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2021 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

Turkmenistan: Stability Through Regime Mobilisation

Author: Slavomír Horák

Published in: Political Regimes and Neopatrimonialism in Central Asia

Publisher: Springer Singapore

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Abstract

Turkmenistan belongs to the countries where the democratisation (Huntington in The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Oklahoma University Press, Oklahoma, 1991) and transition have led to the conservation of a Soviet system (McFaul in World Politics, 54: 212–244, 2002). The case of Turkmenistan showed that the discourse of transitology (popular in the 1990s and 2000s) could move in the reverse direction, i.e. towards a more authoritarian government (Carothers in Journal of Democracy, 13: 5–21, 2002).

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Footnotes
1
Erkin.net. 2006. “Pamiatnik idiotizma.” Accessed August 3. http://​www.​dogryol.​com/​print.​php?​article=​1546.
 
2
Dubnov, Arkady. 2009. “Vozvrashcheniie ‘Itery.’” Vremia Novostei, April 3. http://​www.​vremya.​ru/​2009/​36/​8/​224268.​html.
 
3
Author’s interview with a former person from Niyazov’s entourage, today in exile, 2016.
 
4
For more details on the transition in Turkmenistan see Kadyrov ( 2007), Blank (2007), and Sullivan (2016); ICG, “Turkmenistan After Niyazov.” Europe and Central Asia Briefing, 60. February 12, 2007. https://​www.​crisisgroup.​org/​europe-central-asia/​central-asia/​turkmenistan/​turkmenistan-after-niyazov. Accessed July 21 2017.
 
5
Orazmuhammedov, Aimuhammed. 2012. “Kogda semeinyi biznes vyshe interesov gosudarstva.” Gundogar.org, April 20. http://​gundogar.​org/​?​0247051238200000​0000000013000000​.
 
6
Ferghananews.com. 2017. “Turkmenistan: syn prezidenta Serdar Berdymukhamedov vozglavil parlamentskii komitet,” March 21. http://​www.​fergananews.​com/​news/​26166.
 
7
Blois, Antoine, and Klevtsova, Anna. 2013. “Vnuk diktatora Turkmenistana v tsentre vnimaniia pressy.” Radio Azattyk, July 7. http://​rus.​azattyq.​org/​a/​vnuk-berdymukhamedova​/​25036110.​html.
Gostev, Aleksandr. 2015. “Diktator i ego vnuk.” Radio Svoboda, June 5. http://​www.​svoboda.​org/​a/​26996493.​html.
 
8
CA-News. 2016. “Prezident gotovit sebe v preemniki vnuka,” September 14. http://​ca-news.​org/​news:​1329606.
 
9
Amanmyratov, Gochkuli. 2014. “Rvachi, mukhi i dhuty iz semeiki Turkmenbashi.” Arba.ru. January 18. http://​www.​arba.​ru/​forum/​7014.
 
10
Agabaev, Halnazar. 2012. “Turkmenistan kak chastnyi ogorod’ dliia prezidentskoi semeiki.” Centrasia.ru, July 21. http://​www.​centrasia.​ru/​newsA.​php?​st=​1342854060.
 
11
“Mezhdunarodnaia turisticheskaia zona Avaza: krizis konceptsii.” 2014. Netherlands: demokraticheskii grazhdanskii soiuz Turkmenistana. https://​app.​box.​com/​s/​00lhungnisy2sy9f​vpcm.
The Chronicle of Turkmenistan. 2016. “Obiazatel’nyie putevki v Avazu,” December 21. http://​www.​chrono-tm.​org/​2016/​12/​obyazatelnyie-putevki-v-avazu/​
 
12
Meredova, Garagyz. 2015. “Prezident Turkmenistana - garant protsvetaniia semeinogo biznesa.” Azat Turkmenistan, June 11. http://​www.​azatturkmenistan​.​org/​analytics/​prezident-turkmenistana-garant-procvetaniya-semejnogo-biznesa.​html.
 
13
Kuliyev, Durdy. 2012. “Prezidentskii klan delit stranu.” Gundogar.org, November 23. http://​www.​gundogar.​org/​?​0130513090000000​000000013000000.
 
