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About this book

This book provides an overview of contemporary trends and challenges in maritime energy management (MEM). Coordinated action is necessary to achieve a low carbon and energy-efficient maritime future, and MEM is the prevailing framework aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions resulting from maritime industry activities. The book familiarizes readers with the status quo in the field, and paves the way for finding solutions to perceived challenges. The 34 contributions cover six important aspects: regulatory framework; energy-efficient ship design; energy efficient ship and port operation; economic and social dimensions; alternative fuels and wind-assisted ship propulsion; and marine renewable energy. This pioneering work is intended for researchers and academics as well as practitioners and policymakers involved in this important field.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Introduction to Maritime Energy Management

The motivational factors such as IMO regulations, Economic and Business drivers have led the maritime industry to become (more) energy efficient in the way ships are designed, as well as in the way seagoing vessels are operated and maintained. Maritime energy management is accepted at IMO and within the wider maritime community to be the main mechanism to serve the purpose of reducing GHGs and thereby increasing energy efficiency. This introductory chapter provides an overview of the fundamentals of maritime energy management discipline: from motivation to basic definitions to technical/operational measures to barriers to trade-off and so on. The Editors believe that this book will position itself as a pioneering work to familiarize the reader with trends in the maritime energy management field as well as finding solutions to overcome the related challenges.

Aykut I. Ölçer

Editorial Conclusion

This chapter addresses what comes next in the Maritime Energy Management (MEM) domain and how to participate in the development of future MEM research. In this regard, three important developments are presented: Maritime Energy Management Research Strategy; MARENER 2017 Conference evaluation study; and the role of MEM in Research and Innovation for Sustainable Maritime Transportation.

Aykut I. Ölçer, Momoko Kitada, Dimitrios Dalaklis, Fabio Ballini

Regulations: Challenges and Opportunities

Frontmatter

MARPOL Energy Efficiency: Verging on Legal Inefficiency?

This chapter discusses legal aspects pertaining to the vessel Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP), which have been mandated since January 1, 2013, as a result of amendments to Annex VI of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocols of 1978 and 1997 thereto (MARPOL). It provides a historical recount of the development of MARPOL leading up to an analysis of EEDI and SEEMP, particularly as regards their apparent lack of enforceability. A further analysis is examing the arguable ineffectiveness of the rules in ultimately reaching the set goal of reducing air emissions from shipping. Finally, the standing of EEDI and SEEMP in ship chartering, building and sale transactions is examined against the backdrop of standard maritime law clauses. It is ultimately argued that the MARPOL requirements are likely to prove legally inefficient.

Aref Fakhry, Belma Bulut

Analyzing Approaches to Set Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets in Anticipation of Potential “Further Measures” for International Shipping

Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement, Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have submitted their intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) containing quantified emission reduction targets. Also, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has adopted global aspirational goals for the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the international aviation sector. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is facing an ever-increasing challenge: to define its contribution for the global efforts to tackle climate change by setting a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction target for international shipping.This chapter aims to identify the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches to set the GHG reduction targets for international shipping, taking into account the specific circumstances relating to the shipping industry and developments in other sectors, i.e., the UNFCCC and ICAO, in order to find the appropriate way forward. It also aims to consider the relationship between the reduction target and potential “further measures” for GHG reductions, in view of ensuring a deliberate decision-making process. The added value of this effort lies in its methodology to qualitatively assess different approaches for target-setting in accordance with the criteria used to evaluate climate policies.The conclusion is that careful consideration would be necessary, taking into account the science-based required reduction level, the targets set in other sectors, the reduction potential of international shipping and its distinctive role in world economy in order to set a fair, ambitious and achievable reduction target for international shipping.

Seijiro Morimoto

An Analysis of Non-conformities with the Objective of Improving Ship Energy Efficiency: Case Studies of Turkish Shipping Companies

Global trade depends heavily on the shipping industry due to its capacity, connectivity and reliability. According to United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), more than eighty percent of world goods trade by volume is carried by sea and handled by ports worldwide. Unfortunately, the functioning of the shipping industry is creating increased fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As a result, both environmental and economic concerns have increased demand for improved energy efficiency in shipping, via the application of appropriate energy efficiency measures.In any case, chemical tankers transport large amounts of chemicals because most goods include petrochemical compounds. There are different types of inspections for chemical tankers performed by classification societies, flag states, port states and industries due to their disastrous impacts on human life and the environment. In this study, Ship Inspection Report Programme (SIRE) inspections made by independent chemical cargo companies are analyzed; Turkish tanker companies’ SIRE inspection results between 2006 and 2016 provide the necessary data. Ship engine and steering compartments related deficiencies and their root causes are identified and analyzed statistically. Non-conformities and application of measures to the engine and steering compartments of the ship that affect ship energy consumption are discussed.

