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About this book

This book discusses urban planning and regional development practices in the twentieth century, and ways in which they are currently being transformed. It addresses questions such as: What are the factors affecting planning dynamics at local, regional, national and global scales?

With the push to adopt a market paradigm in land development and infrastructure, the relationship between resource management, sustainable development and the role of governance has been transformed. Centralized planning is giving way to privatization, not only in the traditional regions but also in newly emerging regions of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Further, attempts are being made to bring planning related decision-making closer to the people who are most affected by it.

Presenting a collection of studies from scholars around the world and highlighting recent advances in the field, the book is a valuable reference guide for those engaged in urban transformations, whether as graduate students, researchers, practitioners or policymakers.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Introduction

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Urban and Regional Planning and Development: Introduction and Overview

This book is a festschrift in honor of Frank James Costa, a distinguished urban planner. The volume considers the urban and regional planning and development practice and experience in the twentieth century and ways in which it is being transformed in the first few decades of the twenty-first century. This volume considers the big question—what are some of the factors affecting planning dynamics globally and locally? With the push to adopt market paradigm in land development and infrastructure, the relationship between resource management, sustainable development, and the role of governance has transformed. Centralized planning is giving way to privatization not only in the traditional regions, but also in the newly emerging regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. There is an attempt to get planning decision making closer to the people who are most affected by it. This volume engages in this conceptual discussion and intends to be a collection of studies from scholars around the world highlighting recent advances in the field.

Rajiv R. Thakur, Ashok K. Dutt, Sudhir K. Thakur, George M. Pomeroy

Chapter 2. Frank James Costa: Professional Career and Contributions

This historical essay is written to celebrate the more than five decades of urban planning and geography career of Dr. Frank James Costa at the University of Akron, describing the challenges and successes along the way. Professor Costa received many distinguished awards, including the Fulbright Scholarship. He was recognized by the Association of American Geographers (AAG) Regional Development and Planning Specialty Groups with the Distinguished Scholar Award. He made important and significant contributions to the planning profession through his many publications. His writings and publications deal with planning theory as well as applied planning practice. More specifically, he has written in the following areas namely land use and regulatory enforcement, economic development, community development, urban form and landscape design, planning management and finance, and historic preservation. Professor Costa influenced the lives of hundreds of students and colleagues through his research, teaching, and mentoring.

Rajiv R. Thakur, Ashok K. Dutt, Sudhir K. Thakur, George M. Pomeroy

Chapter 3. Regional Development and Planning: An Overview

This chapter reviews the changing nature of regional development and planning, with an emphasis on research between 1990 and 2018. Regional development and planning has emerged as a major interdisciplinary field with active researchers—regional scientists, planners, geographers, and economists at its frontier. The transition from pre-1990s to the early years of the present century has been characterized by a shift in approach from Keynesianism to neoliberalism. This shift also accompanies with a broadening of the traditional focus on the economic to encompass the social and the ecological. Nevertheless, regional development and planning has found its significance renewed as the global scenario comes to be influenced by rising inequality resulting in local economic insecurity compounded by new global threats through unregulated markets and climate change, not to forget the continuing impact of the financial crisis of 2007–08. Influenced by themes such as underdevelopment, uneven development, and globalization, regional development and planning is in the middle of changing and challenging context. The driver of regional development and planning now includes environmental sustainability, technological innovations, and the consequences of spatial restructuring. Regional development and planning is not only alive at multiple scales but remains popular in recent times for as long as economic growth will be unbalanced.

Ashok K. Dutt, Debnath Mookherjee, Rajiv R. Thakur, Brian Sommers, Jack Benhart

Planning Perspective

Frontmatter

Chapter 4. Four Decades of Urban and Regional Development and Planning in China

In the last 40 years, China has made significant achievements in economic development and in urbanization as well. During 1978–2013, China witnessed an average annual economic growth (9.8%) and grew into the second largest economy in the world. Along with the rapid economic growth, China experienced a fast urbanization process though it started with a very low urbanization level. Urban population increased from 170 million to 730 million, while the rate of urbanization increased from 17.9% to 53.7%. Through these dramatic transformations, the governments at all levels played an important role, altering their function from centralized planning and direct intervention to a market dominant infrastructure. China was a giant laboratory, where various economic, social, and cultural reforms and policies were implemented at many spatial scales (the nation, region, and city). At the city level, in addition to the national economic and social development planning, town and village planning, land-use planning, eco-environmental protection planning, and many other local planning policies coexisted. In general, urban and regional planning in China aimed at the growth expansion plans. However, during the past forty years, local governments often used planning as “a competition apparatus for growth”, and adjusted planning to target economic growth sought by governments. In this paper, we conduct a systematic review and analysis of urban and regional development in China over the past 40 years, assessing the impact and effectiveness of various urban and regional planning policies at three scales: the nation, region, and city. Based on the aforementioned analysis and assessment, we hope to shed light on how urban and regional planning in China can be restructured to suit changing needs, that is, stimulating sustainable economic growth rather than simple economic target, inspiring multifaceted social and cultural development instead of sole economic growth, transitioning to market oriented advisory planning from traditionally centralized planning, focusing on multiple-goal planning instead of single goal planning, and accelerating public participation and promoting shared consensus.

