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About this book

This book addresses methods used in the synthesis of light alloys and composites for industrial applications. It begins with a broad introduction to virtually all aspects of the technology of light alloys and composite materials for aircraft and aerospace applications. The basic theory of fiber and particle reinforcements; light metallic material characteristics and composite systems; components forms, and manufacturing techniques and processes are discussed. The book then progresses to describe the production of alloys and composites by unconventional techniques, such as powder metallurgy, sandwich technique, severe plastic deformation, additive manufacturing, and thermal spray, making it appropriate for researchers in both academia and industry. It will be of special interest to aerospace engineers.

Provides a broad introduction to the technology used in manufacturing light alloys and composite materials;Describes the current technologies employed in synthesizing light alloys made from advanced materials;Focuses on unconventional techniques used to produce light alloys and composites in aerospace applications.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The constant innovation of the modern aeronautical and aerospace industries demands the use of better and lighter materials, which represents the most efficient way to reduce the weight of structural components and devices. To achieve this, increasing the resistance-weight ratio implies the use of improved techniques and processing methods for the component manufacturing, which are mainly mass-produced from light alloys and composites, directly impacting the best aircraft performance. This chapter is dedicated to provide a brief description of various types of lightweight materials and composites currently in use, which have been shown to be able of conferring improved properties when they are produced by unconventional processing techniques. For composites materials, the chapter describes some of the most used reinforcement constituents for industrial applications. A brief explanation of various processes for manufacturing lightweight materials and composites, as well as some conventional and sophisticated characterization techniques to evaluate them is afforded.
Jose Martin Herrera Ramirez, Raul Perez Bustamante, Cesar Augusto Isaza Merino, Ana Maria Arizmendi Morquecho

Chapter 2. Manufacturing Processes of Light Metals and Composites

Abstract
A variety of light alloys has been widely used from ancient to modern times. Aluminum is a light metal that is easy to melt, cast, and then process in a large variety of fabrication and forming processes. Being the lightest structural element, magnesium has become a premium choice in transportation industries. Most of these materials have been developed relying on many trial-and-error experiments, as well as the experience of researchers and companies. These alloys are needed for the development of new manufacturing routes even for the progress of improved alloys and nanocomposites. In the present age, computer-aided alloy design is, however, a useful tool to save time and cost necessary for the alloy development. This chapter presents a brief review of the manufacturing processes and some useful tools for the design of light alloys, which are the basis for the subsequent manufacturing process of nanocomposites.
Jose Martin Herrera Ramirez, Raul Perez Bustamante, Cesar Augusto Isaza Merino, Ana Maria Arizmendi Morquecho

Chapter 3. Powder Metallurgy

Abstract
This chapter deals with the production of light alloys and composites by the powder metallurgy process. A description of the stages involved in the process is given. Light alloys and composites find in powder metallurgy a technology that allows the manufacture of parts with high precision in their production and minimum waste and where additional machining processes are not required for large batches in mass production. In combination with unconventional routes, powder metallurgy is able to synthesize advanced materials with attractive physical characteristics for the transport industry. The process is able to produce strengthened materials by the dispersion of nanometric reinforcing agents. The case study in this chapter is addressed to the use of carbon nanotubes as one of the reinforcing materials of high interest, due to their potential in developing new structural materials, such as aluminum-based composites.
Jose Martin Herrera Ramirez, Raul Perez Bustamante, Cesar Augusto Isaza Merino, Ana Maria Arizmendi Morquecho

Chapter 4. Sandwich Technique

Abstract
This chapter deals with the processing technique denominated sandwich technique for the synthesis of light alloy composites. The technique is described in detail for manufacturing magnesium and aluminum alloys reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The microstructure of the products obtained at each step of the technique is discussed. The microstructural and mechanical characterization of the final products is presented and discussed. The sandwich technique consists of stacking a polymer previously reinforced with carbon nanotubes, which is used as a vehicle to bring the reinforcement to the metal matrix. The manufacturing process is carried out by a hot compacted system with atmosphere and pressure control. The sandwich technique is a diffusive process where the polymer is thermally degraded, to finally clamp the reinforcement between metallic sheets. This chapter shows the feasibility of the manufacturing process for future applications in different sectors.
Jose Martin Herrera Ramirez, Raul Perez Bustamante, Cesar Augusto Isaza Merino, Ana Maria Arizmendi Morquecho

Chapter 5. Severe Plastic Deformation

Abstract
This chapter presents the production of light alloys (Ti-Mg) by severe plastic deformation. Alloys with different Mg content were synthesized by high-pressure torsion straining, technique that allows to obtain ultrafine-grained materials in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium, changing the chemical, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of the materials. In the Ti-Mg system, the solid solubility of Mg in Ti is less than 2 at% and high-pressure torsion technique proved to be a useful way for the synthesis of Ti-Mg alloys supersaturated with Mg. Therefore, this severe plastic deformation technique is an effective route for the processing of light alloys and composites.
Jose Martin Herrera Ramirez, Raul Perez Bustamante, Cesar Augusto Isaza Merino, Ana Maria Arizmendi Morquecho