Özcan Arslan, Elif Bal Beşikçi, Fırat Bolat, Koray Yaş

Real Time Awareness for MRV Data

The European Union (EU) has recently proposed a system for monitoring, reporting and verifying (MRV) of CO2 emissions in relation to large ships that are using its ports. These ships would thereby be obliged to monitor four parameters on a voyage basis: fuel consumption, distance travelled, time spent at sea and cargo carried. The monitored parameters would need to be verified; different indicators based on these parameters would have to be reported on an annual basis. In the current analysis, a real time system based on complex event processing for early detection of the risks associated with this MRV framework is put forward. Stream reasoning is an approach that can be used if information (in the form of assertions) arrives as a stream of (time stamped) inputs. The specific architecture considers events from a finite time window and not only at a single instant. This approach has two distinctive features that could improve the overall performance of the system, as well as the quality of data handling: the associated knowledge base can be continuously updated and the reasoning goals are continuously re-evaluated as new assertions arrive. A conceptual framework to facilitate MRV anomaly detection in order to help ships to early identify and correct arising risks is presented. In order to ensure resilience, techniques associated with airport electronic data real time risk assessment provide the underlying foundation.

Nikitas Nikitakos, Dimitrios Dalaklis, Petros Siousiouras

Overcoming the Challenges to Maritime Energy Efficiency in the Caribbean

Maritime energy efficiency in the Caribbean appears to be predicated on two key requirements: (a) regulatory controls over the vessels operating in the region and (b) the availability and use of efficient technology. While many Caribbean countries/territories have ratified MARPOL Annex VI, implementation of the standards therein, presents challenges that are familiar to maritime administrators of the region. These challenges include insufficient resources and inadequate implementation of relevant standards, which have traditionally plagued the region. The paucity of data and monitoring in this part of the world also contributes to ineffective policy interventions. There is also a need to identify the gap between existing and available technology in the Caribbean. The myriad of state agencies and private sector actors involved in facilitating maritime operations represent an untapped resource. More effective use of Flag, Port and Coastal State control measures, alongside incentives for compliance and technology transfer may hold the key for success. The analysis at hand will explore avenues to rationalize existing resources and provide an approach that is sui generis to the region. Guided by MARPOL Annex VI requirements, a unique approach, when suitably designed and implemented will provide incentives towards energy efficient maritime operations.

Vivian Rambarath-Parasram, Sukhjit Singh, Deniece Aiken

Energy Efficient Operations of Warships: Perspective of the Indian Navy

Naval fleets comprise a wide range of vessels, such as Aircraft Carriers, Cruisers, Destroyers, Frigates, Corvettes, Patrol Vessels and Fleet Tankers; these ships have varied patterns of energy usage based on their roles and assigned missions. These combatants usually have high power density plants installed for propulsive and electrical power loads, which are more focused on achieving operational objectives than being emission “friendly”. The Indian Navy (IN), a rapidly growing force with an intensive shipbuilding program underway, has launched a ‘Green Initiatives Program’ to optimize energy use across its fleet as well as shore support organizations, without compromising on the effectiveness of naval operations. IN endeavors to make its designs, shipbuilding outcomes and even modes of operations more energy efficient and thus achieve reduction in energy consumption/use. It has already launched measures aimed at both technological and behavioral changes. The analysis at hand aims to highlight the perspective and overall measures that IN has taken or intends to introduce towards its “green objectives”. Furthermore, how the work being undertaken globally in all spheres of technology, by commercial, non-governmental and governmental agencies to reduce the emission footprints of commercial ships can be applied directly or indirectly towards that direction is also discussed.

Amit Batra, Rohit Prakash

Mexico’s Reorganisation of Maritime Security Regime: A New Role for the Navy and Emphasis on Energy Related Infrastructures

The International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) member-States have a strong and invested interest in securing their energy supply routes and interrelated ports; preventing incidents in relation to this type of infrastructure is essential for commerce and requires careful planning and action. Apart from ensuring the optimal use of energy resources through energy efficiency initiatives and policies, eliminating (or, at least reducing) losses that are related to theft and/or subversive actions associated with terrorism is essential for national security reasons. The legal framework used by the United Mexican States government to shift the National Maritime Authority from a civil institution (Ministry of Communications and Transport, MCT) toward a military one (Ministry of Marine, MMAR) provides the starting point of the analysis at hand. Previous failures of the country’s Maritime Designated Authority are associated with an extended number of security incidents and various accidents. In an attempt to improve the country’s maritime safety and security regimes, a relevant Presidential Decree—approved in December 2016—transferred the oversight of all Masters of Harbours from MCT to MMAR. Research activities on the field testify that this initiative achieved high acceptance rates between the four pillars of representatives of authorities/institutions directly related to duties and operations within these two important domains, a prerequisite for success. Apart from the recent Decree, extensive reforms to several laws are still necessary to ensure an improved maritime security apparatus. The National Congress has focused heavily on port security and has rather neglected to consider that part of the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code) regarding Ship Security Plans and all its contents related to vessels since the previous reform in 2014. It is also noteworthy that the Decree is unnecessarily complicating the tasks of the Maritime Authority; while it designates the MMAR as the National Maritime Authority, it provides the tasks of Port Authority (including port-state’s privileges and obligations) to MCT. This could potentially impact negatively on the conduct of operations in the future and indicates a need for improvement in the implementation process of IMO’s instruments into national legislation. Amendments to regulations concerning security of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) and other offshore installations should also be considered for inclusion in the types of vessels obliged to comply with the ISPS Code, since a poor security situation in that category would also strongly affect the Mexican oil energy market.

