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About this book

This book gathers contributions from researchers and practitioners that foster user-centric, cross-modal and sustainable transport systems in Europe. It reports on cutting-edge approaches discussed within the project MOBILITY4EU, a Coordination and Support Action funded by the European Commission, and presented at the second conference “Towards User Centric Transport in Europe” that took place in Brussels in Fall 2018. The respective papers describe innovative approaches to improving urban mobility and accessibility, achieving zero-emission mobility, and guaranteeing, seamless operations. Co-creation approaches are also discussed. Highlighting technological, socio-economic and political strategies alike, the book provides researches and stakeholders with a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current measures and challenges for the mobility of tomorrow.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Co-creation of Future Transport System

Frontmatter

Co-creation or Public Participation 2.0? An Assessment of Co-creation in Transport and Mobility Research

Abstract
This paper investigates the use of co-creation in transport and mobility research. Based on the review of 5 on-going research projects and 5 papers in this field of research, we find that the term co-creation is used interchangeably with terms such as co-design and co-production. Moreover, co-creation is used as an innovation approach as well as a design method, and can focus on the process as well as the outcome. Rather than being a new method or approach, we propose a definition of co-creation that defines it as a form of public participation. This public participation 2.0 uses creative methods, emphasises innovation, and is situated on the highest rungs of Arnstein’s ladder of participation. Future research should focus on the output of co-creation in order to investigate the added value of applying co-creation in transport planning.
Jesse Pappers, Imre Keserü, Cathy Macharis

Co-creation of Local Mobility Solutions: Lessons from the Mobility Lab in Hamburg-Altona

Abstract
The Altona Mobility Lab, part of the EU project “Cities-4-People” funded by Horizon 2020, seeks to implement locally developed mobility solutions through a dedicated co-creative approach. The Lab demonstrates the process of community building, ideation, and implementation for user-centric mobility solutions and provides an example of co-creation in implementation of neighborhood-level mobility solutions. This paper addresses key considerations of public participation and provides a model for considering challenges faced and addressed by Urban Living Labs. The analysis of the Altona Mobility Lab process demonstrates the potential successes and obstacles for the Living Lab method for the participative development of user-centric sustainable mobility solutions.
K. Tatum, T. Cekic, A. Landwehr, J. Noennig, J. Knieling, B. Schroeter

Sustainable Mobility Solutions at Neighbourhood Level: Enabling Insights, Success Stories and Solutions

Abstract
Neighbourhoods face particular mobility challenges within cities. Participatory and co-creation processes have emerged as methodologies to enhance innovation processes and innovation outcomes. This chapter addresses how these processes can be applied to create sustainable mobility solutions at neighbourhood level, exploring success stories on co-creation of solutions, horizontal collaboration, and participatory budgeting. The chapter also provides insights and guidelines to scale those mobility solutions to other neighbourhoods.
Susana Val, M. Teresa de la Cruz

Making Transport Accessible for All

Frontmatter

Seamless Accessibility of Transportation Modes and Multimodal Transport Across Europe: Gaps, Measures and Best Practices

Abstract
Transport accessibility affects a significant part of the population today, and many affected people (with disabilities or learning difficulties or temporary restrictions, elderly, etc.) are excluded from mobility. Seamless accessibility in the transportation sector in Europe is promoted by the European Commission, through legislation that is being set-up. The status of legislation and deployment issues among EU Member States is presented and discussed herein and a clustering of countries is proposed. Also, positive efforts towards accessible transportation in various countries are shown, in the form of best practices. The chapter ends with proposals for measures and recommendations, as well as next steps towards the adoption of a holistic accessibility system in the European transport system.
Evangelos Bekiaris, Matina Loukea, Maria Panou, Erzsébet Földesi, Thierry Jammes

Innovation in Accessibility to Travel Freely: App&Town Compagnon

Abstract
Limited access to transportation is considered to be one of the causes of exclusion, discrimination and lower access to employment. App&Town Compagnon is an assisted transport system for people with disabilities and mobility impairments. The solution reduces the accessibility barriers that hinder the personal autonomy of vulnerable people. This article puts forward the need for new technologies to take into account the user as an essential factor in their development and applicability and describes the motivations of the project, technical aspects relevant for its development and its synergy with Barcelona ATM’s new ticket sale arrangement. The project paves the way for new technologies, that can extend people’s possibilities of enjoying independent and safe mobility.
Faustino Cuadrado Capitán, Lluís Alegre Valls

Improving Mobility in All Modes

Frontmatter

Community Initiated Hybrid Car-Sharing in Urban and Peri-urban Areas

Abstract
Cities manage a large fleet of vehicles in their daily operations and the vehicles are often unused, especially outside of office hours. In Finland some municipalities have made vehicles they manage available also for the citizens. We analyze how the operationalizing of such schemes we call hybrid car-sharing affect on the one hand, the use for administrative purposes and on the other, residents’ use. Based on the analysis, we propose practical guidelines on setting up such schemes. Hybrid car-sharing schemes are practical especially in areas where traditional car sharing might not be financially viable. The schemes can for example increase the multimodality options for residents’ travel chains, offer possibilities to get acquainted with electric vehicles or allow for car-free lifestyles in sparsely populated areas.
Juha Peltomaa, Anu Tuominen

