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2022 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

2. Trends, Drivers, and Dynamics of Flight and Migration

Author: Daniel Naujoks

Published in: Forced Displacement and Migration

Publisher: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden

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Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of current trends in international migration and displacement. Nearly all countries in the world experience significant out- or in-migration, however, the majority of migrants reside in a few countries, while a few major emigration countries account for a large share of the global emigrant stock. In addition to a brief demographic profile, the chapter discusses drivers and migration motivations, climate and environmentally induced migration, categories of entry, irregular migration, and unsafe migration routes.
Footnotes
1
For definitions cf. Preuß et al. in the introductory chapter.
 
2
Diasporic actors are all persons who originate from a certain country, self-identify with that country, and who maintain a meaningful cultural and social relationship with the country (Sheffer 2003; Naujoks 2013: 12). This includes both citizens and non-citizens of the home country, as well as first and second-plus generation emigrants.
 
3
For an overview of migration theories, see de Haas et al. (2020, Chap. 3); Massey et al. (1993).
 
4
Cf. Warner’s contribution (Chap. 10) in this book.
 
5
For an introduction, see, Piguet et al. (2011), Government Office for Science (2011), and Zetter/Morrissey (2014).
 
6
Family migration encompasses four main subcategories, namely, family formation, accompanying family members of immigrating workers, family reunification, and international adoption (OECD 2017: 10).
 
7
Based on World Bank Indicator database from UNHCR and UNRWA data.
 
8
In addition, existing estimates vary greatly in their methodologies, making the data hard to compare. IOM (2020: 28) highlights that some reports that includes global estimates are “based on a lack of understanding of migration and displacement policy, practice and normative settings.”
 
9
For a discussion of undocumented migrants in India and Malaysia, see Sadiq (2008).
 
10
See UN (2017d: 3).
 
11
Data sources include official records of coast guards and medical examiners, media stories, reports from non-governmental organizations and UN agencies, and interviews with migrants (IOM 2018).
 
12
Adamson/Tsourapas (2019) expand on Hollifield’s conceptualizations and provide a classification for migration state regimes in the Global South.
 
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Metadata
Title
Trends, Drivers, and Dynamics of Flight and Migration
Author
Daniel Naujoks
Copyright Year
2022
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-32902-0_2