Adriana Avila-Zuñiga Nordfjeld, Dimitrios Dalaklis

Energy Efficient Ship Design

Frontmatter

Numerical Studies on Added Resistance and Ship Motions of KVLCC2 in Waves

In this study, numerical simulations for the prediction of added resistance and ship motions at various ship speed for the KVLCC2 vessel are presented. These simulations are conducted using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method and a 3-D potential method, both in regular head seas. Numerical analysis is focused on the added resistance and the vertical ship motions (heave and pitch motions) for a wide range of wave conditions at stationary, operating and design speeds. Firstly, the characteristics of the CFD and the 3-D potential flow method are presented. Simulations of various wave conditions at design speed are used as a validation study, and then simulations are carried out at stationary condition and at operating speed. Secondly, unsteady wave patterns and time history results of the added resistance and the ship motions are simulated and analysed at each ship speed using the CFD tool. Thirdly, the relationship between the added resistance and the vertical ship motions and the non-linear effects such as green water on deck, and non-linear ship motions are investigated. Systematic studies of the numerical computations against the available Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD) data are conducted as well as grid convergence tests, to show that the numerical results have a reasonable agreement with the EFD results in the prediction of added resistance and ship motions in waves.

Mingyu Kim, Osman Turan, Sandy Day, Atilla Incecik

An Investigation of Fuel Efficiency in High Speed Vessels by Using Interceptors

In the initial step of ship design, it is helpful to perform preliminary design and analysis on many ship configurations. One of the most important analyses is power prediction analysis. To be more efficient in powering, hydrodynamic optimization using energy saving devices is a growing field of interest in many areas of ship design. To calculate the propulsion power for a vessel, the resistance has to be determined with the highest possible accuracy. It is of practical importance to include sinkage and trim effects in the calculation of the wetted surface and so calculation of ship resistance for high-speed marine vessels. Wetted surface area varies significantly with speed, so approximate dynamic wetted area was estimated using distance laser meters, photography and 3D CAD/CAM software. Interceptors are employed in this research since they have been widely used in recent years in fast passenger ferries, high-speed motor yachts, sailing yachts, high speed fishing vessels, and military crafts. The main reasons for using interceptors are for ride and trim control, and for steering. By controlling trim during the voyage, a remarkable water resistance reduction can be achieved. The drag reduction varies by speed and by vessel type. In this study the results of preliminary experiments conducted in Istanbul Technical University’s Towing Tank are given. The experimental results revealed a noticeable reduction in total resistance over a broad speed range between Fn = 0.116 and Fn = 1.302, with benefits of 1.5–14%, and the trim reductions observed are 1.6° and 4.7°. The improvements observed are much larger at higher speeds. Also, a multiple regression analysis is utilized to make suitable predictions of the CT. The suggested model predicted the total resistance coefficient CT quite well, with an average error, compared to the model experiments, of 6.9% in chine location of the interceptor.

Ahmet G. Avci, Baris Barlas, Aykut I. Ölçer

A Decision Support System for Energy Efficient Ship Propulsion

Energy efficiency measures for cargo ships can be categorized into design and operation based measures. The majority of design measures are based on hull form optimization, propulsion system selection and speed optimization. Operational measures are mainly based on selecting the optimized speed, trim, propeller pitch and rpm for energy efficiency. These measures should be applied onboard according to the loading conditions and weather and sea state conditions, such as wave height and direction, and wind speed and direction. The variety of alternatives requires an online decision support system, as the alternatives cannot be placed in a simple guideline or booklet. Such decision support systems are mainly based on the system identification approach to data obtained during voyages in various conditions. Although these systems can be mounted into any ship connected to several online monitoring sensors, they do not generally contain sufficient ship specific knowledge; hence their performance is based on the ship conditions generated during the learning phase of the decision support system.A new decision support system is proposed based on the calculation of viscous resistance by RANS CFD, wave resistance by BEM/RANS CFD, propulsion efficiency by RANS CFD, resistance increase in waves by Strip Theory, wind resistance by RANS CFD, and resistance increase due to rudder actions by RANS CFD. All these parameters are calculated before the installation of the decision support system and correlated during the sea trial voyages with actual voyage conditions. Ship trim, draft, propeller pitch and rpm are optimized for energy efficiency in different weather conditions. A pilot application is applied into a Ro-Ro ship and sea trials are conducted for validation.

Mustafa Insel, Serhan Gokcay, Ahmet Ziya Saydam

Energy Integration of Organic Rankine Cycle, Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Scrubber

The vast majority of ships trafficking the oceans are fuelled by residual oil with sulphur high content, which produces sulphur oxides (SOx) when combusted. Additionally, the high pressures and temperatures in modern diesel engines also produce nitrogen oxides (NOx). These emissions are both a hazard to health and the local environment, and regulations enforced by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) are driving the maritime sector towards the use of either distillate fuels containing less sulphur, or the use of exhaust gas cleaning devices. Two common techniques for removing SOx and limiting NOx are the open loop wet scrubber and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). A scrubber and EGR installation reduces the overall efficiency of the system as it needs significant pumping power, which means that the exhaust gases are cleaner but at the expense of higher CO2 emissions. In this paper we propose a method to integrate an exhaust gas cleaning device for both NOx and SOx with an organic Rankine cycle for Waste Heat Recovery (WHR), thereby enhancing the system efficiency. We investigate three ORC configurations, integrated with the energy flows from both an existing state-of-the-art EGR system and an additional open loop wet scrubber.