Chapter 6. Additive Manufacturing

Abstract
This chapter describes cutting-edge technologies that are being used in the manufacture of components from a complex three-dimensional design, as well as those technologies based on the remanufacturing and repair of metal parts for maximizing their work life. Among the technologies used by additive manufacturing, the sintering of metal powders for the construction of complex architectures has revolutionized various industries such as aerospace and automotive, where it is possible to design systems as complex as the imagination of designers allows, or feasibility in the manufacture of cooling systems with internal channels specifically adapted to wrap the geometry of components whose cooling requires maximum precision. The use of additive manufacturing not only extends to the manufacture of parts manufactured from a design produced in a computer system, but its versatility includes remanufacturing operations of commercial metal parts where it is possible to extend their functionality and operability for longer.
Jose Martin Herrera Ramirez, Raul Perez Bustamante, Cesar Augusto Isaza Merino, Ana Maria Arizmendi Morquecho

Chapter 7. Thermal Spray Coatings

Abstract
Today, the manufacture of components with improved functionality and performance for industrial applications involves not only the selection of better and lighter materials but also the use of surface engineering to achieve superior resistance-to-weight ratio. For applications in aeronautical and aerospace sectors, friction, wear, temperature resistance, erosion, corrosion, adhesion, and surface finishing are some aspects of interest in research. The technique used for coating any substrate strictly depends on the type of material and the property that is required to improve. Nowadays, thermal spraying is a reliable and cost-efficient method to deposit thick coatings with a wide variety of feedstock materials and substrates. This chapter presents a review of the main thermal spray processes used to coat light alloys and shows experimental results of AlSiC and FeCrBSiNbW alloy coatings deposited on the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy. Splat formation and microstructure, including solid-liquid two-phase droplet impacting the coating deposition, are reviewed.
Jose Martin Herrera Ramirez, Raul Perez Bustamante, Cesar Augusto Isaza Merino, Ana Maria Arizmendi Morquecho

Chapter 8. Characterization Techniques

Abstract
This chapter focuses on the main characterization techniques used for the morphological, microstructural, and structural analysis, as well as for the mechanical behavior analysis of light alloys and composites. There are different characterization techniques available, ranging from the most common and accessible ones to the most sophisticated and, sometimes, not available to everyone. A brief description of all these techniques is provided, presenting some examples of each one to show their capabilities. Additionally, the chapter is intended to inform the reader about the nuances and limitations during the characterization of metal matrix composites. The understanding of the microstructural features, such as the distribution of the reinforcement within the matrix and the interfacial reaction between them, as well as of the mechanical, thermal, and corrosion behavior is necessary during the production of metal matrix composites.
Jose Martin Herrera Ramirez, Raul Perez Bustamante, Cesar Augusto Isaza Merino, Ana Maria Arizmendi Morquecho

Chapter 9. Interface Characterization

Abstract
The study of the interfacial phenomena between the reinforcement and the matrix of metal matrix composites is of great importance. These interfacial phenomena have a direct influence on the mechanical properties of composites, since the load transfer between the metallic matrix and the reinforcement depends on the behavior of the interface. It is necessary to understand different aspects such as the chemical stability of the reinforcement in the matrix, the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects involved at the interface, wettability, and the influence of the composite manufacturing process on the matrix-reinforcement interface. This chapter presents and discusses results on such interface in composites of aluminum and magnesium reinforced with MWCNTs produced by the sandwich technique. TEM, HRTEM, and EELS techniques allowed for an in-depth analysis of the matrix-reinforcement interface.
Jose Martin Herrera Ramirez, Raul Perez Bustamante, Cesar Augusto Isaza Merino, Ana Maria Arizmendi Morquecho

Chapter 10. Applications in the Aeronautical and Aerospace Industries

Abstract
This chapter presents a review of some industrial applications of light alloys and composites. While aluminum alloys and their composites play an important role in the development of aeronautical, aerospace, defense, and automotive industries owing to their improved mechanical properties and low weights, other lightweight materials such as Ti and Mg are being also successfully applied in these industrial sectors. The high-performance characteristics of a modern aeronautic industry are a direct consequence of the high-performance light materials, composites, and their manufacturing. The selection of the alloy type, with characteristics that will depend on the expected application, is a very important aspect from the point of view of its industrial implementation. A case study of the manufacture of thermal spray coatings, based on the use of light alloys with high potential for industrial-scale production, is here presented.
Jose Martin Herrera Ramirez, Raul Perez Bustamante, Cesar Augusto Isaza Merino, Ana Maria Arizmendi Morquecho

Backmatter

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