14
Radio Azattyk. 2017. “TC ‘Yimpash’ perekhodit pod kontrol’ vliiatelnykh liudei i vskore mozhet otkryt’sia pod novym nazvaniiem,” January 30. http://​rus.​azathabar.​com/​a/​28267604.​html.
 
15
Charyyardurdyyev, Myratgeldy. 2013. “Kto grabit Turkmenistan.” Centrasia.ru, June. http://​www.​centrasia.​ru/​news.​php?​st=​1371469920.
 
16
Durdydzhan, Maksat. 2018. „Antikoruptsionnaia pokazukha Arkadaga“. Gundogar.org, February 11. http://​www.​gundogar.​org/​?​0130518191000000​000000011000000.
 
17
Mamedov, Aslan. 2010. “8 Iz 29.” Gundogar.org, November 6. http://​www.​gundogar.​org/​?​0247049595000000​000000013000000.
 
18
Sacked After Ten Years at the Top—What Brought Down Turkmenistan’s Interior Minister? Turkmen.news, October 4, 2019. https://​en.​turkmen.​news/​opinion/​what-brought-down-turkmenistan-s-interior-minister/​.
 
19
Aman, Esen. 2017. “Tycoon—President’s Friend.” The Chronicle of Turkmenistan. March 29. http://​en.​chrono-tm.​org/​2012/​04/​tycoon-presidents-friend/​.
 
20
Bairamova, Gul’nabat. 2015. “Veselaia zhizn’ turkmenskoi molodozhi.” Azat Turkmenistan, October 11. http://​www.​azatturkmenistan​.​org/​analytics/​veselaya-zhizn-turkmenskoj-molodezhi.​html.
Alternativnyie Novosti Turkmenistana. 2014. “Monitoring ispol’zovaniia prinuditel‘nogo truda v Turkmenistane (Chast’ II),” May 11. https://​habartm.​org/​archives/​1620.
 
21
Alternativnyie Novosti Turkmenistana. 2017. “Shapka po krugu. Gosorgany prizyvaiut pozhertvovat’ na Aziadu,” December 3. https://​habartm.​org/​archives/​6561.
 
22
Ponomarev, Vitaliy. 2001. “V kazandzhikskom tankovom polku.” Memorial. September 15. http://​www.​memo.​ru/​hr/​politpr/​asia/​2004/​svid-tu/​kazand.​htm.
 
23
The Chronicle of Turkmenistan. 2017. “Boris Shikhmuradov byl ubit vo vremia pravleniia Niiazova,” December 3. http://​www.​chrono-tm.​org/​2017/​03/​boris-shihmuradov-byil-ubit-vo-vremya-pravleniya-niyazova/​ (including subsequent discussion).
 
26
Volkov, Vitaliy. 2012. “Protiv chego protestuiut v Turkmenii.” Deutsche Welle, December 11. http://​p.​dw.​com/​p/​16gAA.
The Chronicle of Turkmenistan. 2012. “Na vostoke Turkmenistana vzbuntovalis’ torgovtsy,” January 11. http://​www.​chrono-tm.​org/​2012/​11/​vzbuntovalis-torgovtsyi/​.
 
27
Volkov, Vitaliy. 2014. “Zakonomernosti stikhiinogo protesta.” Deutsche Welle, March 2. http://​www.​chrono-tm.​org/​2014/​02/​turkmeniya-zakonomernosti-stihiynogo-protesta/​.
 
28
Ballyev, Kakamurat, and Osman Odeev. 2001. “Slovo Proroka.” Neitral’nyi Turkmenistan, May 21.
 
29
Etkind, Aleksandr. 2016. “Vlast‘chuzhda vsem“. Forbes.ru, March 29. http://​www.​forbes.​ru/​sobytiya/​ekonomika/​316685-aleksandr-etkind-vlast-chuzhda-vsem.
 