Fredrik Ahlgren, Marcus Thern, Magnus Genrup, Maria E. Mondejar

Lighting Standards for Ships and Energy Efficiency

Through the significant effects of lighting on human psychology, adequate lighting on board provides morale and motivation to a ship’s crew therefore improving performance. This chapter aims to explore simultaneously the issues of energy efficiency and optimal lighting, considering existing regulations on shipboard lighting with the determination of adequate lighting for crew. After a brief introduction, in the first part, preferred lighting tendencies are discussed on a maritime regulatory basis, including international maritime conventions compared with International Labor Organization 92/133 Conventions. The second part defines optimal lighting for crew accommodation and working areas by demonstrating an example of a river–type vessel. The third part emphasizes alternative energy sources, such as natural lighting methods, that could create remarkable energy efficiency on the selected river–type vessel. In conclusion, in order to provide optimal lighting for human comfort onboard, alternative energy sources should be fully exploited, with natural lighting methods standing out. Of course artificial lighting will still be there, but any reduction of energy consumption on board a vessel will contribute to energy efficiency.

Efe Akyurek

Energy Efficient Ship and Port Operation

Frontmatter

An Integrated Vessel Performance System for Environmental Compliance

International and regional regulatory developments like the IMO data collection and reporting system and the European Union (EU) system for monitoring, reporting and verifying (MRV) CO2 emissions will require ship operators to report specific data like the total annual fuel consumption by fuel type, CO2 emissions, distance travelled, time spent at sea and other relevant informations. In light of increasing pressure from the maritime industry on the EU to initiate, without delay, the review process specified in the EU MRV Regulation and aimed at aligning the EU with the IMO system, ship operators are already seeking compliance solutions.This paper summarizes the current challenges for ship operators and highlights areas within the existing procedures and systems that need to be assessed to ensure compliance. Areas include fuel measurement procedures, quality assurance of measuring devices and the IT infrastructure, data flow and control activities and existing reporting systems. Emphasis is also placed on the use of available data for benchmarking and analysis of vessel and environmental performance. This represents a significant opportunity for ship operators to achieve compliance with the forthcoming regulations, while reducing operational costs and coping with the additional administrative burden in an efficient manner.

Soren Hansen, Stamatis Fradelos

Energy Efficient Ship Operation Through Speed Optimisation in Various Weather Conditions

Speed optimisation or speed management has been an attractive topic in the shipping industry for a long time. Traditional methods rely on masters’ experience. Some recent methods are more efficient but have many constraints, which preclude obtaining an optimum speed profile. This paper introduces a relatively advanced model for global speed optimisation towards energy efficient shipping in various weather conditions and shows the effect when the method is employed. With this model, if a ship type, departure and destination ports and fixed ETA (Estimated Time Arrival) are given, the stakeholders can be provided with a more reasonable speed operation plan for a certain commercial route, which leads to lower fuel consumption. Weather conditions and, hence, routing plays a very important role in this process. Several case studies over different shipping conditions are considered to validate the model.

Tong Cui, Benjamin Howett, Mingyu Kim, Ruihua Lu, Yigit Kemal Demirel, Osman Turan, Sandy Day, Atilla Incecik

Underlying Risks Possibly Related to Power/Manoeuvrability Problems of Ships: The Case of Maritime Accidents in Adverse Weather Conditions

The establishment of regulatory requirements from the International Maritime Organization to effectively control and limit toxic gas emissions from ships has sparked a debate on whether ships are adequately equipped to safely operate in various weather conditions when complying with these requirements by simply dating the main propulsion engine. This study deals with assessing and analysing the risk of navigational accidents, i.e. collisions, groundings, and contacts, that occurred under adverse weather conditions and may have been related to the lack of sufficient powering and manoeuvrability. The risk assessment methodology that has been developed for this study is based on the concept of risk triplets that is used to connect an adverse scenario to the frequency and the resulting consequences. The adverse scenarios are defined using a set of parameters, including ship type, size, class, accident category and installed main engine power. The implementation of risk triplets allows a more detailed assessment of the accident risk and incorporates enough information to produce various graphical risk curves that are used to compare the different adverse scenarios and focus on the ones with the highest risk. The study concludes with interesting results regarding high risk ship types and insights that can be used to strengthen the case for science-based policy making in the maritime industry.

Nikolaos P. Ventikos, Konstantinos Louzis, Alexandros Koimtzoglou

Simulation-Based Support to Minimize Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiency of Ship Operations

Shipping contributes to air pollution, especially in coastal zones and harbour areas where a large number of people are concentrated. The urgent need for ‘green’ ship manoeuvres with less (or even no) emissions arises from such concerns. While there is already a lot of support available for an energy-efficient mode of operation and reduced emissions when operating in open seas, there is comparably less support in this regard for ship operation in approaches to ports and when manoeuvring in harbour basins. In the latter case, the focus is mainly on safety and time-efficiency, while energy efficiency and emissions are rather ignored. Basic studies are on-going, focusing on providing support for alternative manoeuvring strategies with less fuel consumption and reduced emissions, generated by advanced assistance tools for planning, conducting and monitoring of manoeuvres. The analysis at hand is related to on-going research; it describes the basic associated concepts and introduces the first preliminary results of case studies and pilot simulation experiments.

