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About this book

This open access book summarizes the results of the European research project “Twin-model based virtual manufacturing for machine tool-process simulation and control” (Twin-Control). The first part reviews the applications of ICTs in machine tools and manufacturing, from a scientific and industrial point of view, and introduces the Twin-Control approach, while Part 2 discusses the development of a digital twin of machine tools. The third part addresses the monitoring and data management infrastructure of machines and manufacturing processes and numerous applications of energy monitoring. Part 4 then highlights various features developed in the project by combining the developments covered in Parts 3 and 4 to control the manufacturing processes applying the so-called CPSs. Lastly, Part 5 presents a complete validation of Twin-Control features in two key industrial sectors: aerospace and automotive. The book offers a representative overview of the latest trends in the manufacturing industry, with a focus on machine tools.

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Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Introduction

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 1. Machine Tool: From the Digital Twin to the Cyber-Physical Systems

Information and communication technology (ICT) applications are increasingly being applied in industry. Indeed, in the last years, initiatives like Industry 4.0, Factories of the Future and Industrial Internet of things, pushed by governments and industrial leaders, refer to ICT as the future of manufacturing. To meet this trend, machine tool industry needs to include all these advances. This chapter provides a state of the art of ICT applied in machine tool industry and serves as a reference of all the developments of twin-control project.
Mikel Armendia, Aitor Alzaga, Flavien Peysson, Tobias Fuertjes, Frédéric Cugnon, Erdem Ozturk, Dominik Flum

Open Access

Chapter 2. Twin-Control Approach

Twin-Control (http://​twincontrol.​eu/​) is a new concept for machine tool and machining process performance optimization. It is based on a new simulation model that integrates the different aspects that affect machine tool and machining performance. This holistic approach allows a better estimation of machining performance than single-featured simulation packages, including lifecycle concepts like energy consumption and end-of-life components. This theoretical representation of the machine is complemented with real process data by the monitoring of the most important variables of the machining process and machine condition. This monitored information, combined with the developed models, is used at machine level to perform model-based control actions and/or warn about damaged components of the machine tool. In addition, a fleet-level data management system is used for a proper health management and optimizes the maintenance actions on the machine tools.
Mikel Armendia, Aitor Alzaga, Flavien Peysson, Dirk Euhus

Virtual Representation of the Machine Tool and Machining Processes

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 3. Virtualization of Machine Tools

This section focusses on the dynamic modelling of the machine tool including its computer numeric control. To properly simulate modern machine tools in machining condition, which show close interaction between the dynamic behaviour of the mechanical structure, drives, and the CNC, we use an integrated methodology that combines control and MBS capabilities in a nonlinear FEA solver called SAMCEF Mecano. The capacity of such digital twin model to simulate machine tool dynamics is demonstrated considering several validation tests.
Frédéric Cugnon, Mani Ghassempouri, Patxi Etxeberria

Open Access

Chapter 4. Modelling of Machining Processes

The Twin-Control product takes a holistic approach to modelling and simulation of machining processes, incorporating machine controller, machine structure, part program, part geometry, and process forces and dynamics into a single system. The focus of this chapter is on the process models used to simulate cutting forces, torques, form error, and tool dynamics throughout a part program. These predictions provide process planners with valuable information about an operation before it is executed on machine, allowing for potential issues to be identified and reduced or eliminated before the first part is produced.
Luke Berglind, Erdem Ozturk

Open Access

Chapter 5. Towards Energy-Efficient Machine Tools Through the Development of the Twin-Control Energy Efficiency Module

Energy efficiency is an essential quality and cost feature of modern machine tools. The main measures to increase energy efficiency have been investigated many times and are therefore well known. Nevertheless, it must be noted that even with new machine tools, on many occasions only part of this potential is exploited. One reason for this is that the benefits of an energy efficiency measure are not transparent in the planning phase. This often results in a design according to the lowest investment costs. The energy efficiency module of Twin-Control is a simulation tool to support machine tool builders in choosing an optimal machine configuration regarding both the investment and the energy costs. An essential element is simulation models based on physical modelling. These can predict the energy demand of modules within machine tools without prior measurements and ensure that the technical requirements are maintained. During the automated compilation and evaluation of the configuration, the optimization algorithm of the platform, amongst other things, accesses a component database. Using the configuration platform allows the machine manufacturer to offer an individually customized machine tool with the lowest total costs to the machine user.
Dominik Flum, Johannes Sossenheimer, Christian Stück, Eberhard Abele

