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# Umwelt

## weitere Buchkapitel

Open Access

### Chapter 3. “Vision 2050” to the Rescue of a “Limited Earth”

Next let us consider the second paradigm—“The Limited Earth.” The problems caused by the fact that the Earth is limited are far-reaching. These include not only energy, resources, global warming, air pollution, water pollution, ground pollution, food, and water, but also—if we think broadly—such problems as the widescale spread of infectious diseases of people and livestock. The reason is that the probability of virus mutation and transmission increases along with the probability that wild animals come into contact with livestock, livestock with other livestock, humans with livestock, and so on. And in turn, the probability of contact on the limited surface of the Earth increases in proportion to the square of the population density.

Hiroshi Komiyama

### Digital design of chassis and tire: virtual is real!

The digital transformation for vehicle, chassis, systems and tire design is on its way for the sake of vehicle performances, lead-time and cost reduction. It leads to deep changes into automotive industry design processes and Michelin leads these fast-evolving trends and technical strategies with a complete approach from virtual tire design to tire models delivered to the OEM and fast iterations.Based on some on-going application cases, the study will show a range of possi-ble efficient virtualization of the chassis-tire development on different perfor-mances such as vehicle dynamics, max handling, interior noise or rolling re-sistance.It will be explained how FEA calculations can be connected to tire models’ pre-dictions to virtually design different specification letters and pre-screen some de-sign orientation without building any prototype tires.

Patrick Pallot

### Wege zu niedrigen und niedrigsten Endrohremissionen mit hocheffizienten Benzinmotoren – Simulation als "Pathfinder Tool" für die Formulierung konzeptueller Ansätze

Die anstehenden Emissionsgesetze sowie die aktuellen globalen Maßnahmen zu stärkeren Emissionskontrollen und der Reduzierung von CO2-Emissionen unter Berücksichtigung realer Fahrszenarien und Betriebsbedingungen erfordern sofortiges und sorgfältiges Handeln bei der Planung zukunftssicherer Antriebsstränge. Neben dem idealistischen Ausblick auf batterieelektrische Fahrzeuge aus grüner Energie, für den großen Teil der Antriebsstränge mit Verbrennungsmotoren wird die Hybridisierung, d.h. die Elektrifizierung, die wichtige Brücke sein, um eine effektive Reduzierung von CO2- und Schadstoffemissionen zu gewährleisten. Mit der Präsenz einer hybrid-elektrischen Infrastruktur kommt der synergetische Einsatz anderer neuer elektrischer Systeme wie elektrisch beheizte Katalysatoren oder elektrifizierte Boostsysteme in die Machbarkeit, um die Leistung für den Fahrer sowie für die Umwelt für das kommende sogenannte EURO7-Szenario zu maximieren. Schritt für Schritt wurde der Weg zu niedrigen oder niedrigsten Emissionen von AVL mit Hilfe von Simulations- und Messwerkzeugen bewertet. AVL bietet eine Reihe von Simulationsservices an, die clevere Simulationswerkzeuge nutzen, um in das hybride Systemlayout einzusteigen und dabei den Motor und das Nachbehandlungssystem frühzeitig im Entwicklungsprozess sowohl auf Vor- als auch auf Konzeptebene zu berücksichtigen. Für ein C-Segment Hybrid-"virtuelles" SUV werden Erkenntnisse zur Identifikation von Motor- und Emissionsnachbehandlungskonzepten und Betriebsstrategien zur sicheren Erreichung von EURO7 unter erweiterten Real-Driving-Bedingungen erarbeitet. Die zunehmende Elektrifizierung des Antriebsstrangs bietet gewisse Vorteile bei der Erfüllung der Emissionsanforderungen bei gleichzeitiger Leistungsfähigkeit bei guten Kostenabwägungen. Es lassen sich viele Ansätze verfolgen, um ein Antriebsstrangkonzept zu definieren, das den gesetzlichen Anforderungen entspricht. Diese Ansätze und die jeweiligen Kostenabzweigungen werden schematisch durch Simulationen dargestellt.

Goutham Reddy, K. Prevedel, P. Götschl, P. Kapus

### Reibungsminimierung bei Industriemotoren durch hubabhängig positionierte Mikrostrukturen auf der Zylinderlaufbahnoberfläche

Im Zuge des Klimawandels wird im Verkehrssektor in Deutschland bis 2030 eine CO2-Einsparung von 40-42 % angestrebt [1]. Von den 2017 emittierten 166 Millionen Tonnen CO2-Äquivalenten im Verkehr, entfallen 36 % auf Nutzfahrzeuge [2]. Zur Umsetzung der Klimaziele im Nutzfahrzeugbereich ist laut Bundesumweltamt, neben der Einführung von alternativen Antrieben, auch eine Effizienzsteigerung im Antriebsstrang konventioneller Nutzfahrzeuge notwendig [3].

Henning Pasligh, Philipp Köser, Frank Berbig, Florian Pohlmann-Tasche, Daniel Stecher, Friedrich Dinkelacker

### Antriebsstrangoptimierung von Hybridsystemen unter Berücksichtigung thermischer Einzelkomponentenwirkungsgrade

Um den Anforderungen der zukünftigen CO2- und Emissionsgesetzgebung gerecht zu werden, ist eine ganzheitliche Auslegung von Hybridantriebssträngen notwendig. In diesem Beitrag wird ein Ansatz präsentiert, der die thermischen Wirkungsgrade von Verbrennungsmotor, E-Motor, Batterie, Inverter, Getriebe und deren Interaktion berücksichtigt.Für die Untersuchungen wird ein Gesamtfahrzeugmodell mit thermischen Effizienzmodellen auf Subsystemebene verwendet. Neben den thermischen Komponentenmodellen werden auch die Kühl- und Schmiersysteme der unterschiedlichen Kreisläufe modelliert, sodass auch die transiente Leistungsanforderung der Nebenverbraucher berücksichtigt wird. Eine Bewertung des Energieverbrauchs für die Fahrzeuginnenraumklimatisierung wird über ein thermisches Kabinen-Modell ermöglicht.Vor der thermischen Systemoptimierung wird zunächst in der Systemabsicherung anhand eines beispielhaften Worst-Case-Szenarios die Kühlsystemperformance geprüft. Anschließend werden intelligente Regelstrategien für die elektrifizierten Nebenverbraucher entwickelt, um einen niedrigen Energieverbrauch, hohe Komponentenwirkungsgrade und thermische Sicherheit zu ermöglichen. Für die erforderliche Gesamtoptimierung der Regelsysteme wird exemplarisch eine Regelstrategie für eine elektrische Wasserpumpe und ein elektrisches Proportionalventil über den Ansatz der statistischen Versuchsplanung (engl.: Design of Experiments) definiert.Abschließend werden die Unterschiede zwischen dem ganzheitlichen Auslegungsansatz und dem Ansatz ohne Berücksichtigung thermischer Einzelkomponentenwirkungsgrade im WLTC für unterschiedliche Umgebungstemperaturen inklusive aktivierter Innenraumklimatisierung vorgestellt.

Jonas Müller, Robert Maurer, Jens Achenbach, Andreas Balazs, Jürgen Knauf

### Reibungspotentiale im Tribosystem Kolben/Zylinderlaufbahn

Reibungsabschätzung, -messung und -simulation mit AVL FriPrO, AVL FRISC und AVL EXCITE

Für die Realisierung der in Paris definierten Klimaschutzziele wird die Optimierung des Verbrennungsmotors weiterhin eine tragende Rolle spielen. Sowohl für den Kleinmotor im Hybridantrieb als auch für den Großmotor in Nutzfahrzeugen und Baumaschinen hat eine Effizienzsteigerung höchste Priorität. Maßnahmen zur Reduktion der mechanischen Verluste werden typischerweise mit geschleppten Reibleistungsmessungen am Vollmotor (AVL Strip-down Analyse) bewertet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass bis zu 50 % der Gesamtverluste im Tribosystem Kolben/Zylinderlaufbahn entstehen. Zur Analyse der Kolbengruppenreibung setzt AVL eine kurbelwinkelbasierte Reibkraftmessung am Einzylindermotor ein (AVL FRISC), aus der sich der Reibmitteldruck (FMEP) als Maß der Effizienz ableiten lässt. Zunächst wird auf diese und weitere Methoden der Reibungsanalyse eingegangen. Anschließend werden zum einen beispielhafte Messergebnisse erläutert, zum anderen werden begleitende Simulationsergebnisse vorgestellt, die für eine ausreichende Interpretation erforderlich sind. Die Ergebnisse verdeutlichen, dass sowohl der Mischreibungsanteil in den Totpunkten als auch der (elasto)hydrodynamische Anteil bei hohen Kolbengeschwindigkeiten reduziert werden können. Um sämtliche Potentiale auszuschöpfen, muss jedoch der Blick auf das Gesamtsystem gerichtet werden und nicht auf einzelne Maßnahmen. Dass Einzelmaßnahmen ihre Wirkung verfehlen können, sobald weitere einflussnehmende Parameter falsch definiert sind, wird anhand eines Beispiels deutlich. Eine abschließende Studie zeigt zudem, dass sich die Kolbengruppenreibung im Spannungsfeld mit Ölverbrauch, Blow By und Verschleiß befindet, weshalb für eine detaillierte Analyse des Tribosystems kombinierte Messungen empfohlen werden. Um aus der Vielzahl an Parametern und Wechselwirkungen das bestmögliche Gesamtsystem zu erhalten setzt AVL auf eine zentrale Powertrain Datenbank (AVL PTDB), in der alle Kenntnisse und Ursache-Wirkungs-Ketten einfließen. Die direkte Verknüpfung zu einem Friction Prognosis & Optimization Tool (AVL FriPrO) liefert schnelle Reibungsprognosen zukünftiger Verbrennungsmotoren und ermöglicht die Definition eines sinnvollen Maßnahmenpaketes zur Steigerung der Effizienz.

Julian Schäffer, Siegfried Lösch, Mirko Plettenberg, Heinz-Georg Flesch, Josef Edtmayer

### Optimierung der Gesamtreibung in einem Radlager der 3. Generation

Die nachhaltige Entwicklung der Mobilität in Richtung alternativer und elektrischer Antriebe beschäftigt nicht nur die Automobilhersteller, sondern auch die gesamte Zulieferkette. Durch die elektrischen und hybriden Antriebsformen verändern sich die Anforderungen an das Gesamtfahrzeug und damit auch an die Komponenten. CO2-Reduzierung und verlängerte Reichweiten durch weniger Reibung und Gewichtseinsparungen stehen im Widerspruch zu höheren Fahrzeuggewichten, erhöhten Drehmomenten und dem Wunsch nach einem leisen Betrieb. In diesem Spannungsfeld setzt die Entwicklung eines reiboptimierten Radlagers der 3. Generation an.Ziel des hier vorgestellten Projektes war es, ein Radlager mit geringer Reibung zu entwickeln, das einen wesentlichen Beitrag zur Erfüllung der verschärften CO2-Vorgaben leistet und beim Einsatz in einem EFahrzeug gleichzeitig eine Erhöhung der Reichweite ermöglicht.Die Entwicklung des Radlagers erfolgte unter Beachtung des Gesamtsystems der Fahrzeugachse. Somit wurde der Einfluss der Umbauteile Radträger, Bremsscheibe sowie der Antriebswelle auf die Reibung des Radlagers berücksichtigt.Für die methodische Bearbeitung wurde die „Design for Six Sigma“-Methode gewählt, welche eine strukturierte und effiziente Durchführung gewährleistete und die zugleich ein Pilotprojekt für die Produktentwicklung im Unternehmen Schaeffler darstellte.Durch die erfolgreiche Validierung des Radlagers wurde die Serienreife bereits nachgewiesen. Neben der erzielten geringen Reibung zeichnet sich das neu entwickelte Radlager insbesondere durch hohe Lebensdauer, überzeugenden Fahrkomfort und gute Akustik aus.Anhand von Simulationen wurde abschließend bei Einsatz eines Radlagers mit optimierter Reibung nicht nur eine signifikante CO2-Einsparung bei Fahrzeugen mit Verbrennungsmotor nachgewiesen, sondern auch eine Reichweitenerhöhung bei E-Fahrzeugen. Das Design leistet dadurch einen wesentlichen Beitrag zur Kostenreduzierung für den OEM, da Überschreitungen der gesetzlichen CO2-Vorgaben mit Strafzahlungen verbunden sind.

Simon Brähler, Helena Preiß

### Chapter 10. Effect of Hybrid Nanoparticle on DI Diesel Engine Performance, Combustion, and Emission Studies

The frequent rise in the use of diesel engines in all fields emits harmful gases such as NOx and CO, which causes significant environmental emissions, global warming, breathing problems, etc. (Sivalingam et al. 2019). In the investigation of the performance, combustion, and emission characteristics, using diesel water emulsion is mixed with hybrid nanoparticles as additives in Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine. Reducing the emission characteristics and increasing engine performance is to introduce emulsion fuels (Parthasarathy et al. 2021). The water content of 5% is added with the diesel fuel as blends of (D94% + W5%). The surfactant used is Span 80 and Tween 80 and mixed with diesel water emulsion using a mechanical stirring process. This reports on the use of cerium oxide (CeO2), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles as an additive to diesel fuel. For this study, the fuel tested was prepared by blending three nanoparticles into diesel in a mass fraction of 50 ppm, 100 ppm, 150 ppm with the assistance of an ultrasonic stirrer. The diesel water emulsion is mixed with the nanoparticle and prepared as three different fuel blends such as (D90% + W5% + S5% + HBNP 50 ppm), (D90% + W5% +S5% + HBNP 100 ppm), and (D90% + W5% +S5% + HBNP 150 ppm). Based on experimental results, BTE increased by 8.3% and BSFC is reduced by 14.42% at (D94% + W5% +S1% + HB 150 ppm) blend when compared with the diesel, due to the atomization of the fuel and oxygen content available in the fuel. The emissions of CO is reduced by 10.2%; smoke, oxides of nitrogen emissions, and HC are reduced by 27.5%, 36.58%, and 27.77%, respectively, when compared with clean diesel fuel, because of microexplosion and proper atomization taking place during the combustion process. The cylinder pressure and HRR are increased by 3.2% and 2.8%, respectively, when compared with neat diesel fuel, due to increased combustion temperature and secondary atomization of fuel take places.

Elumalai Perumal Venkatesan, Dhinesh Balasubramanian, Olusegun David Samuel, Muhammad Usman Kaisan, Parthasarathy Murugesan

### Chapter 1. Introduction to Novel Internal Combustion Engine Technologies for Performance Improvement and Emission Reduction

In the last two decades, efficient and clean internal combustion (IC) engines have become the main requirement of society. To fulfil this demand, a lot of research is going on throughout the world. Few researchers have already focussed on advanced engine technologies for improving engine efficiency; however, current emission standards are pushing researchers to carry out some fundamental investigations to reduce the pollutant formation inside the combustion chamber and the development of advanced after-treatment systems to cut down the emissions from tail pipe. This book is based on these two aspects. The first section of this book covers several fundamental studies related to laser induced fluorescence (LIF) for pollutant formation, particle image velocimetry (PIV) for in-cylinder air flow characteristics and fuel spray investigations. The second section of this book is based on performance improvement and emission reduction by using after-treatment technologies and other techniques such as blending of nano-additives. Overall this book is based on the current measures of engine technologies used for performance improvement and emission reduction.

Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Avinash Kumar Agarwal

### Chapter 8. Engine Emission Control Devices for Particulate Matter and Oxides of Nitrogen: Challenges and Emerging Trends

Internal combustion engines (ICEs) have wide applications in several sectors, which are responsible for boosting the economy. However, engine emissions are of major concern as they significantly contribute to global air pollution. Worsening air quality has negative impact on human beings and nature. Regulated engine emissions include carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and particulate matter (PM). Globally, these emissions have been put under strict regulations by various emission regulation bodies. Severe issues related to the engine emissions can be resolved using efficient and advanced after-treatment devices. Use of exhaust gas after-treatment devices is one of the effective ways for engine emission reduction to meet the stringent emissions norms effectively. These devices involve complex chemical reactions. In this chapter, simultaneous reduction of PM and NOx is focused, as both pollutants are difficult to reduce together because of PM/NOx trade-off. Several NOx and PM control devices used in ICEs, such as lean NOx traps (LNT), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and diesel particulate filter (DPF), are discussed in detail. Each after-treatment device has its advantages and limitations. Different integrated exhaust gas systems have been developed in the last couple of decades to address these limitations and enhance emission control efficiency. Various challenges and solutions to meet the emission norms using exhaust gas after-treatment devices have been discussed in this chapter.

Utkarsha Sonawane, Avinash Kumar Agarwal

### Chapter 9. Variation of Soot Structure Along the Exhaust Aftertreatment System—Impact of Oxygenated Diesel Blends on the Soot/Catalyst Interactions

Particulate matter structural modifications do not only impact the oxidative/mutagenic properties of the particulates but also influence the motion and contact between the aggregates in the exhaust. Those interactions have a direct impact on the porosity, permeability, and packing density of the soot cake deposited in the diesel particulate filter (DPF). This in turn will influence the filtration efficiency and pressure drop in the DPF channels. Morphology of the PM combined with the carbon layer nanostructure also has a direct impact on the DPF regeneration capability. After recognizing the importance of the particulates’ structure on the DPF performance, it becomes a subject of interest to understand if the engine-out PM will face any modifications within the aftertreatment units, e.g., diesel oxidation catalyst, selective catalytic reduction catalyst, etc., before being trapped in the DPF. While the dependency of the PM characteristics on its fueling source and engine technology is a well-researched topic, limited work has been carried out regarding the impact of the aftertreatment system on the structure (i.e., morphology and nanostructure) and chemical characteristics of the exhaust PM. This chapter will discuss the different theories and experimental work provided in the literature regarding the impact of aftertreatment systems on the PM characteristics. Special attention will be given on the impact of alcohols and other oxygenated fuels on this mechanism compared to conventional diesel fuel.

Nahil Serhan

### Chapter 2. Application of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Technique in Internal Combustion Engine Investigations

Laser diagnostic techniques have evolved as a pioneering tool for understanding the combustion and fluid dynamics in internal combustion (IC) engines. These are non-intrusive techniques, which provide fundamental insights about the in-cylinder processes such as spray characteristics, fuel-air mixing, combustion, pollutant formation, etc. without affecting/altering the underlying physics. This chapter is based on one such laser diagnostic technique namely ‘laser-induced fluorescence (LIF)’, which is capable of imaging the temperature-field and in situ species concentration during combustion. This chapter discusses a brief overview of optical diagnostics techniques, fundamentals of LIF, design, and development, current status and future trends for the application of this technology in IC engine research. This chapter also includes a comprehensive literature review of the applications of LIF in combustion investigations with a special emphasis on IC engines. Several examples and case studies have also been included in this chapter for a better understanding.

Tushar Kakkar, Ashutosh Jena, Avinash Kumar Agarwal

### Chapter 3. Challenges and Opportunities of Particle Imaging Velocimetry as a Tool for Internal Combustion Engine Diagnostics

To make further progress on in situ reduction of pollutant formation in engines, the understanding of combustible mixture preparation is vital. Time-dependent development of flow structures and distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) are instrumental in charge preparation for both premixed as well as mixing controlled combustion phases. Non-linear and unsteady nature of in-cylinder air motion has remained a grey area ever since the days of initial development of internal combustion (IC) engines. The optimization of in-cylinder flow structures and development of numerical models for an in-depth understanding of the in-cylinder processes has become critical in view of the need for complying with stringent emission regulations. This can be realized by in-cylinder flow visualization and continuous tuning and validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has evolved as a pioneering tool for the investigation of intake air-flow structure, flow interaction and fluid motion. However, there are several challenges for the utilization of PIV for in-cylinder flow investigations in IC engines. While the intricate geometry of engine creates hindrance for optical access, the dynamic nature of ambient conditions complicates the selection of seeds. The work presented in this chapter summarizes these critical issues along with the possible solutions. Comprehensive literature on the evolution of PIV as a diagnostics tool for engine application has been covered. A brief review on the impact of flow structures on the combustion and pollutant formation has been also discussed. This chapter is useful for thorough understanding of PIV and its applications in IC engine and provides direction for further innovations in the field.

Ashutosh Jena, Akhilendra Pratap Singh, Avinash Kumar Agarwal

### Chapter 7. Evolution of Catalytic Converters for Spark Ignition Engines to Control Emissions

Engine exhaust species such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) are hazardous and pose a significant threat to the environment and the human health. Catalytic converter is installed in the engine exhaust manifold of modern vehicles for emission reduction. This device plays a significant role by simultaneous catalytic oxidation and catalytic reduction reactions. Catalytic converters themselves do not take part in chemical reactions but catalyse these reactions. There is a drastic reduction in CO, HC and NOx emissions in the exhaust, and these species are converted to harmless products exiting through the tailpipe. Catalytic converters are among the most developed and matured technologies to control exhaust emissions. Emissions concentrations of different emission species can be analysed upstream and downstream of the catalytic converter to evaluate their conversion efficiencies. Also, real-time catalyst temperatures can be determined by 1-D thermal modelling of the three-way catalytic converters. This chapter gives insights into the flow behaviour along with the transient temperature field across the catalytic converter, which helps understand overall working of the catalytic converter. Also, catalyst temperature distributions are discussed based on engine operating conditions in order to understand the effect of exhaust gas temperature on the catalytic converter efficiency.

