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About this book

This thesis investigates the tribological viability of bio-based base stock to which different nanoparticles were incorporated for engine piston-ring–cylinder-liner interaction. It determines experimentally the effects of lubricating oil conditions (new and engine-aged) on the friction and wear of the materials used for piston rings and cylinder liners. The specific base stock examined was a trimethylolpropane (TMP) ester derived from palm oil, and the nanoparticles were used as additives to obtain tribologically enhanced bio-based lubricants. The overall analysis of the results demonstrated the potential of nanoparticles to improve the tribological behavior of bio-based base stock for piston-ring–cylinder-liner interaction.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Introduction

Modern internal combustion (IC) engines require effective lubricant formulations to minimize friction and wear losses while satisfying environmental standards.

Mubashir Gulzar

Chapter 2. Literature Review

There has been much research and development to improve engine lubricants and drain intervals for IC engines through minimizing frictional losses and wear. The formulation of suitable lubricant is a function of its ability to control friction, wear, and surface damage over the intended life of a system. For actual engine operation, the lubricant should provide effective lubrication performance over the complete drain interval. Therefore, after development of a potential engine lubricating oil, an understanding is required about lubricating oil degradation and its effect on friction and wear of engine components.

Mubashir Gulzar

Chapter 3. Research Methodology

A step by step and extensive research methodology has been adopted for effective bio-based lubrication of piston ring–cylinder liner interaction. This endeavor began by investigating palm TMP ester as bio-based lubricant to gain an understanding of the tribological performance for piston ring–cylinder liner interaction in the absence of any additive. It was followed by the investigation of suitable type and concentration of nanoparticles for stable and tribologically improved suspensions. Oleic acid (OA) was used as anionic surfactant to improve the dispersion stability. Ultrasonic dispersion technique was adopted for homogenous and stable suspensions. UV-vis spectroscopy was carried out to analyze the dispersion stability of suspensions. Friction and wear characteristics of lubricant samples were investigated by simulating the engine piston ring–cylinder contact in laboratory controlled conditions.

Mubashir Gulzar

Chapter 4. Results and Discussion

In this chapter, the results of the considered performance parameters for fresh as well as engine-aged oil samples have been provided and discussed. In the first stage, average COF profiles and wear volume of piston ring as well as cylinder liner specimen, have been reported and discussed for blank palm TMP ester. It is followed by the investigation of dispersion stability and discussion of tribological parameters for all the nanolubricant samples. After this, the EP behavior of all the lubricant samples has been discussed.

Mubashir Gulzar

Chapter 5. Conclusions and Recommendations

This dissertation was dedicated to study the lubrication performance of a variety of nanoparticles as additives to bio-based base stock (palm TMP ester) for engine piston ring–cylinder interaction. The goal of the research was on the lubrication performance enhancement of palm TMP ester to minimize the sliding friction and wear losses for piston ring–cylinder combination. The significant contribution of this dissertation was developing a tribologically enhanced bio-based lubricant while enlightening the lubrication enhancing mechanisms of a variety of nanoparticle additives.

Mubashir Gulzar
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