℃/270 MPa). It was confirmed that the content of Cr was concentrated at the boundary of MC carbide without a specific orientation relationship at 750 °C/270 MPa creep, and this was the result of phase transformation by the reaction of MC + γ → M23C6 + γ’. Thus, MC carbide has high resistance to cracks because its temperature and stress during creepCreep contribute to decomposition for phase transformation rather than initiation. Therefore, the higher the fraction of the MC carbide, the more advantageous it is to the creep property.

Dong-Min Kim, Chiwon Kim, Cheol-Hyeok Yang, Hyun-Uk Hong, Hi-Won Jeong

Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution

A Comprehensive Investigation on the Sintering Behavior of CaO–SiO2–CaF2–Al2O3 Slags System

Sintering behaviorSintering behavior was vitally significant for lubrication and heat transfer performance of mold fluxes during a casting process. In this paper, sintering behaviorSintering behavior of CaO–SiO2–Al2O3–CaF2CaF2 slags system was systematically investigated by combining with TG-DSC, XRD, DIL, and SEM techniques. The mineral phase transformation process of slags was clearly understood during the heating process. A brand-new evaluation method from volume shrinkageVolume shrinkage was adopted to investigate the sintering behaviorSintering behavior. The results showed that Ca2SiO4 was formed at 1370 °C in CaO–SiO2 slags with 12.63% volume shrinkage. Ca4Si2O7F2 was occurred at 1173 °C with 64.06% volume shrinkageVolume shrinkage of slags while CaF2CaF2 was added to CaO–SiO2 slags. In CaO–SiO2–Al2O3 slags, Ca3Al2O6 was first formed and then transformed into Ca2Al2SiO7 at 1342 °C with 53.63% volume shrinkage. At 1148 °C, the Ca2Al2SiO7 and Ca4Si2O7F2 coexisted in CaO–SiO2–Al2O3–CaF2 slags with the volume shrinkageVolume shrinkage of 60.13%. The solid phase reactionSolid phase reaction temperatures of slags were decreased by adding CaF2CaF2 and Al2O3Al2O3, caused by the attenuation of the bonding energy between Si–O in molten slag structure. SEM results expounded that during the sintering process, the structure of sample changed from loose to dense, new crystals produced, and crystal transformation behavior was conducted, Thus, all leading to the volume shrinkageVolume shrinkage behavior.

Liang Yu, Shaopeng Gu, Guanghua Wen, Chunhua Ran, Funian Han, Zhe Wang
Experimental Analysis of R-Phase NiTi Tube Actuators Using in Contact Conductive Heating Stage

Since last few decades, Nitinol (NiTi)Nitinol (NiTi)-based shape memory actuators have attained considerable attention due to high power to mass ratio, greater fatigue life, and lower cost. NiTiNitinol (NiTi) wires sheets and tube actuatorsActuators are a useful resource for harvesting heat energy. The present work aims to investigate the Rhombohedral (R-Phase) NiTi tube actuators. Heat treatment and shape setting is performed for setting the shape of the tube. A design test rig is used with the capability to provide conductive and convective heating for cyclic heating and cooling of material. The actuation force of the tubes is gauged by attaching springs of different stiffness. The effect of heat treatment is investigated by analysing the corresponding crystalline structure of tube using XRD technique. Further, the thermal expansion coefficient is investigated for the tubes heat treated at constant temperature as function of time. Moreover, evolution of microstructure as result of heat treatment is studied for visualization of different phases present in the NiTiNitinol (NiTi) tubes.

Lehar Asip Khan, Hasan Ayub, Corné Muilwijk, Eanna McCarthy, Inam Ul Ahad, Dermot Brabazon
Fracture Analysis for Intermediate Slabs of Wear-Resistant Steel Based on the Evolution of Surface Decarburization Behavior

The correlation between surface decarburization behaviorDecarburization behavior of wear-resistant steelWear-resistant steel and isothermal treatment temperature (650–1200 °C) was studied, and the formation mechanism of decarburization was discussed to determine the timing of fracture occurrence. Due to the various isothermal treatmentIsothermal treatment processes, the decarburized microstructure can be divided into four types: non-decarburization, complete decarburization, complete and partial decarburization, and partial decarburization. With the temperature rising, the depth of the total decarburized layer gradually increased except for the range of 750–900 °C, which was mainly affected by the carbon diffusion coefficient. By continuous heating decarburization experiment, it was found that the decarburized morphology of the crack surface was consistent with that of the sample CH4 simulating the complete hot rolling process. Finally, it was pointed that the fracture of the intermediate slab occurred during the heating process, and then decarburization of the fracture surface began. The uneven deformation during the subsequent rolling process resulted in the double-drum shape crack surface and the w-shape decarburized layer distribution.

