Skip to main content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the articles of this issue

Published in: Metallurgist 1-2/2022

02-07-2022

Topographic Contour Element Features in Patterned Macrostructures of the 18th Century Persian Bulat Steel

Author: D. A. Sukhanov

Published in: Metallurgist | Issue 1-2/2022

Login to get access
share
SHARE

Abstract

A study of a late 18th century Bebut bulat (Damascus) steel blade from Persian Kurdistan revealed its structure to consist of carbide banding in a troostite matrix. Reaching a width of 50 μm, the carbide bands were composed of accumulations of oblong particles of excess cementite. The bands of the continuous troostite matrix have a width of up to 100 μm. Banded (laminated) bulat structures are scored from 4 to 6 in terms of carbide heterogeneity. The internal microstructural composition of the Bebut bulat blade includes 58% straight sections of laminated banding, 22% wavy curved lines, 15% open reticular structures, and 5% closed reticular structures. The maximum phosphorus content of 0.4% is observed in troostite areas of carbide layers. In the troostite layers, the amount of phosphorus gradually decreases from 0.2% at the interlayer boundary to zero in the middle part of the troostite layer. The microhardness distribution plot of the bulat steel was experimentally determined to have a clearly expressed maximum of 1020 HV in carbide layers and minimum of 390 HV in troostite layers. This hardness-banded texture was determined to have a huge impact on the generation of a naturally undulating surface during the formation of a patterned bulat structure. The main bulat patterns are formed by individual topographic contour elements: cavities, basins, undulations, saddles, crosspieces, and wavy dunes. The bulat pattern thus represents a set of randomly alternating individual elements of the bulat structure in different local areas of the blade surface, which appears to have been a deliberate effect. Regularities in the local sections and the repetition of the basic patterns are described.
Literature
1.
go back to reference Anosov, “On Bulat steel,” Gornyi Zhurnal [in Russian], Part 1, Book 2, 157–319 (1841). Anosov, “On Bulat steel,” Gornyi Zhurnal [in Russian], Part 1, Book 2, 157–319 (1841).
2.
go back to reference B. Zschokke, “Du Damasse et des Lamés de Damast,” Rev. de Metallurgie [in French], No. 21, 635–669 (1924). B. Zschokke, “Du Damasse et des Lamés de Damast,” Rev. de Metallurgie [in French], No. 21, 635–669 (1924).
3.
go back to reference I. S. Gaev, “Bulat and modern iron-carbon alloys,” MiTOM [in Russian], No. 9, 17–24 (1965). I. S. Gaev, “Bulat and modern iron-carbon alloys,” MiTOM [in Russian], No. 9, 17–24 (1965).
4.
go back to reference CL. Panseri, “Damascus steel in legend and in reality,” Gladius, No. 4, 5–66 (1965). CL. Panseri, “Damascus steel in legend and in reality,” Gladius, No. 4, 5–66 (1965).
5.
go back to reference J. Wadsworth and O. D. Sherby, “On the Bulat–Damascus steels revisited,” Progress in Mater. Sci., No. 25, 35–68 (1980). J. Wadsworth and O. D. Sherby, “On the Bulat–Damascus steels revisited,” Progress in Mater. Sci., No. 25, 35–68 (1980).
6.
go back to reference O. D. Sherby and J. Wadsworth, “Damascus steel,” Scientific American, 252(2), 112–120 (1985). CrossRef O. D. Sherby and J. Wadsworth, “Damascus steel,” Scientific American, 252(2), 112–120 (1985). CrossRef
7.
go back to reference F. N. Tavadze, B. G. Amaglobeli, and G. V. Inanishvili, “Mechanical properties of bulat steel,” Soobshch. AN Gruzinskoi SSR [in Russian], No. 3(113), 589–592 (1984). F. N. Tavadze, B. G. Amaglobeli, and G. V. Inanishvili, “Mechanical properties of bulat steel,” Soobshch. AN Gruzinskoi SSR [in Russian], No. 3(113), 589–592 (1984).
8.
go back to reference J. D. Verhoeven and L. L. Jones, “Damascus steel. P. II: Origin of the Damask pattern,” Metallographe, No. 20, 153–180 (1987). J. D. Verhoeven and L. L. Jones, “Damascus steel. P. II: Origin of the Damask pattern,” Metallographe, No. 20, 153–180 (1987).
9.
go back to reference L. S. Figiel, On Damascus Steel, Atlanta’s Arts Press, Atlanta (1991). L. S. Figiel, On Damascus Steel, Atlanta’s Arts Press, Atlanta (1991).
10.
go back to reference V. A. Shcherbakov and V. P. Borzunov, Bulat Steel [in Russian], ID MISIS, Moscow (1996). V. A. Shcherbakov and V. P. Borzunov, Bulat Steel [in Russian], ID MISIS, Moscow (1996).
11.
go back to reference J. D. Verhoeven, A. N. Pendray, and W. E. Dauksch, “The key role of impurities in ancient Damascus steel blades,” J. of Metallurgy, 50, 58–64 (1998). J. D. Verhoeven, A. N. Pendray, and W. E. Dauksch, “The key role of impurities in ancient Damascus steel blades,” J. of Metallurgy, 50, 58–64 (1998).
12.
go back to reference J. D. Verhoeven, “Pattern formation in wootz Damascus steel swords and blades,” Indian J. of History of Sci., 42(2), 559–574 (2007). J. D. Verhoeven, “Pattern formation in wootz Damascus steel swords and blades,” Indian J. of History of Sci., 42(2), 559–574 (2007).
13.
