The implementation of the European Space Code of Conduct and French Space Operation Act raised a requirement to reduce the probability of casualty risk to below 1E-4 from uncontrolled re-entries over inhabited areas. Otherwise, the re-entry shall be controlled by end of life disposal manoeuvre to target safe areas at 2E-5 risk.
The recent game-changing to achieve compliance have been observed on new missions (SWOT, LOFT, METOP-SG…) being obliged to switch from uncontrolled to controlled re-entry strategy. Based on the experience gained working with its customer THALES ALENIA Space, ALTRAN Technologies has formed an internal working group on this topic: Orbital Debris Atmospheric Re-entry (ODAR) and focus on Design for Demise (D4D), Controlled Re-entry (ACR) and research on innovative solutions.
The intention of this paper is to summarise current state of art on both techniques in order provide guidelines and recommendations to help in the trade-off for this issue:
Design for Demise impacts on S/C systems
Controlled Re-entry impacts effects on S/C systems
Trade-Off on S/C Critical Mass and orbit mission