Mobility Solutions for Cruise Passenger Transfer: An Exploration of Scenarios Using Agent-Based Simulation Models

Abstract
Harbors are complex sociotechnical systems in which several agents are involved. The Port City Model (PCM) is a project that investigates multimodal land transportation related to cruise tourism, focusing on comfort and efficiency from the user perspective. To do so, it combines data analysis and visualization with simulation of future scenarios. The outcome is a software tool running on an interactive hardware platform that simplifies decision-making and facilitates dialogue among the stakeholders involved in the optimization of cruise passenger routes planning. This paper offers a description of the project with special focus on Agent-Based simulations to model flows and routes linking the Hamburg Central Station to different Cruise Terminals.
Jesús López Baeza, Jörg Rainer Noennig, Vanessa Weber, Arnaud Grignard, Ariel Noyman, Kent Larson, Sebastian Saxe, Ulrich Baldauf

TMaaS: An Innovative, Multimodal and User-Centred Approach to Traffic Management

Abstract
The ‘Traffic Management as a Service’ (TMaaS) concept offers traffic management capabilities through a cloud-based platform. Without having to invest heavily in hardware, a city can simply subscribe to the platform in order to gain access to all available – multimodal and real-time – mobility-related data for their territory. TMaaS offers the tools to not only visualize data and manage traffic, but also to communicate with citizens. The platform automatically monitors the data flow and is able to send personalized messages to individual citizens, who in turn can reply to these messages and feed information back to the system. In this paper, we discuss the stakeholder research that was conducted and how it results in user-centred functional and design requirements for the TMaaS platform.
Delphine Grandsart, Evelien Marlier, David Geerts, Kevin Sanders, Sidharta Gautama, Dominique Gillis, Angel J. Lopez

Identifying Demand and Acceptance Drivers for User Friendly Urban Air Mobility Introduction

Abstract
This research aims to develop an assessment framework to analyze the user friendliness of Urban Air Mobility (UAM), a future mode that enables autonomous inner-city, on-demand transport in passenger drones. The relevant demand and acceptance drivers are derived from a meta-analysis of urban mode choice factors and studies on UAM mode choice and acceptance specifically. By applying this framework, the potential of UAM is analyzed in terms of users’ new options in their daily travel behavior, fostering seamless inter- and multi-modal mobility. Considering the factors relevant for gaining users’ confidence, three different operational concepts [UAMaaS (UAM as a service), UAT (Urban Air Taxi) and UAM platinum] are assessed, showing that the concepts answer different user segments’ needs.
Anna Straubinger, Ulrike Kluge, Mengying Fu, Christelle Al Haddad, Kay Olaf Ploetner, Constantinos Antoniou

Maintenance of the Autonomous Train: A Human-Machine Cooperation Framework

Abstract
Researchers and industrialists are working to propose user centric transportation services based on the development of autonomous systems. This paper deals with the evolution of human-machine cooperation processes within such a context. The concept of peer-to-peer cooperation is proposed. Contrarily to classical approaches, the suggested approach considers that an autonomous system is a peer, able to trigger cooperation needs with the human to reach its own objectives. This concept is applied to the maintenance of an autonomous train that cooperates with different maintenance actors. This chapter specifies and proposes first models with an ongoing implementation using augmented reality. An illustrative maintenance situation is finally discussed.
Corentin Gely, Damien Trentesaux, Antoine Le Mortellec

Towards Zero-Emission Mobility

Frontmatter

The Paris Agreement and Zero-Emission Vehicles in Europe: Scenarios for the Road Towards a Decarbonised Passenger Car Fleet

Abstract
A model is presented for estimating the impact on climate change by the European passenger car fleet. Based on real-world CO2 emissions, none of the scenarios allows compliance with the assumed 10% reduction by 2020, relative to 2005. Given a robust policy to limit real-world emissions by 2030, zero-emission sales shares as low as 8% allows a CO2 reduction by 30% by 2030, relative to 2005. This nonetheless requires a quick phase-out of conventional powertrains by 2035 to keep track with the desired decarbonisation by 2050. Therefore, increasing the effort on both a European as a national/regional level to incentivise both the industry and consumers to shift towards zero-emission technology is one of the key challenges on the short-term.
Nils Hooftman, Maarten Messagie, Joeri Van Mierlo, Thierry Coosemans

Deployment of Charging Infrastructure for Battery Electric Buses

Abstract
Battery electric buses (in the following article named as electric buses) are entering the public transport fleets in numerous European cities. Nevertheless some hurdles still have to be cleared on the way towards a comprehensive market launch. Besides issues like additional costs, driving range or specific tender aspects the implementation of the charging infrastructure is an important element of procurement projects. The following article intends to give a comprehensive overview of the assets and drawbacks of the charging strategies depot and opportunity charging. These are based on a brief introduction of the state of the art for each charging strategy. Furthermore practical issues will be covered by good practices from different European cities.
Annette Randhahn, Thoralf Knote