go back to reference L. B. Arkhangelskii, Secrets of Bulat Steel [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (2007). L. B. Arkhangelskii, Secrets of Bulat Steel [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (2007).
14.
go back to reference I. N. Taganov and B. D. Kalinin, “Effect of phosphorus impurity on the bulat steel technology,” Metalloobrabotka [in Russian], No. 2(50), 40–46 (2009). I. N. Taganov and B. D. Kalinin, “Effect of phosphorus impurity on the bulat steel technology,” Metalloobrabotka [in Russian], No. 2(50), 40–46 (2009).
15.
go back to reference J. D. Verhoeven, A. N. Pendray, W. E. Dauksch, and S. R. Wagstaff, “Damascus steel Revisited,” J. of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 70, No. 7, 1331–1336 (2018). CrossRef J. D. Verhoeven, A. N. Pendray, W. E. Dauksch, and S. R. Wagstaff, “Damascus steel Revisited,” J. of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 70, No. 7, 1331–1336 (2018). CrossRef
16.
go back to reference D. A. Sukhanov, “Influence of phosphorus impurity on the structure and nature of the destruction of the genuine Damascus steel,” Int. J. of Engineering Technologies and Management Research (IJETMR), No. 5 (4), 26–37 (2018). D. A. Sukhanov, “Influence of phosphorus impurity on the structure and nature of the destruction of the genuine Damascus steel,” Int. J. of Engineering Technologies and Management Research (IJETMR), No. 5 (4), 26–37 (2018).
17.
go back to reference D. A. Sukhanov, “Structural formation of the Indo-Persian phosphorous bulat steel,” Mater. XXXV Mezhdunar. Nauch.-Pract. Conf. “Tendentsii Razvitiya Nauki I Obrazovania” [in Russian], No. 35(3), 24–34 (2018). D. A. Sukhanov, “Structural formation of the Indo-Persian phosphorous bulat steel,” Mater. XXXV Mezhdunar. Nauch.-Pract. Conf. “Tendentsii Razvitiya Nauki I Obrazovania” [in Russian], No. 35(3), 24–34 (2018).
18.
go back to reference D. A. Sukhanov and N. V. Plotnikova, “Mechanical properties of 18th-century Persian bulat steel in comparison with modern high-speed steels,” Metallurg [in Russian], No. 11, 50–60 (2019). D. A. Sukhanov and N. V. Plotnikova, “Mechanical properties of 18th-century Persian bulat steel in comparison with modern high-speed steels,” Metallurg [in Russian], No. 11, 50–60 (2019).
19.
go back to reference K. V. Tumanova, V. Yu. Bazhin, O. A. Dubovikov, A. V. Sundurov, and V. G. Povarov, “Investigation of Georgian bulat weapon of the 19th century from the collection of the Mining Museum of the Mining University,” Chernye Metally [in Russian], No. 2, 73–78 (2020). K. V. Tumanova, V. Yu. Bazhin, O. A. Dubovikov, A. V. Sundurov, and V. G. Povarov, “Investigation of Georgian bulat weapon of the 19th century from the collection of the Mining Museum of the Mining University,” Chernye Metally [in Russian], No. 2, 73–78 (2020).
20.
go back to reference Masalsky, “Manufacturing of the bulat steel according to the method used by the Persians,” Gornyi Zhurnal [in Russian], Book 11, 233–248 (1841). Masalsky, “Manufacturing of the bulat steel according to the method used by the Persians,” Gornyi Zhurnal [in Russian], Book 11, 233–248 (1841).
21.
go back to reference D. K. Chernov, “D. K. Chernov and the metal science,” Sb. Nauch. Tr. [in Russian], Ed. N. T. Gudtsov, Metallurgizdat, Moscow (1950). D. K. Chernov, “D. K. Chernov and the metal science,” Sb. Nauch. Tr. [in Russian], Ed. N. T. Gudtsov, Metallurgizdat, Moscow (1950).
22.
go back to reference N. T. Belyaev, About Bulat Steel [in Russian], St. Petersburg (1906). N. T. Belyaev, About Bulat Steel [in Russian], St. Petersburg (1906).
23.
go back to reference E. E. Lents, Imperial Hermitage. Index of the Divisions of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Pt. 1. Collection of Weapons [in Russian], St. Petersburg (1908). E. E. Lents, Imperial Hermitage. Index of the Divisions of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Pt. 1. Collection of Weapons [in Russian], St. Petersburg (1908).
24.
go back to reference A. P. Vinogradov, “The soft bulat steel and the origin of the bulat pattern,” Izv. Dnepropetrovskogo Gornogo In-ta [in Russian], 15, 115–213 (1928). A. P. Vinogradov, “The soft bulat steel and the origin of the bulat pattern,” Izv. Dnepropetrovskogo Gornogo In-ta [in Russian], 15, 115–213 (1928).
25.
go back to reference V. I. Basov, “Bulat: Lifeline,” Metallurg [in Russian], No. 7, 16–23 (1991). V. I. Basov, “Bulat: Lifeline,” Metallurg [in Russian], No. 7, 16–23 (1991).
26.
go back to reference S. A. Saltykov, Stereometric Metallography [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1976). S. A. Saltykov, Stereometric Metallography [in Russian], Metallurgiya, Moscow (1976).
Metadata
Title
Topographic Contour Element Features in Patterned Macrostructures of the 18th Century Persian Bulat Steel
Author
D. A. Sukhanov
Publication date
02-07-2022
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Metallurgist / Issue 1-2/2022
Print ISSN: 0026-0894
Electronic ISSN: 1573-8892
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11015-022-01318-x

Other articles of this Issue 1-2/2022

Metallurgist 1-2/2022 Go to the issue

Premium Partners