Sulav Kafle, Hardikk Valera, Avinash Kumar Agarwal

### Chapter 6. Efficiency Improvement of Internal Combustion Engines Over Time

The demand for more efficient engines is increasing gradually and will continue to rise in the coming decades. In the present era, with the continuous rise in a global energy crisis and increasing ecological awareness, waste heat recovery became a common concern in various sectors of energy. The goal of this chapter is to address the role of waste heat recovery methods such as turbocharging, turbo-compounding, organic Rankine cycle, and thermoelectric generators, to enhance the thermal efficiency of the internal combustion (IC) engine over the past few decades. The maximum efficiency achieved in turbocharging is 44.1%, which is more than the conventional engines by 9.1–14.1%. The efficiency of turbo-compounding can be brought closer to 50%. The concept of compounded Rankine cycle increases the combined engine and waste heat recovery efficiency almost by 10%. The highest increment in the efficiency of the IC engine can be achieved with the thermoelectric generators which have tremendously increased the efficiency by almost 15–20%. This chapter provides some of the important basic information on IC engines and demonstrates some of the latest advanced technologies, such as engine downsizing, advance engine controls, variable valve timing, variable geometry engine design, advanced fuel injection, advanced compression ignition engines, advanced spark-ignition engines, alternative fuels that keep IC engines competitive due to their ability to improve the fuel economy and better performance of IC engines with near-zero emissions. Furthermore, the chapter presents opportunities, challenges, and technical barriers related to the future areas of IC engines.

Sarthak Baweja, Rajan Kumar

### Chapter 5. Spray Chamber Designs and Optical Techniques for Fundamental Spray Investigations

In the present scenario, research in the area of Internal Combustion (IC) engines is mainly driven to address the alarming depletion of conventional fossil fuels and to control the tail-pipe emissions in order to comply with stringent emission norms. Combustion is one of the primary reasons for global warming; however, ~80% of total global energy production is based on combustion of conventional fuels. Hence, researchers have been trying to understand the in-cylinder combustion phenomenon to improve efficiency of energy conversion devices and new ways to utilize alternate fuels. Spray studies in engine-like environment play vital role in combustion and consequent heat loss to the cylinder walls. Fuel spray affects the air–fuel mixture formation, which is responsible for combustion and emission formation in the engine combustion chamber. To study mixing processes and spray distribution, in-cylinder conditions need to be simulated in constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC). Development of high-pressure high-temperature chambers and optical diagnostics involves lasers and high-speed cameras. These investigations enable us to understanding the insights into combustion that takes place in few milliseconds. This chapter starts with design of combustion chambers, followed by explanation of prominent optical techniques. This is followed by detailed discussions with the help of recent studies involving these chambers and techniques to understand spray atomization and combustion in different operating conditions. This chapter aims to give an understanding of different aspects of experimental spray studies and their impact in the field of IC engines.

Sam Joe Chintagunti, Ankur Kalwar, Dhananjay Kumar, Avinash Kumar Agarwal

### Chapter 4. Dimethyl Ether Spray Characteristics for Compression Ignition Engines

In the current scenario, alternative fuels are being explored, which can fulfil the global energy demand and meet stringent emission norms simultaneously. Dimethyl ether (DME) is one such alternative fuel that satisfies both these requirements. It has a high cetane number, which makes it suitable for heavy-duty engine applications. However, before the implementation of these new fuels in existing engines, various parameters need to be investigated and optimised. In compression ignition (CI) engines, one of the most important parameters is fuel–air ratio, which has a tremendous effect on engine combustion, performance, and emissions. Spray characteristics have a dominating effect on fuel–air mixture preparation. It depends on various parameters such as fuel injection pressure (FIP), injector geometry, fuel properties, and ambient conditions. Selection of fuel injection strategies and injector nozzle dimensions are primarily governed by spray characteristics of the fuel, injection timings, FIP, injection angle, and injector nozzle dimensions. This chapter summarises the production and application of DME in CI engines. The focus of this chapter is to analyse spray characteristics of DME under different ambient temperature and pressure conditions. The effect of spray characteristics on the in-cylinder mixture formation and engine combustion has also been discussed.

Akash Rai, Dhananjay Kumar, Utkarsha Sonawane, Avinash Kumar Agarwal

### Kapitel 8. Handlungsfelder des Logistikmanagements

Überblick und LernzieleUm die wesentlichen Ziele der Logistik – erhöhte Geschwindigkeit, niedrigere Kosten und bessere Qualität – zu erreichen, müssen Unternehmen auf intelligente Art ihre Reaktionsfähigkeit, Agilität und Schlankheit erhöhen.

Holger Arndt

### Kapitel 4. Rechtliche Bewertung von Nudge – Die praktische Anwendung im Verwaltungsrecht

Im vorangegangenen Abschnitt sind die normativen Grundprobleme des Nudging anhand des Spannungsfeldes zwischen personaler Autonomie, Paternalismus und Manipulation aufgezeigt worden. Im Anschluss an diese Darstellung gilt es nun, diese Problemkreise anhand von konkreten Anwendungsbeispielen näher auszuarbeiten und die bislang lediglich abstrakt aufgezeigten Probleme anhand von Beispielen im Einzelfall zu bewerten. Es wird sich zeigen, dass eine differenzierte Bewertung der einzelnen Maßnahmen notwendig ist, weil eine pauschale Bewertung des Gesamtkonzeptes den konkreten Feinheiten der Einzelfälle nicht gerecht werden kann.

Lukas Böker

### Kapitel 5. Schluss

Diese Arbeit hat die verfassungsrechtliche Legitimität des Nudging im Verwaltungsrecht untersucht. Ziel der Arbeit war die Beantwortung der Frage, ob Nudges mit der personalen Autonomie ihrer Adressaten vereinbar sind. Die Antwort auf diese Frage muss nach den erarbeiteten Erkenntnissen differenziert ausfallen.

Lukas Böker

### Kapitel 4. Dynamik in Wertschöpfungsketten

Überblick und LernzieleIn diesem Kapitel erfolgt eine Sensibilisierung für den sog. Peitscheneffekt, der ein zentrales Problem des Supply Chain Managements darstellt. Er ergibt sich aus dynamischen Prozessen der Wertschöpfungsketten.

Holger Arndt

### Kapitel 7. Ziele und Kennzahlensysteme

Überblick und LernzieleIm Hinblick auf Prozessoptimierung kommen Zielen zentrale Bedeutung zu, da sie vorgeben, was erreicht werden soll. Dies ist u.a. bedeutsam, um später den Erfolg durchgeführter Prozessoptimierungsmaßnahmen messen und auch, um im Falle konkurrierender Ziele Prioritäten setzen zu können.

Holger Arndt

### Kapitel 2. Einfluss der Megatrends auf die Logistik

Überblick und LernzieleDie letzten Jahre und Jahrzehnte sind von mehreren Trends geprägt, die die Logistik beeinflussen. Sie zu kennen hilft, aktuelle und künftige Probleme besser zu verstehen und ihnen erfolgreich zu begegnen. Zunehmende Globalisierung, steigende Kundenanforderungen, verkürzte Produktlebenszyklen und eine sich rasch entwickelnde Informationstechnologie stellen Unternehmen vor Herausforderungen, denen sie sich stellen müssen.

Holger Arndt

### Kapitel 2. Nudge – Ökonomische Grundlagen und Definition

Im Folgenden soll zunächst der Grundstein für die weitergehenden Fragen der rechtlichen Zulässigkeit der Anwendung von Nudges als Rechtsetzungsinstrument gelegt werden. Dazu sind mehrere Schritte zu vollziehen. Ziel dieses Teils ist es, Nudges und das dazugehörige normative Konzept des Libertarian Paternalism vorzustellen.

Lukas Böker

### 11. Digitales Führen und die neue Elite

Einhergehend mit der zunehmenden Globalisierung der Märkte und Lieferantenbeziehungen sowie der Individualisierung der Kundenbedürfnisse ist die Notwendigkeit, Teams – aus der Distanz heraus – disziplinarisch oder fachlich zu führen, bereits seit Jahrzehnten gestiegen und damit kein neues Phänomen. Digitales Führen heißt nicht nur, dass virtuelle Medien genutzt werden, sondern auch, dass die Entscheidungspyramide umgedreht wird. Es bedeutet, dass eine sogenannte „Purpose-Driven-Culture“ – also eine durch Bedeutung und Sinngebung gekennzeichnete Kultur – nur durch ein proaktives Kulturmanagement, neue Entscheidungsstrukturen sowie mit Empathie nachhaltig erreichbar wird. Es gilt, sich mit Vertrauen auseinanderzusetzen und wie man diesen zwischenmenschlichen Zustand auf Distanz aufbaut und erhält. Gleichzeitig hat die Führungskraft eine Schutzfunktion gegen eine Überanforderung der Organisationsmitglieder aufzubauen. „Doch wenn ich als Führungskraft nicht bei mir selbst beginne, meine Bedürfnisse zu verstehen und mich selbst (statt andere) für deren Befriedigung verantwortlich zu machen, verliere ich das, was ich wirklich, wirklich sein sollte: ein persönliches Vorbild“, so die Autorin. Für diejenigen, die als Führungskraft oder Teammitglied Konflikte bearbeiten müssen, enthält dieses Kapitel unter anderem zehn wertvolle und praktische Tipps. Desweiteren wird mit der 50-10-3 Regel eine Methodik vorgestellt, wie man in virtuellen Chatrooms mehr Aufmerksamkeit und Wirkung bei längeren Meetings und größerer Personenzahl erzielt. Für MitarbeiterInnen bietet schließlich die Methodik des Working-Out-Loud von John Stepper eine Möglichkeit, sich auch „von unten und aus der Mitte heraus“ als Teil eines wirksamen, selbstlernenden Systems zu erleben.

Bettina Bohlmann

### 17. Baustein 2 | Komplexitätsmanagement – Bi-Modale Strukturgebung „Lean oder Agile oder beides“

Dort, wo Veränderungsgeschwindigkeit, Unsicherheit, Komplexität und Mehrdeutigkeit eine markante Beschreibung der Situation darstellen, wird die Organisation auch durch Diversität geprägt sein. In diesem Baustein liegt der Fokus darauf, die Organisationsmitglieder durch Strukturen so zu unterstützen, dass sie in unsicheren und komplexen Kontexten wirksam und mit einer hohen psychologischen Sicherheit zur Bewertung ihrer Stärken und ihres Beitrags arbeiten können. Es wird das Modell einer „Organischen Organisation 4.0“ im Detail vorgestellt und im Hinblick auf die Leistungsfaktoren Effizienz und Agilität, Verzahnung der Zeithorizonte, Andockstellen für Kooperationen und Start-Ups sowie Führungsaufgaben diskutiert. Schließlich wird aufgezeigt, was passiert, wenn dieser Baustein fehlt.

Bettina Bohlmann

### Chapter 9. Evaluating Consequences

Some years ago we stated: “Especially for very large projects, risk assessments generally consider too simplistic consequences and ignore ‘indirect/life-changing’ effects on population and other social aspects” (Oboni et al. 2013) (see Technical note 9.1). We noted that simplistic consequences evaluations are misleading, unrealistic and can significantly affect ESG (see Sect. 6.1.2 ), SLO and CSR (Chap. 5 ). A box with links to key terms is included in the references at the end of this chapter to facilitate the read.

Franco Oboni, Cesar H. Oboni

### Chapter 5. Corporate Risks and Exposures Versus the Public’s Wants and Reactions

This chapter starts by reviewing corporate risks and exposures with examples from the world of insurance, then delves into health and well-being of business and people, and what the public wants when confronted with risks. Communication of risk to the public, transparency and ethics are discussed.

Franco Oboni, Cesar H. Oboni

### Chapter 8. Defining Probabilities of Events

This chapter discusses how probabilities of single events can be evaluated and updated, and delivers some examples of portfolio analyses. A box with links to key terms is included in the references at the end of this chapter to facilitate the read.

Franco Oboni, Cesar H. Oboni

### Chapter 7. Comprehensive Hazard Identification

Hazards are sometimes blatant, sometimes scary, and sometimes difficult to identify. Hazard-based prioritizations generally lead to poor decisions because what is scary or big does not necessarily generate large consequences hence may not lead to greater risks. Furthermore, hazards do not act alone. That is one main reason why convergent risk assessments are needed, as they deliver a 360-view of potential exposures on a system.

Franco Oboni, Cesar H. Oboni

### Material Inventories for Responsive Design in Fashion Practice

This research proposes design methods for reuse and upcycling of post-consumer waste materials as an integral part of responsive design approaches for fashion design practice. The study seeks to overcome institutional barriers that limit potential applications of upcycling practices and how post-consumer waste materials can be included in fashion design curriculum and pedagogy. The findings reveal the need for a variety of design methods for upcycling to be embedded throughout education programmes from Bachelor to Master’s levels. The research suggests that academic institutions need to create a variety of assessment frameworks, foundational courses, learning activities and experiences that scaffold engaged uses and understanding of materials and diverse contexts and conditions.

Ricarda Bigolin, Erika Blomgren, Anna Lidström, Stefanie Malmgren de Oliveira, Clemens Thornquist

### Chapter 1. Introduction to Ceramic Sanitary-Ware Manufacturing

This chapter analyzes the state of the art in the field of sanitary-ware manufacturing so as the global impact of this industrial sector worldwide. Ceramic industry manufacturing requires a great amount of energy and water. Its sustainability and environmental impact demand an effort to develop more efficient technologies to reduce resources consumption. General ceramic industry has been treated from the energy point of view. There is much research regarding tile manufacturing but few articles or papers regarding sanitary-ware from the perspective of the energy–water nexus management. In this regard, the sanitary-ware production sector presents a defined special map of consumption through the manufacturing process characterized by the levels of temperature and heat demands through the different processes where thermal wastes in some of the sub-processes are very suitable to be profited in other ones allowing for an easy reusing of resources.

Carlos Cuviella-Suárez, David Borge-Diez, Antonio Colmenar-Santos

### Soul-Shopping: Autoethnography, Upcycling, and Post-Growth Fashion

Upcycling transforms the historically dominant, but increasingly exhausted, linear producer–consumer–waste model of the fashion ecosystem into something more circular. The recent rise in fashion upcycling transcends stereotypical perceptions of Do-It-Yourself (DIY) needlecraft or thrift. Mainstream fashion retailers offer incentives to customers for returning their unwanted clothes to store in return for a gift card, with some garments returning to the production cycle, for reinstatement in-store, and re-marketisation as exclusive upcycled fashion. Although this contributes to the upcycling movement, it misses the core ethos that the upcycling of fashion should not only contribute ‘to sustainable shopping as a whole, but also serve as art pieces, cultural commentary and a sense of connection’. This chapter introduces how to disrupt the fast-fashion system by reducing mindless fashion consumption, not from the point of design and production, but from that of the consumer; not as the end-point of the supply chain, but as the driver of the chain, whereby demand dictates supply—through the practice of soul-shopping.

Sam Hudson-Miles

### Chapter 11. Practical Implementation of Selected Configurations

As a summary of the optimization measures to improve the performance of the factory, it should be analyzed the economic impact with an assessment of the required investments. In order to evaluate the impact of the investment, they will be compared the cost of the investments and the achieved savings [1].

Carlos Cuviella-Suárez, David Borge-Diez, Antonio Colmenar-Santos

### Introduction: State-of-the-Art Upcycling Research and Practice

Resource consumption has reached an unsustainable level, leading to devastating environmental impacts. For a more sustainable future, not only environmentally but economically and socially, material cycles need to be slowed down and, if possible, closed. Upcycling presents a promising alternative to mass production and consumption based on the use of virgin materials, in order to slow material cycles. There has been a growing academic and industrial interest in upcycling, particularly related to the emerging circular economy. Research in upcycling, however, is still in its infancy. Development of upcycling theories and practices is required if there is to be a transition in upcycling from niche to mainstream. As part of our efforts to develop upcycling theories and practices, we organised the first International Upcycling Symposium and called for contributions by international academics, practitioners and other relevant actors working on upcycling. In response, we received a wide range of papers across disciplines, sectors, industries, countries and regions. This chapter provides a brief summary of each contribution showing the state of the art in upcycling research and practice at the global scale which provides fundamental understanding of upcycling with varied definitions and forms and informs readers of valuable ideas, theories, projects, experiences and insights into upcycling by global experts.

Kyungeun Sung, Jagdeep Singh, Ben Bridgens, Tim Cooper

### Chapter 5. Analysis of Consumptions

Once stated how to model every single process, this chapter tackles with the global model for the whole system along the manufacturing line. The procedure is to assess every magnitude to be evaluated through the manufacturing process to calculate the value of the representative variables; energy, power, masses, etc. to summarize the global sum of single processes into global demand to confront the obtained values for the two analyzed types of factory.

Carlos Cuviella-Suárez, David Borge-Diez, Antonio Colmenar-Santos

### Commoning Situated Knowledge: Co-Teaching-and-Learning the ‘Design-Led Upcycling’ of Waste Clothing

This study examines the introduction of a ‘design-led upcycling’ group project into an established design and enterprise curriculum structure with students on BA (Hons) fashion and textile design at the University of Portsmouth, UK. It reflects the common experience and situated knowledges of academic, technical staff and students contextualised within the changing imperatives of design education. Academics and technicians re-evaluated their established teaching and support methods in relation to upcycling in design.

Elaine Igoe, Susan Noble, Lara Torres, Jennifer Cunningham

### Chapter 4. Production Line: Process and Energy Modeling

According to the general process as per Chap. 2 , the factory has been modeled as a sequence of sections agreeing with the specified processes. Depending on the process, they will be stated the general requirements of energy and water described in the following sections.

Carlos Cuviella-Suárez, David Borge-Diez, Antonio Colmenar-Santos

### Chapter 2. Types of Factories by Casting Technology

When starting a proper plan to manage resource consumptions, it has to be understood the global process from the correct perspective. The production line may appear quite different depending on the observer. When observed from consumption point of view, parameters and variables are not the same as from a financial or production perspective. In this regard, the picture of the factory has to be drawn with a proper plot of consumption points. Quantities, the way they are required, wastes or leftovers, mass and energy flows, etc. are magnitudes to be precisely taken into account. Thus, for the purpose of this book, factory has been focused as a sequence of water and energy points of consumers and either, existing or potential links between them.

Carlos Cuviella-Suárez, David Borge-Diez, Antonio Colmenar-Santos

### Future Pathways of Upcycled Textiles

My research explores economies on a local level focusing on waste reduction in textiles, drawing connections through everyday life and local upcycling practices. The goal is to understand the perceptions of waste and motivations for upcycling within diverse communities with relationships in scalar models from local and niche to meta-levels. The benefits of the knowledge gained are to inform designers’ pathways for slower product turnover through circular models. The research is in the conceptual phase; this chapter, therefore, presents more questions than answers. The continuous research is envisioned to include further literature review, semi-structured interviews, fieldwork, workshops, and auto-ethnographic research into varied motivations for and approaches to fashion upcycling in online communities focusing on generational differences and projected future pathways.

Donna Maione

### Chapter 3. Planning for Energy and Water Management

Once the main manufacturing line has been defined in the previous chapter by describing the two main process sequences, it is crucial to state the individual steps through them. Prior to arrange any action to improve the performance of the system, it has to be analyzed in detail for every individual step without losing sight global links between them. Only with a proper perspective of the general picture, it is possible to understand the spots where the resources are consumed, the level of impact they represent overall needs of the plant. In this regard, this chapter aims to describe how to arrange data collection and the way to quantify the variables that affect the global performance by addition of partial systems. Physical and thermodynamic models are developed to assess energy and water requirements so as corresponding wastes. Modeling processes procedure and thermal engineering have been applied to show the potential of saving and to identify and quantify the equipment more likely to reduce energy [1].

Carlos Cuviella-Suárez, David Borge-Diez, Antonio Colmenar-Santos

### Disrupting the Linear Textile Model at the Community Scale

The textile industry constitutes immense environmental, social and political concerns. Whereas the concerns exist at every stage of the life cycle including cultivation of raw materials, design, production, distribution, use and end of life; this research focused on social, economic and political issues arising during the management of postconsumer textile waste. The goal of this research was to examine models focused on disrupting the linear textile model and frame schemes aimed at decreasing the stream of exported clothing to developing countries. The study focused on understanding how ‘reuse’ interventions at the primary consumer level could reduce postconsumer textile waste with an emphasis on keeping textiles within the local community.

Aziza Cyamani

### Recontextualising and Appropriating Second-Hand Western Fashion Items in Non-Western Contexts

A ‘death’ in the West, and an ‘afterlife’ offshore. What happens to the garments produced for and consumed by Western consumers when their initial lifecycle of use is deemed exhausted, and they are exported offshore? This chapter traces the condition that structures emergent fashion practices in non-Western nations generated by the global export of used Western garments. It looks at the ways that the trade of second-hand clothing (SHC) creates openings for designers and wearers to material alteration or the shifting of cultural categories such as symbolism, value, function or aesthetics. This chapter takes a global approach to the investigation into disused Western apparel and explores the multiplicity of meanings, uses and values that can be attributed to fashion items outside of their prescribed/designed use or application. To explore these new contexts of SHC, the authors discuss how value is attributed and altered as SHC moves along the value chain from the West to non-Western regions.

Anika Kozlowski, Daphne Mohajer va Pesaran

### Chapter 10. Exergoeconomic Analysis

The cost of thermal energy represents one of the largest items of production cost of ceramic manufacturing and the CO2 emissions resulting from this industrial activity are very significant.

Carlos Cuviella-Suárez, David Borge-Diez, Antonio Colmenar-Santos

### Scaling Up Upcycling: Studying Challenges and Suggesting Solutions for Its Integration in the Existing Supply Chain

India is the second largest textile exporter in the world producing clothing for major global brands around the world. A huge amount of pre-consumer textile waste is being generated on the cutting floor of these export houses on a daily basis. There is also post-consumer textile waste comprising second-hand clothing, damaged textiles and costumes. The enormous amount of textile waste is not being balanced by the collective steps taken by sustainable consumers or communities. The acceptance of sustainable production practice such as upcycling by in-house designers and manufacturers has been low. The effect of upcycling on the larger, mass-consumption population remains insignificant. This chapter introduces present challenges with scaling up upcycling in the fashion and textile industry and proposes to conduct an in-depth qualitative study into India-based brands.

