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About this book

The book focuses on key emerging areas concerning flexible systems management as an approach for transforming organizations. It is divided into three parts, discussing Enterprise Flexibility and Performance Management; Transformational Strategies and Organizational Competitiveness; and Supply Chain Flexibility. Part I addresses the integration aspects of learning, innovation, and entrepreneurship for organizational success, performance gains through cross-border acquisitions, flexibility measurement, and organizational competitiveness, impact of disinvestment, employability gaps and sustainable growth. Part II then examines risk governance structure, supporting culture, channel collaboration, waste management, IT-based process re-engineering, HR flexibility and adoption of big data as transformational strategies. Lastly, the third part investigates the development of a framework for a green flexible manufacturing system, measuring the effect of supply chain design on firm performance, exploring and ranking logistics service providers’ best practices, and exploring the relationship between optimism and career planning in the context of manufacturing sector, and analyzes customers’ emotional engagement and their inclinations towards the brand. The concept of flexibility is a common thread running through the three parts. The book is supported by both quantitative- and qualitative-based research as well as case applications relating to different areas of government and profit and not for profit organizations. Written by leading academics and practitioners, it is a useful resource for management students, scholars, consultants and practicing managers in both government and corporate sectors.

Table of Contents


Enterprise Flexibility and Performance Management


Chapter 1. Generic Flexibility Evaluation Model

The ability to cope up with the uncertain environment is shaped by organizational flexibility. The flexible organizations sustain the competitive advantage over the period of time. The flexibility in different contexts essentially induces speed and agility in organizational processes. The flexibility evaluation mechanism will help organizations to measure and enhance the organizational flexibility. This study proposes a generalized flexibility evaluation mechanism demonstrated by an example of workforce flexibility measurement by analyzing the impact of flexibility enablers and the business environment. The workforce flexibility contributes significantly to versatility, responsiveness, and the ability of employees to move between jobs. The flexibility evaluation mechanisms available in the literature are industry, organization, and context-specific and not generic in nature and ignore the impact of the business environment.
Sanjai Kumar Shukla, Sushil

Chapter 2. Strategic Flexibility Through Cross-Border Acquisitions: Market Response in Indian Context

The global business organizations are virtually bound to possess strategic flexibility to confront the prevalent economic settings characterized by high volatility and fierce competition. Viewed from this perspective, cross-border acquisitions have become a critical constituent of expansion strategies for corporates, especially in emerging economies. This chapter proposes to evaluate the behavior of capital market around the announcement of international takeovers by firms from emerging economies. To meet these objectives, 110 overseas mergers undertaken by Indian companies over the period from 2012 to 2015 constitute the sample of the study. It has been observed that bidders, on an average, earn positive and statistically significant abnormal returns of 0.49% on the event day. Also, cumulative average abnormal returns (CAAR) examined over alternative period windows indicate significant value creation for Indian bidders. Moreover, the gains are more pronounced when the acquired firm is based in developed markets. This research work endeavors to enhance the understanding of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) by enterprises from emerging markets (like India).
Samta Jain, Smita Kashiramka, P. K. Jain

Chapter 3. Impact of Disinvestment on Transforming the Performance of Indian Public Enterprises

To improve the commercial strength and bridge the fiscal deficit, the government of India has adopted a flexible system to transform the performance of public enterprises through the route of disinvestment in the 1990s. The chapter is intended to determine the financial strength of the government enterprises referred to as central public sector enterprises (CPEs) after disinvestment during more than two decades. The chapter also analyzes the degree of disinvestment effect on the improvement of the disinvested CPEs. The findings suggest that disinvestment has not brought much change in the parameters of profitability, assets turnover, and capacity utilization even after 8 years of disinvestment; an increase is observed only in the parameters of productivity and liquidity. The improved performance in respect of liquidity, leverage, inventory holding period (IHP), and productivity has been noted due to the higher degree of disinvestment in the disinvested CPEs.
Seema Gupta, P. K. Jain, Surendra S. Yadav