Michael Baldauf, Syed Raza Ali Mehdi, Michele Schaub, Knud Benedict, Gerd Milbradt, Georg Finger, Sandro Fischer

Fuel Saving in Coastal Areas: A Case Study of the Oslo Fjord

Fossil fuels such as marine diesel oil (MDO) account for a significant part of the shipping industry’s total operating costs and have a certain negative impact on the environment. Maritime transport emits around 1000 million tonnes of CO2 annually and is responsible for about 2.5% of global greenhouse gas emissions. To focus on fuel saving is therefore important for both economic and environmental reasons. It is indicative that ship owners are now using weather routeing to save fuel and reduce emissions, particularly on long passages. In coastal areas, navigation is limited by traffic rules. This study examines whether fuel consumption can be reduced with current routeing in confined coastal areas, in this case a relatively short voyage in the Oslo Fjord, Norway. An advanced bridge simulator is used, where different current fields from a high-resolution ocean model are implemented. The results reveal that if the voyage is conducted on a typical field with following currents, instead of a typical counter current field, the travel time will be reduced by 12% for a typical vessel with speed through water set to 16.7 knots. On following currents, the vessel speed can be reduced to 15.7 knots and the voyage is completed within the same time as if no currents are present. This implies approximately a 15% reduction in fuel consumption for the vessel tested. The results also reveal that fuel consumption can be reduced if the vessel is operated within most favourable or least unfavourable currents inside the main traffic lanes.

Karina Hjelmervik, Halvor Schøyen, Hao Wang, Ottar Osen

A Bayesian Belief Network Model for Integrated Energy Efficiency of Shipping

Climate change is one of the major problems in today’s world and shipping has a direct influence on climate change by the amount of energy consumed and volume of emissions generated during shipping and port operations. The energy efficiency and port operation relationship has been widely mentioned in the existing literature under the term of energy efficiency management. However, there is still a need for detailed research on the ship-port interface development regarding holistic energy efficiency. The complex logistic processes should include a port performance study to avoid the inevitable delays and to obtain a more energy efficient transport system. Therefore, ports and fleets can be managed together within a conceptual communication framework. The primary purpose of this research is to enhance the scientific understanding of port and ship operation inter-operability based on energy efficiency interactions. A theoretical framework is developed to investigate how ports and ships could work together to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The integrated shipping system is analysed to create a unique Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model aiming to support the operational optimisation of the ship and port interface. In this research, the BBN theory is applied to an oil tanker case study in order to examine the energy efficiency of voyages between two ports. This paper aims to provide a guide to the holistic energy efficiency of oil/product tanker shipping operations.

Onder Canbulat, Murat Aymelek, Osman Turan, Evangelos Boulougouris

Smart Micro-Grid: An Effective Tool for Energy Management in Ports

Ports are often located in areas where there are opportunities for use of renewable energy generation, by revamping existing infrastructure and exploiting their locations. It is a matter of fact that the electrical grid of a port impacts many aspects of its life such as economics, activities, dangerous emissions, and reliability of services. Transactive energy paradigm is gaining consensus as a control criteria to achieve good operational and economic operations and to identify general best practice for management. The port smart micro-grid approach is an effective tool for an energy management scheme that is efficient in economic and technological terms and covers local generation, possible offshore wind farms, wave energy, enhanced energy distribution, storage of energy, minimum emission local dispatch, use of energy contribution from ships, building management, interaction with ships and fleet of electrical vehicles, vehicle to grid services, participation in retail market, forecast and profiling, and energy procurement through appropriate bilateral contracts or via auctions in the market. The global control criteria are based on the achievement of economic benefits, constrained by technical limits on network, devices and operations. Micro-grid Control systems are based on a hierarchical decentralized concept that sets up its own policy (reduction of emission, minimization of procurement, cost, maximization of revenues deriving from selling services, etc.) and splits this general policy into a number of policies specific to its customer nano-grids that adjust, consequently, their operations to maximize their own profit, without losing the infrastructure general objective. Any deviation from the policy involves a fee to be paid by the entity responsible for the deviation, the objective being to minimize these fees. This approach is very general and looks for maximum flexibility in targets, operations, and constraints and avoids solution of complex nonlinear problems. Finally, the utilization of a Virtual Power Plant (VPP) schema based on virtual contracts among the VPP and cost centers represented generically by prosumers (load and generation) is envisaged.

Monica Canepa, Giampaolo Frugone, Riccardo Bozzo

Energy Manager Role in Ports

Recent years have witnessed the term ‘energy management’ increasingly being used within a wide spectrum of industrial sectors worldwide. Energy production and energy use account for two-thirds of the world’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (IAE, 2017). Therefore, energy management or energy efficiency improvement is becoming a top priority for governments and for societies, especially after the entry into force of the Paris Agreement in 2016.Ports are the main gateways between the sea and city-intensive activities related to high energy demand. In response, resource management is becoming crucial for the sustainable development of ports and to reduce pollution from air emissions. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA, 2017), the total world energy consumption will rise by 28% by 2040, and ports can play an important role in reducing local energy consumption through operational, technological and managerial solutions.To mitigate the effect of Green Gas House (GHG) emissions and subsequent climate change, governments are stepping forward to introduce legislation, voluntary procedures and standard certification (ISO 50001, ISO 14001 as well as Eco-Management and Audit Schemes (EMAS)).This paper seeks to describe the role of Energy Manager, specifically in ports. This role description includes the Energy Management system (EnMS) based on ISO 50001 as well as the responsibilities and activities of the Port Energy Manager (EnMr) in the process of implementing Port Energy Management Plans. The Municipality and Port of Genova as a case study are given to relating the proposed description to the real world. Findings from this paper can be used to develop future training and educational programmes for Energy Managers in ports.