Pragya Sharma

### Chapter 8. Energy Supply Versus Energy Demand

In Sect. 6.11.2 , a cogeneration plant was proposed in order to reduce the primary energy consumption by recovering exhausting gases towards other thermal consumers. Nevertheless, it is not so easy to size related equipment due to the variability of the demand. The way the machinery demands energy depends on multiple factors; heating and ventilation units are led by set points of temperature and humidity within the casting hall ambient air conditions are quite different along the year for both, temperature and humidity solar irradiation varies from zero to maximal values on a daily basis psychrometric condition of a ware dryer are very different in just a 10-hour cycle heating power for a shuttle kiln ranges 0–1,200 °C in a 15-hour cycle.

Carlos Cuviella-Suárez, David Borge-Diez, Antonio Colmenar-Santos

### Systems Approach to Scaling-Up Global Upcycling: Framework for Empirical Research

Global urbanisation, increasing population, economic growth and development have caused increase in resource consumption, and consequently, a vast volume of waste and other negative environmental impacts. In order to reduce negative environmental impact, various approaches to resource management have been suggested and implemented in the system of production, consumption and waste management. One promising approach is upcycling, the creation or modification of a product from used or waste materials, components and products for equal or higher quality or value than the compositional elements. This chapter proposes a systems approach to scaling-up global upcycling through systems innovation in the critical factors in the upcycling value chain.

Jagdeep Singh, Kyungeun Sung

### Chapter 9. Optimized Factory Versus Conventional Factory

In Sect. 5.5 , Fig. 5.8 was stated the consumptions for a conventional factory, which are shown.

Carlos Cuviella-Suárez, David Borge-Diez, Antonio Colmenar-Santos

### Chapter 11. Convergent Risk Assessment for Divergent Exposures

In this chapter we will discuss the expectations for a convergent risk assessment of business-as-usual as well as divergent exposures. We will see for whom and how such a risk assessment should be prepared.

Franco Oboni, Cesar H. Oboni

### Exploring Upcycling as a Design Process Through Fashion Education

If we accept the premise that upcycling is a design process for a sustainable circular fashion industry, this chapter poses the question, ‘how can we evolve fashion education in response’? Upcycling is more than reworking used garments into new, higher value items. It points to a new design process, fit for a future where we live within planetary boundaries. Focusing on one syllabus within a newly established design university in the United Arab Emirates, this project offers an alternative starting point for educating fashion students and serves as a challenge to the existing approach to design education.

Noorin Khamisani

### Chapter 6. Improvement Proposals

In Chap. 4 , the way to model the different consumers and the calculation of their consumptions were described. In Chap. 5 , the results of these calculations were analyzed. From the available derived data set, it can be configured the energy-saving strategy by analyzing every consumption and the possibilities to cut it down.

Carlos Cuviella-Suárez, David Borge-Diez, Antonio Colmenar-Santos

### Upcycling Advocate: Fostering Engagement and Empowerment Through an Upcycle Guidebook in Undergraduate Courses

As many researchers have stated, fast and mass fashion has created an overwhelming amount of consumption and waste in our world today. One way to reduce the amount of textile waste is to take garments that would otherwise be thrown away, and reuse, recycle and upcycle them. Education for younger generations regarding such issues and solutions is crucial as decisions for a sustainable future are tied to the knowledge that students of today have acquired during their studies and in the subsequent years. In this study, the students’ development of an Upcycle Guidebook was a way for them to explore new design ideas thinking about how garments could be made by basic sewing skills for upcycling while also testing the effectiveness of the book.

Chanjuan Chen, Kendra Lapolla

### Chapter 7. Proposals Calculation

Consumptions through the factory have been computed in Chap. 5 . By Table 5.32 , they can be derived the most representative of them in which actuate by taking corrective measures in order to reduce single consumptions. This table provides as well the location where the most consumptions are concentrated. Hence, by means of the enumerated actions defined within Chap. 6 , they can be computed generic electrical savings, which are described in the following sections.

Carlos Cuviella-Suárez, David Borge-Diez, Antonio Colmenar-Santos

### Chapter 1. Introduction

We start this book by looking back a few decades and discussing what has changed in the arena of risk assessment and management. We look at the culprits of many misunderstandings and misjudgments, including misallocation of resources and show the importance of using a very well-defined glossary.

Franco Oboni, Cesar H. Oboni

### Chapter 14. Case Study 1: Railroad RR

Our client, Kryptonite Corp, uses a third-party railroad RR to ship chemical products from its chemical plants K1, K2, and K3 to its shipping port, Terminal.

Franco Oboni, Cesar H. Oboni

### Understanding Quality in Upcycled Products

The current linear economy of ‘take, make, use and dispose’ has caused tremendous negative environmental impacts including resource scarcity, a large volume of waste, increased use of energy and therefore increased level of greenhouse gas emissions. As an alternative to the linear economy, a circular economy has emerged, and academics, industries, governments and intergovernmental organisations have paid attention to a variety of ways to reutilise used or waste materials and products. Upcycling is one promising approach to such resource reutilisation. It is typically defined as a process of keeping or increasing the value or quality of the used or waste materials and products, giving a second life to the compositional elements. The terms, value and quality, are often used to define upcycling in different pieces of the literature, but how exactly value or quality should be understood in the context of upcycling has not yet been fully investigated. This chapter discusses how one could understand quality in upcycled products in a comprehensive manner.

Kyungeun Sung, Deepti Mahajan

### Chapter 13. Objectives of the Case Studies

The objectives of the case studies that compose this and the following chapters in Part V is to demystify quantitative risk assessment fears and show how even with a limited amount of information one can provide solid answers to questions oftentimes asked by owners and their management.

Franco Oboni, Cesar H. Oboni

### Jane Gray’s Upcycling Ethos, Lifestyle and Practice

Being a weaver means being respectful of the slow-making process, engaging in mindfulness with attention to details, and being guided by intuition which allows one to explore ideas creatively from ethically sourced products and natural yarns. The evidence of the relaxed, risk-taking confidence with materials and processes is seen in the finished pieces but the process is as important as the finished pieces in fostering well-being and developing a creative contemporary approach to sustainability and collaborative conversation. This chapter presents my upcycling ethos, lifestyle, related practices, and processes as a sustainable artist and textile designer and showcases representative textile installations based on ‘biophilic design’ utilizing natural, sustainable resources.

Jane Gray

### Chapter 12. Defining Manageable-Unmanageable and Strategic Risk

This Chapter shows how to classify risks in terms of tolerable, intolerable but manageable, hence tactical, and finally intolerable and unmanageable, hence strategic. It then explores what lies beyond risk assessment, i.e risk informed decision making and risk adjusted cost estimates. A box with links to key terms is included in the references at the end of this chapter to facilitate the read of this chapter.

Franco Oboni, Cesar H. Oboni

### Repair and Upcycling: How Do We Know Which Repair Is Considered as Upcycling?

A current linear economy based on ‘take, make, use and dispose’ has shaped unsustainable patterns of production and consumption, and a transition to a circular economy based on reutilisation of used or waste materials and products is required for sustainable future. Repair is one of the important inner circles/loops of the circular economy which in principle alleviates resource scarcity and improves material efficiency. Upcycling incorporates multiple concepts and practices in the circular economy such as creative forms of repair, reuse, repurpose, refurbishment, upgrade, remanufacture and recycling such that the end results have equal or higher value or quality than the compositional elements. With present diverse understanding of upcycling, this chapter explains the overlap between repair and upcycling in order to provide some clarifications and facilitate future research in the intersection between repair and upcycling.

Kyungeun Sung, Tung Dao

### Professional Upcycling in Partnership with Sustainability

For the first time in millennia, creative reuse has a name as well as a place within our modern vocabulary. In 2019, ‘upcycling’ became Cambridge Dictionary’s Word of the Year with searches on their website increasing by 181% since December 2011. Never before has reuse been associated with benefiting the planet’s environment and establishing a circular economy whilst giving life to a professional creative movement where upcycling is used to fashion products specifically for interiors. But no matter how much professional upcycling for interiors benefits the environment and economy and introduces unique twenty-first-century design aesthetics, progress has not been straightforward. This chapter provides a historical account of the increasing interest in upcycling for interiors over the past few decades in and around the UK.

Chris Billinghurst

### Chapter 10. Tolerance and Acceptability

In this chapter we discuss risk tolerance and acceptability, how they used to be defined, how they can be defined. A box with links to key terms is included in the references at the end of this chapter to facilitate the read.

Franco Oboni, Cesar H. Oboni

### Object-Oriented Upcycling: An Object-Based Approach to the Circular Economy

In this project, we explored the notion of furniture user interfaces within the context of dreams and dystopias in future urban living. In this context, some fundamental questions arise: How can furniture design evolve while maintaining and supporting our quality of life, together with notions of sustainability, circularity and respect for the environment in the context of an exponential population increase rate? And, how do these objects interface and coexist within these tensions? This chapter introduces a preliminary framework to address upcycling from an object-oriented perspective. We approached from an object-oriented ontology and conducted a case study on furniture design. A bidirectional multi-level taxonomy is presented to address notions of design, manufacturing, sustainability, circularity and respect for the environment. Based on the research findings, we recommend the integration of object-oriented upcycling strategies in the design process, as they insert a method for the re-materialisation of local waste into usable furniture.

Fernando Galdon, Sille Bertelsen, Jeremy Hulse, Ashley Hall

### Designing for Second Life: Systemic Design for Sustainable Packaging in Appliance Manufacturing Industry

This chapter outlines a case study of a systemic design project undertaken by the author for IFB Industries Ltd. in the context of washing machine packaging in India. The project is an attempt to rethink the life cycle of appliance packaging with an ecologically responsible approach using systemic design. The idea was to give second life to the packaging. The process involved understanding the system, developing research-driven insights and ideation. The result of this was a set of trends and solution directions. From these directions, upcycling as a solution was explored to develop ideas involving consumers as the change agents.

Ashwathy Satheesan

### Chapter 2. Mankind, Risks and Planning

Some authors (Kabadayi and Osvath 2017) state that the key difference between human intelligence and animal intelligence is that human perform “conscious and not infrequent planning for the future”. Indeed, in various manners and to various magnitudes humans have altered the earth’s environment for millennia, in what many call the Anthropocene epoch, following conscious planning. Of course, there is no specific starting date for the Anthropocene, and some place its beginning as late as the industrial era. We believe Anthropocene began way earlier. Also, some voices have risen stating that only “now” we are able to evaluate the effects of what we’re doing. The era of this “new understanding” is called by some authors the Sapiezoic era, in which mankind not only consciously plans its actions but is also supposed to evaluate the effects of those actions. As a result of this evolution, today we should think in terms of tactical and strategic planning while facing the great uncertainties, complex systems and divergent risk exposures that characterize our planet. Systems are defined in this book as sets of elements working together and/or interconnected, geared toward accomplishing a goal, an objective in the field of administration, industry, environment and society. A box with links to key terms is included in the references at the end of this chapter to facilitate the read.

Franco Oboni, Cesar H. Oboni

### Upcycling of Silicon Solar Cells: What Are the Options?

Solar power is widely recognised as a key clean energy technology which can help to replace the global reliance on fossil fuel energy sources. The rate at which photovoltaics are being deployed globally has increased approximately exponentially in recent years, with the vast majority of these devices being made from silicon. Whilst the number of solar modules reaching their end-of-life is relatively modest at present, it is rising and will increase significantly over the coming decade. As the number of silicon modules reaching their end-of-life rises, the issue of reutilisation of these cells has gained attention from scientists, governments and industries. Considering the cost of production, high embedded energy, potential significant volume of waste and scarcity of resource of certain cell parts, end-of-life silicon cells should be upcycled where possible. This chapter explores different options for upcycling (more specifically advanced or improved forms of recycling and reuse) of silicon solar cells at their end-of-life with the ultimate goal of contributing to reducing their post-use negative environmental impact whilst simultaneously benefiting the economy. This work discusses a range of theoretical options for successful upcycling of silicon devices through a review of the literature.

Patrick Isherwood, Kyungeun Sung

### Elizabeth Emmens-Wilson’s Life Journey and Reflections as an Upcycler

This chapter presents my personal experiences and challenges as an upcycler. From my experience and reflection, I realised two big challenges to overcome as an upcycler. One challenge is that customers do not appreciate the time, effort, and in some instances, money invested by the designer/maker in upcycling. Another challenge is access to input materials for upcycling as some material suppliers are reluctant to give away their waste materials. Despite the challenges, it has been an interesting journey I have had so far as an upcycler, exploring different waste materials and unlimited possibilities embedded in those materials. I wish other creative people could share this joy of giving a second life to waste materials. I hope to see the future in which more people appreciate what upcyclers do and bring to the world, and we, upcyclers, have a closer partnership with material suppliers and manufacturers to work together to reduce waste.

Elizabeth Emmens-Wilson

### Chapter 17. Conclusions and Path Forward

To date, industries and societies have focused on increasing efficiency and creating interconnected systems in order to foster productivity. In the process, they have forgotten the side effect which is deeply rooted in the interconnectivity and the interdependency (see Chaps. 7 , 8 ): a reduction of resilience and a proneness to systemic risks such as climate change and cyber related ones. Systemic shocks therefore become not only more common and intense but also propagate further due to cascading probabilities (dominos effects, see Sect. 9.1 ) and amplification of consequences (ripple effects, see Sect. 9.1 ).

Franco Oboni, Cesar H. Oboni

### Designing for Positive Upcycling Experiences with People’s Well-Being in Mind

People’s usual anticipation towards material consumption is that it pleases us, yet consumption experiences are not always pleasurable nor give us long-lasting positive emotional experiences. People sometimes regret their purchase, or the pleasure from material gain may wear off quickly, which does not make people happy in the long run. We propose that upcycling as a do-it-yourself experience could be a promising pathway for individuals to gain long-lasting happiness as well as resulting outcomes of upcycling which could facilitate further positive use experiences and special meaning. This chapter introduces how researchers and practitioners in service or experience design and development could use positive emotional granularity (PEG) in order to design for positive upcycling experiences that contribute to people’s well-being.

Kyungeun Sung, Jungkyoon Yoon

### Chapter 16. Case Study 3: Convergent Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) on Divergent Risks

This chapter closes the development of the Case Studies showing how the railroad (Chap. 14 ), the Terminal (Chap. 15 ) and three Kryptonite chemical plants can be evaluated convergently for business-as-usual risks as well as divergent ones. The result is a convergent-divergent ERM supporting risk informed decision making.

Franco Oboni, Cesar H. Oboni

### Understanding and Measuring Value and Quality of Upcycling with Fuzzy Linguistic Approach

As an alternative to the current linear economy of take, make, use and dispose, a circular economy based on (almost infinite) resource circulation or reutilisation in a closed-loop system has emerged for overall reduction in negative environmental impact and economic growth. Upcycling is one promising approach to resource reutilisation and incorporates multiple practices in the circular economy. It is a process of keeping or enhancing the value or quality of the used or waste materials, components or products. Many varied definitions of upcycling often use the terms, value or quality or both. How exactly such value and quality should be understood or have been understood in the context of upcycling has not yet been fully studied. This chapter suggests one potential theoretical framework to understand upcycling in relation to perceived quality and value, and proposes its possible application to empirical research utilising fuzzy linguistic approach.

Kyungeun Sung

### Chapter 15. Case Study 2: Terminal

This chapter is devoted to the risk assessment of Kryptonite Terminal. A convergent quantitative risk assessment is developed allowing for risk informed decision making and giving quantitative support for the definition of insurance limits.

Franco Oboni, Cesar H. Oboni

### After Life: Lessons on Product Longevity from the Informal Economy

India is a playground of resourcefulness which is a part of everyday life. In the informal setting, every vendor from the fruit seller to the furniture cobbler constructs necessary products and facilities from scavenged materials found nearby. The vendors create pride and build resistance to discarding these objects. There is more to it than the emotional bond between maker and object. To examine these and other traits of the people of informal markets and as an attempt to rethink design processes by incorporating materials from the informal economy, I conducted a student workshop in India. In the workshop, students observed street vendors and upcycled some street furniture, addressing the questions including “What can we learn from the informal markets and translate that on a larger scale?” and “How can designers make products that enable users value the old and worn out?”

Ishan Khosla

### The Interplay of User, Context and Product in Everyday Design Behaviour

As the world is facing persistent socio-ecological problems, more and more stakeholders are claiming sustainable approaches in various areas. In line with this, our research explored ways to help designers generate product features that communicate reuse and appropriation of daily products to stimulate sustainability. The focus was on the practice of reusing and/or transforming daily products by users—referred to here as everyday design (ED) which is a form of upcycling with some specific characteristics. Interviews with 100 participants were conducted to understand and measure the influence of user characteristics, product elements and context of ED. The study resulted in an overview of the factors that might trigger ED among users, the understanding of which can be integrated into new designs to extend products’ lifetimes. This could help designers find ways in which they can inspire and stimulate people to reuse their products and as such contribute to sustainable living.

Soyoung Kim, Henri Christiaans, Chajoong Kim

### Upcycling, Jugaad and Repair Cafes for Prosumption

This article explores two concepts—jugaad and do-it-yourself (DIY) repair cafes from the Indian and Western cultures, respectively, in relation to upcycling and their potential to address the sustainability challenges associated with overconsumption. Our theoretical exploration shows that jugaad, DIY repair cafes and upcycling have great potential to revive the preindustrial sufficiency-oriented behaviors and mindsets among the consumers and enhance resource efficiency through product longevity, repair and resource recovery from urban waste streams.

Jagdeep Singh, Charnita Arora

### Scapegoat or Saviour: The Role of Design in Upcycling Research

Upcycling is a portmanteau term that researchers have filled with a range of ideas and practices. Many of these remain restless in terms of consistent use and stability of definition. ‘Design’ is one of those unsettled terms, and this chapter explores that restiveness by considering, (i) design in upcycling literature, (ii) design in upcycling practice, (iii) the relationship of design to other common upcycling terms including waste and value, (iv) and to provide some notion of what ‘design for upcycling’ might include.

Neil Maycroft

### Discourses in and Around Upcycled Artefacts: A Social Semiotic Perspective

This chapter employs a social semiotic perspective to explore global/local discourses of upcycled artefacts. Social semiotics bring a focus on meaning-making to the emerging field of upcycling studies: in what ways does the social practice of upcycling produce meanings of, for instance, value adding, emancipation, or sustainability? In particular, this chapter focuses on the aesthetic and functional values that are added in upcycling that address the demands of different local and global markets. An interest in the relation between social practices, materiality and meaning-making is at the core of social semiotics, and this chapter focuses on how discourses in and around an upcycled artefact make it possible for it to move between cultural and geographical spaces, whilst both maintaining and transforming the meaning potential of the artefact.

Arlene Archer, Anders Björkvall

### Chapter 6. System Definition in a Convergent Platform

The system definition in a convergent platform needs to cover all the dimensions in which the system exists. Please check the box with links to key terms in the references at the end of this chapter to facilitate the read.

Franco Oboni, Cesar H. Oboni

### Chapter 4. Business-as-Usual Versus Divergent Hazards

We start this chapter with a case history from Lao PDR (Anecdote 4.1) which illustrate how adverse conditions, but not necessarily divergent hazards, may lead to failure. The example also shows in its closing point why many countries have adopted the concepts of ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable).

Franco Oboni, Cesar H. Oboni

### Chapter 3. The Context of Divergence

In this section we aim at setting the stage for the Divergence and Convergence discourse by reviewing another set of real-life examples and commenting on them from the risk point of view. A box with links to key terms is included in the references at the end of this chapter to facilitate the read.

Franco Oboni, Cesar H. Oboni

### Chapter 1. Understanding Disaster Risk ReductionRisk reduction and Resilience: A Conceptual Framework Frameworks

Disaster risk reduction and resilience should be seen as a concept and practice of reducing disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyze and manage the causal factors of disasters, including through reduced exposure to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improved preparedness for adverse events. The major threat emanates from an increasingly interconnected and interdependent social, technical, and biological systems and complex risk landscape. In developing countries, disasters represent a major source of risk for the poor and can potentially destroy development gains and accumulated wealth.It should be noted that while the term “disaster reduction Disaster reductions ” is sometimes used, the term “disaster risk reductionRisk reduction and resilience” provides a better recognition of the ongoing nature of disaster risksRisks and the ongoing potential to reduce these risksRisks. At a time when climate changeClimate change is increasing the frequencyFrequency and severitySeverity of extreme weather eventsExtreme weather events, disasters will continue to be major impediments to sustainable developmentSustainable development so long as the economic incentivesEconomicincentives are to develop in hazard-prone locations. Integrating disaster risk reductionRisk reduction into investment decisionsInvestment decisions is the most cost-effectiveCost-effective way to reduce these risksRisks; investing in disaster risk reductionRisk reduction is therefore a precondition for developing sustainably in a changing climateChanging climate.In this chapter, an attempt has been made to simplify our understanding of the core idea and processes involved in disaster risk reduction and resilience with an intention to disseminate it into an ever-expanding community of students, researchers, and professionals. A historical approachHistorical approach has been attempted by way of illustrations and data tabulation. It seeks to increase the likelihood that this chapter is fully taken advantage of at the above-stated scales of interest.

Sanober Naheed

### Chapter 10. Mainstreaming Education Into Disaster Management to Facilitate Disaster Resilience

Disasters are increasing in frequency and intensity with impacts across all facets of human endeavour globally. Moreover, the impacts of disasters have been exacerbated by the climate change phenomenon. Climate change and weather events do not create disasters in isolation. However, disasters occur when extreme weather events intersect with vulnerable communities, dysfunctional governance and dilapidated infrastructure. Disaster education provides a viable tool for reinforcing the resilience of vulnerable communities and enhancing sustainable development. Hence, attaining knowledge and its implementation are considered as a viable approach to the management of disasters. This study employs the qualitative research method involving literature reviews on the nexus of disaster education and resilience, to assess the relationship between education and disaster management – particularly how it can reinforce disaster resilience – and the implications for sustainable development. Disaster education aims to capacitate vulnerable groups (in particular) and the public (in general) with the requisite knowledge and information to limit their susceptibility to disasters to the barest minimum. Study findings indicate that disaster education is a crucial element in disaster preparedness with implications for the safeguarding of developmental gains and human resources development. Inclusivity enhances community-based disaster management. Well-informed people are in a better position to protect their households and communities against the negative impacts of disasters. Ultimately, mainstreaming social media in planning and designing of holistic disaster education programs is vital for equipping people with the rightful information that can help them thrive in the face of increasing incidences of disasters in our contemporary society.