Chapter 4. Effect of Vital Organizational Processes on Flexibility

The business scenario has changed a lot in the current knowledge era. Uncertainty and complexity in the environment are changing day by day due to globalization, more informed customers, technological advancement, and availability of a skilled workforce. Satisfying the varied and changing customers’ demands is one of the key parameters to decide about organization survival and growth. Flexibility gives strength to an organization for managing these changes. Learning, innovation and entrepreneurship are the three vital processes for organization success and affect the degree of flexibility. This chapter has explored the integration aspects of learning, innovation, and entrepreneurship with a focus on flexibility. This empirical study has been done based on the survey conducted on selected companies from IT and automobile industry in India. Stepwise regression method has been used to analyze the effect of the three identified processes on flexibility aspects. The final integrated model explains the effect of learning, innovation, and entrepreneurship factors on flexibility.
Sumant Kumar Bishwas, Sushil

Chapter 5. Employers’ Perception on the Antecedents of Graduate Employability for the Information Technology Sector

This chapter aims to analyze the perceptions of the employers in the Information Technology (IT) sector in India on the antecedents of graduate employability. With an increased emphasis on organizational flexibility in today’s volatile and complex business environment, the employability of the workforce has gained crucial significance. Flexibility has been acknowledged as a predictor of organizational performance (Sushil, Global J Flex Syst Manag 16(4):309–311, 2015) and its strategic driver (Sharma et al., Global J Flex Syst Manag 11(3):51–68, 2010). Flexible strategies and business plan often demand the need to scale up the quality of manpower or shift the required skill set to swiftly adapt to the market changes accordingly. This flexibility is not confined to the quantity of manpower only but also encompasses the quality of skills deployed by the manpower (Srivastava, Global J Flex Syst Manag 17(1):105–108, 2016). Therefore, it is imperative for the potential job seekers to understand and continuously adapt to the changing knowledge and skill requirements of the employers to develop and maintain their employability. The employers in this dynamic sector demand a range of knowledge, skills, and other attributes from potential job seekers. However, the graduates passing out of higher education institutions fail to meet these expectations of the employers. Therefore, the sector is struggling with the challenges of talent crunch and qualitative demand–supply mismatch of manpower. The identification of factors that influence graduate employability is based on literature review. This chapter is empirical and examines the perceptions of the employers on the factors that impact employability and validates the association between the research constructs. Opinion surveys are used to elicit responses from a sample of 236 respondents, i.e., technical/HR personnel at the middle-level/upper middle-level management positions spanning across 71 reputed IT companies in India. These respondents are actively involved in the staffing of graduates seeking technical jobs in IT sector. The perception of these employers has been investigated using bivariate and multivariate analysis techniques. The key insights drawn in this chapter enable potential job seekers to clearly understand the employer demands in the IT sector and equip themselves with the required knowledge and skills. This also contributes to enhancing the manpower flexibility in organizations. The chapter has significant implications for the policy-makers and key stakeholders to bridge the employability gap in this sector.
Nidhi Sehgal, Saboohi Nasim

Transformational Strategies and Organizational Competitiveness


Chapter 6. Big Data: Enabling Transformation Through Empowerment

Macro variables influencing the performance of e-governance projects using big data were identified through a review of literature. Experts from the domain were interviewed for further inputs. A research questionnaire was developed, and the survey was conducted to measure the performance of e-governance projects and S-A-P variables in the context of the selected project of CGHS under Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW). Survey data were analyzed to assess the influence of S-A-P variables on the performance of e-governance projects using big data. The analysis revealed that the e-governance projects using big data with a high value of conceptualized S-A-P variables are characterized by high performance. This implies that conceptualized S-A-P variables for big data do influence the performance of e-governance projects. Also, the citizen empowerment is enhanced through citizen participation. The chapter proposed a framework that was conceptualized on the basis of a pilot study for a G2C e-governance projects like CGHS. It may be a good idea to study more such e-governance projects making use of big data to validate and generalize the proposed framework. Also, though GCHS does have a huge set of data, it is still not being analyzed to the fullest to support citizen-centric services. The analysis results may be relevant to the policy-makers or practitioners for e-governance projects to improve the performance of the implementation of these projects. This may be further compared with similar projects in health care like DGEHS run by Delhi government. This is of much relevance to the academicians.
Charu Verma, P. K. Suri

