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About this book

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Ubiquitous Networking, UNet 2019, held in Limoges, France, in November 2019.

The 17 revised full papers presented together with 1 short paper were carefully reviewed and selected from 41 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections: ubiquitous communication technologies and networking; ubiquitous Internet of things; pervasive services and applications.

Table of Contents


Ubiquitous Communication Technologies and Networking


Comparison of Multi-channel Ranging Algorithms for Narrowband LPWA Network Localization

Accurate radio signal based localization for Low Power Wide Area networks enables ubiquitous positioning for the Internet of Things. Narrowband communication and multipath propagation make precise localization challenging. Coherent multi-channel ranging increases bandwidth and provides improved temporal resolution through the aggregation of sequentially transmitted narrowband signals. This paper applies parametric estimators as well as a deep learning technique to multi-channel measurements obtained with 10 kHz signals. Ranging performances are compared via numerical simulations and real outdoor field trials, where parametric estimation and deep learning achieve 60 m and 45 m accuracy in \(90\%\) of the cases, respectively. Further work is required to study the impact of deep neural network training with a combination of synthetic and real data. Future research may also include the adaptation of multi-channel localization to differential network topologies.
Florian Wolf, Mohamed Sana, Sébastien de Rivaz, François Dehmas, Jean-Pierre Cances

Iterative Decoding for SCMA Systems Using Log-MPA with Feedback LDPC Decoding

Sparse Code Multiple Access (SCMA) is a technique to improve spectral efficiency by sharing the same spectral resources among different users. As a result, the receiver has to cope with excess interference. A channel encoder is used to aid receiver to correct the data stream. In this paper, we discuss the use of an LDPC encoder for channel coding on each user’s traffic, followed by an SCMA encoder. SCMA encoder is a potential candidate for fifth generation (5G) mobile communication and different codebooks have already been proposed. In this paper we choose specific codewords extracted from permutation of QPSK modulation and rotation. The receiver is based on Log Domain Message Passing Algorithm (Log-MPA) for SCMA. The novelty of our paper lies in the receiver scheme with exchange of extrinsic information between SCMA decoder and LDPC decoder. Feedback from LDPC decoder provides extrinsic information to SCMA decoder, thus enabling creation of a super-graph between LDPC and SCMA decoder. Numerical results depict performance gain in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER) and complexity over conventional LDPC coded SCMA systems.
Bilal Ghani, Frederic Launay, Jean Pierre Cances, Clency Perrine, Yannis Pousset

A Fast TDMA Schedule Based on Greedy Approach

TDMA schedule is a complex problem with ad hoc. In order to minimize frame length, maximize channel utilization, reduce running time and increase fairness, a TDMA (M-TDMA) based on greedy selection and matrix OR is proposed. M-TDMA minimizes the frame length and maximizes the network throughput through greedy selection. It reduces the computing time by matrix OR, and increases fairness by random selection. The simulations show that the computing time and average delay of M-TDMA are significantly lower than that of TDMA schemes based on SVC. M-TDMA is also superior to TP-TDMA and N-TDMA in fairness.
Shuai Xiaoying

Extended Low Rank Parity Check Codes and Their Efficient Decoding for Multisource Wireless Sensor Networks

In this paper, we consider a multisource network transmitting information through relays to a base station using Network Coding. We design a model for this scenario and use the rank metric to address the problem of packet errors (caused for example by a malicious user or a defective node). We introduce a new family of codes, the extended LRPC codes, that are very well suited to this model and extensively use the fact that the information comes from multiple sources to decode. They therefore improve the communication reliability compared to classical LRPC codes and Gabidulin codes. We provide a theoretical analysis of their decoding failure probability, both in a one source and multisource scenario, as well as simulation results confirming our analysis.
Nicolas Aragon, Jean Pierre Cances, Imad El Qachchach, Philippe Gaborit, Oussama Habachi

Analysis of the Coexistence of Ultra Narrow Band and Spread Spectrum Technologies in ISM Bands

The rapid growth in the Internet of Things (IoT) leads currently to an increase in the density of the number of connected objects typically in free bands. Operating in unlicensed bands requires connected objects to reduce their energy consumption. To that end, one of the adopted techniques is the random access to the radio channel. The main downside of uncontrolled medium access is almost always the high interference level inherent to both self- as well as cross-technologies. Among the various technologies that are used to connect this massive number of devices, we distinguish two emerging technologies based on spread spectrum and ultra narrow band. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of the coexistence of these two technologies, in Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) unlicensed bands, in terms of bit error rate by defining a formal expression for the interfering signals.
Mohamed Amine Ben Temim, Guillaume Ferré, Romain Tajan