Donkor Felix Kwabena, Mearns Kevin, Ojong-Baa Enokenwa, Henry Bikwibili Tantoh, Ebhuoma Eromose, Abubakar Hadisu, Mavuso Sibusisiwe, Mbewe Philip, Mabeza Christopher, Leclerc Arianne

### Chapter 5. Smart Homes to Support the Wellness and Pleasurable Experience of Residents

This chapter introduces the design of smart homes to support residents’ wellness and pleasurable experience. Smart homes should contribute to the heathy and happy living of their occupants by incorporating various technologies and devices into a domestic setting. Further, the design of smart homes should provide occupants with pleasurable experiences by the implementation of intuitive interfaces using a user-centered approach. The success of a smart home is dependent on its occupants’ acceptance of and engagement with it in the context of daily living; thus, more specific user studies should be conducted to implement a positive technology to fulfill users’ daily needs. This chapter first identifies the main issues for the design of smart homes by critically reviewing the related research and then frames the crucial factors, emphasizing wellness and pleasurable experience for consideration in the construction of smart homes. A framework for the design of smart homes was developed by focusing on the practicability of each variable from the perspective of supporting user experience. By utilizing the framework, more customized design factors that must be considered in the creation of smart homes could be developed to target user groups with support for their health and happiness.

Mi Jeong Kim, Myung Eun Cho, Han Jong Jun

### Chapter 4. Demand Response Frameworks for Smart Residential Buildings

Nowadays, the electrical utilities are concentrating more on smart grid technologies in order to attain reliable, secure and profitable power system operation. Considering various techniques of smart grid, demand side management (DSM) is a promising technique for utility in which the end subscribers are motivated to participate directly in energy society activities. In DSM scheme, the utility proposes various pricing strategies and maximum demand limit (MDL) to get more profit and decrease the operational difficulties. The end subscribers are expected to respond (demand response) appropriately to decrease their electricity bill. Further, the recent advancements and extensive use of smart residential appliances and incorporation of communication and information technologies help consumers to reach minimum electricity bill by altering their demand pattern. Further, the residential consumers prefer battery back-up to reduce their demand during utility peak intervals. In addition to this, residential consumers use renewable power generations as an alternative to meet their demand either completely or partially. Further, they are also stimulated to export their surplus power generation to the grid at utility preferred price. These types of consumers are commonly called as prosumers. Consequently, utilities are introducing a time-dependent power injection limit to avoid grid operational difficulties. In order to attain more incentives from utilities without sacrificing the comfort, the end-user prefers to install building energy management systems. This chapter presents various energy management frameworks for different residential buildings. Further, the presented demand response frameworks are validated through different case studies on a smart residential building equipped with different kinds of household components. The results of the case studies demonstrate considerable yields for the end subscribers.

S. L. Arun, M. P. Selvan

### Chapter 2. Multi-time Scale Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Cooperative Distributed Energy Scheduling of Smart Homes

In this chapter, a multi-time scale stochastic model predictive control (MPC) approach is applied to solve the cooperative distributed energy scheduling problem of smart homes. In this problem, a variety of energy resources are considered for each smart home, and every smart home has a capability of power transaction with the retailer through the electrical grid as well as with the other connected smart homes. The challenges of the problem include modeling the technical and economic constraints of the energy resources and addressing the variability and uncertainty issues of renewables’ power that change the optimization problem to a stochastic, dynamic (time-varying), and mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. To deal with the variability and uncertainty issues, a multi-time scale stochastic MPC is applied. Applying the multi-time scale approach in the stochastic MPC is able to simultaneously consider the precise resolution for the problem variables and the vast vision for the optimization time horizon. In addition, linear programming (LP) and genetic algorithm (GA) are combined (GA-LP) and applied in the problem as an effective and fast optimization technique. The numerical studies about the small and large systems demonstrate the competences of the proposed approach.

Mehdi Rahmani-Andebili

### Chapter 15. A Conceptual Unified ModelConceptualmodels for Assessing Improvements in Sustainability and Resilience in WaterWater Distribution Systems

Communities around the world are looking for ways to provide reliable and cost-effective infrastructure services to end users. Sustainable and resilient infrastructures are the demands of the day. Both public and private sectors demand resilient and sustainable infrastructure to satisfy the rising consumer demands and foster economic development. While a resilient infrastructure fares well under a catastrophic disaster event by withstanding strongly and recovering quickly, a sustainable infrastructure can function effectively over the lifetime without placing excessive demands on limited resources. There is increased awareness among government entities, municipalities, and communities about the necessity for considering both sustainability and resilience in the decision-making process. There have also been attempts within the research community to develop a common framework for sustainable and resilient infrastructures. However, the studies remained too general and limited to expressions of the need only and not often relevant to water distribution system (WDS). The objective of this chapter is to present a conceptual decision model based on the life cycle thinking (LCT) approach. The WDS from Sharjah Electricity and Water Authority (SEWA) is used as an example to illustrate the use of the model. The proposed model takes into account relevant metrics and parameters to help unify the impacts of sustainability and resilience improvements in a WDS. Improvement measures (scenarios) in the model are considered as decision alternatives. The conflicting aspects of sustainability and resilience are examined using a combination of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle-based global resilience analysis (GRA) of the infrastructure. LCA includes the evaluation of sustainability using appropriate metrics. GRA is conducted to determine the resiliency of the WDS. Unified evaluation of both resilience and sustainability for the WDS provides the basis of a model for realistic assessment and critical decision-making. The study develops a LCT-based model to help determine the course(s) of action necessary to achieve sustainability and resilience goals, including the necessary trade-offs, while continuing to provide reliable service to consumers.

Md Maruf Mortula, Irtishad U. Ahmad, Rehan Sadiq, Salwa Beheiry

### Chapter 16. Hazard Evacuation ManagementEvacuation management and Resilience: Case Study Examples in the USA

Hazard evacuation management is a critical piece of the disaster management cycle of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Community resilience is another important aspect of hazard evacuation management. However, current hazards and disaster literature often focuses on warning and risk communication, evacuation intentions and behavior, evacuation predictions, and evacuation models rather than connecting community resilience and hazard evacuation management. This chapter firstly provides the current research on evacuation management to show the gap in research exploring the explicit connection between evacuation management and community resilience. Secondly, background on community resilience is provided to build the connection between evacuation management and community resilience. Finally, Two case studies are provided to show how hazard evacuation management – or a lack of evacuation management – and community resilience relate to one another.

Kyle Breen

### Chapter 13. Disaster Resilience and Computational MethodsComputational methods for Urban InfrastructuresInfrastructures

Urban infrastructures are mostly interdependent in various ways. A variety of qualitative explanations is presented in the literature to analyze and address resiliency and vulnerability. Unfortunately, most of the explanations do not provide an objective resilience index computation. This chapter attempts to develop resilience indices and computational methods for urban infrastructures in order to lower disasters risk subjected to urban infrastructures.

Saeid Eslamian, Mousa Maleki

### Chapter 14. Dealing with Uncertainty Using Fully Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Decision-Making

Risk identification is the first step on a comprehensive disaster risk management strategy, and nowadays, when new open-source tools to conduct those analyses are becoming widely available, the interest and need to increase their transparency has increased. Catastrophic risk due to natural hazards should be considered in a prospective way quantifying the damages and losses before the real event occurs, and for that task, it is necessary to consider events that have not yet occurred. Since there are uncertainties related to when and where the next hazardous event will happen, how severe will it be, and how can it affect the exposed elements, it is important to adopt a probabilistic approach that considers those uncertainties and propagates them through the damage and loss calculation process following a rigorous methodology. This chapter develops the theoretical catastrophe risk model considering both retrospective and prospective analyses. In addition, it summarizes the methodology for the inclusion of second-order effects (nonphysical risk drivers), the approach to rationally incorporate background trends (e.g., climate change), an extension of the model to incorporate non-probabilistic uncertainty, and a methodology to define management actions that fit resilience targets. The work presented herein serves to provide a ground base for the minimum requirements of probabilistic risk assessment models.

Gabriel A. Bernal, Omar-Darío Cardona, Mabel C. Marulanda, Martha-Liliana Carreño

### Chapter 12. Developing Partnerships for Building Resilience

Resilience partnerships have become the new norm in disaster risk reduction and resilience (Action and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 (Sendai Framework)). The International Strategy for Disaster Reduction partnership, facilitated by the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR), specifically advocated for an inclusive, multi-stakeholder and shared responsibility approach to disaster resilience and risk reduction. Consequently, an ample selection of collaborative partnership between different levels of government, and between governments and business and civic sectors, has blossomed across the world. Whilst the need for multi-stakeholder cooperation is undeniable, such partnership are, however, often either ad hoc and reactive in nature or principally limited to sharing of information and good practices. Hence, whilst useful, in a sense of developing capabilities in resilience, partnerships should be more long term and concrete and have a clear value proposal throughout the entire life cycle of disasters.

Christian Fjäder

### Chapter 11. Early Warning Systems to Strengthen the Resilience of Communities to Extreme Events

Community resilience is comprised of four pillars, infrastructure, organizational, social, and personal, all of which need consideration when developing, implementing, or improving an early warning system (EWS). The complexity of assessing community resilience is exacerbated by the interconnections between the community’s core components, the multiplicity of hazards that may strike, but primarily by the difficulty to obtain the data to understand these phenomena. By ensuring the four main components are integrated into an EWS, the community will be better able to anticipate and understand hazards, as well as support the preparedness of the communities and their assets to mitigate consequences. A community’s ability to respond to and recover from extreme weather events resulting from climate change requires ongoing community-wide planning and preparation efforts for activities before, during, and after an event. The implementation and adoption of EWS have proved beneficial in alerting individuals of impending climate danger. While acknowledging the increase in extreme climate events, enhanced EWS are needed for greater preparedness to improve community resilience to all types of extreme events.

Ron Fisher, Frédéric Petit, Celia Porod

### Chapter 2. Types, Definition and Classification Classifications of Natural DisastersNatural disasters and Threat LevelThreat levels

In this chapter, various types of natural disasters, their classifications and threat levels are considered. Natural disasters vary widely in predictability and impact. A widely used natural disaster typology has been considered as the starting point for covering natural disaster classifications and their threat levels. Threat levels have been analysed from two perspectives – social and economic – to identify their impacts. The threat levels associated with social and economic impacts of natural disasters can be significantly high where a large number of people are affected; and total economic losses can range in hundreds of billions every year from the damages caused by natural disasters. In terms of occurrences, climate-related disasters also dominate the picture, accounting for 91% of all 7255 major recorded events between 1998 and 2017. Floods, 43.4%, and storms, 28.2%, are the two most frequently occurring disasters. It is found based on a detailed literature review that social and economic impacts vary, not only for specific disasters but also by region. Fatalities, loss of livelihoods and displacement from natural disasters are most prominent in Asia Pacific. Threat levels are more pronounced in Asia Pacific regions due to resource constraints and lack of proper communications and adequate response measures to reduce impacts. This is also an extremely serious threat issue as two-third of the world population – an estimated 6.3 billion people – live in Asia and Africa. Asia, despite its relatively lower level of urbanisation, is home to 54% of the world’s urban population. Therefore, it is recommended in this chapter that global collaborative efforts (including implementation of resilience measures) be undertaken to address natural disasters and the related threats in a timely and efficient manner, resulting in least negative economic and social impacts.

David Teh, Tehmina Khan

### Chapter 20. Spatiotemporal Distribution of LandslidesLandslides in NepalNepal

The occurrence of landslides in the Nepal Himalaya is a common phenomenon due to active seismotectonics coupled with the strong monsoon, fragile landscape, and inadequate agricultural practices. This research has analyzed the trends of landslide events, total fatalities, and economic losses from 1971 to 2016 and discussed the landslide early warning system initiatives in Nepal. Spatiotemporal variation of landslide events shows an increasing trend with nonlinear relationships between events and deaths. The highest number of events and fatalities is concentrated in central Nepal due to population growth, rural-urban migration, and haphazard road construction. Moreover, the number of deaths and economic loss is higher in the hills compared to the mountain and Terai. Only few early warning system initiatives were applied either in project or community basis in Nepal. Most of those initiatives vanished after the project completion. Nepal government should start to build a nationwide dynamic landslide inventory database system connected with weather stations for the monitoring and forecasting of the landslide.

Basanta Raj Adhikari, Bingwei Tian

### Chapter 18. Disaster Risk Reduction by Urban Resilience for Architectural Heritage

With the massive rate of unplanned urbanization and the inherent risks or vulnerability that are faced by dense urban areas, there is a need for an alternative approach for risk reduction or management of heritage by structural resilience measures. Since people, properties, infrastructure and capital stock are mostly concentrated in urban areas, there is always a competition between immediate economic priorities, where heritage sites seldom receive any attention. Man-made and natural heritage sites are both considered vital for the identity of a city and for its passing on to the coming generations. These sites in urban areas are often susceptible to the impact of all types of hazards due to the neglect. Heritage sites are generally associated with some open spaces around, providing a tool for disaster risk reduction (DRR) opportunity. Traditional green-blue-grey (GBG) networking of open spaces provided appropriate urban resilience to reduce vulnerability and disaster risk. This study attempts to integrate these two concepts by identifying the vulnerabilities in an urban area and assessing possible response to contain them in a systematic manner by institutionalizing local resilience approaches through the heritage site integration within the urban planning/design framework. The study also attempts to identify the types of vulnerabilities to urban architectural heritage sites and proposes to reduce their risk from disasters by integrating them with local traditional resilience practices. Study process is based on a logical argumentation of some case scenario analysis with available data mostly from secondary sources. The data analysis is coupled with their historic interpretation and authors’ own experience in the field of urban design and heritage conservation. Certain application of traditional GBG resilience concept of the DRR for architectural heritage conservation proves to be effective. As the preventive DRR measures by improving resilience are found more appropriate for the conservation of heritage artefacts, it needs to be applied at planning stage. In a nutshell, the study advocates for an action plan for DRR on architectural heritage sites in the urban areas right from the awareness campaign to the urban planning and design stages for urban sustainability.

Qazi Azizul Mowla

### Chapter 19. Insuring Natural Ecosystems as an Innovative Conservation FundingConservation funding Mechanism: A Case Study on Coral ReefsCoral reefs

Coral reefs are exceptional natural ecosystems. Not only do they provide direct and indirect employment for local communities, but they are key structures in local ecosystems, creating beaches and providing an important level of coastal protection against severe hurricanes and storms. The protection of reefs is of crucial importance for many coastal communities. In this article, the coral reef insurance mechanism that financially protects the coastal areas in the State of Quintana Roo, Mexico, is discussed. The authors explore why coral reefs are threatened and which ecosystem services they provide to humans, a crucial step in providing insurance coverage. Further, the authors show how technology has made insuring coral reefs a viable business proposition. Insurance can support conservation funding while it is a form of financial disaster risk management. Finally, the authors illuminate that the conditions bringing public and private sector actors together like in the case of Quintana Roo, Mexico, are not easily replicable; and more research and understanding will be needed to provide extensive coral reef coverage. Insurance manages residual disaster risk, but it is not a replacement for physical disaster risk management measures.

Oliver Schelske, Jeffrey R. Bohn, Corinne Fitzgerald

### Chapter 17. Developing FactorsDeveloping factors for Socio-Ecohydrological Resilience

All life relies on water. The abundance, scarcity, and capacity of hydrological systems impact resilience and vulnerability of social and ecological systems everywhere. Socio-ecohydrological systems encompass this convergence. Resilience theory provides a structured way of defining these systems, developing factors, and identifying points of strength and vulnerability. Defining these systems and the influential factors driving them is necessary in order to understand system behavioral response to stresses. This fundamental knowledge of a system can then be used to inform any potential disaster risk reduction. Comprehensive methods of evaluating resilience help support decision-making and water resources management. Two approaches are presented. One approach presented is an internal assessment in which the system is defined using a resilience lens, and another is an external assessment in which the resilience of the system is evaluated after the system framework has been developed. These contrasting approaches to ecohydrological resilience are then implemented in two case studies, Nepal and New Mexico, USA, where diverse conditions exemplify the use of these methods for a range of system conditions and stresses.

Lauren Victoria Jaramillo, Mark Charles Stone, Melinda Harm Benson

### Chapter 8. Cascading Disasters: Multiple Risk Reduction and Resilience

The connectedness and interdependency of modern society mean that, when disaster strikes, it is likely to involve cascading consequences. This chapter examines the nature of cascading disasters in terms of the cross-sectoral linkages that they exploit. Escalation points can arise, in which interactions between different forms and scales of vulnerability lead to impacts that may be greater or more serious than those of the hazard that started the cascade. Natural and technological events combine in cascading disasters to produce complex consequences. To understand such processes, a full understanding of disaster vulnerability is required. A model is presented which avoids the usual categories into which forms of vulnerability are placed and encourages instead a more holistic, cross-disciplinary approach to the phenomenon. The chapter then examines how cause is turned into effect by the interaction of specific and general vulnerability, representing direct causes of disaster and contributory or contextual factors, respectively. Dealing with cascading disasters requires planning based upon suites of scenarios that represent different sets of cascade paths. Foresight and mitigation need plans to be based on understanding the range of possible cascade mechanisms and providing redundancy in the proposed solutions to them.

David Alexander

### Chapter 4. Learning from Past Disasters to Prepare for the Future

This chapter revisits a well-known paradox in disaster studies: why does humankind suffer more losses while knowing more and in spite of innumerable existing disaster risk reduction policies? This paradox questions the ability of societies to learn from disasters, which is the issue that this chapter investigates. The first part presents the gap existing between a logical requirement to learn from the past while trying to mitigate if not prevent disasters. The gap – between possessing more knowledge in the face of mounting losses – still exists in spite of the capacities to reconsider DRR policies and to promote new tools helping decision-making processes, as with knowledge management systems (KMSs). Such shortcomings in addition to certain aspects of human nature, such as a government’s very short interest and attention span in any given crisis, seek to identify factors explaining why capacity to learn is limited today. The second part of this chapter draws attention to why, as well as how, to take into account local settings and local knowledge when framing risk-reducing policies. The latter are still highly compartmentalized for a variety of challenging reasons. However, opportunities and challenges demand immediate consideration. Societies must bridge, blend or mainstream their policy concerns about planning for future climate change adaptation (CCA) with attempts at policy development for disaster risk reduction (DRR) today, especially because hydrological and meteorological extremes that were expected by 2050 are beginning to confront societies now.

Julien Rebotier, Patrick Pigeon, Michael H. Glantz

### Chapter 6. A New Framework for a Resilience-Based Disaster Risk Management

This chapter aims at providing hints to improve existing frameworks for disaster risk management based on a review of the main documents framing disaster management within the last two and a half decades and with reference to the potential contribution of resilience thinking. The evolution path of disaster risk management shows that, although some progresses have been made, there are still numerous gaps to be filled. On the opposite, focusing on the increasing convergence of resilience and disaster studies, it emerges that a resilience-based approach could still provide significant theoretical and operational inputs towards an improved disaster risk management. In particular, this chapter emphasizes the potential contribution of resilience thinking in developing a new framework for guiding disaster risk management capable of (1) taking into consideration the rapidly changing risk landscapes due to the interplay between climate change and the consequent increase of hazardous events, urbanization patterns and the complex interrelationships among them; (2) shifting from sectoral approaches to disaster risk reduction (DRR) towards integrated approaches and cross-sectoral strategies and tools; (3) embracing transformational perspectives to significantly reduce disaster losses and achieve sustainability goals; (4) improving learning capacity through the setting up of continual learning processes; (5) emphasizing the role of spatial and land use planning for DRR; and (6) developing more innovative governance models based on collaboration, shared responsibility and active engagement of the stakeholders.

Adriana Galderisi, Deniz Altay-Kaya

### Chapter 3. Principles Regarding Urbanisation, Disaster RisksRisks and Resilience

More than half of the world population now lives in urban areas, and virtually all countries of the world are becoming increasingly urbanised. With increasing urbanisation comes increasing disaster risk. For example, urbanisation spreading into earthquake-prone areas and building on unsuitable land is still a common practice. To a certain extent, the act of concentrating a large population in a small space (e.g. through urbanisation) inevitably increases the risk to populations when faced with high winds, heavy rains, heatwaves and so on. Resilience applies to both the industrialised and less-industrialised parts of the world and is associated with many aspects of human activity, often responding to the effects of climate change. Whenever and wherever there is threat of a hazard (such as flooding, drought, heatwave and so on), then there is an associated need to be resilient to “come back” after the effects of that hazard have been endured. This chapter describes the principles and planning necessary for urban resilience and offers a blueprint so that urbanising a population has the potential to deal with poverty, gender inequality, economic growth, sustainable livelihoods, land degradation, conflict and other priorities within the Sustainable Development Goals.

Richard Pagett

### Chapter 5. New FrameworksFrameworks for Building ResilienceBuilding resilience in Hazard Management

Over the last 50 years, the human, environmental and economic cost of natural and climate-induced disasters has increased globally. Such disasters are expected to increase in frequency and magnitude, bringing increased risk of loss. Systematic efforts to reduce disaster risks are vitally needed and should be increasingly founded on risk and resilience assessments. In this chapter, it is argued that the public scrutiny of recent disasters stimulated changes in the legal framework of civil protection and governance policies related to natural hazards and associated vulnerabilities. It is shown how the new institutional and legal framework was strategically integrated by local populations in their mitigation practices, appealing to past practices and memories but also to the new challenges posed by the building up of official emergency plans, hazard zoning and new technical instruments and practices. In this confrontation between the national laws, the municipalities’ technicians and rulings and the mundane practices of hazard preparedness and mitigation, a new public awareness emerged that allowed for a discussion of priorities, inclusion dynamics, effectiveness of the alert messages and the production of new ways of participating in the public sphere and new dimensions to define citizenship and political belonging. This chapter analyses the conceptual, technical and practical dimension of such processes by highlighting the different components and dynamics of relevant frameworks.