30
Bhutia, Sam. 2019. “Why Turkmenistan’s Rosy Economic Reports Are Unreliable.” Eurasianet.org, October 23. https://​eurasianet.​org/​why-turkmenistans-rosy-economic-reports-are-unreliable.
 
31
“Turkmenistan: Gosregulirovanie importa produktov i ikh tsen privodit k defitsitu i ocherediam.” Turkmen News, May 27, 2019. https://​turkmen.​news/​news/​ocheredi-za-produktami-turkmenistan/​.
 
32
Kramer, Kira. 2017. “90 dnei dliia Aziady. Kogda prestizh vazhnee blagopoluchiia naroda.” Khronika Turkmenistana, June 19. http://​www.​chrono-tm.​org/​2017/​06/​90-dney-do-aziadyi-kogda-prestizh-vazhnee-blagopoluchiya-naroda/​.
 
33
The Chronicle of Turkmenistan. 2016. “V Turkmenistane ogranichili denezhnyie perevody cherez Western Union,” January 25. http://​www.​chrono-tm.​org/​2016/​01/​western-union/​; “Krizis ne obozdet turkmenskuzu ekonomiku” 2019. Gundogar.org, December 19. http://​gundogar.​org/​?​0130519056000000​000000011000000.
 
34
Turkmenistan Loses Out as Prime State Assets Privatized for Peanuts (2019). Turkmen News, March 22. https://​en.​turkmen.​news/​news/​turkmenistan-loses-out-as-prime-assets-privatized-for-peanuts/​.
 
35
Imamkulieva, Irina (2017): Torzhestvo narodnoy demokratii. Neitral|nyi Turkmenistan No. 274–275 (October 10), p. 8.
 
36
Turkmenistan: gosregulirovaniie importa produktov i ikh tsen přivodit k defitsitu i ocherediam (2019). Turkmens News, May 27. https://​turkmen.​news/​news/​ocheredi-za-produktami-turkmenistan/​.
 
37
Haknepesov, Selim (2020). Dashoguz: ekonoimcheskiie problemy i ogranicheniia uslozhniaiut zhizn’ naseleniia. Turkmen News, January 20, https://​turkmen.​news/​spotlight/​zhizn-turkmenistan-dashoguz/​; Turkmenistan: Lish by nebylo voiny. Itogi 2019 goda. Turkmen News, December 19. https://​turkmen.​news/​opinion/​turkmenistan-lish-by-ne-bylo-vojny-itogi-2019-goda-v-filme-turkmen-news/​.
 
39
“Hakim ispugalsiia, prislav vmesto sebia zamestitelia. Podrobnosti protesta v Turkmenabade (2020). Turkmen News, May 14. https://​turkmen.​news/​news/​protest-turkmenabat/​.
 
40
Turkmenistan – mezhdu koronavirusom i uraganom (2020). Obzor situatsii s pravami cheloveka v strane. Turkmen Initiative for Human Rights, May 14. https://​www.​hronikatm.​com/​2020/​05/​tihr-report/​.
 
41
Alternativnyie Novosti Turkmenistana. 2016. “V Turkmenistane deistvuiet spetsgruppa po kontroliu za internetom.” October 14, 2016. https://​habartm.​org/​archives/​5850.
 
42
Turkmenistan nachal priem dokumentov na vydachu passportov bipatridam. Radio Azatlyk, July 5, 2019. https://​rus.​azathabar.​com/​a/​30038501.​html.
 
43
Dubnov, Arkady. 2009. “Vozvrashcheniie ‘Itery.’” Vremia Novostei, April 3. http://​www.​vremya.​ru/​2009/​36/​8/​224268.​html.
 
44
Pannier, Bruce. 2016. “Russia Flexes Its Muscles In Turkmenistan.” RFE Qishloq Ovozi, December 6. http://​www.​rferl.​org/​a/​russia-flexes-muscles-turkmenistan-gas-exports/​27793499.​html.
 