Energy-Efficient MIMO Multiuser Systems: Nash Equilibrium Analysis

In this paper, an energy efficiency (EE) game in a MIMO multiple access channel (MAC) communication system is considered. The existence and the uniqueness of the Nash Equilibrium (NE) is affirmed. A bisection search algorithm is designed to find this unique NE. Despite being sub-optimal for deploying the \(\varepsilon \)-approximate NE of the game when the number of antennas in transmitter is unequal to receiver’s, the policy found by the proposed algorithm is shown to be more efficient than the classical allocation techniques. Moreover, compared to the general algorithm based on fractional programming technique, our proposed algorithm is easier to implement. Simulation shows that even the policy found by proposed algorithm is not the NE of the game, the deviation w.r.t. to the exact NE is small and the resulted policy actually Pareto-dominates the unique NE of the game at least for 2-user situation.
Hang Zou, Chao Zhang, Samson Lasaulce, Lucas Saludjian, Patrick Panciatici

Combined Beam Alignment and Power Allocation for NOMA-Empowered mmWave Communications

Millimeter-wave communications have recently attracted significant interest in future wireless networks regarding its wide bandwidth that achieves high data rates. However, the major challenge lies in the beam alignment problem that may induce a substantial loss in the received power, notably when narrow beams are employed. Therefore, this paper jointly addresses the problem of beam alignment and power allocation in a non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) mmWave system. Unlike the conventional orthogonal multiple access (OMA), we study the case where two users are joined for NOMA transmission. Next, to mitigate this combined issue, we propose an optimization formulation owing to maximize the sum rate. We compare two types of antennas: sectorized and lemniscate antenna patterns under NOMA and OMA schemes. Simulation results prove the performance of NOMA-lemniscate based beam alignment and power allocation scheme compared to the conventional OMA scheme.
Wissal Attaoui, Essaid Sabir

Fast Uplink Grant for NOMA: A Federated Learning Based Approach

Recently, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technique has emerged and is being considered as a building block of 5G systems and beyond. In this paper, we focus on the resource allocation for NOMA-based systems and we investigate how Machine Type Devices (MTDs) can be arranged into clusters. Specifically, we propose two allocation techniques to enable the integration of massive NOMA-based MTD in the 5G. Firstly, we propose a low-complexity schema where the base station (BS) assigns an MTD to a cluster based on its Channel State Information (CSI) and transmit power in order to ensure that the Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC) can be performed in the uplink as well as the downlink. The proposed technique enable us to allocate an optimal number of MTDs without inter-NOMA-interference (INI), while being of low complexity and communication overhead. In the second framework, we propose a Federated Learning (FL) based-technique using traffic model estimation at the MTD side in order to extend the capacity of the system. In fact, the BS take into account the traffic model of the MTDs in order to use time multiplexing in addition to the power multiplexing to separate MTDs. Then, we propose a synchronization method to allow contending MTDs synchronize their transmissions. Simulation results show that the proposed techniques outperform existing schemes in the literature.
Oussama Habachi, Mohamed-Ali Adjif, Jean-Pierre Cances

Global Modelling of Diffraction Phenomena by Irregular Shapes with Hybrid MOM-GTD Method

In this paper we propose to combine in a hybrid method the moments method (MOM) and the general theory of diffraction (GTD). This hybrid approach is used to analyse any arbitrary shape with multiple and varied dimension also place in free space or in wave guide Some examples, e.g. an antenna mounted near a perfect conductor Complex Object with two plates, demonstrates that the hybrid approach is the most suitable technique for modelling large-scale objects with arbitrary shapes. This approach allows us to resolve the problem, that the other methods can’t solve it alone. Generally, random radiation locates on or near an arbitrary form, can be solved using this technique hence the strong advantages of our method.
Samir Mendil, Taoufik Aguili

Ubiquitous Internet of Things


Multi-hop LoRa Network with Pipelined Transmission Capability

LoRa (Long Range) has been developed as an attractive IoT (Internet of Things) access network technology in terms of long distance and low power consumption. LoRaWAN a network standard based on LoRa, is an infra-structured network with star topology between LoRa motes, LoRa gateways, and a network server. Even though LoRaWAN has a long distance communication capability, it is difficult to apply LoRa technology in a large area with no communication infra-structure. In those environments, an ad-hoc network based on LoRa can cover a large area easily. In this paper, we propose a multi-hop LoRa network protocol, called pm-LoRa (pipelined multi-hop LoRa), with time-slotted and pipelined transmission capability which can be deployed easily on demand. In our protocol, a converge-cast tree topology is constructed at first for uploading and downloading communication between LoRa motes and a sink node. During the tree construction step, a channel and time-slot is assigned to each tree link, and each node transmits its data on the assigned channel and time-slot during the uploading and downloading data transmission cycles. We developed our multi-hop LoRa node prototype using Multi-tech mDot and made an experiment in the university. The experiment result showed that we could construct a multi-hop LoRa network easily on demand and collect sensor data from LoRa motes with high reliability by removing collisions among neighbor nodes.
Dinh Loc Mai, Myung Kyun Kim