Hao Geng, Yun-He Chang, Zhuang Zhang, Jian-Feng Jin, Pu Wang, Jia-Quan Zhang
The Formation and Stability of Nanosphere Composites

The nucleation of spherical particles forms an interesting study on new nano composites. If smaller, disperse particles are desired, tuning of parameters becomes necessary. According to classical teachings, a critical radius exists for “homogenous” nucleation. This thermodynamic approach needs to be reconciled with the heat transfer balances dictated by rate parameters and boundary conditions, which are absent in the former approach The reconciliation of the two can be attempted by examining the moving boundary problem and its solution which depends on the phase transformation parameters, the heat transfer coefficients and the “under cooling” or thermal driving force dependent on the boundary and initial conditions. Without going into abstract mathematical arguments, a stable moving interface can be expressed as a function of time and radius and hence the two approaches can be connected where the radial growth is expressed as a power of time—a quasi steady state solution is obtainable.

Rahul Basu
The Impact of Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the Hydration Mechanism of Alite (C3S) in Class-H Wellbore Cement with Focus on Microstructural Properties

Cementing the casing for geothermal heat harvestingGeothermal heat harvesting requires a novel approach for the diverse rock formations such as granite, basalt, and volcanic tuff that constitute geothermal reservoirs. Materials used for the latest wellbore cementing technology require stability at high temperatures as production ranges between 160 and +300 °C, be fracture-resistant, and resilient to corrosive geofluids that chemically attack ordinary Portland cement (OPC) causing loss in mechanical strength. Graphene nanoplateletsGraphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) have been shown to improve the mechanical properties when added in low quantities (<1%) to cement, but the mechanism is unclear as it can increase the strength and resistance to fracturing, even under high-temperature conditions. To investigate the hydration level of tricalcium silicate (C3S), Class-H wellbore cement mixed with additives suitable for subsurface conditions is used in this study and hydrated with and without GNPsGraphene nanoplatelets, liquid and powdered, under dynamic thermal loading for 7 and 28 days of hydration.

Havila Jupudi, Cody Massion, Mileva Radonjic
Use of the Hollomon-Jaffe Tempering Parameter to Optimize the Microhardness in a Medium Carbon Low Alloy Cr–Mo Steel

Secondary hardeningSecondary hardening generated by the sequential precipitation of alloy carbidesAlloy carbides was studied on a medium-carbon low-alloy Cr–Mo steel during isothermal tempering. TemperingTempering was carried out at 500, 550, and 600 °C at different times: 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min from a fully martensitic microstructure. Vickers microhardness measurements evaluated the tempering degree on specimens previously treated under established conditions. Microhardness behavior was determined using the Hollomon-JaffeHollomon-Jaffe parameter to establish hardening or softening. The microhardness behavior presented resistance to softening, but at relatively short times, the microhardness oscillates depending on the temperature and tempering time. Changes in microhardness were related to the precipitation sequence of alloy carbidesAlloy carbides. Finally, the tempering parameter was adjusted to optimize the temperingTempering conditions (time and temperature) and maximize the microhardness of the tempered microstructure, validating with additional tests under the conditions obtained by the adjustment and scanning electron microscopy.