Fabio Ballini, Aykut I. Ölçer

Economics and Social Dimensions of Maritime Energy Management

Frontmatter

The Impact of SECA Regulations on Clean Shipping in the Baltic Sea Region

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the European Parliament (EP) decided in 2005 and 2012 to establish Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECA) in Northern Europe where operating ships from 2015 must use fuel with low sulphur content not exceeding 0.1%. Some of the first reactions were seen with vessels operating in the Baltic Sea, which had switched to low sulphur content fuel or LNG. Meanwhile, the SECA regulations have spurred intensive discussions concerning the economic disadvantages that seem to have been created for maritime stakeholders who must comply with strict regulations, which competitors in other parts of the world are not subjected to.This paper presents the first results on measures taken by stakeholders towards sulphur emission reduction, and stakeholders’ impressions of the financial impact of SECA regulations on their businesses and Baltic Sea Region (BSR). Results show that the BSR is in the forefront of clean shipping campaigns and that the maritime stakeholders attribute significant SECA impacts to innovation and reputation of BSR. This contribution will improve the development of using the BSR as a test bed for future integrated knowledge for cleaner and more cost-effective shipping globally.

Eunice O. Olaniyi, Gunnar Prause, Jan Boyesen

Life Cycle Assessment of Marine Coatings Applied to Ship Hulls

This paper presents the methodology developed for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of antifouling marine coatings with regard to fouling accumulation on hulls and maintenance of ships. The methodology is based on mathematical models vis-à-vis the environmental and monetary impacts involved in the production and application of hull coatings, added fuel consumption due to fouling accumulation on ship hulls, and hull maintenance. This subject was investigated in a recently completed EU-Funded FP7 Project entitled FOUL-X-SPEL. The LCA methodology was developed using the results of the studies conducted by FOUL-X-SPEL Consortium as well as additional data provided by coating manufacturers, shipyards and shipping companies. Following the introduction of the new LCA model, a case study was carried out to show how to utilize the model using a real tanker which is assumed to be coated with two different types of existing coatings, namely a silicone-based fouling-release coating and a tin-free self-polishing antifouling paint. The total costs and emissions due to the use of different coating types were calculated for the whole life-cycle of the ship. It has been found that CO2 emission reduction due to mitigation of fouling can be achieved using a silicone-based fouling release coating while reducing the cost by means of fuel cost reductions for the ship-owners despite the additional capital expenses. The developed LCA model can help stakeholders determine the most feasible paint selection as well as the optimal hull-propeller maintenance schedules and make condition-based maintenance decisions.

Yigit Kemal Demirel, Dogancan Uzun, Yansheng Zhang, Osman Turan

The Human and Social Dimension of Energy Efficient Ship Operation

The human and social dimension of energy efficient ship operation has been recognized as crucial for the mitigation of emissions from ships. The success of future energy management in the maritime sector is, therefore, likely to depend on operators’, managers’ and policymakers’ understanding of how to address the human and social dimension. However, few studies have investigated the nature of the knowledge, skill and expertise required for efficient voyage execution. The paper is based on a qualitative case study identifying and analysing a number of themes related to the acquisition and development of the capability and competence relevant for energy efficient ship handling. The paper argues for the importance of acknowledging collective tacit knowledge and the socio-material context in which such knowledge is developed. It is argued that this perspective can contribute to widening the debate on policy and management of maritime energy efficiency.

Martin Viktorelius

The Need for Education and Training in Maritime Energy Management in Myanmar

This paper discusses the role of education and training to implement the energy efficiency measures in the Myanmar maritime industry. There are notable merits in Myanmar, for example, its geographical advantage in maritime operations and services, ports and shipyards, natural resources such as oil and gas, and general characteristics of Myanmar people. However, several weaknesses are acknowledged, for example, pollution, unregulated domestic fleets, exploitation of natural resources, and the lack of awareness. Among the various issues to be solved, the paper identifies education and training as the key to building capacity in Myanmar and investing in people as a long-term strategy. The current academic and research activities in maritime education and training institutions in Myanmar indicate a positive start. In order to accelerate the process to shift toward a zero emissions and energy efficient future, the paper identifies four areas: Legislation; Research collaboration and dissemination; IMO model course; and Regional cooperation. Finally the paper presents a hierarchical model to operationalise these areas to support maritime energy management in Myanmar.

Thet Hlaing Swe, Momoko Kitada, Aykut I. Ölçer

The Role of Maritime Transport from the Perspective of Energy and Gender: The Case of the Pacific Islands

This paper discusses sustainable use of energy from a feminist perspective and focuses on the role of the maritime transport sector in terms of energy access for rural women as users of maritime transport. In many parts of the world, the priorities of energy use tend to be gendered. Women are often excluded from the decision-making process of energy choice and access. In the Pacific Islands where adequate recycling facilities and markets are not easily accessible, wastes are a big concern for the environment. The emerging concept of “circular economy” to close the loop of product life-cycles poses a challenge but also an opportunity for many Pacific Islands communities. For example, some rural women entrepreneurs found a business opportunity in waste management to participate in the circular economy. However, one of the biggest obstacles they encountered was reliable access to ships to transport collected recycling items (e.g., used batteries) to recycling facilities overseas. In this paper, we argue that the gendered nature of maritime transport may be limiting its capacity to provide services to minority users like women and ask in which role the maritime transport sector would be effectively able to support women’s contributions to establishing a sustainable, energy efficient society. The paper concludes that the missing link between women’s economic participation and the maritime transport sector, required to enable sustainable development of the Pacific Islands, should be recognised as part of the energy and gender agenda.