Saeid Eslamian, Saeideh Parvizi, Mohamed Behnassi

### Chapter 3. How to Employ Competitive Smart Home Retailers to React to Cyberattacks in Smart Cities?

The growing implementation of information/communication technology accompanied with increasing integration of distributed generation (DG) and smart homes (SHs) have made smart cities more prone to malicious cyberattacks. This chapter proposes a three-layer framework to react to cyberattacks reported by decentralized DG retailers and SH retailers. In the first layer, the system operator administratively modifies the topology of the system to enhance the network reliance on the non-attacked retailers. In the second layer, non-attacked SH retailers are handled by the market operator to manage congestions caused by the administrative action of the system operator in outages prevention. In the third layer, the system operator applies a forced load curtailment on the non-attacked SH retailers who were passive in the second-layer market mechanism to relieve the remaining congestions. The performance of the introduced framework is verified by its implementation on a distribution network modified to contain DG retailers and SH retailers.

Arash Asrari

### Chapter 1. Worldwide Research Trends on Smart Homes

Research in smart homes is still quite recent; however, there is no doubt that it will become a pervasive research topic in the near future. This chapter analyzes the whole research production on smart homes indexed in the Scopus database from 1985 to 2019, yielding a total of 11,000 studies. One of the goals of this chapter is to identify the main countries and institutions that have published on this topic and what their interest has been throughout the time. Four out of 116 countries stand out in this field, namely China, USA, India, and South Korea. In terms of the main institutions, the three with the highest scientific output are Ulster University (UK), CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France), and Universite Grenoble Alpes (France). Another aim of the chapter is to determine the research fields and subfields investigated about smart homes. The publications are mainly focused on two scientific fields, that is, computer science and engineering, accounting for 64% of the overall scientific production. In an aggregate analysis of all publications, four main clusters have been identified, namely Internet of Things, Activity Recognition, Security, and Energy.

Esther Salmerón-Manzano, Mehdi Rahmani-Andebili, Alfredo Alcayde, Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro

### Chapter 7. Urban Disaster Management and Resilience

Urban settings are areas in which wide aspects of human life are supported. In other words, they are context for economic, social, political, and other human activities and growth. Therefore, the proportion of people inhabited in cities is increasing over time. The concentration of people in urban areas leads to new problems including water resources depletion and degradation, deforestation, land use changes, environmental degradation, health problems, and epidemic risks. All these issues make cities away from sustainable development and intensify the consequences of natural disasters like earthquake, flood, and droughts. The history of disasters in urban area shows that they could cause enormous damages and deaths, and their impacts could last for a long time. It might take ages for urban infrastructures to recover from a disaster. Such concerns have highlighted the importance of urban disaster management over time, and especial attention is paid to it in recent years. Urban disaster management leads managers in a way how to deal and think about making decisions before, during, and after disasters. Resilience is an approach of disaster management that cares more about bouncing back after disturbances which has attracted researcher’s attention. In this chapter we will discuss about the disasters that could happen in urban areas and the best approach in their management. Then, the resilience is defined in urban areas regarding momentous researches, and also it is discussed how urban disaster resilience helps cities to achieve sustainable development. Characteristics of a resilient urban and some frameworks to make resilient urban are also discussed in this chapter.

Sara Nazif, Mohammad Masoud Mohammadpour Khoie, Saeid Eslamian

### Chapter 9. Building Disaster Resilience Through Primary and Higher Education

Education is one of the best media to spread preparedness and awareness among communities. Disaster education is one of the effective tools to save lives. Children are more receptive compared to adults and can influence their peers and parents. The school disaster education creates awareness among children, teachers and non-teaching staffs. The school curriculum is a good source to spread information about disasters. The risk and hazard education at school will enable the children to have accurate perception of risk and better understanding of protective measures. A proverb saying “educating a child is educating a family” brings about the shift from disaster preparedness approach to disaster resilience approach. Disaster resilience education (DRE) is an educational learning about natural hazards, risk in local environment and actions to protect the communities before, during and after any disaster or emergency situations. Disaster resilience education provides the young people and their families with various information such as increased awareness about local hazards and disaster risks, increased household preparedness and planning, reduced hazards-related fears and worries and increased capacities for effective emergency response. It also helps in personal development by increasing confidence and communication skills. Thus, the children and youth become the agent of change in their communities and promote disaster risk reduction as well as resilience.

Priya Namrata Topno

### Chapter 2. Error Estimates for the Gradient Discretisation Method on Degenerate Parabolic Equations of Porous Medium Type

The gradient discretisation method (GDM) is a generic framework for the spatial discretisation of partial differential equations. The goal of this contribution is to establish an error estimate for a class of degenerate parabolic problems, obtained under very mild regularity assumptions on the exact solution. Our study covers well-known models like the porous medium equation and the fast diffusion equations, as well as the strongly degenerate Stefan problem. Several schemes are then compared in a last section devoted to numerical results.

Clément Cancès, Jérôme Droniou, Cindy Guichard, Gianmarco Manzini, Manuela Bastidas Olivares, Iuliu Sorin Pop

### Chapter 5. High–order Discontinuous Galerkin Methods on Polyhedral Grids for Geophysical Applications: Seismic Wave Propagation and Fractured Reservoir Simulations

We present a comprehensive review of the current development of discontinuous Galerkin methods on polytopic grids (PolyDG) methods for geophysical applications, addressing as paradigmatic applications the numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and fracture reservoir simulations. We first recall the theoretical background of the analysis of PolyDG methods and discuss the issue of its efficient implementation on polytopic meshes. We address in detail the issue of numerical quadrature and recall the new quadrature free algorithm for the numerical evaluation of the integrals required to assemble the mass and stiffness matrices introduced in [22]. Then we present PolyDG methods for the approximate solution of the elastodynamics equations on computational meshes consisting of polytopic elements. We review the well-posedness of the numerical formulation and hp-version a priori stability and error estimates for the semi-discrete scheme, following [10]. The computational performance of the fully-discrete approximation obtained based on employing the PolyDG method for the space discretization coupled with the leap-frog time marching scheme are demonstrated through numerical experiments. Next, we address the problem of modeling the flow in a fractured porous medium and we review the unified construction and analysis of PolyDG methods following [16]. We show, in a unified setting, the well-posedness of the numerical formulations and hp-version a priori error bounds, that are then validated through numerical tests. We also briefly discuss the extendability of our approach to handle networks of partially immersed fractures and networks of intersecting fractures, recently proposed in [15].

Paola F. Antonietti, Chiara Facciolà, Paul Houston, Ilario Mazzieri, Giorgio Pennesi, Marco Verani

### Chapter 4. An Introduction to Multi-point Flux (MPFA) and Stress (MPSA) Finite Volume Methods for Thermo-poroelasticity

In this chapter, we give a unified introduction to the MPFA- and MPSA-type finite volume methods for Darcy flow and poro-elasticity, applicable to general polyhedral grids. This leads to a more systematic perspective of these methods than has been exposed in previous texts, and we therefore refer to this discretization family as the MPxA methods. We apply this MPxA framework to also define a consistent finite-volume discretization of thermo-poro-elasticity. The present chapter introduces the general theory and state-of-the-art of MPFA-type methods, leaving the more technical results to the provided references. We close the chapter by a section containing applications to problems with complex geometries and non-linear physics.

Jan Martin Nordbotten, Eirik Keilegavlen

### Chapter 6. A Hybrid High-Order Method for Multiple-Network Poroelasticity

We develop Hybrid High-Order methods for multiple-network poroelasticity, modelling seepage through deformable fissured porous media. The proposed methods are designed to support general polygonal and polyhedral elements. This is a crucial feature in geological modelling, where the need for general elements arises, e.g., due to the presence of fracture and faults, to the onset of degenerate elements to account for compaction or erosion, or when nonconforming mesh adaptation is performed. We use as a starting point a mixed weak formulation where an additional total pressure variable is added, that ensures the fulfilment of a discrete inf-sup condition. A complete theoretical analysis is performed, and the results are demonstrated on a panel of numerical tests.

Lorenzo Botti, Michele Botti, Daniele A. Di Pietro

### Chapter 1. Non-conforming Finite Elements on Polytopal Meshes

In this work we present a generic framework for non-conforming finite elements on polytopal meshes, characterised by elements that can be generic polygons/polyhedra.Droniou, Jérôme We first present the functional framework on the example of a linear elliptic problem representing a single-phase flow in porous medium.Eymard, Robert This framework gathers a wide variety of possible non-conforming methods, and an error estimate is provided for this simple model.Gallouët, Thierry We then turn to the application of the functional framework to the case of a steady degenerate elliptic equation, for which a mass-lumping technique is required; here, this technique simply consists in using a different –piecewise constant– function reconstruction from the chosen degrees of freedom.Herbin, Raphaèle A convergence result is stated for this degenerate model. Then, we introduce a novel specific non-conforming method, dubbed Locally Enriched Polytopal Non-Conforming (LEPNC). These basis functions comprise functions dedicated to each face of the mesh (and associated with average values on these faces), together with functions spanning the local $$\mathbb {P}^1$$ P 1 space in each polytopal element. The analysis of the interpolation properties of these basis functions is provided, and mass-lumping techniques are presented. Numerical tests are presented to assess the efficiency and the accuracy of this method on various examples. Finally, we show that generic polytopal non-conforming methods, including the LEPNC, can be plugged into the gradient discretization method framework, which makes them amenable to all the error estimates and convergence results that were established in this framework for a variety of models.

Jérôme Droniou, Robert Eymard, Thierry Gallouët, Raphaèle Herbin

### Chapter 3. Nodal Discretization of Two-Phase Discrete Fracture Matrix Models

This chapter reviews the nodal Vertex Approximate Gradient (VAG) discretization of two-phase Darcy flows in fractured porous media for which the fracture network is represented as a manifold of co-dimension one with respect to the surrounding matrix domain. Different types of models and their discretizations are considered depending on the transmission conditions set at matrix fracture interfaces accounting for fractures acting either as drains or both as drains or barriers. Difficulties raised by nodal discretizations in heterogeneous media are investigated and solutions to solve these issues are discussed. It includes the adaptation of the porous volumes at nodal unknowns and discontinuous saturations accounting for the jumps induced by the discontinuity in space of the capillary pressure functions. A new Multi-Point upwind scheme is also introduced for the approximation of the mobilities at matrix fracture interfaces to address the issue of fluxes not defined at faces. The most accurate approach is based on the extension of the discontinuous pressure model to two-phase Darcy flows taking into account the discontinuities of both the pressures and saturations at matrix fracture interfaces. As opposed to single phase flows, It improves the accuracy even in the case of fracture acting as drains. On the other hand this approach can still exhibit a robustness issue in terms of nonlinear convergence.

Konstantin Brenner, Julian Hennicker, Roland Masson

### Chapter 7. The Mixed Virtual Element Method for the Richards Equation

The time-dependent Richards equation can be reformulated as a nonlinear, possibly degenerate, parabolic problem in mixed form by applying the Kirchhoff transformation. A preliminary time integration yields the variational formulation. A numerical treatment of this problem using polygonal and polyhedral meshes is, then, feasible by applying the mixed virtual element method. In this setting, we study a semi-discrete and a fully-discrete virtual element approximation. The theoretical analysis shows that our virtual element formulations are well-posed and convergent, and optimal convergence rates for the approximation errors can be proved. Such theoretical results are confirmed and the accuracy is assessed by investigating the behavior of the method on a set of representative numerical experiments.

Dibyendu Adak, Gianmarco Manzini, Sundararajan Natarajan

### Chapter 8. Performances of the Mixed Virtual Element Method on Complex Grids for Underground Flow

The numerical simulation of physical processes in the underground frequently entails challenges related to the geometry and/or data. The former are mainly due to the shape of sedimentary layers and the presence of fractures and faults, while the latter are connected to the properties of the rock matrix which might vary abruptly in space. The development of approximation schemes has recently focused on the overcoming of such difficulties with the objective of obtaining numerical schemes with good approximation properties. In this work we carry out a numerical study on the performance of the Mixed Virtual Element Method (MVEM) for the solution of a single-phase flow model in fractured porous media. This method is able to handle grid cells of polytopal type and treat hybrid dimensional problems. It has been proven to be robust with respect to the variation of the permeability field and of the shape of the elements. Our numerical experiments focus on two test cases that cover several of the aforementioned critical aspects.

Alessio Fumagalli, Anna Scotti, Luca Formaggia

### Design of Smart Global Economic Community in Kattangal

Smart-Global-Economic-Community (SGEC) is the basic module of planning megacities. It connects the local economy to the global economy. The design of the SGEC-Kattangal which is a part of the Kochi-Kannur megacity study is discussed in the present chapter. Significant concerns about the community are unplanned urban growth, exclusion and rising inequality, challenges in providing municipal services, economic sluggishness due to bureaucracy and political system. The study aims at making a reference module (SGEC-Kattangal) for the likely to be Kochi-Kannur megacity. The study has three parts. The first and second parts of the study which deals with the identification of possible sectors and the analysis of the issues and potential to transform the selected community cluster (Kattangal at Kozhikode, India) into an SGEC, are already discussed in the previous chapters. The third part of the study presented in the current chapter, explains the proposals that could help to make a smart-global-economic-community in Kattangal. The study redefines the approaches to issues and strategies based on smart principles; the initial plan based on economic development, which leads to growth in other sectors. The custom framed smart components include smart-economy, smart-living, smart-environment, smart-mobility, and smart-governance. Smart-economy bases on Industry-4.0, Social Manufacturing, and it frame strategies that utilize the untapped skilled workforce in Kattangal to build an economic base for the community. Smart-living gives proposals that enhance the living quality of the people by well-defined public spaces. The study discusses strategies for smart-water management and smart-waste management under the smart-environment principle. Smart-mobility encourages a sustainable transport model based on electric vehicles (EV) and non-motorized transportation (NMT). Smart governance integrates information and communications technology (ICT) and the internet of things (IoT).

T. M. Vinod Kumar, V Sruthi Krishnan, K Deepak Lawrence, C Mohammed Firoz, Susan Cyriac

### Existing Situation of Proposed Smart Global Community at Kattangal

Smart Global Community (SGC) is an innovative concept of community development involving economy generation within a community using appropriate smart technologies. The location of SGCs is ideal within the vicinities of various institutes, which can impart technological support for the betterment of the neighborhood, thereby elevating their economic status. The SGC proposes a symbiotic relationship between the institutes and the neighborhood that serves the requirements of the institute. The present study identifies Kattangal, a neighborhood community, near two national level institutions, the National Institute of Technology, Calicut and the National Institute of Electronics and Information Technology as a model for the development of such SGCs. The study area is delineated based on the walkable neighborhood concept within a 1.5 km radius from the primary node called Kattangal. A reconnaissance survey identified the natural features that form the boundary of the study area. An extensive field survey identified the issues, potentials, and opportunities presented by Kattangal. The field survey’s thrust area includes land area identification for suitable workspaces, availability of human resources, infrastructure, and recreational open spaces in the study area. The survey identifies the primary stakeholders in the study region. A household sample survey, shop owners survey, and NITC student’s aspiration survey follows the initial reconnaissance survey. The survey inputs are processed, which proposes essential strategies to elevate the community to an SGC. It follows a Focus Group Discussion involving various stakeholders. The Focus Group Discussion helps arrive at suitable strategies that the community can accept and adopt. The study also explores the connectivity of the community to augment and establish suitable supply chain management strategies.

T. M. Vinod Kumar, Susan Cyriac, C. Mohammed Firoz, V. Sruthi Krishnan

### Spatial Configuration of Kochi-Kannur Megacity and Emerging Corridors

The development of mega regions in different parts of the world has opened up possibilities of better economic investments, infrastructure facilities and job opportunities. In India, though there are series of mega regions evolving, the most prominent one is the emerging mega region particularly along the coastal belt of the Kerala state. The capturing of this potential among the major urban nodes of the state is of utmost importance in bringing it into the lines of a megacity in the future. The present study thus aims to delineate such a potential region in Kerala and to analyze its existing scenario. The delineation of the mega region in Kerala included six different steps, i.e.: identification of the districts, identification of current and future urban areas as per the census of India data (2011), overlaying the density map, overlaying the settlement population map, overlaying the land use areas, and finally overlaying the panchayat and block boundary maps to derive the study area region. A careful investigation on the existing scenario of the delineated mega region was performed to understand and analyze the urbanization trend, occupation pattern, settlements based on population density, and to carry out density analysis of core urban areas. It was understood that the urbanization has increased from 2001 to 2011 mainly due to the designation of many rural settlements into urban, a shift in the occupational pattern (i.e.: a shift of main male workers in the agricultural field to non-agricultural field). It was inferred from the study that the urban centres and the settlements along the highways are getting densified at a faster rate. A brief demographic and economic analysis of the region was also conducted. The key issues found out from this analysis are that although the state is having high a human development index (HDI) and literacy rate, the rate of educated unemployment is increasing and the economic growth is less. Hence, there is a need for an “alternate model of development” by using “smart” global sustainable techniques and initiatives to address and meet the inevitable growth and development of the region and the state.

C. Mohammed Firoz, V. Sruthi Krishnan, Susan Cyriac

### International Collaborative Research: “Smart Global Mega Cities” and Conclusions of Cities Case Studies: Chennai, and Kochi-Kannur

This chapter has two parts. In the first part, objectives, and the organizational details of the international collaborative research project “Smart Global Megacities” are discussed. In the second part are presented in consultation with the team leaders of the city study, their general conclusions of the study Smart Global Megacities.

T. M. Vinod Kumar

### Territorial Intelligence Project: Governance for Megalopolis Urban-Rural Linkage Pattern

Megalopolis or Mega-city is a new scale that should not be defined by population numbers. We are in a new dimension, a new DNA. In the context of Megalopolis and regions where the scale of the urbanization goes beyond the traditional definition of a Metropolis, defining an effective governance structure and strategies is a challenging yet fundamental goal. Information technology plays a vital role in building the global Megalopolis, as the virtual infrastructure and data allow a city to be strategic at the international scale while advancing inhabitants’ daily life at the local scale. In this chapter we attempt to define the governance strategies in the mega global cities in two steps: first, to trace the dynamics between the various stakeholders in the mega-project that is often complex and less hierarchical and provide a framework where the genome of a Metropolis is evident. The second step emphasizes the importance of the direct relationship between the governance structure and the territorial contexts and intelligences.

Antonella Contin, Pedro B. Ortiz, Valentina Galiulo, Raana Saffari Siahkali, Alessandra Pandolfi, Paola Campi, Sravya Lutukurthi, Ravali Sathiwada, Kushal Kumar, Piyush Girgaonkar

### Smart Global Megacity: Chennai Sustainable Development Framework

The exponential population growth has wreaked havoc on human life in the city environment. The doubling and tripling of the urban population create a strain on the existing systems, which has manifested in environmental chaos. In this chapter, the challenges faced by Chennai and a sustainable development framework for the comprehensive development of the city are discussed. A survey at the grassroots level was carried out to document the existing physical, socio-economic, and environmental aspects, the availability and level of infrastructure services, and the institutional functions of the city. An opinion survey with the stakeholders was carried out to record their views and opinion. Further, a validated system dynamics model was used to forecast the development scenario for the year 2041. A detailed policy recommendation for sustainable and energy-efficient Chennai is deliberated. The need for the use of geospatial tools, appropriate application of sophisticated forecasting models, and establishment of a big data command control center for effective monitoring of the city development and policy implementation is emphasized.

Kusum Lata, Shovan K. Saha, Adinarayanane Ramamurthy, Faiz Ahmed Chundeli

### E-Commerce and the City: Vignettes from Kozhikode, India

E-commerce has been making rapid inroads into Indian markets. Historically, markets have been central to the configuration of the city. When e-commerce is changing these markets, we need to assess what digital market platforms will mean for the future of the city’s markets and the traditional brick and mortar sellers. The current research focuses on hyperlocal e-commerce initiatives emerging as alternatives to dominant e-commerce players. Using the city context of Kozhikode, the chapter explores how hyperlocal e-commerce responses are being led by young entrepreneurs from the traditional business communities of the city and how their growth is catalyzed by the Kozhikode’s ethos of solidarity and mutual support. We would like to make use of qualitative research methods adopting a case-study approach with in-depth interviews with different stakeholders in conjunction with timeline methods to unveil this transformation. We focus on four hyperlocal e-commerce initiatives in the city. We find that there is still room for smaller ‘hyperlocal’ players from the city in the emerging digital markets and they would play a pivotal role in the ‘smartening’ of the city bottom-up. In cities where commerce thrived for centuries owing to centuries old trust and informal social control, ‘hyperlocal’ e-commerce platforms are here to stay.

Althaf Shajahan, Fawaz Kareem

### The Configuration of Smart and Global Mega Cities

There are about 31 megacities of population size 10 million and above in the universe in 2016 as per UN-Habitat which is likely to be 41 in 2030. These gigantic habitats are significant as it has all the potential to convert into smart and global cities if configured for its sustainability. This creative configuration of megacities to smart and global is the outcomes of the book through city case studies. The vast population, cultural and ecosystem diversity, diverse institutional endowments, supply chains connectivity, global linkages and size of income and expenditure in these megacities creates opportunities for configuring to a smart global city. This chapter tries to understand the title of the book and surveys the growth, development, and distribution across geographic regions. Theories of global cities are studied briefly and finally ends up with broad approaches to configure these megacities to smart and global. In conclusion, the smart global economic community design strategy is detailed out and implemented in Kochi-Kannur megacity study. This chapter serves as a background of several case studies of megacity across many continents in this book.