Xueliang Zhang, Yichun Xie, Lixia Li

Chapter 5. Remaking ‘Urban’ in Twenty-first Century Neoliberal India

Urban planning and related development processes in India have been experiencing significant changes in recent years reflecting a series of deconstructions and reconstructions. Deeply embedded in a neoliberal framework promoting private control of urban space, dispossession of the marginalized and sharpening of claims and counter-claims, they essentially go to delink ‘urban’ from its diverse regional realities and injects a universal ‘globalness’ in the concept. As neoliberalism is a form of ‘high politics’, the above reconstruction becomes a ‘highly regulated’ phenomenon characterized by market priorities, capitalist production (rather than social reproduction), privatization of basic services, growing exposure to global competitive frameworks and extensive place-marketing. Introducing the concept of private cities as a part of urban planning agenda and drastic reconfiguration of the built environment of existing cities to make them act ‘smarter’ are expressions of multi-scalar materialization of the above design, Indian cities are experiencing rapidly changing spatialities grounded in a social process that continuously gets sharpened by class interests and interlocking public–private practices. Causes, trajectories and ramifications of this post-justice urban process are emerging as contentious issues in the field of critical urban research. Drawing theoretical understanding from Global city research paradigm and neo-Gramscian urban political theory, the chapter suggests that urban planning in contemporary India signals a clear shift in socio-political alliances, ideological imperatives and basic strategies and through discursive examination analyses the existing neoliberalism in urban development practices across the country.

Swapna Banerjee-Guha

Chapter 6. South African Urban Planning in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries—Continuities between the Apartheid and Democratic eras?

This chapter analyses urban planning in South Africa in the apartheid and post-apartheid eras. A key contention of this chapter is that notwithstanding progressive policy shifts since 1994, there are also some remarkable continuities between the apartheid and post-apartheid eras. Until 1990, urban and regional development policies in South Africa were intended to implement apartheid, and the planning discourse was organised along the lines of racial separation and operationalised through spatial partition. In the early 1990s, as democratic initiatives gained momentum, urban planners in South Africa attempted to reconstruct apartheid cities by offering alternative development discourses to reverse the effects of racial planning. The first wave post-apartheid urban planning and development strategies were driven by the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) which was adopted in 1994. The government argued that the pressures of global economic restructuring forced a shift in the macro-economic framework with the adoption of the neoliberal Growth, Employment and Redistribution (GEAR) structural adjustment strategy in June 1996. However, a major issue was whether the poor would benefit from such partnerships. In 1998 the White Paper set the foundation for a new developmental local government system with an emphasis on integrated development strategies. The neoliberal bent continued with successive policies such as National Development Plan (NDP) introduced in 2012, and Integrated Urban Development Framework (IUDF) in 2016. An analysis of contemporary urban realities reveals that the desegregation of the apartheid city was generally taking place within the inner city and on the fringes of affluent suburbs. Decades of institutionalised segregation in South Africa will not be eliminated overnight. Segregation has been deeply entrenched in the social fabric, and is further reinforced by the socio-economic differences between blacks and whites. Also, the spatial inscription of class is becoming an increasingly conspicuous feature of South African urban space.

Brij Maharaj

Chapter 7. A Reappraisal of Spatial Planning in Botswana

Botswana, a landlocked country in southern Africa is bordered by Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe. With an area of 582,000 km2 the country is slightly larger than France, or slightly smaller than the US state of Texas. Approximately two-thirds of the country lies within the Tropics. Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. The economy, one of the most robust on the continent, is dominated by diamond mining and cattle. The country is sparsely populated because up to 70% of the country is covered by the Kalahari Desert. Botswana’s population of 2.2 million people (in 2016) is concentrated in the eastern part of the country. It is touted that the country is urbanizing quite fast and today nearly, 60% of the people live in classified urban areas. Like most countries in Africa, spatial planning has been practiced bringing order to both urban as well as rural/regional spaces. Many concepts and paradigms have been used to create such spaces resulting in a myriad of all sorts of outcomes. This book chapter focuses on Botswana’s experience of spatial planning and challenges faced with the hope that lessons learnt could enlighten other countries in the continent in their quest for establishing sustainable urban settlements. The book chapter begins by looking at the evolution of spatial planning in Botswana before the colonial era, during the colonial era, and after Independence in 1966. Here, we shall highlight the concepts and approaches used and how they have shaped the urban space today. This will be followed by examining critical challenges facing spatial planning practice in both urban and rural areas especially in the areas of adoption of new urban planning paradigms, the African Urban Agenda 2030, inclusivity, sustainability, urban management, municipal finance, and plan implementation. This will be followed by an examination of the responses by both central government and municipal authorities to these challenges. In conclusion, many suggestions are offered to address these challenges and pave the way for some practical solutions. Lessons learnt from this experience will be shared by other countries in the region.

