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About this book

This book presents a comprehensive framework for IoT, including its architectures, security, privacy, network communications, and protocols. The book starts by providing an overview of the aforementioned research topics, future directions and open challenges that face the IoT development. The authors then discuss the main architectures in the field, which include Three- and Five-Layer Architectures, Cloud and Fog Based Architectures, a Social IoT Application Architecture. In the security chapter, the authors outline threats and attacks, privacy preservation, trust and authentication, IoT data security, and social awareness. The final chapter presents case studies including smart home, wearables, connected cars, industrial Internet, smart cities, IoT in agriculture, smart retail, energy engagement, IoT in healthcare, and IoT in poultry and farming.
Discusses ongoing research into the connection of the physical and virtual worlds;Includes the architecture, security, privacy, communications, and protocols of IoT;Presents a variety of case studies in IoT including wearables, smart cities, and energy management.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. The IoT Landscape

During the history of human life, waves 1, 2, and 3 are the waves of agriculture, industry, and information technology, respectively. These waves have created tremendous changes in the quality of human life. The fourth wave of human life is the emergence of a cyber-age in which everything is connected to everyone in any place at any time. With the halp of dis huge evolution, all communication needs will be provided at any time, with minimal human intervention and easily through the internet of things.
Mohammad Ali Jabraeil Jamali, Bahareh Bahrami, Arash Heidari, Parisa Allahverdizadeh, Farhad Norouzi

Chapter 2. IoT Architecture

The domain of the internet of things will encompass a wide range of technologies. Thus, single reference architecture cannot be used as a blueprint for all possible concrete implementations. While a reference model can probably be identified, it is likely that several reference architectures will coexist in the internet of things. In this context, architecture is specifically defined as a framework for specifying the physical components and functional organization and configuration of a network, operational principles, and procedures, as well as data formats used in its operation. In fact, IoT is like an umbrella around all possible computer devices around us. Therefore, the IoT architecture should be open enough with open protocols to support a variety of existing network applications. Additionally, some middleware for scalability, security, and semantic representation should also be included to promote data world integration with the internet. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the internet of things architectures.
Mohammad Ali Jabraeil Jamali, Bahareh Bahrami, Arash Heidari, Parisa Allahverdizadeh, Farhad Norouzi

Chapter 3. IoT Security

Even though internet of things is a hybrid platform of the overlay network such as the internet, cloud computing, fog, or edge, many security solutions for the above-mentioned networks cannot be directly used on the resource-constrained devices of the IoT, hence the need for new security solutions. Security is one of the most important problems for IoT technologies, applications, and platforms. Security is not an issue that can be treated independently. Security has to be designed and built in each layer of the IoT solutions (from the device layer to the application layer). IoT security is not only about securing the network and data; it goes beyond that to attacks which can target human health or life. In this chapter, we discuss the security challenges of the IoT. First, we discuss some basic concepts of security and security requirements in the context of IoT. Then, we consider fundamental security issues in the IoT and thereafter highlight the security issues that need immediate attention.
Mohammad Ali Jabraeil Jamali, Bahareh Bahrami, Arash Heidari, Parisa Allahverdizadeh, Farhad Norouzi

Chapter 4. Some Cases of Smart Use of the IoT

IoT refers to an emerging paradigm that consists of a continuum of unique things that communicate with each other to form dynamic global networks. IoT, such as objects, appliances, and sensors, is the network of unique identified connected devices with computing services. The IoT term is relatively new and has been the concept of combining computers and networks to monitor and control devices for decades. For example, by the end of the 1970s electric grid remote monitoring meters via telephone lines had already been used in commercial use. Advanced wireless technology has also become extensive for the machine-to-machine companies and industrial solutions for monitoring and operation of equipment where closed-end networks or proprietary industry-specific standards have been used instead of Internet Protocol (IP) and internet standards. Since the beginning of the use of IP to connect devices in the early 2000s, a robust research and development field in the networking of intelligent objects leads to the foundation of IoT today. The term IoT is now popular for scenarios in which internet connectivity and computing capabilities extend to a variety of objects. The idea behind the IoT can also be seen in Fig. 4.1. A refers to technology globalization (anytime, anywhere, any device, any device, any network, etc.) and C reflects IoT’s collection, convergence, connectivity, computing, etc. properties. But the IoT of today has extended beyond the A and C range.
Several organization predictions provide a wide range of estimates of the total number of IP-enabled IoT devices operating on the internet by next year, from a low of 19 billion to a highly optimistic forecast of up to 40 billion, and rather this growth continues exponentially over the coming decade. This growth opens an era of new services which can bring significant changes for individual citizens, society, the economy, and the environment as well as numerous business opportunities. The rest of this chapter provides basic IoT building blocks with the definitions proposed by various organizations and major IoT applications.
Mohammad Ali Jabraeil Jamali, Bahareh Bahrami, Arash Heidari, Parisa Allahverdizadeh, Farhad Norouzi


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