T. M. Vinod Kumar

### Führungskräftemangel in der Sozialwirtschaft

Strategische Personalentwicklung als Befähigung für eine erfolgreiche Nachfolgeplanung

Die Akquise und Bindung von Führungskräften sowie die Organisation der Nachfolgeplanung stellen vor dem Hintergrund des andauernden Fach- und Führungskräftemangels besondere Herausforderungen für Organisationen der Sozialwirtschaft dar. Im Beitrag werden zunächst die organisationalen Besonderheiten der Sozialwirtschaft als „multifunkionale Organisationen“ skizziert, d. h. als intermediäre Organisationen zwischen Staat und Markt. Auf Grundlage einer eigenen empirischen Erhebung werden anschließend der Status Quo des Führungskräftemangels diskutiert und relevante Problemfelder identifiziert. Als Lösungsansatz wird abschließend der reflexive Befähigungsansatz vorgeschlagen, um die Nachfolgeplanung im Rahmen einer strategischen Personalentwicklung umzusetzen und damit auch der Kernverantwortung gerecht zu werden.

Matthias Schmidt, Martin Gibson-Kunze

### Strategische Nachfolgeplanung in Non-Profit-Organisationen: ein Überblick

Strategische Nachfolgeplanung in gemeinnützigen Organisationen stellt einen systematischen sowie mittel- bis langfristig angelegten Prozess dar, in welchem der Übergang von alter zu neuer Führung geplant und gestaltet wird. Ins Zentrum rückt weniger die reine Nachbesetzung einer vakant werdenden Führungsposition, sondern das Umfeld der Organisation, die Aufbau- und Ablauforganisation, die verschiedenen Perspektiven und Rollen der handelnden Akteure sowie die Erfordernisse der nachzubesetzenden Position. Die Handlungsfelder werden miteinander in Einklang gebracht und systematisch bearbeitet. Das komplexe Unterfangen gewinnt besonders vor dem Hintergrund des Generationswechsels im Non-Profit-Bereich dramatisch an Relevanz.

Michael Hamm, Cornelia Heider-Winter, Norman-Alexander Leu

### 10. Grid Integration of Renewable Energy

This chapter presents the analysis of grid integration of renewable energy and discusses the equipment needed for successful grid integration of RE. The communication and control processes are also be discussed, along with a brief overview of grid modernization using renewables. The chapter ends with a case study.

Eklas Hossain, Slobodan Petrovic

### 1. Renewable Energy Basics

This chapter explores the basics of power, energy, their units, fossil fuels vs. renewable energy, and provides a short introduction to the various renewable energy technologies available today. The chapter concludes with a case study on some nations that have achieved or are very close to achieving a 100% renewable energy-powered energy profile, which means that they derive most of their energy from renewable energy sources.

Eklas Hossain, Slobodan Petrovic

### 13. Comparative Study of Renewable Sources of Energy

This chapter aims to unify all the different types of RESs in a comparative picture that helps readers visualize the contrast among the different RESs. The chapter gives a detailed comparison of seven types of RESs based on several criteria. The chapter ends with a case study.

Eklas Hossain, Slobodan Petrovic

### 2. Hydroelectric Power

This chapter describes the water cycle and origins of hydro energy. It furthermore discusses the power and energy of water and then describes the large hydropower plants, the types and size of turbines, and other critical performance parameters. Micro hydroelectric plants are discussed next as well as the cost of hydroelectric power. The chapter ends with a case study.

Eklas Hossain, Slobodan Petrovic

### 3. Wind Power

The chapter describes the origins of wind and global patterns, the energy and power from wind, elements of wind turbines, and their types, properties, and components. The environmental impacts of wind turbines, such as noise and impact on birds, are discussed as well. A case study is provided.

Eklas Hossain, Slobodan Petrovic

### 12. Challenges of Renewable Sources of Energy

This chapter explores the potential challenges for further implementation of RE and then continues with challenges that each RE technology must overcome to compete with fossil fuels in terms of cost, reliability, and environmental effects. The possible ways of overcoming the challenges are also proposed. At the end of the chapter, the case study tells the story of a billion-dollar failure that is the Crescent Dunes project in Nevada and the success story of a contemporary project at the Mojave Desert in California.

Eklas Hossain, Slobodan Petrovic

### 11. Economic Aspects of Renewable Energy

This chapter deals with the economic analyses of various renewable energy technologies and presents a gradual decline in the costs of renewables over the years. The chapter introduces some basic concepts required to attain an overall idea about the financial breakdown of renewable energy projects. Solar and wind power are given attention in this chapter, with a case study on the economics of a hydropower plant.

Eklas Hossain, Slobodan Petrovic

### 7. Solar Thermal Energy

This chapter explains the origins of solar energy and explains the connection between the temperature of the sun and the radiation wavelength. Different systems for harnessing solar thermal energy, such as active and passive solar systems, as well as concentrated systems are discussed. Two case studies are presented.

Eklas Hossain, Slobodan Petrovic

### 6. Geothermal Energy

The chapter describes the origins of geothermal energy, the geothermal resource potential, and the best regions for capturing geothermal energy. The geothermal plant technologies and their environmental impact are discussed. A case study is presented.

Eklas Hossain, Slobodan Petrovic

### 8. Solar Photovoltaics

The chapter provides an introduction to solar photovoltaics or generating electricity from sunlight. After the general description of various types of solar cells, a more detailed evaluation of silicon solar cells and modules is given, including their fabrication and performance characteristics. Additional components of photovoltaic systems are described as well. A case study is presented.

Eklas Hossain, Slobodan Petrovic

### 5. Bioenergy

This chapter covers the fundamentals of bioenergy and provides a brief overview of the routes for biomass processing. The sunlight conversion in plants and the natural carbon cycle are discussed in the context of using biomass use for electricity generation. Finally, energy crops and the production of transportation fuels from biomass feedstock are described. A case study is presented.

Eklas Hossain, Slobodan Petrovic

### 4. Ocean Power

The chapter explores the origins of ocean power, the three types of energy captured from the oceans, the energy from the motion of the waves, the energy from the tides, and from using temperature gradient in oceans. The main onshore and offshore ocean wave technologies are described. Tidal origins, fundamentals, and power-generating plants are described, followed by a discussion on their environmental impact. Finally, the basics of utilizing ocean thermal energy are presented. A case study on wave power is presented.

Eklas Hossain, Slobodan Petrovic

### 9. Energy Storage

The chapter discusses energy storage devices used in combination with renewable energy systems. The description includes a brief overview of the available energy storage methods and their general classification. It then covers the most important devices such as batteries and fuel cells. A case study is presented.

Eklas Hossain, Slobodan Petrovic

### 4. Die Grundlagen eines modernen Vertriebs

Kann man Vertrieb lernen oder muss man dazu nicht einfach der Typ sein? Was unterscheidet überdurchschnittlich erfolgreiche Verkäufer von den anderen? Warum kauft ein Kunde bei Verkäufer A, aber nicht bei B? Diese Fragen beantworten wir Ihnen in diesem Kapitel gerne und beleuchten dabei die wichtigsten Vertriebstechniken, die man mit Übung, Wille und Fleiß hervorragend erlernen kann, und zwar mit und ohne Talent!

Nicole Truchseß, Markus Brandl

### Study of the Extreme Thermal Conditions for the Sofia Region—Preliminary Results

The environmental thermal comfort is one of the issues not only these days, but also in the future, concerning the results from the climate projections. The objective of this paper is to study the human discomfort in winter and summer in Sofia and its surroundings. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model numerical simulations were used to calculate two characteristics called indexes, of the thermal environmental properties from the human point of view. They estimate the deviation of the environmental conditions from the human thermal comfort. The first one—Wind Chill index describes the thermal discomfort in low temperatures (winter), depending on air temperature and wind speed. The second one—Heat Index describes the deviation from the summer thermal comfort in high air temperatures (summer), depending on the air temperature and relative humidity. Numerical experiments with combination of different parameterization schemes for atmospheric boundary layer and microphysical processes were carried out. Model performance for the temperature, wind speed and relative humidity were used for estimation of the best model options for calculation of the Wind Chill and Heat Index in the corresponding conditions when they are applicable.

Vladimir Ivanov, Reneta Dimitrova

### Interaction Between Particulate Matter Characteristics and Atmospheric Boundary Height Over Sofia Based on Case Studies

The air quality of the city of Sofia is a result of a complex interplay between anthropogenic and natural factors. In the present paper the aerosol pollution of Sofia is investigated through case studies during different seasons of 2019—two days in spring, four in summer and four in winter. Experimental measuring campaigns for particle concentrations add more extensive knowledge on the distribution and levels of the main problematic pollutants, such as particulate matter (PM). Laser particle counter measurements near an intensive traffic boulevard are presented and discussed. The daily variation with high temporal resolution (10–15 min) of aerosol particle concentrations (number and mass) in channels 0–2.5 µm and 2.5–10 µm are analyzed together with meteorological conditions and results from WRF-GDAS, HYSPLIT and BSC dust models. The influence of long-range transport of dust on the aerosol concentrations is assessed.

Plamen Savov, Nikolay Kolev, Ekaterina Batchvarova, Hristina Kirova, Maria Kolarova

### Performance of Operational Chemical Transport Models for Particulate Matter Concentrations in Bulgaria

The main objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of some well-known and widely used operational air quality modelling systems (EMEP-MSC-W, and the models at the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS)) for simulations of ground-level particulate matter in Bulgaria. The analysis is focused on two months—a summer one (August 2017) and a winter one (February 2019). The comparison of models to observations from regular air quality background stations is based on statistical indicators and various plots (box plots, kernel density estimations, and scatter plots). The EMEP and CAMS regional models underestimate the observed concentrations, on average by about 50% for PM10 and by about 22% for PM2.5. These models perform better at a rural remote (mountain) site than at urban background stations indicating that the outputs of the models could be used for indicative values of PM background concentrations. The model inter-comparison consists of an analysis of the spatial distribution of monthly mean concentrations and values for domain averaged model concentrations. The CAMS global model simulates in summer different spatial distribution due to the assimilation of satellite data providing information for dust storms and wildfires.

Hristina Kirova, Nadya Neykova, Emilia Georgieva

### Effects of Satellite Data Assimilation in Air Quality Modelling in Bulgaria

The operational Bulgarian Chemical Weather Forecast System (BgCWFS) was modified and applied for assimilation of satellite retrieved atmospheric chemistry parameters—Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and columnar values of NO2 and SO2. The work outlines the methodology based on calculation of correction factors between model estimated and assimilated satellite derived parameters. Simulations by two versions of the system were performed for two months (August 2017 and February 2019) for all 5 domains of BgCWFS. The first version, mod-run, is without satellite data assimilation, the second one, sat-run assimilates satellite data. The effects of the assimilation is demonstrated for different pollutants analysing the difference between the results of the two versions on particular days in different model domains and as domain mean values for the Balkan Peninsula and for Bulgaria. The domain mean monthly particulate matter concentrations increase by more than 100% in summer and by about 50% in winter. The increase in the domain mean monthly SO2 concentrations is about 110% in summer and 130% in winter.

Dimiter Syrakov, Maria Prodanova, Emilia Georgieva

### Spatial Variation of Precursory Seismic Quiescence Observed Before Earthquake from 01.04.2010 in the Region of Crete

Statistical analysis was performed, which reveals statistical parameters of the seismic setting before the earthquake in the region of Crete (01.04.2011 with coordinates 26.56o E, 35.64o N; Ml = 6.2, h = 63 km and T0 = 13: 29: 10.5). For this purpose, the spatial and temporal changes in the b-value and the value of the Z-seismic lull were estimated. The temporary change in the b-value shows that the average value of b decreased from 1.75 ± 0.02 between 1985 and 2002 to 1.4 ± 0.02 between 2003 and 2011. A significant decrease in the b-value and clear anomalies of calm in the Z-value in early 2011 were also observed in several neighbouring areas. The epicenter of the earthquake falls in an area with a relatively low value of the a-parameter estimated for the entire previous period. In the study area, the abnormal decreasing trend of the b-value may be an indicator of increased stress, and the increasing trend of the Z-value may indicate areas of calm before the studied earthquake.

Emil Oynakov, Dimcho Solakov, Irena Aleksandrova, Yordan Milkov

### Numerical Weather Prediction for the Bulgarian Antarctic Base Area and Sensitivity to the SST Variable

The weather forecast of good quality is essential for the humans living and operating in the Bulgarian Antarctic base (BAB), located on the Livingston Island coast at 62.64 $$^\circ$$ ∘ S and 60.36 $$^\circ$$ ∘ W. The numerical weather prediction models in southern high latitude regions still need improvement as the user community is limited, little test cases are documented and validation data are scarce. In this study, we suggest several ways to improve the local weather forecast model skill by modifications of the land cover and ocean temperature. We tested the sensitivity of the numerical weather prediction modelling system based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, configured for the BAB area, to the Sea surface temperature (SST) of the ocean around the island. The model configuration is described and details on the model performance are given. Several experiments with SST coming from different sources are performed, as well as experiments where the SST is scaled linearly. The conducted sensitivity experiments show that all of the considered meteorological variables are affected by the sea surface temperature, the most prominent differences being observed in the 2 m temperature field. With a uniform rise in SST, the corresponding tendencies are: an increase of the 2 m temperature, a decrease of the sea level pressure and an increase of the average wind speed. For the BAB region, the best results with unmodified SST data are obtained when using SST from the Copernicus Marine Service ocean model.

Boriana Chtirkova, Elisaveta Peneva, Gergana Georgieva

### Value Eco-Innovation as a Basis for Clean Production Through Ecodesign in the Bulgarian Food Industry

In this paper we propose a model for implementation of value eco-innovations of clean production through ecodesign in the SMEs of the food industry in Bulgaria. The clean production is a preventative approach to managing environmental aspects. The paper presents the essence of clean production through ecodesign, the methods for its achievement and outlining the possible options and barriers for SMEs from the food industry in Bulgaria to implement the relevant value eco-innovations. The ecological footprint of the food industry makes the need for an integrated implementation of clean production practices from raw material extraction to packaging and waste disposal of final consumer.

Silviya Topleva, Tsvetko Prokopov, Donka Taneva

### Wildfire Risk Reduction Based on Landscape Management

Wildfires occur traditionally in the southern situated countries of Europe. However, in the last few years northern states are experiencing wildland fires (vegetation fires) which sustain their propagation for more than few hours. Reasons for this new situation have been discussed during the CMINE Wildfire Task Group meetings (DRIVER+ project with a mandate of one year—2019). In our paper we will summarize our main findings, which refer to two basic topics—landscape management and climate change. There are more and more parcels of land which have become abandoned because of numerous reasons, but the outcome is the same. The absent people are not cutting the trees, and the people do not bring their cattle or sheep to graze the grass and shrubs. This vegetation grows every spring and lies down on the ground every autumn as potential fire propagation fuel waiting for an ignition. Climate change is another global issue which is creating dangerous weather conditions with extreme high temperatures during the summer season plus mild winters, which is leading to wildfire occurrence in some parts of Europe year round. In our paper we will describe two case studies from Portugal and South Wales, having the same conclusions—no land management strategy and extreme weather are the best conditions for life threatening wildfires.

Nina Dobrinkova, Carlos Trindade, Craig Hope, Chuck Bushey, Alexander Held, Ciaran Nugent, Georgios Eftychidis, Adrián Cardil, George Boustras, Evangelos Katsaros

### Forecasting the Propagation of HF Radio Waves Over Bulgaria

A new methodology for forecasting the propagation of HF radio waves by reflection from the ionosphere over Bulgaria in the absence of ionosonde data is presented. The proposed methodology contains three main parts. Based on the long-term ionosonde data an empirical model of the critical E region frequency (foE) has been built; the latter depends on the season, local time and the level of solar activity described by the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm wavelength (F10.7). The critical frequency of the F2-layer (foF2) and the maximum usable frequency at a propagation of 3000 km (MUF3000) are obtained by means of the proposed empirical relationships between these two critical frequencies and the Total Electron Content (TEC). Based on these three ionospheric characteristics a modeled electron density profile is compiled by using the method of Di Giovani-Radicella (Giovanni and Radicella in Adv Space Res 10:27–30, 1990 [1]). The constructed in this way electron density profile allows calculating the lowest and maximum usable frequency at a given distance up to 500 km according to the theory of radio wave propagation in the ionospheric plasma, namely the equivalence theorem and the secant law, as well as the law of reduction of the group velocity of propagation depending on the ionosphere electron density.

Rumiana Bojilova, Plamen Mukhtarov

### Chemical Characteristics of Precipitation and Cloud Water at High Elevation Site in Bulgaria

The aim of this work is to present and discuss newly obtained data for the chemical composition of precipitation (RW) and cloud water (CW) at a high-elevation site in Bulgaria. Sampling of RW and CW was organized in 2017 and 2018 during field experiments at Cherni Vrah, the highest peak in Vitosha Mountain. Passive collectors designed and constructed at NIMN were used. All collected samples (118) were analyzed for acidity (pH), conductivity (EC), main anions—SO42−, NO3−, Cl−, ammonium ions (NH4+), macro and micro elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Si, Zn, Cu). The average pH values for both types of samples were in the acidity range (<5.0). The values of EC varied from 5 to 89.2 µS cm−1 for RW and from 0.7 to 202 µS cm−1 for CW. The ion composition was dominated by nssSO42−, NO3−, Ca and NH4+ which made up more than 63% of the total ionic content for RW and 75% for CW. The relative contribution of the major compounds to the CW and RW composition is presented and discussed. The volume weighted mean (VWM), fractional acidity and neutralization factor are also calculated. The effect of long-range transport processes is studied for some selected periods of 2018 using HYSPLIT air mass backward trajectory analysis.

Elena Hristova, Blagorodka Veleva, Krum Velchev, Emilia Georgieva

### Chemical Characteristics of Flue Gas Particulates: An Experimental Investigation

The present work aims at characterizing particulate matter (PM) of different size, emitted during biomass gasification in a drop tube furnace (DTF) at 1000 °C. The elemental composition was determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) analyses. Overall 19 elements were determined and the relative mass concentration of their oxides was identified as macro- (above 3%) and micro-concentration (below 3%). The elements Fe, Mn and S were found in each type of particulates, regardless of the used biomass and gasifying agent. The dominant macro component of char (cyclone particles >10 µm) was Ca (50.56–100% of the total CaO), followed by K, Fe, S, Mn and Cr. Only colza char contained significant portion of P and much lower Fe. The primary macro constituents of PM10–2.5 were Fe, Mn and S. The volatile ash compounds K and Cl are typical constituents of the submicron sized ultrafine particles (UFP), when biomass from agricultural residue was gasified. This confirms the hypothesis that elements, having low boiling point significantly influence UFP formation through the nucleation. Two EPR spectra were obtained for the char samples: a broad signal with g ≈ 2.1–2.6, and a narrow sharp signal with g ≈ 2.002–2.003. The broad EPR signal was attributed to the paramagnetic metal ions Fe3+ and Mn2+, which was in agreement with the XRF analysis. The narrow signal was attributed to the appearance of soot particles.

Tsvetelina Petrova, Iliyana Naydenova, Ricardo Ferreira, Yordanka Karakirova, Mário Costa

### Degree-Days and Agro-meteorological Indices in CMIP5 RCP8.5 Future Climate—Results for Central and Southeast Europe

The present paper is continuation of our recent study and analyzes the potential changes of residential heating and cooling degree-days as well as three stakeholder-relevant indices of agro-meteorological change (growing season length, sum of the active and sum of the effective temperatures) for Central and Southeast Europe over near past (1975–2004), near (2021–2050) and far (2070–2099) future periods. All indicators were calculated from the output data of our simulations with the regional climate model RegCM driven by the ERA-Interim reanalysis for the near past and by the global circulation model HadGEM2-ES under RCP8.5 CMIP5 radiative forcing scenario for the future periods. The validation of the model-based indices against their counterparts, computed from the observational dataset E-OBS, shows that the model reproduces their spatial variability and magnitude generally well. A linear bias correction of the considered indices is also demonstrated. Consistent with the general trend of the mean and extreme temperatures over the region, the study reveals a decrease of the heating degree days and considerable increase of the cooling degree days and the agro-meteorological indices practically over the whole domain in the future. The detected changes are fairly not symmetrical - the relative increase of the cooling degree days is significantly bigger than the decrease of the heating degree-days.

### Coastal Boundary-Layer Characteristic During Night Time Using a Long-Term Acoustic Remote Sensing Data

The study of the Planetary Boundary Layer vertical structure in coastal areas is of particular importance due to the fact that a large number of urban areas and their industrial activities are located on the shores of the seas, oceans or large lakes. Based on long-term (August 2008–October 2016) sodar measurements at a Bulgarian Black Sea coastal site, the mean characteristics of the two main types of nocturnal air flows (marine and land air masses) are obtained. Typical parameters for the investigated region, such as the heights of the marine, the internal and planetary boundary layers, as well as wind and turbulence vertical structure details are revealed exploring this high spatial (10 m) and temporal (10 min) resolution data. The observation site is near the town of Ahtopol in Southeast Bulgaria. The analyses are based on averaging of the measured profiles of 12 output sodar parameters and calculated Buoyancy Production mean profiles. The seasonal variability of all characteristics is explored. The nocturnal land air masses are found to be with neutral and slightly stable stratification, Planetary Boundary-Layer height of 410–430 m and corresponding Surface-Layer height of 50–80 m. The nocturnal marine air masses are found to be with neutral and slightly unstable stratification, Internal Boundary-Layer height of about 40–50 m and a nocturnal marine Planetary Boundary-Layer height of about 300 m. The study contributes to disclosure and understanding the coastal nocturnal wind and turbulence regime in a region with modest observation networks. The obtained results can be also used for evaluation of the various theoretical, mesoscale and air quality models performance.