Open Access

Chapter 6. New Approach for Bearing Life Cycle Estimation and Control

A new approach for the control of the life cycle of rolling bearings in machine tools is presented. The approach is based on a new simulation tool that has been developed using the well-known ISO 281 standard as a reference. This new tool improves the accuracy of the estimations in two fields: model-based and feature-based prognostics. The tool provides accurate end-of-life estimations, thanks to the determination of more realistic component loads for a defined manufacturing cycle. In addition, it can be embedded in monitoring devices using real machine tool usage data and calculate remaining useful life (RUL) of the analyzed component. Experimental tests confirm that the ISO 281 standard overestimates end-of-life of bearings under controlled conditions and presents vibration analysis as a key tool for an early detection of bearing failure. Indeed, the application of the module for remaining useful life calculation should be combined with vibration-based condition monitoring in order to detect unexpected component degradation.
Eneko Olabarrieta, Egoitz Konde, Enrique Guruceta, Mikel Armendia

Real Representation of the Machine Tool and Machining Processes

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 7. Data Monitoring and Management for Machine Tools

Data monitoring is a key feature in current manufacturing industry. It provides the chance to know how the machine tool and the machining process are performing and opens further opportunities to improve process performance at various levels (maintenance, process control and even feedback to design). Twin-Control proposes a monitoring and data management architecture for machine tools. It consists of a modular local monitoring equipment that is flexible to cover most of the machine tool configurations. Monitored data at local level is uploaded to a cloud platform to perform fleet-level analysis. The proposed architecture has been working for almost two years, providing an excellent source of real data used as a basis for the rest of developments of Twin-Control.
Tobias Fuertjes, Christophe Mozzati, Flavien Peysson, Aitor Alzaga, Mikel Armendia

Open Access

Chapter 8. Behaviours Indicators of Machine Tools

Knowledge of machine tool behaviour is a key element to improve production, quality and availability as behaviour indicators represent or give an idea of the real state of the machine. Indeed, real conditions can be used to update simulation models’ parameters, detect or anticipate quality fault on workpiece, and to estimate damage state of machine components such as axis and spindle. Behaviour indicators extraction is based on the analysis of specific and known moves or actions of the machine tools. Two kinds of approaches to build these indicators are discussed in this chapter.
Flavien Peysson, David Leon, Quentin Lafuste, Mikel Armendia, Unai Mutilba, Enrique Guruceta, Gorka Kortaberria

Open Access

Chapter 9. Non-intrusive Load Monitoring on Component Level of a Machine Tool Using a Kalman Filter-Based Disaggregation Approach

Collecting high-quality data points in the production process and using them to optimize the process are becoming increasingly important in the age of Industry 4.0. Measured energy and power data enable benchmarking and condition monitoring applications based on insightful energy performance indicators. As reliable measurement concepts require high investments and are accompanied by uncertain amortization periods, the development of new and more low-cost alternatives is essential. The following chapter will illustrate a cost-effective monitoring approach for industrial production machines on component level that can be applied to a wide range of machines. This is based on an algorithm that calculates the energy consumption from the aggregated power consumption and the control signals of the components. Cost and time-intensive sensor installations can thus be avoided. The data points obtained are then used to derive indicators that are able to identify energy wastage on component level. For this reason, the algorithm is implemented as a plug-in on an existing process control system. To ensure robustness against measurement uncertainties and distorting noise, a Kalman filter forms the basis of the algorithm. The capabilities of the proposed approach are demonstrated on a laboratory machine tool.
Johannes Sossenheimer, Thomas Weber, Dominik Flum, Niklas Panten, Eberhard Abele, Tobias Fuertjes

Open Access

Chapter 10. Utilizing PLC Data for Workpiece Flaw Detection in Machine Tools

Workpiece quality is one of the essential goals of every production company, due to the fact that it is strongly related to customer satisfaction and therefore to sales revenue and business success. While in single-part production every product can be checked for quality issues, this is inefficient in higher volume series production. Hence, random sampling is a widespread method for quality control in high-volume production. The problem with this method is that it just uses samples. Defect workpieces in between the samples are not recognized and therefore processed further on. In this chapter, an approach for monitoring systems for higher volume series production in machine tools is introduced to implement a 100% quality monitoring. It is utilizing the already implemented sensor network that is delivering its data to the machine PLC of the machine tool to indirectly measure the quality.
Johannes Sossenheimer, Christoph J. H. Bauerdick, Mark Helfert, Lars Petruschke, Eberhard Abele

Integration of the Twin Concept

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 11. Simulation of Machining Operations Based on the VMT Concept