Momoko Kitada, Kuini Rabo, Ore O. Toua, Thierry Nervale

Alternative Fuels and Wind-Assisted Ship Propulsion

Frontmatter

Developing a Strategy for Liquefied Natural Gas Powered Transport Corridors in the Baltic Sea Region

An extended number of international and/or national policies/regulations call for major improvements in contemporary energy consumption patterns (energy efficiency). A faster transition to sustainable energy production, as well as the introduction of various measures to improve the maritime industry’s environmental performance is also included in similar high level policy initiatives, with the establishment of Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECAs) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). One of the most prominent ways forward to achieve a more “environmental-friendly footprint” for those vessels engaged in maritime transport activities is to expand the use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). Despite being of fossil origin, LNG is considered to be an important step toward cleaner shipping, given the better properties of the related exhaust gases when it is used as a marine fuel of internal combustion engines. The analysis at hand will discuss the development of a strategy for smoother and more efficient use of LNG as a fuel for transport needs in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR), with the aim of enabling “blue transport corridors”. This will be accomplished by investigating the related transport flows and LNG infrastructure developments; the creation of a wider in scope value chain that incorporates all transport modalities and industries that use natural gas today is also envisioned as the next step of research. This activity is a deliverable of the “Go LNG project”. Another important task within the same project is to provide stakeholders and other interested parties with a knowledge base of the most influential policies/regulations and technological standards in relation to LNG applications, including the cataloguing and short description of well-functioning business models and solutions already available.

Josefin Madjidian, Dimitrios Dalaklis, Vytatutas Paulauskas, Lawrence Henesey, Aykut I. Ölçer, Fabio Ballini, Momoko Kitada

LNG Fueled Barge for Cold Ironing: Feasibility Study for the Emission Abatement in the Port of Genoa

The current scientific analysis aims at studying some maritime technical solutions for electric energy generation and delivery to ships moored in port by means of LNG fueled generators installed onboard a floating unit. Two different scenarios regarding the LNG supply chain are proposed and some options for producing cleaner electric energy are then investigated. The reference area considered in this study is the old port of Genoa where traffic of both passenger and cargo ships takes place. The paper presents an analysis concerning the main technical features of the considered solutions for an actual port calls scenario. The results regard the dimensions and weights of the proposed floating units and the most significant characteristics of the generation equipment, as far as average load factor, fuel consumption and cost are considered.

Michele Laviola, Massimo Figari, Marco Altosole, Stefano Savio

Decision Framework for Shipowners to Comply with Air Emission Reduction Measures: A Case Study of Methanol as a Fuel

The main aim of this chapter is to develop a decision framework for ship owners to comply with emission regulations; various measures that are available to ship owners are analysed. A comparison between technical, operational, and other abatement measures for averting air emissions of carbon equivalent is made. A case study of Methanol as a marine fuel to comply with the air emission regulations is demonstrated. The environmental and economic benefits are evaluated to find the feasibility of alternative fuel technology. The externality will be assessed for the vessel before and after fuel switching. Ranking of different measures available to ship-owners is made by using a Multi Criteria Decision Making Technique. Gaps in the decision framework are analysed and evaluated. In conclusion, a holistic view of the decision framework for ship-owners is given with some recommendations. The case study will prove that, in the long term, by complying with abatement measures or alternative fuel technology, ship owners will avoid carbon tax and will have social and financial benefits. Methanol is a step towards zero emissions and complying with sustainability goals of the United Nations.

Aditya Srivastava, Aykut I. Ölçer, Fabio Ballini

Commercial Wind Propulsion Solutions: Putting the ‘Sail’ Back into Sailing

We have seen a wind change in the industry over the last 4–5 years where it comes to shipping efficiency. This has gone hand in hand with a steady growth in commercial wind propulsion projects, matched by a very cautious and gradual change in perceptions of wind propulsion in the industry. Nonetheless, momentum has been building and this paper will place that change into perspective, focusing on the change drivers, the barriers and solutions to and examples of new build and retrofit projects to watch. Firstly, it outlines the current state of commercial wind propulsion and how we have reached this point from a technical point of view (sail design, rotors, kites and new hull designs). It then details the financial and policy drivers and the market barriers and how those will likely affect uptake of wind propulsion. The International Windship Association (IWSA) establishment is a key development as the first organisation dedicated to the promotion and facilitation of commercial wind propulsion solutions in cooperation with the shipping industry and other major stakeholders. A key focus is on work streams tackling barriers and generating solutions in the policy, technical standards, finance, communication and cargo/market transformation fields. Examples of three wind propulsion projects at an advanced stage of development presented in this paper will provide a clearer understanding of the potential for change, rating performance and outlining the expected costs, returns and other commercial considerations.