Damyan Barantiev, Ekaterina Batchvarova

### Urban Heat Island and Future Projections: A Study in Thessaloniki, Greece

Future climate simulations have been produced for three 5-year periods until the end of twenty-first century using the WRF-ARW numerical weather prediction model for the greater area of Thessaloniki in the framework of the forecasting System for urban heaT Island effect (LIFE-ASTI) programme. In the present study, we analyse the characteristics of heat wave days in present and future at a central urban region of Thessaloniki and a rural region around the city in order to investigate the urban heat island effect under extreme heat. The number of heat wave days until 2100 is expected to increase by >12 times more than in the present. It is notable that more than 60% of the heat wave days within the urban area will be characterized by minimum temperatures ≥30 °C, while this percentage will be ~12% for the rural area. Finally, while in the present the urban heat island intensity during heat wave days presents mostly values 1–3 °C, in the future the intensity will be larger, in a few cases exceeding even 6 °C.

Stavros Keppas, Daphne Parliari, Serafeim Kontos, Anastasia Poupkou, Sofia Papadogiannaki, Paraskevi Tzoumaka, Apostolos Kelessis, Melas Dimitrios

### Assessment of the Joint Quantiles of Temperature and Precipitation in CMIP5 Future Climate Projections over Europe

The present study assesses the changes in the exceedances of the joint extremes of temperature and precipitation quantiles as well as the trend magnitude and statistical significance of these changes. Following the Beniston’s idea, the combination of cool/dry, cool/wet, warm/dry and warm/wet modes in projected future climate over Europe up to the end of the twenty first century is investigated in consistent manner. These modes are defined as excedances of fixed quantile thresholds, the lower and the upper quartile respectively. The use of joint quantiles allows an exploration of climate statistics that in many instances would be overlooked by simply analyzing single thresholds of temperature or precipitation. The used for the computation of the quantiles data for the mean 10-day temperature and 10-day precipitation sum are obtained as ensemble multi-model median from the bias-corrected output of 5 CMIP5 global models, forced with all 4 RCP emission scenarios. The model output is accessed from the section of the Inter Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project in the Copernicus Data Store. Generally, the obtained results are coherent with the consolidated outcomes of the most recent studies, considering the projected future changes of the mean temperature and the precipitation across Europe. Key finding is, however, the revealed steady and statistically significant increase of the number of the extreme warm and dry events over the whole Mediterranean basin. The consequences of such tendency could be manifold, including several adverse effects on the ecosystems as well as on managed systems (e.g., agriculture and water supply sector).

### Anthropogenic and Solar Influence on Temperature over Bulgaria

The Sun is the main source of energy for all Earth’s geosystems, including climate, weather, mean sea level, winds, precipitation, and etc., mainly through Total Solar Irradiance (TSI), whose variations during solar activity cause various changes on the Earth surface. Climate processes, interactions between atmosphere-and ocean system, various local, regional and global hydrological cycles are the main mediator between solar activity and a number of geophysical processes on the Earth surface. The temperature at the Earth surface is widely used climate index, whose variations consist of significant seasonal oscillations, trend and long-term cycles. The global warming due to greenhouse gases grout produces significant temperature rise in the last decades, while the solar activity cycles drive periodic oscillations of the temperature. The variations of temperature over Bulgaria, due to anthropogenic and solar influences, is investigated by means of several long time series of meteorological observations. The changes of seasonal components of temperature and long-term oscillations are analyzed in narrow frequency bands by means of the Partial Fourier Approximation (PFA). These temperature variations are compared with the corresponding cycles of solar activity. The determined linear trends of temperature rise in the last decades are associated with the anthropogenic factors of the global warming.

Yavor Chapanov

### Seismic Scenario and People Exposure for Blagoevgrad Region, Bulgaria

Present research analyses the human exposure at one of the most dangerous earthquake zones in Bulgaria-Blagoevgrad region and propose a detailed seismic scenario for the main city. Seismic hazard is modelled using GIS and overlaid with one square kilometer grid of population distribution in order to determine the population exposure in the region. We define a parameter called “population exposure index” (PEI) which has five classes: Minor, Low, Moderate, High and Major. As was expected, the seismic hazard levels of Blagoevgrad region are in the upper part of the classification scale. The total population in the Blagoevgrad region (NUTS II) is around 323,000 people. Results show that more than 130,000 people are exposed to the highest level of seismic hazard. City of Blagoevgrad gathers nearly 22% of the population in the region. A specially developed seismic scenario for the city accounting the soil conditions as well is used for detailed assessment of the people exposed to seismic hazard. The obtained values of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) varying between 0.29 and 0.45 g are crossed with the population living in each building to determine the levels of population exposure. Our results show that people living in 398 buildings are majorly exposed to the seismic hazard in Blagoevgrad city. Another 1465 buildings are determined as highly exposed to this threat. Delineation of these buildings might be very important for the regional authority and focusing on the prevention of possible earthquake effects.

Petya Trifonova, Dimcho Solakov, Stela Simeonova, Metodi Metodiev, Stefan Florin Balan

### Climatological Study of Extreme Wind Events in a Coastal Area

Long-term sodar measurements (Aug 2008–Oct 2016) of wind and turbulence profiles with high spatial (10 m) and temporal (10 min) resolution were performed at the southern Bulgarian Black Sea coast. This data has provided an opportunity to define “rare” values of meteorological parameters within their statistical distributions and to identify them as extreme events according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The statistical analysis of wind speed profiles has been performed for the eight-year period using the two parameter Weibull distribution. The determination of the ninety-percentile of this statistical distribution (at every sodar measurement level from 30 up to 600 m) has given values (“rare” events) that have defined the theoretical extreme wind speed profile (reference profile). On this basis, the extreme profiles during the reviewed period have been determined. Analysis of the distribution of the situations with extreme weather events by months and hours for the entire period has been performed. The multiple time series with the registered extreme profiles have been used to derive averaged parameters defining the vertical structure of the coastal boundary layer during extreme events. The thermodynamic state of the coastal boundary layer according to the Pasquill-Gifford classification has been revealed.

Damyan Barantiev, Ekaterina Batchvarova, Hristina Kirova, Orlin Gueorguiev

### The Seasonal Recurrence of Air Quality Index for the Period 2008–2019 Over the Territory of Sofia City

The impact of Air Quality (AQ) on human health and quality of life is an issue of great social significance. Evaluating this impact will provide a scientifically robust basis for elaborating efficient short term measures and long term strategies for mitigation of the harmful effects of air pollution on human health and quality of life. The AQ impact on human health and quality of life is evaluated in the terms of Air Quality Indices (AQI), which give an integrated assessment of the impact of pollutants and directly measuring the effects of AQ on human health. The objectives of the present work are evaluations in different years and for the different seasons in selected years, based on extensive computer simulations of the AQ for Sofia city carried out with good resolution using up-to-date modelling tools and detailed and reliable input data. Some extensive numerical simulations of the atmospheric composition fields have been performed recently. The US EPA Model-3 system was used as modelling tool. A fairly extensive data base was developed from simulations which were used for studies of the atmospheric composition and including the AQ climate. The simulations are for 12 years from 2008 to 2019 and calculated on five domains: Europe, Balkan Peninsula, Bulgaria, Sofia Municipality and Sofia City with increasing space resolution to 1 km for the territory of Sofia City.

### The Use of LES CFD Urban Models and Mesoscale Air Quality Models for Urban Air Quality Simulations

Most of CFD urban models are based on the so called RANS approach (Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes equations). Recently, the advance of computer capabilities has pushed the inclusion of Large Eddy Simulation technique (LES) which has a different approach by using a spatial filter resolving the large eddies in the atmosphere and modelling the small eddies. One of the recent open models with LESS approach is the PALM4U model developed by the Leibnitz Hannover University in Germany. We have used an area in the downtown of Madrid city to set up the PALM4U model with 2 m spatial resolution. The vertical extent of the model is set up on 300 m with the same equally spaced resolution. The system receives the boundary and initial conditions from the WRF/Chem mesoscale air quality model developed by NOAA/ESRL/GSD (US) team. WRF/Chem is a well know state-of-the-art meteorological and chemical models for mesoscale applications. Results of the simulations show a high sensitivity to the changes in type of trees in urban parks with strong impacts (hot spots) in several areas located several hundreds of meters away of the part. The system composed by both models is a reliable tool to be use for studying the impact of natural based solutions (NBS) in urban environments and for other pollution applications with very high spatial resolution. Hot spots, energy efficiency and health impact assessments at urban level are also areas where this complex tool can be applied.

R. San Jose, J. L. Pérez, R. M. Gonzalez-Barras

### Modelling of the Seasonal Sulphur and Nitrogen Depositions over the Balkan Peninsula by CMAQ and EMEP-MSC-W

The air quality US EPA models-3 system consisting of SMOKE—emission model and pre-processor, MM5—meteorological driver, and CMAQ—chemical-transport model, is used in many studies of the air quality in the Balkan Peninsula, and in particular Bulgaria. It runs in different model resolutions, depending on the domain, from European to city scale. The EMEP-MSC-W model is another chemical transport model, widely used in air quality modelling. Two of the processes involved in the concentration change of some pollutant are the dry and wet depositions. The air quality modelling capability depends on many factors, for example, meteorology and emissions. We study the differences in the simulation of the wet and dry depositions for Nitrogen and Sulphur compounds, between the CMAQ and the EMEP-MSC-W model for a period of 8 years.

### Remote Sensing and Modelling of the Mopang Oil Pollution Near the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast

This work investigates the extend of oil pollution released by the sunken cargo ship Mopang, located in the Bourgas bay on the Western Black Sea shelf. We have analysed the available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the Sentinel-1 mission for the years 2017 and 2018 and identified the surface features which could be referred to oil pollution, originating from Mopang for the given timeframe. To detect the oil leaks an adaptive threshold algorithm is used and the detections are visualized cumulatively in order to estimate the continuity and intensity of the leak throughout the period. The radar acquisitions from both the ascending and descending pass of the Sentinel-1A and B satellites with oil detections visible for three dates are plotted together with the surface currents in attempt to study the evolution of the leak and its dependence on the marine conditions. The possibility to simulate the dispersion of oil pollution on the surface with a Lagrangian particle model is tested for one of the dates. Three seeding scenarios are run: (1) release from a shape, such as the one of the morning detection; (2) release from a point source; and (3) continuous release from a point source for the entire simulation period. The numerical simulations are performed with the OpenDrift trajectory model and the results after 12-h run are validated against the satellite images.

Irina Gancheva, Elisaveta Peneva

### Precipitation Chemistry in Bulgaria During Saharan Dust Outbreaks

The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of Saharan dust events on the chemical composition of rain samples collected at three sites in Bulgaria during 2017–2018. Saharan dust intrusions were identified through a combination of satellite retrieved aerosol data and results from dust forecasting models and from backward trajectory model. The chemical composition of the samples (acidity pH, conductivity EC, main ions and elements) is analysed in view of the direction of the approaching air masses—“direct” influence (south-west), and “indirect” influence from other directions and regions, already impacted by Saharan dust. The samples were characterised by pH from 4.1 to 7.4, elevated values for EC (max 202 µS cm−1) and for Si, Ca, Fe, Mg concentrations. For cases with direct influence Si and Ca values were up to 1.5 and 25 mg l−1. In most of the indirect cases increased concentrations of sulphate, nitrate and ammonium were observed (up to 39.5, 23.1 and 8.3 mg l−1).

Emilia Georgieva, Elena Hristova, Blagorodka Veleva

### Porewater Nutrient and Oxygen Profiles and Sediment-Water Interface Fluxes Under Extreme Organic Loading in Different Sedimentary Habitats in Sozopol Bay (SW Black Sea): A Laboratory Experiment

Stefania Klayn, Dimitar Berov, Ventzislav Karamfilov

### Earthquake Ground Motion Scenarios for the City of Ruse

Global seismic risk and vulnerability to earthquakes are increasing steadily as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of seismic hazard and generation of earthquake scenarios is the first link in the prevention chain and the first step in the evaluation of the seismic risk. In the present study both deterministic and probabilistic earthquake scenarios for the city of Ruse are generated. The study is guided by the perception that usable and realistic, based on both local seismic history and tectonic conditions, ground motion maps have to be produced for urban areas. The consideration of the earthquake scenarios into the policies for seismic risk reduction will allow focusing on the prevention of earthquake effects rather than on the activities following the disasters.

Dimcho Solakov, Stela Simeonova, Plamena Raykova, Boyko Rangelov, Constantin Ionescu

### Modelling a Composite Tsunami Scenario for Karpathos Island (Aegean Sea)

Karpathos is one of the biggest Greek islands, located between Crete and Rhodes in Aegean Sea. As the most of the islands in the area Karpathos is prone to earthquakes and tsunamis. The event of 9 February 1948 (M 7.1) near the eastern coast of the island caused local tsunami with damages in the area of Pigadia bay, nevertheless tsunamis also from regional sources are expected. The tsunami hazard for the Karpathos Island, focusing on the city of Karpathos and the Airport area, is modelled merging the data from simulation of tsunamis generated by three seismic sources: Eastern Hellenic Arc (EHA referring the 1303 A.D. event, Mw = 8.0); near Rhodes (hypothetical scenario earthquake, Mw = 7.3); and near the coast of Karpathos, based on the 1948, Mw = 7.3 earthquake. Numerical calculations are made using the code UBO-TSUFD on a set of nested grids. Tsunami observables, such as maximal water column height, maximum velocity flux, inundation, are computed for each individual scenario and merged to individuate the areas most exposed to tsunami. The seismic source EHA dominates in the tsunami hazard maps: moreover, the impact over the southern part of Karpathos has biggest risk since the airport and the main city of the island are located in this part.

Lyuba Dimova, Reneta Raykova, Gianluca Pagnoni, Alberto Armigliato, Stefano Tinti

### Chapter 4. Decision Making at the Farm Level

A key theme of this book is that producers’ economic choices are the key determinants of water quality problems. Designing and implementing policies that are effective in managing water pollution from agriculture and do so without imposing undue social costs require an understanding of farm decisions making. This chapter introduces economic concepts and tools for analyzing farm decision making affecting key choices determining water quality outcomes. It begins with a brief introduction to key choices and objectives in farm decision making. The chapter then introduces standard economic models used to explain producers’ choice of crops, production inputs, and the spatial distribution of agricultural activity. These models are used to illustrate how various choices affecting water quality outcomes differ between market driven agricultural landscapes in which the costs of water pollution are external to producers, and agricultural landscapes in which choices balance the social benefits and costs of agricultural production. Subsequent sections introduce additional concepts and tools relevant to farm decision making on polluting inputs, crops, the spatial structure of production, and the use of best management practices. Concepts and models are illustrated by simple numerical examples and by empirical applications to significant water quality problems in the Gulf of Mexico and Chesapeake Bay.

James Shortle, Markku Ollikainen, Antti Iho

### Chapter 3. Agricultural Land Use, Production, and Water Quality

This chapter introduces topics, concepts, relationships, and tools that are essential to understanding the effects of agriculture on water quality, the significance of these effects, and economic and technological drivers of water pollution from agriculture. The chapter also introduces a systematic watershed-based paradigm for understanding and addressing agriculture and tools used for watershed planning. The chapter begins with a description of the types of water quality problems that result from agricultural production and their economic and ecological significance. The evolution of agriculture as a significant source of water quality problems is connected to economic and technological developments in agricultural production. The chapter turns from causes and consequences to introducing physical processes and relationships at multiple spatial scales, from field to watershed, that must be understood to design effective and efficient solutions. The chapter concludes with the introduction to the watershed-based management and various types of modeling tools used in planning and policy design.

James Shortle, Markku Ollikainen, Antti Iho

### Chapter 9. The Way Forward

It is widely recognized that conventional policies for managing nutrient and other types of water pollution from agriculture are neither effective nor efficient. Policy change is essential to improve and protect water quality. Designing and implementing policies that are effective in managing water pollution from agriculture and without imposing undue social costs constitute policy challenge. The need for policy innovation is made increasingly urgent by rapidly growing demands for food driven by global population, income growth, and new uses for agricultural output, and effects of climate change on agricultural productivity and water resources. The chapter draws together the lessons developed in the book on basic principles of policy design. These include clear water quality targets, accountability frameworks, spatial targeting, and policy coherence. The chapter also draws lessons developed in the book about instrument choice and policy designs within the basic principles. General themes are that incentives are preferred to standards, and performance-based policies over practice-based policies. A strategy for constructing policy mixtures based on the scope and severity of agriculture’s contributions to water quality problems is suggested. For problems with limited scope and severity, decentralized approaches relying on property rights or liability rules may serve society well. With increased scope and severity, more intense intervention becomes necessary. “Soft” instruments such as nudges, technical assistance, minimum farm planning standards, and perhaps threats of increased regulation may serve society well. But where agriculture is a significant contributor to significant problems, mandatory approaches are essential. We argue for the use of price-based instruments, especially water quality trading, water quality auctions, and credit stacking, possibly augmented by limited regulatory measures. A key conclusion of the book is that main barriers to effective and efficient policies of the kind we describe are not technical or economic, but the necessary political will and ambition to abandon the status quo.

James Shortle, Markku Ollikainen, Antti Iho

### Chapter 6. Water Quality Trading

James Shortle, Markku Ollikainen, Antti Iho

### Chapter 1. Introduction

Contemporary agricultural systems excel in their capacity to meet increasing food and fiber demands of growing populations and higher-income societies at ever-decreasing cost to consumers. The contributions to human welfare of modern agricultural systems are tremendous. But these systems also cause environmental degradation, the most important being water pollution. This book is about public policies for managing water pollution from agriculture. The public policy challenge that motivates this book is the essential need for policies that restructure agricultural systems to provide a balance between production efficiency, agricultural prosperity, and environmental protection. The approach presented in the book is that of economics, but the book is designed to be accessible to readers who are not trained in economics or environmental economics. While based on economics, the book provides a multi-disciplinary understanding of the agricultural problem that is essential to economic and policy analysis.

James Shortle, Markku Ollikainen, Antti Iho

### Chapter 5. Environmental Policy Instruments for Agriculture

Agriculture poses a unique set of challenges for water pollution control policy that emerge from the large spatial scope of agricultural production, the small-scale spatial heterogeneity and complexity of agricultural operations, the complex and diffuse pathways by which pollutants move from agricultural land to water resources, and the importance of weather to pollution events. This chapter explores the implications of these characteristics for the choice of water quality goals and policy instruments for agriculture. The chapter presents a framework for characterizing policy instruments based on property rights, policy targets, and regulatory mechanisms; discusses essential features of policies that are effective and efficient; and presents and illustrates concepts and methods for policy optimization using simple numerical examples and empirical case studies. The chapter evaluates contemporary agricultural nonpoint pollution controls given the criteria and the principles for efficient policy. These policies are dominated by voluntary compliance approaches that rely on information programs to encourage producers to adopt pollution control practices and participate in programs that provide subsidies in various forms to facilitate adoption. The effectiveness and efficiency of the voluntary compliance approaches are generally limited by a variety of factors. These include the reliance on farmer self-selection into pollution control programs, a reliance on public spending to purchase pollution controls, suboptimal targeting of locations for public expenditures on pollution control, muddled policy objectives, and unproductive economic spillovers. Policy reforms that can improve the voluntary approach are suggested but the fundamental limitations of the approach suggest a need for innovative alternatives. The chapter presents examples that are in the Pigouvian tradition of internalizing externalities through policies requiring mandatory compliance. The chapter provides overall guidelines for better policies but concludes that no single option stands out for all circumstances. Identifying the best choice for a particular problem requires place-based evaluation of options.

James Shortle, Markku Ollikainen, Antti Iho

### Chapter 7. Water Quality Auctions

Water quality auctions provides a means to promote spatial targeting of water protection and improve budgetary cost-efficiency relative to widely applied flat rate policies producing higher water quality benefits from a given conservation budget. Using performance-based indicators as a part of auction mechanism helps to further improve environmental outcomes of conservation auctions. The chapter collects experience from conservation auction, mostly applied to promote multiple environmental goals at the same time. The preferred auction for water protection purposes is water quality auction. They are rare but Great Miami River and Pennsylvania Nutrient Credit Trading Programs provide the first positive examples. Water quality auctions complement the toolbox of nutrient policies; they can be used as such in sensitive watersheds or as a part of water quality trading programs or traditional practice-based policies.

James Shortle, Markku Ollikainen, Antti Iho

### Chapter 2. Economics and Policy for Water Pollution Control

This chapter presents basic economic and institutional background material essential for the book. The first part of the chapter introduces concepts and methods used in economics to explain environmental externalities and the need for public policy to address them. The first part also discusses economic issues in the choice of environmental policy targets and choice of policy instruments to achieve them. The second part of the chapter introduces water pollution control policies for agriculture with a focus on the United States and European Union. The discussion identifies weaknesses in existing policy architectures that limit water quality gains while unnecessarily increasing the social costs of pollution control. The chapter establishes a need for new approaches to water pollution control in agriculture and introduces economic concepts and methods useful for analyzing existing policies and strategies for improving the economic and ecological performance of water quality protection policies for agriculture.

James Shortle, Markku Ollikainen, Antti Iho

### Chapter 8. Credit Stacking

Water quality protection in agriculture often provides environmental co-benefits. Nutrient pollution controls, for example, may reduce carbon emissions. Policies to pursue pollution control in agriculture can be pursued independently of policies to provide other benefits, or in coordination. Credit stacking is an approach to coordination that assumes the use of market mechanisms for each environmental benefit and allows producers to participate in multiple markets with the intent of increasing the overall incentives for pollution control. This chapter illustrates the design of stacking in the case of nitrogen and carbon pollution control, examines environmental integrity issues in the design of stacking, and demonstrates that stacking can in theory increase water quality protection when supplying complementary environmental goods. Practical examples of stacking are still rare but interest in stacking is high.

James Shortle, Markku Ollikainen, Antti Iho

### Chapter 11. Drivers, Pressures and Stressors: The Societal Framework of Water Resources Management

Every aspect of human activity and development indeed subjects water to a number of pressures at accelerated paces. Rapidly expanding populations, urbanisation, agricultural intensification, increasing energy demand, industrial production, land use changes, along with every infrastructure development works, among others, constitute a complex set of drivers who become source of pressure to the water bodies, and stress to their associated ecosystems. This chapter analyses a number of pressures and how they become sources of stress to water bodies but also on social systems. Thus three additional areas and interconnections (water and migration, water and food security and water and health) are presented to illustrate the associated drivers and pressures which ultimately yield stresses with unwelcome social and natural consequences. Each section ends with suggested actions to be taken in responding to threats and achieving realistic planning and efficient decision making for water management.