IoT-Based Vital Sign Monitoring Using UWB Sensor

Due to the ageing population and the dramatically increasing of the number of patient or disabled person living alone at home, remote health monitoring has become a critical demand for society, and has attracted the attention of researchers. We implemented an Internet of Things (IoT)–based remote health monitoring prototype using the integration between Xethru Ultra Wide Band (UWB) sensor for data collection and vital sign measurement, Lora protocol for data transmission, Raspberry Pi as gateway for processing, and a server for data storage. In the gateway, the UWB sensor data are processed and cleaned using singular value decomposition (SVD) and Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) based algorithm in order to detect and monitor the respiration and heartbeat motion of patient. The IoT based scenario using UWB sensor shows a good ability for older people health monitoring without any obtrusion and privacy violation.
Mohamad Mostafa, Mohammad Saeed Dayari, Somayyeh Chamaani, Vahid Meghdadi, Oussama Habachi, Yannis Pousset

IIoT-Based Prognostic Health Management Using a Markov Decision Process Approach

Recent advances in Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) made them a key component of the Industry 4.0. Thus, several aspects of the latter, such as scheduling maintenance operations, could benefit from the existing IIoT infrastructure. We consider an IIoT-based Prognostic Health Management network for industrial facilities. Our objective is to characterize the optimal maintenance policy that favors grouping maintenance operations while reducing the deterioration and failure costs. We rely on Markov Decision Process with full information Theory to develop a realistic model for the IIoT-based PHM system in an industrial facility with multiple components prone to failure. We investigate the structural properties of optimal policies and provide numerical investigations.
Khadija Berhili, Mohammed-Amine Koulali, Yahya Berrehili

A Wearable IoT-Based Fall Detection System Using Triaxial Accelerometer and Barometric Pressure Sensor

The aim of this research work is to develop a wearable and IoT-based fall detection system that can potentially be integrated within a smart home or a community health center to improve the quality of life of the elderly. This system would enable caregivers to remotely monitor the activities of their dependents and to immediately be notified of falls as adverse events. The proposed hardware architecture includes a processor, a triaxial accelerometer, a barometric pressure sensor, a Wi-Fi module, and battery packs. This unobtrusive architecture causes no interference with daily living while monitoring the falls. The output of the fall detection algorithm is a two-state flag, transmitted to a remote server in real-time.
Elahe Radmanesh, Mehdi Delrobaei, Oussama Habachi, Somayyeh Chamani, Yannis Pousset, Vahid Meghdadi

A Congestion Game Analysis for Route-Parking Selection with Dynamic Pricing Policies

The parking plays a fundamental role in urban transport policy development, as an important factor impacting driver’s behavior and a major source of traffic problems. In this paper, we present some novel parking pricing schemes to solve the parking spots scarcity and enhance the traffic condition in urban areas. We capture the traveler behavior in term of joint route and parking selection using a simple congestion game. Each traveler aims to minimize his/her expected travel cost by choosing an optimal strategy (route and parking spot). We show how an efficient pricing can incentivize the travelers to optimally choose their route-parking while reducing the traffic congestion.
Bassma Jioudi, Essaid Sabir, Fouad Moutaouakkil, Hicham Medromi

Initial Centroid Selection Method for an Enhanced K-means Clustering Algorithm

Clustering is an important method to discover structures and patterns in high-dimensional data and group similar ones together. K-means is one of the most popular clustering algorithms. K-means groups observations by minimizing distances between them and maximizing group distances. One of the primordial steps in this algorithm is centroid selection, in which k initial centroids are estimated either randomly, calculated, or given by the user. Existing k-means algorithms uses the ‘k-means++’ option for this selection. In this paper, we suggest an enhanced version of k-means clustering that minimize the runtime of the algorithm using ‘Ndarray’ option. Experiments have shown that if the first choice of centroids is close to the final centers, the results will be quickly found. Thus, we propose a new concept that provides one of the best choices of starting centroids that reduces the execution time by ≈80% on average for UCI, Shape and Miscellaneous datasets.
Youssef Aamer, Yahya Benkaouz, Mohammed Ouzzif, Khalid Bouragba

Pervasive Services and Applications


Dependency Between the Distance and International Voice Traffic

The mobile voice traffic can provide useful information as for importance and relation of interconnected countries. In this paper, we investigate the international outgoing/incoming voice traffic dependence on the destination, based on the three-month Call Detail Records dataset analyzes. The distance between countries, more precisely the distance between centroids of countries, is calculated by using the great-circle distance approach. Additionally, the voice traffic parameters are normalized with respect to population of countries to obtain comparable outcome independently of the country population. The obtained results demonstrate dependency of traffic parameters on destinations, where the nearby countries are responsible for more than 50% of the total traffic.
Zagroz Aziz, Robert Bestak