Chapter 7. E-Assessment—A Digital Solution for Promoting e-Governance

Department of Commercial Taxes, Government of Uttar Pradesh, follows one extract from VidurNiti that quotes “The King should collect his taxes without hurting his subjects even as a bee collects honey without harming the flowers”. Considering the same, one digital solution VarnijYakar Automation System (VYAS), has been designed and developed for computerization of various services of the department. A person (dealer), who does trading in Uttar Pradesh State, needs to get registered and acquire a Trader Identification Number (TIN) from the Department, if the dealer is liable to pay taxes according to the legal rules of trading. Enforcement division of the department carries out the audit and assessment of dealers with the objective of reducing tax evasion and enhance the State Revenue. E-Assessment is an important automation under VYAS for the purpose of assessing the registered dealers. The assessment is done on the basis of the returns filed by them with respect the sales/purchases done as part of trading in the state of Uttar Pradesh . Integration of E-Assessment and Recovery Challan/Certificate (RC) Registers automation completes the entire assessment procedure. This has eliminated the repetitive task of typing same language for issuing notice/orders for different dealers. It ensures timely delivery of notices/orders to dealers that enable them to take appropriate actions in time so as not to receive penalty or adverse consequences therein. Recovery Challan certificates are issued with raised additional demand as per the returns filed in respective assessment year. Various registers related to assessment like RC-Recovery Challan (Register R3), Court Cases for appeal against RC (Register R6), RC which have got returned (Register R27), Issued notices (R5A register), and Issued orders (R5B register) are also generated. Digitally signed notices and orders are served to dealers on its registered mobile number and email as URL, clicking on which, the notice/order gets displayed to them which they can save as PDF on their mobiles or desktop. The issued notices, order and RCs are made available on personalized Services Portal of dealer. In the country, Uttar Pradesh (UP) is the only State to implement Online Assessment with the feature of issuing digitally signed orders/notices online. The state unit of National Informatics Centre (NIC) (www.​nic.​in) has extended technical support for this challenging e-governance project.
Saurabh Gupta, Ashesh Agarwal, Amita Srivastava

Chapter 8. Giving off a Rosy Glow: Exploring the Link Between Self-efficacy Optimism, Personal Optimism and Career Planning in Indian Sub-continent

In the era of career transition, to have a positive orientation and knowledge about the factors that support a successful career planning is vital. The current article analysis the association between self-efficacy optimism, personal optimism and career planning . The study analyzed a sample of 283 managers working in the public and private manufacturing sector. The current chapter applied correlation and regression techniques to analyze the optimism-career planning relationship. The results specified that there is a significant relationship among optimism (measured by self-efficacy optimism, personal optimism ) and career planning . The findings and results were discussed, and future research recommendations were also addressed.
Teena Bharti, Santosh Rangnekar

Chapter 9. Technology-Driven Workplace Transformation

Advancements in the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has transformed the traditional workplaces into digital workplaces. Human resource is regarded as a significant asset in terms of skills and abilities. Flexibility in managing human resources is an important aspect of organizational productivity. With new technologies and digitization, organizations require a flexible system in its portfolio which will encourage employees with multiple job skills and abilities to prove themselves in a result driven environment. In this paper, we present a framework that facilitates interrelationship between human resource flexibility and organizational effectiveness. Further, we establish the possible role of organizational citizenship behavior and employee interest to stay with the organization.
Annapurna, A. Guruprasad, Y. Satyanarayana Murty