45
Interview with a Moscow analyst, June 2016.
 
46
The parts of Russian Kamaz trucks supplies are sold in Georgian market. Observation of the author in 2018–2019.
 
47
Neitral’nyi Turkmenistan. 2006. “Gosudarstvennyi vizit Prezidenta Turkmenistana Saparmurata Turkmenbashi v Kitaiskuiu Narodnuiu Respubliku,” April 4. Ruhnama (The Book of the Soul), apparently written by Saparmurat Niyazov, combines an autobiography of the President, a revisionist account of Turkmen history and a recommended moral codex for Turkmens. It became an essential part of Turkmen daily life, studied in the manner of a holy text at schools and universities. Knowledge of the Ruhnama penetrated into all aspects of daily life in Turkmenistan—including driving tests or competitions in the recital of texts from the Ruhnama.
 
48
Khummedov, Yazmurad. 2010. “Kitai Pokupaet Turkmenistan.” Vremia Vostoka, May 7. http://​www.​easttime.​ru/​analitic/​1/​2/​817.​html.
 
49
Pannier, Bruce. 2017. “Turkmenistan And The Neutrality Trap.” RFE Qishloq Ovozi, November 1. http://​www.​rferl.​org/​a/​turkmenistan-neutrality-iran-gas-dispute/​28226071.​html.
Eurasianet.org. 2017. “Turkmenistan, Iran Gas Dispute Serves as Ill Omen for New Year,” February 1. http://​www.​eurasianet.​org/​node/​81821.
 
50
Garibov, Azad (2020). Central Asia Caught in Economic Perfect Storm Amid Oil Price Collapse and COVID-19 Pandemic. The Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst, May 12. http://​cacianalyst.​org/​publications/​analytical-articles/​item/​13617-central-asia-caught-in-economic-perfect-storm-amid-oil-price-collapse-and-covid-19-pandemic.​html.
 
51
The Chronicle of Turkmenistan. 2014. “Turkmeno-turetskiie razborki iz-za shkoly v Ashkhabade,” August 20. http://​www.​chrono-tm.​org/​2014/​08/​turkmeno-turetskie-razborki-iz-za-shkolyi-v-ashhabade/​.
 
52
Radio Azattyk. 2016. “Turkmenistan: aresty za sviaz’ s Gulenom prodolzhaiutsia,” November 21. http://​rus.​azathabar.​com/​a/​28130701.​html.
 
53
Radio Azattyk. 2017. “TC ‘Yimpash’ perekhodit pod kontrol’ vliiatelnykh liudei i vskore mozhet otkryt’sia pod novym nazvaniiem,” January 30. http://​rus.​azathabar.​com/​a/​28267604.​html.
 
54
Atabaev, Deria. 2012. “Berdimukhamedov i tureckaia kompaniia ‘Polimeks’: vzlet v 2007 g.” Radio Azattyk, October 4. http://​rus.​azattyq.​org/​a/​polimex_​turkey_​guli_​berdymukhamedov_​business/​24542594.​html.
 
55
Informal interview with a former state official in Turkmenistan, 2013.
 
56
Khronika Turkmenistana. 2020. “Konsortsium ‘Chalyk‘postroit kol’tsevuiu energosistemu Turkmenistana,” February 1. https://​www.​hronikatm.​com/​2020/​02/​electro-chalyk/​.
 
57
Durdyzhan, Maksat. 2018. Ch’i interesy zashchishchaet Arkadag. Gundogar.org, January, 26, 2018. http://​gundogar.​org/​?​0247051814900000​0000000011000000​.
 
58
Cortbus, Colin. 2015. “Is The Islamic State Threat Making Turkmenistan Vulnerable To Russian Military Influence?” The Interpreter, March 9. http://​www.​interpretermag.​com/​is-the-islamic-state-threat-making-turkmenistan-vulnerable-to-russian-military-influence/​.
 
59
“General Saad Muhammad: ‘Rvom granitsa Ne Okhranaetsia’.” 2014. Alternativnyie Novosti Turkmenistana, September. https://​habartm.​org/​archives/​1470.
 
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Metadata
Title
Turkmenistan: Stability Through Regime Mobilisation
Author
Slavomír Horák
Copyright Year
2021
Publisher
Springer Singapore
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-9093-1_5

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