IoT Platforms for 5G Network and Practical Considerations: A Survey

The fifth generation (5G) mobile network will enable the Internet of Things (IoT) to take a large leap into the age of future computing. As a result of extended connectivity, high speed, and reduced latency services being provided by 5G, IoT has experienced and will continue to undergo a remarkable transition in every field of daily life. Furthermore, fog computing will revolutionize the IoT platforms by decentralizing the operations through the cloud and ensuring sustainability with big data, mobility, and reduced processing lag. 5G is ubiquitous, reliable, scalable, and economic in nature. The features will not only globalize IoT in a broader spectrum, but also make common people interact smartly and efficiently with the environment in real time. In this study, a combined survey is presented on different IoT applications coupled with cloud platforms. Moreover, the capabilities of IoT in the influence of 5G are explored as well as how the IoT platform and services will adopt through 5G are envisaged. Additionally, some open issues triggered by 5G have been introduced to harness the maximum benefit out of this network. Finally, a platform is proposed to implement in the telepresence project based on the investigation and findings.
Sejuti Banik, Irvin Steve Cardenas, Jong-Hoon Kim

Optical Wireless Transmission of Electrocardiogram During Effort

In the context of contactless diagnostics of human bio-parameters, wireless transmission are generally based on radio-frequency technologies. This can be a problem regarding interferences with other equipments or with interactions for human body as for example people wearing pacemakers. We present in this paper the realization of a portable device able to perform distant electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring during physical activities based on optical wireless communications. Our system is designed using on-the-shelf components and imposes constraints on sampling frequency. Therefore, even if the sampling frequency in the proposed system is not sufficient for medical diagnosis, our study shows the potentiality of using optical wireless for transmission and distant analysis of ECG data. We illustrate the performance by experimentally evaluating packet error rate of the optical wireless transmission of ECG data and we show that the heart rate is correctly evaluated when the person is moving inside a room.
Stéphanie Sahuguède, Anne Julien-Vergonjanne, Olivier Bernard, Kostiantyn Vasko, Boris Shtangei

Emergency Patient’s Arrivals Management Based on IoT and Discrete Simulation Using ARENA

The healthcare ecosystem is now in a state of flux. Social, economic pressures beside demographic changes disrupt the balance of the health facilities. According to the Organization for Cooperation and Economic Development (OECD, 2004), “the last thirty years have been a period of change and of expansion for health systems”. Currently, the major problem remains about controlling the ever-increasing health expenditures. Thus, Hospitals are faced with a triple constraint: cost, time and quality.
The current ecosystem must simultaneously integrate these constraints in order to offer the best possible service to patient in a minimum time and at the optimal patient’s situation. We focus our interest on patients suffering from heart diseases, but still the global approach of the proposed model valid for other contexts. The proposed model is based on an extreme danger situation consisting of heart attacks.
In this paper, we aim to establish an embedded connectivity between heart diseases patients and their physicians. Real time monitoring plays an important role to establish that kind of connectivity.
In fact, the proposed simulation model is a Dynamic Stochastic Discrete model realized using ARENA software. All the results presented here are based on random data and can be replaced by real time data extracted and preprocessed using IoT sensors recording, and are referenced to a bi-objective function we are going to present in the following sections.
Kaouter Karboub, Tabaa Mohamed, Fouad Moutaouakkil, Dellagi Sofiene, Abbas Dandache

MSND: Multicast Software Defined Network Based Solution to Multicast Tree Construction

Internet services provider propose increasingly numerous applications depend on multicast communication patterns, such as database synchronization, newsletter updates, video, and audio group streaming. In spite of, IP multicast is frequently suffered from scaling and instability, which causes internet provider administrators to avoid its utilization. While different multicast protocols in all layers, such as routing and switching, have been created by researchers and providers, through several years, to focus on security, congestion control, and scalability, our work aims to scale multicast regarding the number of supported multicast groups and sources in networks and multicast session. In this paper, we propose an SDN-based IP multicast tree construction module to support and deploy multicast communication-based services. To do so, we take advantage to compute multicast tree, in the centralized way, to achieve a dynamic tree construction algorithm that helps SDN controller to dynamically construct and adjust an optimal multicast tree in all multicast session. The experiments studies on the prototype and simulation system exhibit that our solution gives better performance contrasted with the traditional multicast tree construction algorithms, better also to SDN-based solution proposed in the literature, regarding multicast tree cost, delay, delay variation, and multicast tree construction delay.
Youssef Baddi, Anass Sebbar, Karim Zkik, Mohammed Boulmalf, Mohamed Dafir Ech-Cherif El Kettani


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