P. G. Díaz-Villaseñor, E. López-Martínez, O. Vázquez-Gómez, P. Garnica-González, H. J. Vergara-Hernández

Printed Electronics and Additive Manufacturing: Functional Materials, Processing Techniques, and Emerging Applications

Development of a Metamaterial Honeycomb Structure for Radar Absorbing Materials

Radar is a sensitive detection tool that uses electromagnetic radio waves to determine the position and motion of objects. Since its development, the methods for reducing radar wave reflections have been explored to improve stealth technology. One of the methods for reducing radar reflection is coating the aircraft using radar absorbing metamaterialMetamaterials. This research studies the radar absorption properties of a metamaterialMetamaterials honeycomb structureHoneycomb structure which has gradient protruded inner walls that are made of a radar absorbing material fabricated of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Iron Oxide composite. The CNT Iron Oxide material was first prepared, then EMI measurement was conducted to obtain the permeability and permittivity values of the material. Then, the effect of changing the geometrical parameters of the honeycomb structureHoneycomb structure (size, height, thickness, and tilted angle) on the radar absorption properties has been simulated using Multi-Physics COMSOL. Simulation results showed that the optimum structure can absorb more than 90% of the radar incident waves in X-band frequencies and can reach a RL peak value of −52 dB.

Mariam Mansoori, Safieh Almahmoud, Daniel Choi
Liquid Metal Inks for Printed Stretchable Electronics: Gallium Alloy Interactions with the Environment

GalliumGallium and gallium alloys have received significant attention in recent years due to their unique thermal and electrical properties while maintaining liquidus properties. Applications range from reconfigurable antennas to strain-tolerant conductors for flexible hybrid electronics. Several commercial embodiments of gallium alloys for these applications are now becoming available, however their interaction with solid metals such as aluminum, copper, and nickel raise concern as gallium is known to aggressively attack many of these and weaken them. Herein, we detail these effects with one particular system that is formulated specifically for printed stretchable electronics, namelyELMNT ELMNT™ Inks, which are composed of colloidal nanoparticles of gallium/indium alloy and allow for readily manufactured stretchable circuits using techniques such as screen-printing and ink jet printing. The interactions between a range of common metals andELMNT ELMNT™ Inks are reported and compared to bulk galliumGallium/indium interactions.

Robin Dietrich, Zachary Farrell, Christopher Tabor
Permanent Magnet Integrated Shock Absorber and Electric Generator

Traditionally, most of the mechanically driven systems utilize contact-dependent approaches. They have hosts of defects, including the need for lubrication to minimize friction, noise management, and a restricted operating life. The magnetic augmentation of existing devices within a mechanical system can resolve these issues by introducing a near-contactless method of operation. The design in focus is fundamentally a piston-styled shock absorberShock absorber that is capable of generating energy as a product of applied force. The system absorbs shock in two separate manners. The first is due to a series of repelling magnets oriented on two separate plates that oscillate in closeness depending on the applied force. The second is via the internal section of the piston, where an incompressible fluid is forced to flow through small holes in a magnetically fitted oscillating plate. By placing multi-layered, enameled copper coilsCoil surrounding the magnets’ direction of translation in both methods of shock absorption, electric currents can be generated thus inducing passive energy generation as a product of shock absorption. In addition, this system is constructed to be variably recursive; in essence, any number of devices can be oriented, so they perform together with small variations in structure depending on the location of each device. The current prototype focuses on a vertically recursive model for applications concerning constrains in a horizontal surface area.

Richard Daly, B. S. Mani, N. M. Ravindra

Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Alloys

Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Reaction of Rare Earth (La, Ce, Y) with MgO Refractories

Based on laboratory melting and theoretical calculation, the thermodynamicsThermodynamics and kineticsKinetics of the reactions between GCr15 bearing steel melt containing lanthanum, cerium, and yttrium and MgOMgO crucible were studied. The results show that the La-MgO reaction is the most intense, followed by the Ce–MgO reaction, and the Y–MgO reaction is the weakest. The reaction products are in the form of RE2O3 and RE2O2S, which is consistent with the thermodynamicThermodynamics calculation; Within 120 min after the addition of lanthanum, cerium, and yttrium, the changing trends of the Mg content in the molten steel were significantly different. These reactions all proved to be first-order reactions. The rate formula of the consumption of rare earthRare earth per unit mass of molten steel was also obtained by kineticKinetics analysis.

Jian Kang, Hongpo Wang, Yu Wang, Xuewei Lv
TMS 2023 152nd Annual Meeting & Exhibition Supplemental Proceedings
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society
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