Chapter 10. Supportive Culture: A Transformational Strategy

The volatile, uncertain and challenging global business environment has resulted in organizations adopting innovative strategies to enhance their performance and sustain their competitive advantage. Organizations are trying to develop and sustain a culture which is flexible and can provide them with a strong foundation. This chapter tries to examine the relationship between supportive culture and job satisfaction mediated by stress and career advancement by using the data collected from women employees of call centres located in Delhi and NCR. Multiple regression is used both for analyzing the data and testing the hypotheses. The findings indicate the significance of supportive culture in enhancing the satisfaction of women employees in call centres in India.
Monica Verma

Chapter 11. Framework for Sustainable Healthcare Waste Management in India

Healthcare sector has witnessed a significant development in the past few decades, which led to relieve people from epidemics, diminished mortality rate, and enhanced patient care across the world. With this improved patient care, the generation of huge waste with hazardous, infectious, and toxic elements has shown tremendous growth. The management and disposal of this huge waste could be suitably carried out if the entire system of healthcare waste disposal would have been designed in a flexible scenario. The flexibility in healthcare waste disposal system has a vital place as it helps in meeting the exponential and uncertain need for waste disposal. Today, healthcare waste management is a major concern for governments across the world. Reports have been released regularly by various international and local bodies for creating awareness about the hazardous impact of healthcare waste on humans and animals. World Health Organization (WHO) has been actively playing a role in improving the situation of healthcare waste management by seamlessly emphasizing on the significance of creating awareness, technological and managerial solutions. The technological innovations are majorly unaffordable for adoption for the management of healthcare waste in developing countries whereas the effective managerial solutions are not available to the key decision makers, that is, hospitals and healthcare waste disposal firms, for implementation. Hence, in the present chapter, the flexible framework for effective healthcare waste disposal has been developed and presented.
Ankur Chauhan

Chapter 12. Sentiment Analysis: An Effective Way of Interpreting Consumer’s Inclinations Towards a Brand

Sentiment analysis is an analytical technique, which classifies textual data and collates it into clusters of text that contains opinions on a certain topic, post,/news, etc. It has been used to find consumer or user sentiments on various platforms, but very few studies have done any such analysis in the context of Facebook Brand Pages (FBPs). This chapter aims to shed light on the usage and applicability of the said technique to understand consumers sentiments through analysis of their comments on Facebook Brand Pages (FBPs) owned and moderated by Pepsi®. The data collected was further analyzed to understand the inclination of the consumer sentiments from two perspectives, i.e., negative and positive. It further discusses the analyses and presents the inference concerning the comments and the sentiments of consumers/users toward the social media engagement of the FBP moderated by Pepsi®. This chapter will help the marketers to understand the customer’s emotional engagement and their inclinations toward the promotion/brand.
Anurag Tiruwa, Rajan Yadav, P. K. Suri

Supply Chain Flexibility


Chapter 13. Channel Collaboration in E-commerce: A Study on Channel Relationship from the Perspective of Vendors Selling on Online Platforms, the E-retailers

Businesses today are getting agile with the infusion of new age information and communication technologies. In order to achieve business excellence, firms must possess strategic flexibility. They should focus not just on launching innovative products and services but also focus on how to deliver it or how to make it available to the market. In order to ride the uncertainty of the business environment and the risk associated with the same, firms must have strategic flexibility in marketing, finance, operations, information technology, and supply chain. Marketing flexibility can be realized by having channel collaboration in the value chain so that the value chain become more adaptive, responsive and sustainable. Marketers, therefore, today are exploring all possibilities of inter or intra-firm collaborations and coming up with business solutions with the sole objective of creating customer value. One such collaboration which has transcended all business boundaries and is transforming the landscape of the business in the twenty-first century is e-commerce. Fuelled by the meteoric growth in the advancement of communication and information technology, e-commerce has come about as an important marketing channel, which firms can no longer ignore. Indian e-commerce is pegged to reach the staggering US $35 bn by 2020. These online exchanges through the Internet are bringing together buyers and sellers in an interesting manner, which has not been witnessed earlier. Amazon Flipkart, Snapdeal, and many others in their marketplace model have collaborated with a huge set of vendors across the country for supplying goods and services to the end consumer. Amazon and Flipkart had more than 1,00,000 registered vendors in January 2017!! In this context, this chapter attempts to investigate the nature of collaboration between the vendors and the e-retailers and identify important elements of their trade relationship which contributes to general satisfaction in this electronic channel relationship.
Rajan Yadav, Swati Bhatnagar