Léna Salamé, Janos J. Bogardi, Zita Sebesvari, Klement Tockner, Burcu Yazici, Fatma Turan, Burcu Calli, Aslıhan Kerç, Olcay Ünver, Yvonne Walz

### Chapter 8. The Water Security Discourse and Its Main Actors

This is a chapter about the advent and adoption by water scholars of a new term, “water security.” How did this term appear, how is it defined, in which settings does it apply, what are its different facets and interpretations? Has it impacted water management and if so, how? The authors explore the discourse surrounding this term and the persons and institutions that have found it useful, channeled it, challenged it, and popularized it over the past century.

Robert G. Varady, Tamee R. Albrecht, Chad Staddon, Andrea K. Gerlak, Adriana A. Zuniga-Teran

### Chapter 6. Water Law and Rights

This chapter covers issues of water law and rights in terms of generic issues. Following an introduction to law, it discusses the origins of water law, how water law is organized, various issues related to the quantity of water (including property rights and priority of use), issues related to the quality of water and environmental concerns and integrated water resource management. It then discusses key issues in transboundary water law, before drawing conclusions about the future challenges to water law.

Joyeeta Gupta, Joseph Dellapenna

### Chapter 10. Economics of Water Security

In the immediate future, accessible runoff of fresh water is unlikely to increase more than the demand forecasted. It will have an impact on economic growth as it may reduce the per capita income of countries and create water conflicts. Such global threat creates a policy conundrum of how to meet basic needs and maximise the benefits from water resources. This chapter investigates different economic instruments in alleviating water-related risks and dealt with associated impacts.

Anik Bhaduri, C. Dionisio Pérez-Blanco, Dolores Rey, Sayed Iftekhar, Aditya Kaushik, Alvar Escriva-Bou, Javier Calatrava, David Adamson, Sara Palomo-Hierro, Kelly Jones, Heidi Asbjornsen, Mónica A. Altamirano, Elena Lopez-Gunn, Maksym Polyakov, Mahsa Motlagh, Maksud Bekchanov

### Chapter 12. Water Resources Management: Integrated and Adaptive Decision Making

Over the past three decades, Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has evolved into one of the leading water management paradigms. Revisiting the starting points and the development of the IWRM concept, this chapter critically analyzes the rationales and the major elements to be considered in the framework of IWRM. IWRM is then related to other recently emerging concepts such as adaptive water management and the Resource Nexus. Even though IWRM has been formally adopted almost worldwide for almost two decades, its implementation remains a challenge for many countries. IWRM also became a major research topic in water sciences and beyond, calling for a reflection of its role and impact. Based on theoretical and empirical analyses of contemporary IWRM research, this chapter provides best practice examples of science based implementation and synthesizes the lessons learnt.

Daniel Karthe, Janos J. Bogardi, Dietrich Borchardt

### Chapter 4. A Drop in the Ocean. On Writing Histories of Water Resources Management

This text builds on the shared focus of historians and engineers to understand how particular circumstances came to be. In their endeavours, engineers regularly turn attention to the past, many times with the explicit aim to build on the past. In this chapter, it is discussed why these water histories written by engineers are vulnerable to being less correct. Using a range of scholarship on water history and shared experiences within the International Water History Association, we discuss the core of any historical scholarship: a drive to demonstrate and understand the complexity of the past. As such, this chapter wants to warn against the engineering drive to use (water) history as a guide towards the future. Instead, we propose a perspective of history as a way of reading and understanding the complex paths we have travelled until now.

Maurits W. Ertsen, Ruth A. Morgan

### Chapter 5. Water Ethics

The growing appreciation for the diversity of water values—ranging from the spiritual to the economic—highlights the challenge of making water management decisions that do justice to different and often conflicting values. Water ethics offers a systematic approach to making water management decisions consistent with society’s values, while at the same time holding up the values themselves for critical examination. While the term “water ethics” is rarely encountered in the water literature, water governance best practice reflects key normative value principles including integrity, stewardship, social and environmental justice, ecosystem services and rights of nature. The added value of a systematic approach to water ethics is to render existing norms of water governance more explicit and identify value gaps and synergies. This has been the focus of a recent initiative to formulate a Water Ethics Charter, building on earlier work by UNESCO and the Botin Foundation, and a parallel campaign by Indigenous water protectors to elicit international recognition of culturally diverse ontologies of water. As climate change brings keener awareness of values-based water conflicts, there will be a growing need for new tools of mediation and resolution. The developing field of water ethics can contribute to new solutions.

David Groenfeldt

### Chapter 3. Water and Its Management: Dependence, Linkages and Challenges

This chapter highlights the key dependences, linkages and challenges of water resources management. (Many of these issues discussed are revisited and illustrated in the following chapters.) The first part introduces surface and groundwater management in the terrestrial part of the water cycle. Comprehensive presentations of key hydrological phenomena and processes, monitoring, assessment and control are followed by overviews of dependences, linkages and challenges. The manifold facets of intensive human/resource interaction and inherent threats to the resources base are exposed. Both sections present examples illustrating differing contexts and options for solution. The second part summarizes the main drivers and challenges of contemporary water resources management and governance. It provides a critical overview of different water discourses in recent decades. The role of benchmark and recurring water events, their declarations and intergovernmental resolutions are analyzed, and the key concepts and methods of implementation are discussed.

Janos J. Bogardi, Luna Bharati, Stephen Foster, Sanita Dhaubanjar

### Chapter 16. Freshwaters: Global Distribution, Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services, and Human Pressures

Freshwaters are among the most dynamic, diverse, and complex ecosystems globally. Lakes, rivers, and ponds cover about 1% of the Earth’s surface; however, these systems contain 10% of all animals and one-third of all vertebrates. In addition, freshwaters provide a wide range of ecosystem services that are fundamental for human well-being, including clean water, recreation value, and food. At the same time, freshwaters are under immense human pressure due to overexploitation, habitat degradation, invasion, climate change, dam construction, as well as emerging stressors such as light, noise, and synthetic chemicals. Consequently, freshwater biodiversity is declining three to six times faster than biodiversity in marine and terrestrial realms, and ecosystem services are being eroded in unprecedented ways. Globally, wetlands have declined by 75% over the past decades, and out of 242 rivers longer than 1,000 km, only 86 remain free flowing. Hence, one-third of all freshwater species are currently threatened, and global freshwater megafauna populations even declined by 88% from 1970 to 2012. We need to carefully, and fundamentally, rethink future management strategies for freshwater ecosystems due to conflicting interests for conservation and exploitation. Freshwaters must be managed as hybrid systems, i.e., as a resource for human use as well as extremely valuable and diverse ecosystems. Furthermore, we must establish a blueprint of freshwater life to increase awareness about the enormous value of freshwaters and their rich biodiversity. Most importantly, however, we need to preserve the remaining free-flowing rivers, intact wetlands, and unspoiled lakes—for the sustainable benefit of humans and nature alike.

Klement Tockner

### Chapter 15. Assessment of Land/Catchment Use and Degradation

Agricultural conversion of land and rapid urbanization are the primary drivers of land cover and land use change (LCLUC) globally, resulting in massive deforestation, drainage of wetlands, effects on the water cycle, alteration of sediment budgets, and acceleration of land degradation and desertification. This has taken place across various spatial and temporal scales. This chapter provides an overview of hydrological impact of land use change at these multiple scales. It also reviews the state of the art in analyzing LCLUC impacts on water quality outcomes and showcases where different techniques have been used to reveal the relationship between the two. Finally, the chapter addresses the impacts LCLUC generated within entire basins can have on delta landscapes, which constitute very dynamic and fragile environments with typically high economic activities and population densities.

Fabrice G. Renaud, Zita Sebesvari, Animesh K. Gain

### Chapter 17. Water-Energy-Food Relation in Gulf Cooperation Council

Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are the world's poorest in terms of total and per capita availability of freshwater resources. Agriculture in the GCC depends mainly on Groundwater (GW), which is generally over-exploited, depleted, and poor quality. Water scarcity severely limits agriculture food production and is a major obstacle to achieving food self-sufficiency. The possibility of using the GCC's abundant energy resources to generate desalinated seawater (DW) or treated wastewater for agriculture offers a partial solution to the water scarcity challenge. The feasibility of the scenario and the interdependent relations between water, energy, and food resources are discussed.

Mohammed Darwish, Rabi H. Mohtar

### Chapter 9. Water Governance and Policies

Failure at multiple levels of governance rather than the resource base itself is at the origin of the water crisis. Despite increasing scholarly research on water governance and efforts towards policy reform the overall situation has not substantially improved and major transformations in water governance are yet to be implemented. The chapter summarises and addresses multi-level and multi-sectoral challenges for water governance by reviewing and discussing several key concepts in science and policy. An analysis of basin scale approaches and their effectiveness and a discussion of the importance of scale and of multi-level governance approaches shows that crossing boundaries is essential to tackle complexities of sustainable water governance and management. The concept of the WEF nexus is introduced and critically analysed concerning its potential to overcome sectoral fragmentation and sectoral power imbalances. Crossing boundaries also implies governance across national borders. The sub-chapters on transboundary water management and on global water governance address these international and global dimensions. Overall, the chapter highlights from different perspectives the importance of linking and of governing across scales from the local to the international and global.

Claudia Pahl-Wostl, Ines Dombrowsky, Naho Mirumachi

### Chapter 7. Water Discourses

The water epistemic community discusses water matters and directly or indirectly advises policy and decision makers in ways that reflect its beliefs on one hand, and its agreements and disagreements, on the other hand. It discusses water in ways that reflect the variety of scientific and indigenous backgrounds of its members, the richness of their different expertise, their cultural and social beliefs, practices and aspirations, as well as their ethical, spiritual and religious values. These discourses cover issues as complex as the value of water and the nuances between water security, sustainability and integrated water resources management. They deliberate over statements as sensitive as claims insisting that wars will be fought over water. They examine the impacts of phenomena such as climate change over water and how humans should adapt to it; and the list is as long and vast, as the number of complex issues intertwined with the governance of water. Is water an instrument of peace, or rather the source of (inevitable) conflict? Are water infrastructures good or bad? What are the limits of international law in the management of transboundary water resources? How should one refer to and assist, a person who has been displaced because of water related hazards? This chapter shares with the reader a non-exhaustive selection of such discourses. It sheds the light on a number of expressions, buzz words and polemics that have been overused—sometimes—with a relative indifference of their subtleties.

Léna Salamé, Daene C. McKinney, Jerome Delli Priscoli, Toshio Koike, Jack Moss, Mara Tignino, Owen McIntyre, Hussam Hussein, Mahsa Motlagh, Aaron T. Wolf, Lynette de Silva, Natasha Carmi, Danilo Türk, François Münger

### Chapter 14. Assessment of Water Quantity

Freshwater is distributed in a very non-uniform manner on the surface of the earth. Both spatial and temporal variability have a strong influence on water management. In this chapter both mean values and spatial and temporal variability measures of the main hydrological variables, precipitation (rain and snow), discharge, groundwater availability are mapped in order to enable specific evaluation of the regional water management requirements. Besides the natural variables socio-economic factors are also investigated, water availability is presented for the different countries of the world.

András Bárdossy, Abbas El Hachem

### Chapter 13. Observations, Monitoring and Data Management

Water resources and their properties highly vary in both space and time and their observations have high uncertainties. The characterization of this variability requires long-term spatially distributed observations, that allow the recognition of spatio-temporal patterns and changes. Unlike other engineering activities that typically can be satisfied with a one-time surveying of the designated area prior to the development planning, water management requires continuous monitoring records capturing the historical variability of the hydrological conditions. The need for a sustained data collection often without the immediate use, places water resources management in a difficult position. The justification of operating monitoring networks in the absence of pressing objectives, particularly at long-time scales, is often challenging, but water managers need to convince policy makers that water management decisions require the knowledge of how the hydrological processes varied over time. Without sufficiently long and up-to-date data series, adequate water management planning, ecosystem monitoring, and early warning systems are severely limited.

Balázs M. Fekete, Ana Andreu, Robert Argent, Tamara Avellán, Charon Birkett, Serena Caucci, Sagy Cohen, Timothy Dube, Sabrina Kirschke, Ulrich Looser

### Chapter 2. Water: a Unique Phenomenon and Resource

This chapter presents water as a major geophysical phenomenon. Based on the paper ‘Water balance of Earth’ (Kotwicki, Hydrol Sci J 54:829–840, 2009) the role and evolutionary trajectory of water along earth’s history is explained. The hydrological cycle is introduced and the corresponding fluxes and stocks are assessed at global, continental, regional and river basin scales. The concept of water cycle, accounting explicitly for the interaction of the natural phenomena and societal demands is introduced. In large-scale overviews the present and expected future water use balances, possibilities and potential reasons of water scarcity are analysed. Interlinkages with population growth, climate variability and change as well as land use/land cover are emphasized.

Janos J. Bogardi, Balázs M. Fekete

### Chapter 19. Examples of Water and Land Use Management

This chapter is the collection of several examples, both in thematic and geographical sense, which manifest the need to address water and land management in an integrated way. It reviews irrigation and soil management techniques, performance assessment of irrigation as well as water delivery scheduling for irrigated agriculture. Water scarcity and drought may even jeopardize that irrigation infrastructure could be deployed to offset threatening economic losses. The chapter emphasizes the need for careful afforestation planning to avoid aggravating water shortage downstream. Finally, constructed wetlands are introduced as a low cost wastewater treatment technology with other positive spin off effects.

Bernhard Tischbein, Maksud Bekchanov, John P. A. Lamers, Navneet Kumar, Kai Schwärzel, Lulu Zhang, Tamara Avellán, Usman Khalid Awan, Fazlullah Akhtar, Anik Bhaduri, Janos J. Bogardi, Yanhui Wang, Pengtao Yu, Anh Bui, Mauricio Nevado Amell, Luana Tesch, Lúcia La Barca Pedrosa, Renato Mariano, Sanjana Balachandran, Kurt Brüggemann

### Chapter 21. Water Management and Stewardship in Mining Regions

Mining operations interact with water in complex ways. Ore is essential for society while water is an essential input for the extraction and processing of orebodies. Mining can pose threats to surrounding water bodies. Increasingly, mining companies, investors and governments recognize water as a key risk to expansion of the sector, with projects increasingly constrained by a lack of water, too much water, or social opposition over impacts to water. Issues associated with water and mining are set to intensify. Average ore grades are declining such that, without technological change, future mining operations will require more water and energy to process and generate greater quantities of waste material. This chapter summarizes water and mining challenges as they relate to diverse stakeholders. The industry’s journey from Mine Water Management to Mine Water Stewardship is described, and key advances in mine water accounting and reporting practices are emphasized. An organizing framework is proposed to distinguish research needs across spatial scales and at different stages of the mine life cycle. There is a need for heightened attention to mine water issues as they relate to linked sites in mining regions, and during exploration and mine closure phases. Interdisciplinary thinking is required that considers how humans interact with both natural and engineered mine water systems.

Nadja C. Kunz, Chris J. Moran

### Chapter 18. Examples of Water Resources Management Options: Protective Structures and Demand Management

This chapter provides two different kind of examples illustrating the large variety of potential technical and non-technical options of water resources management. The first set of examples focus on protective infrastructures of flood control. Levees, dikes, polders and other alternatives of flood retention, as well as diversion measures of flood flows are discussed. Design principles, advantages and disadvantages are highlighted along with several solution examples. The second example introduces water demand management and its application in context of urban water supply schemes. It is followed by a review of effectiveness of demand management interventions, including water conservation and mechanisms for regulating water demand and price.

Hans Peter Nachtnebel, K. D. Wasantha Nandalal

### Chapter 24. Storage Reservoir Operation and Management

Reservoirs provide diverse water-related services such as storage for energy production, water supply, irrigation, flood protection and provision of minimum flow during dry periods. When reservoirs are meant catering for multi-purposes, trade-offs and synergies between services provided need to be considered through their proper management and operation. This chapter reviews multipurpose multiunit reservoir systems including their optimum management and tools and decision support systems available for that.

Stephan Hülsmann, Karsten Rinke, Lothar Paul, Cristina Diez Santos

### Chapter 25. Complexity in Water Management and Governance

Water management is often facing complex problems, which are particularly challenging to address. But while the term ‘complexity’ has increasingly been used, the concept and its implications for management and governance have often remained unclear. Building on both conceptual and empirical research, this chapter sheds light on complexity in the water field from a management and governance perspective. Analytical concepts of complexity are described and distinguished from related concepts such as ‘wicked’ and ‘uncertain’ problems. Further, three types of approaches to address complex problems are discussed, characterized by various understandings of complexity, governance approaches, and emphasis put on inputs (processes) and outputs (results). The chapter provides examples of addressing complex problems, including installing an Integrated Water Resources Management, implementing a Nexus approach to environmental resources and sectors, and addressing poor water quality within the European Water Framework Directive. The chapter concludes on the future role and design of governance research in addressing complex water management problems.

Sabrina Kirschke, Jens Newig

### Chapter 1. Introduction and Guide to the Handbook of Water Resources Management: Discourses, Concepts and Examples

This chapter provides the background and rationale of this handbook. It touches upon the main challenges of contemporary water resources management. It guides the reader through the four distinct parts and 25 chapters of the handbook. The structure of this handbook facilitates different disciplinary and thematic perspectives whereby conceptually the review of ongoing discourses, introduction and analysis of concepts and contexts as well as examples to highlight successes and lessons to be learned provide the framework.

Janos J. Bogardi, Tawatchai Tingsanchali, Anik Bhaduri, K. D. Wasantha Nandalal, Ronald R. P. van Nooijen, Joyeeta Gupta, Alla G. Kolechkina, Léna Salamé, Navneet Kumar

### Chapter 20. Water and Energy

The fundamental concepts in the field of water-energy systems and their historical evolution with emphasis on recent developments are reviewed. Initially, a brief history of the relation of water and energy is presented, and the concept of the water-energy nexus in the 21th century is introduced. The investigation of the relationship between water and energy shows that this relationship comprises both conflicting and synergistic elements. Hydropower is identified as the major industry of the sector and its role in addressing modern energy challenges by means of integrated water-energy management is highlighted. Thus, the modelling steps of designing and operating a hydropower system are reviewed, followed by an analysis of theory and physics behind energy hydraulics. The key concept of uncertainty, which characterises all types of renewable energy, is also presented in the context of the design and management of water-energy systems. Subsequently, environmental considerations and impacts of using water for energy generation are discussed, followed by a summary of the developments in the emerging field of maritime energy. Finally, present challenges and possible future directions are presented.

Nikos Mamassis, Andreas Efstratiadis, Panayiotis Dimitriadis, Theano Iliopoulou, Romanos Ioannidis, Demetris Koutsoyiannis

### Chapter 23. Groundwater and Conjunctive Use Management

The chapter comprehensively discusses the management of groundwater including artificial recharge and the importance of conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater in satisfying demand for water. It reviews different levels of groundwater management, transboundary groundwater management, artificial recharge and its advantages and disadvantages among others. Planning and management of conjunctive use, its advantages and models available for that are also presented.

Sankaralingam Mohan, Neenu Kuipally

### Chapter 22. Water-Related Hazard and Risk Management

Water-related hazard events are extreme hydrological phenomena that cause loss of lives, injuries, damage to properties, socio-economic and environmental impacts. Damage can be reduced by using control and mitigation measures that can be classified as structural and non-structural measures. This chapter introduces several, even seldom considered hazards. Floods being swift and devasting events receive a special attention. Flood flow computation can be carried out by using hydrological and hydrodynamic models for flood prediction and flood forecasting, etc. Return periods of floods can be determined by probability analysis of extreme events such as maximum streamflow data from past records. The return periods are used as a bench mark in determining the extent of floods for planning and design purposes. Different levels of hazard are considered in estimating the risk level for planning and design of mitigation measures. Vulnerability of population and their assets depends on types of land use, their socio-economic values, exposure and environment. Damage due to extreme events depends on hazard magnitude and types of objects such as population, their assets and infrastructures threatened by these hazards. Risk maps can be drawn to show spatial variation of risk under different magnitudes of hazard and vulnerability. Risk control and adaptation as well as risk sharing are given ample emphasis in this chapter.

Wolfgang Kron, Tawatchai Tingsanchali, Daniel P. Loucks, Fabrice G. Renaud, Janos J. Bogardi, Alexander Fekete

### Chapter 4. Improvement of High Cycle Fatigue Performance in the Titanium Alloy by LSP-Induced Gradient Microstructure

Under the action of periodic airflow excitation force, the vibration fatigue failure caused by blade resonance is the main failure of the aero-engine titanium alloy blade (Nie et al. in Surf Coat Technol 253:68–75, 2014 [1]). This book mainly introduces the vibration fatigue tests on the LSPed titanium alloy.

Liucheng Zhou, Weifeng He

### Chapter 3. Gradient Microstructure Characteristics and the Formation Mechanism in Titanium Alloy Subjected to LSP

Titanium alloy has a series of advantages, such as high strength, good corrosion resistance, good medium temperature performance, etc. It is often used in the manufacture of compressor blades/disks for aero-engines and other components to reduce weight and improve the thrust-weight ratio.

Liucheng Zhou, Weifeng He

### Chapter 6. Mechanical Behavior and the Strengthening Mechanism of LSP-Induced Gradient Microstructure in Metal Materials

In most cases, fatigue cracks are likely to initiate in the surface of metallic components. Therefore, optimization of surface microstructures and properties can effectively improve the reliability of parts and prolong the service lifetime of components (Roland et al. in Scripta Mater. 54:1949–1954, 2006 [1]; Peyreet al. in Mater. Sci. Eng. A-Struct. Mater. Prop. Microstruct. Process. 210(1–2):(102–113), 1996 [2]).

Liucheng Zhou, Weifeng He
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