This section focusses on the dynamic modelling of the machine tool including its computer numeric control, and its interaction with the machining process. To properly simulate modern machine tools in machining condition, the virtual machine tool model based on SAMCEF Mecano is used to account for close interaction between the dynamic behaviour of the mechanical structure, drives and the control. To fully capture the dynamic behaviour of the machine, force interactions between the cutting tool and the workpiece are also considered. A strong coupling between the mechatronic model of the machine tool and a machining simulation tool is implemented. A specialized cutting force element has been developed. It considers the dynamics of the tooltip combined with the tool-workpiece engagement to generate cutting forces. The use of such digital twin model is demonstrated considering some machining operations.
Frédéric Cugnon, Jean-Pierre Delsemme

Open Access

Chapter 12. Cyber-Physical System to Improve Machining Process Performance

Machining process is set-up in the machines at different levels of maturity. While in large batch manufacturing, a long time is spent in process design and optimization, and in small batch production, the process design time is limited, and the designed process is far to be optimized. In any case, the possibility to control and optimize the process at machine level is very important to increase the productivity. The concept of cyber-physical systems (CPS) is introduced in this paper to increase machine tool performance and process productivity. Several CPS-based features developed in Twin-Control are presented.
Mikel Armendia, Tobias Fuertjes, Denys Plakhotnik, Johaness Sossenheimer, Dominik Flum

Open Access

Chapter 13. Fleet-Wide Proactive Maintenance of Machine Tools

Fleet-wide proactive maintenance characterizes all services that are made available to the users to help them to operate, supervise and maintain a fleet of systems. These services can be, for a general manager of a fleet, a dashboard of all the systems’ business indicators or, for a technical manager, a dashboard of all the systems’ maintenance and health status. At the bottom level of the pyramidal hierarchy, a technical operator should have a fast overview of the systems’ status and should be alerted at the right time when a system needs to be checked. Nowadays, more and more data and information are available on machine tools which should be treated and analysed to extract the right information for the right people at the right time. To achieve this goal, a fleet-wide proactive maintenance platform requires several main business services to have an understandable view of the system by all users and, thus, save time for decision-making during diagnosis and prognosis analysis.
Flavien Peysson, Christophe Mozzati, David Leon, Quentin Lafuste, Jean-Baptiste Leger

Open Access

Chapter 14. Visualization of Simulated and Measured Process Data

Although process monitoring can facilitate to detect deviations from required part quality and safe process conditions, the analysis and postprocessing of the measured data are not embedded into the CAx workflow. Binding the measurement data together with material removal simulation creates a powerful tool for CAM programmers and process engineers. The user can analyze 3D visualization of the machining process more intuitively. A developed CAM integration simulates material removal considering the actual tool coordinates (measured during the process) and can depict the acquired and simulated cutting conditions (spindle torque, axes accelerations, etc.) with various color schemes on in-process stock simulation.
Denys Plakhotnik, Luke Berglind, Marc Stautner, Dirk Euhus, Erdem Ozturk, Tobias Fuertjes, Yavuz Murtezaoglu

From Theory to Practice

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 15. Twin-Control Evaluation in Industrial Environment: Aerospace Use Case

More and more ICT applications appear in both market and research world, but few of them are applied under industrial conditions. One of the highlights of Twin-Control project is the validation of the different features in industrial environments. To do that, two validation scenarios, with very different requirements were defined. In this chapter, the evaluation of Twin-Control in an aerospace use case is presented. The evaluation consists in the presentation of the different implementations and the obtained results, as well as the impact caused by them in the end-users. This document shows the benefits of the application of Twin-Control in such a demanding sector like aerospace.
Mikel Armendia, Mani Ghassempouri, Guillermo Gil, Carlos Mozas, Jose A. Sanchez, Frédéric Cugnon, Luke Berglind, Flavien Peysson, Tobias Fuertjes

Open Access

Chapter 16. Twin-Control Evaluation in Industrial Environment: Automotive Case

This chapter presents the evaluation of Twin-Control in an automotive validation scenario consisting in the production line of a RENAULT electrical motor component that is composed by three COMAU machine tools. Automotive industry requires very optimized and controlled machining process, due to large batches and tight margin cost. In addition, life-cycle features like energy consumption and maintenance costs are of special relevance. The evaluation covers the different stages of the product developing cycle. This document highlights different obtained results of the implementation of Twin-Control features and their impact. Great benefits are provided to the industrial end-users.
Mikel Armendia, Mani Ghassempouri, Jaouher Selmi, Luke Berglind, Johannes Sossenheimer, Dominik Flum, Flavien Peysson, Tobias Fuertjes, Denys Plakhotnik

Backmatter

Additional information

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