Gavin Allwright

Marine Renewable Energy

Frontmatter

A Multipurpose Marine Cadastre to Manage Conflict Use with Marine Renewable Energy

Notwithstanding their potential benefit as a non-carbon-emitting energy source, the number and the size of marine renewable energy (MRE) farms increases conflict uses, creating a kind of private occupation of the sea space. The multipurpose marine cadastre (MMC) seems to be an efficient tool to determine a better way to allocate exclusive rights to ocean energy developers, in accordance with other users rights. The United-States are the pioneers with their marinecadastre.gov website, which has been set clearly to promote offshore renewable energy, and many others countries are studying this concept, as a complement to marine spatial planning.

Séverine Michalak

Ocean Energy: Seeking the Balance Between States’ Exclusive Rights of Exploitation and Marine Biodiversity Conservation

In the past few years, the ocean, as a potential resource of energy, has caught the attention of the industrial sector. However, the possibility of ocean energy exploitation faces several challenges: the development of the needed technologies; the legal framework; the regulatory framework; the environmental aspects. This paper focuses on the international legal framework, specifically with regard to the States’ (exclusive) rights of exploitation within their national jurisdiction and to biodiversity conservation. In this regard, UNCLOS is the primary legal document to be taken into consideration, since it sets a static legal framework of maritime zones and (to them) correlated jurisdiction(al rights). It seems that the exploitation of ocean energy is possible, but two conditions must be satisfied: (1) The States can exploit the ocean energy resource within their national jurisdiction, but it is questionable if they can conserve exclusive rights resulting from industrial activities, due to the fact that rights of third Parties (namely those related to navigation and fishery) must be taken into account; (2) The (sitting and permitting) procedure that allows exploitation of ocean energy will only be legitimized through: (2.1) public participation in the decision making process; (2.2) the implementation of an environmental impact assessment (EIA) regarding all stages of exploitation. This will provide for a long-term monitoring of impacts that exploitation may cause on marine biodiversity, allowing the adoption of adaptive and risk-based management strategies for dealing with uncertainty.

Wellington Tebar

Learning from Humpback Whales for Improving the Energy Capturing Performance of Tidal Turbine Blades

This paper summarizes a project on the potential of further improving the performance of horizontal axis tidal turbines via the application of leading-edge tubercles to the turbine blades inspired by humpback whales. Within this framework, a wide variety of experimental investigations, supported by numerical studies, have been conducted.The study first focused on the design and optimisation of the leading-edge tubercles for a specific tidal turbine blade section by using numerical methods to propose an “optimum” design for the blade section. This optimum design was then applied onto a representative tidal turbine blade. This representative 3D blade demonstrated significant benefits, especially after stall. The experimental measurements were further validated and complimented by numerical simulations using commercial CFD software for the detailed flow analysis.Following that, three tidal turbine models with varying leading-edge profiles were manufactured and a model test campaign was conducted in the cavitation tunnel to evaluate their efficiency, cavitation, underwater noise, and detailed flow characteristics. Based on these experimental investigations it was confirmed that the leading-edge tubercles can improve the hydrodynamic performance in the low Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) region without lowering the maximum power coefficient; constrain the cavitation development to within the troughs between the tubercles; and, hence, mitigate the underwater noise levels.

Weichao Shi, Mehmet Atlar, Rosemary Norman

CFD Simulation of a Passively Controlled Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

Recently CorPower Ocean AB presented laboratory tests of a point absorber wave energy converter equipped with a novel technique for passive phase control. The technique, known as WaveSpring, widens the response bandwidth by a negative spring arrangement, and in the tank experiment an up to threefold increase in delivered power as compared to pure linear damping was observed. As previously reported, for point absorbers close to resonance, the use of standard radiation-diffraction models can become unreliable while CFD simulations accurately capture the nonlinear wave height dependent response. Thus, in the present study a module representing the WaveSpring technology was implanted in the OpenFOAM framework and CFD simulations of the buoy were performed both with and without the WaveSpring module. Good agreement between simulated and experimental results was observed, and the WaveSpring behavior was well captured in the numerical simulation. The CFD model can be used for further tuning of the WaveSpring/buoy design as well as providing validation data for radiation-diffraction models.

Minghao Wu, Weizhi Wang, Johannes Palm, Claes Eskilsson

A Framework to Improve the Coexistence of Maritime Activities & Offshore Wind Farms

The increasing number and size of offshore wind farms (OWFs), combined with the ambitious plans for future developments in the sector, portray a bleak outlook for ‘traditional’ maritime and marine players. The sustained growth of OWFs can cause conflict with other marine users, and thus certain risk control options (RCOs) may need to be adapted in order to maintain navigational safety and reduce the environmental impact of such installations; introducing such measures, however, may be counter-productive in terms of energy efficiency or financial sustainability. This leads to questions such as ‘is there a point when implementing certain RCOs actually makes an OWF project unfeasible’?In this discussion paper, we describe a holistic and integrated framework that allows decision makers to evaluate the safety, energy efficiency, environmental impacts and financial sustainability aspects of OWFs. We consider a selection of vital factors and parameters in the current framework, and discuss how the different data sets can be integrated into a single framework. We also describe a novel evaluation tool that can allow users to ‘plot’ the output of the proposed framework in a spider diagram form. We conclude by discussing how the proposed work can be employed to optimize the use of limited sea-space.

Raza Ali Mehdi, Jens-Uwe Schröder-Hinrichs, Aykut I. Ölçer, Michael Baldauf

Backmatter

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