Chapter 14. Examining Adoption of eNAM Platform for Transforming Agricultural Marketing in India

E-commerce is a well-known global success phenomenon, and it is also gaining popularity in Indian Agriculture sector in the form of B2B e-commerce. The electronic National Agricultural Marketing (eNAM) initiative of the Government of India is emerging as a viable solution to the highly fragmented and inefficient supply chain about agricultural marketing in India. This B2B E-commerce platform provides more sale options to farmers, increase direct access to markets, reduce intermediation costs and promote common procedures, scientific storage, and quality grading within a better supply chain. To realize the benefits of eNAM, its high adoption is a prerequisite. In this chapter, the constructs “Performance Expectancy”, “Effort Expectancy”, “Social Influence”, “Facilitating Conditions”, “Behavioural Intention”, “Trust”, and “Cost” of the adoption framework relevant to the Indian agriculture sector are discussed with the support of a pilot study. The relationship between the adoption factors and intention to adopt is analyzed using analysis of data collected through an opinion survey conducted in the Meerut wholesale market in Uttar Pradesh (UP). It is expected that the study helps in understanding the online behavior of adopters and help bring more and more participants to the National Agricultural Marketing B2B platform for its eventual success.
Sanjay Chaudhary, P. K. Suri

Chapter 15. Prioritizing Best Practices for Logistics Service Providers

Due to globalization and fast growing e-commerce businesses, the scale of Logistics Service Providers (LSPs) in India is expected to increase. LSPs support their client organizations to provide a smooth and timely delivery of goods. LSPs provide flexibility in their processes to meet the dynamic requirements of their customers. In this chapter, there is an attempt to identify the best practices followed by Indian LSPs and to rank the identified best practices. The best practices have been categorized into four major categories, that is strategic, operational, technical, and societal, based on literature review and opinion of experts. Further, twenty best practices were identified as subcategories under above-defined categories. The experts were asked to rate the 20 factors as per their importance. Further, to rank the best practices, a fuzzy AHP approach was applied. Based on priority weights, different categories were ranked in decreasing order as Operational (0.45), Strategic (0.41), Technical (0.10), and Societal (0.03). It has been observed from the study that the top 4 most important factors among all the 20 factors are safe delivery of shipments, use of eco-friendly fleet, reduction in carbon emission, and timely delivery. The study is likely to assist organizations in familiarizing with the strengths and practices used by Indian LSPs so that they can set up their perceptions and expect for their fulfillment. The research is also expected to help unorganized and budding LSPs to recognize their weak factors, which require further improvement and can excel to fulfill the dynamic market needs.
Anchal Gupta, Rajesh Kumar Singh, P. K. Suri

Chapter 16. Framework for Green Flexible Manufacturing System

The growth of a country significantly depends on its economic health of the manufacturing sector. The product design and product models change very frequently with reducing product life cycle. It is becoming a challenge for the manufacturers to fulfill the market requirements without affecting the environment. This chapter develops the framework for a green flexible manufacturing system (GFMS). It consists of the application of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs ), green process design and green product design as major components of the framework. AHP (Analytic hierarchy process) has been used for ranking of different factors. It has been observed that green product design has the highest ranking for green flexible manufacturing system. It is followed by green process design and application of AMTs.
Dimple Bhandari, Rajesh Kumar Singh, S. K. Garg


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