Decentralized Service Platform for Interoperable Electro-Mobility Services Throughout Europe

Abstract
While authorities are moving towards the adoption of more electro-mobility services in urban environments, their application in the real world remains still low due to a number of challenges. The integration of services from different providers using different data formats hinders interoperability; a secure and trustworthy data exchange is needed to preserve the rights of beneficiaries on the shared data. The NeMo project addresses those challenges by providing a decentralized service platform based on a distributed ledger to enable interoperable and secure data flow between service providers throughout Europe. This paper provides details about the architecture, enabling easy integration of electro-mobility services and demonstrates the approach by showing the overall flow from designing to using the electro-mobility services.
Nils Masuch, Elif Eryilmaz, Tobias Küster, Udo Pletat, Johannes Fähndrich, Thodoris Theodoropoulos, Mariza Koukovini, Natalia Selini Hadjidimitriou, Nikolaos Dellas

Measuring and Allocating Scope 3 GHG Emissions

Abstract
Climate change due to increasing carbon dioxide is one of the biggest challenges in the present century. Ameliorating the effect of industry and freight transport sectors is one of the European commission’s priorities, which has set out ambitious targets by 2050. Reaching this goal requires economic actors to be able to monitor and understand the Greenhouse gas emissions at their end-to-end supply chains, both to drive sustainability and to improve efficiency. However, measuring reliable and accurate figures is difficult, especially for companies outsourcing most of their logistics activities. Lack of supply chain visibility and trust are some of the main challenges that information and communication technologies might help overcome.
Beatriz Royo

User-Centric and Seamless Multimodal Mobility

Frontmatter

National and Local Level Policy Coherence for Sustainable Mobility Transitions

Abstract
A user-centric, multimodal and integrated policy and governance approach to sustainable mobility can minimise rebound effects, overcome split-incentives and achieve a higher level of socio-economic co-benefits. National and local interventions need to be complementary and mutually reinforcing to enable the transition towards sustainable mobility. This chapter outlines key elements of a wider strategic national and local policy framework and highlights opportunities to build broader coalitions to create policy continuity.
Oliver Lah

Dreaming of the Travelers’ Experience in 2040: Exploring Governance Strategies and Their Consequences for Personal Mobility Systems

Abstract
The boundaries between collective and individual transport are fading. Current solutions for payment and planning of trips are suboptimal for journeys that span across individual, collective and shared transport modalities. The discussion around these innovations often tends towards public authorities needing to strengthen their integrating role, or towards the private companies developing key innovations. We argue that focusing on only one of these perspectives, either integration or innovation, is likely to lead to what we call ‘subtopias’. Furthermore, we discuss and resolve the conflict between the two roles based on four different scenarios, ranging from nightmare to utopian dream. Our claim is that a balance is needed between, rather than a prevalence for private and public, for integrated and innovative mobility services to manifest themselves. As we see it, authorities will need to direct, harmonize and coordinate specific elements of personal mobility systems in order to be able to facilitate a seamless multi-modal mobility experience for travelers.
W. W. Veeneman, J. I. Van Kuijk, S. Hiemstra-van Mastrigt

Towards Seamless Travelling in Europe – Demand and Approaches to Promote Multimodal Traveling Within Europe

Abstract
Seamless traveling allows individual travelers to extend their mobility radius and – by combing different modes of transport – to use travel time more efficiently. This can result in various advantages on the side of the traveling individual. Caused by more convenient trip planning, it also can result in more trips or in case of disadvantageous combination of travel modes that are not environmentally friendly hence, it also can lead to higher energy consumptions and more emissions. But a central advantage is obvious. A combination of environmentally friendly modes reduces the private car usage. Three European projects were exploring how this can be turned into reality. The assessment of their (interim) results tries to scrutinize major findings on how to realize more multimodality within Europe observing three different spheres: political, informational (traveler) and urban transport planning sphere.
Norman Döge, Michael Abraham

A User and Stakeholder-Driven Approach for Cross-Border, Seamless and Personalised MaaS Provision

Abstract
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is the new transport paradigm where service, transport and technology providers collaborate to deliver a seamless MaaS experience to travellers through the MaaS aggregator/issuer who, frequently, tackles the full service provision; from pre-trip planning to redemption. This manuscript presents the exploration of the design, the implementation and primary usability evaluation of an all-inclusive one stop shop that facilitates the transition to seamless MaaS, elaborating on the supported functions as well as the user/stakeholder centric design of the solution. Hybrid trip planning, matchmaking and personalisation, mobility tokens, business rules and back-office synergies collaborate to lead to a single Mobility Token of combinational MaaS packages for travellers to purchase and use. This work has been conducted in the context of MyCorridor H2020 project, with one of its key results being the recommendations towards a cross-border, inclusive and standardised MaaS.
Maria Gkemou, Maria Anna Devetzoglou, Katerina Touliou, Athanasios Salamanis, Evangelos Bekiaris

Backmatter

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