Aloysius Clemence Mosha

Chapter 8. Ecological Regional Planning in Costa Rica: An Approach to Protected Areas and Environmental Services

A protected area is a dynamic system that seeks to achieve a balance between socio-cultural and bio-physical aspects. This needs to be planned in any region and at different scales (national, regional, and local). The first few protected areas in Costa Rica were created in the 1970s with a view to preserve ecological resources, although, there were some isolated initiatives such as the Cabo Blanco Absolute Reserve implemented in 1963 among others. The country has more than 200 protected areas spread over mainland and oceanic territories applying diverse categories (Biological reserves, national parks, wildlife refuges, forest reserves, water protected zones, and wetlands). To manage these protected areas in 1998, Costa Rica’s government established eleven regions. In addition, in 1996, Costa Rica approved a Forestry Law (7575) that carried out environmental services and afterward, established a new regional system with eight areas, as a result, the country has two different regional planning approaches to conservation issues: one for protected areas and the other for environmental services. This chapter analyzes how the two regional planning systems attend to environmental concerns and its implications from the spatial perspective. In addition, it analyzes the environmental services according to scale of the protected areas located in each region during the last five years as case study. Finally, it identifies some challenges for regional planning to improve conservation according to changing needs.

Carlos Morera Beita, Luis Fernando Sandoval Murillo

Methods Matter

Frontmatter

Chapter 9. Spatial Inequality in Ecuador: A Structural Gap Approach

Classical analyses of constraints and challenges associated with development in middle-income Latin American countries have been performed based on per capita income levels. Since the first decade of the twenty-first century, the structural gap approach has been an alternative criterion to that of per capita income. It identifies areas where there are gaps, such as poverty, inequality and social inclusion, which hinder social and economic development. In the present study, we used hierarchical cluster analysis to assess the socioeconomic development of cities in Ecuador. The goal was to add depth and flexibility to the study in order to assess a more complex reality regarding the development level of the country. This way, the resulting taxonomies of cities could be used to address specific policies to improve quality of life and sustainability of the population.

Ramiro Canelos Salazar, Montserrat Pallares-Barbera, Ana Vera

Chapter 10. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Shooting-Arrest Interaction in Houston

Researcher believe that repeat and near-repeat phenomena can inform how police react to earlier crime in preventing the future crime in near space and time. The current research utilizes a modified Knox close-pair method with spatial-temporal referenced data of gun violence and firearm arrests in Houston. The study assesses police responses to repeat/near-repeat and independent shootings and compares their differences at various spatial and temporal intervals. These examinations and comparisons are carried out at a fine-grained spatial scales and temporal scales. Results show that compared to independent shootings, police response to repeat/near-repeat shootings is different in terms of response level and spatial-temporal contour.

Ling Wu, William Wells

Chapter 11. What and Where Are We Tweeting About Black Friday?

Most studies on Black Friday have largely relied on survey or sales data from case studies of specific cities, which are lack of spatial-temporal granularity. The recent development of location-aware technologies has enabled what Goodchild described as “humans as sensors”, and as a result there has been a large volume of volunteered geographic information with explicitly spatial and temporal tags. Mining these rapidly growing and timely data in the context of space-time synthesis provides a new perspective for understanding the pulse of shopping behavior. In this chapter, we analyze Black Friday patterns and trends in the USA using a dataset retrieved from Twitter. A spatial-temporal analysis of tweeting patterns is conducted. This study tries to discern patterns of tweets on Black Friday in a comparative context.

Xinyue Ye, Bing She, Wenwen Li, Sonali Kudva, Samuel Benya

Planning Challenges

Frontmatter

Chapter 12. Determinants of Land Use Change in Urban Fringes: A Study of Dhaka

Land use change in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, has been documented in several studies. In recent years, development outside Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan (DMDP) area is thriving and large chunks of agricultural land and wetlands have been converted with the growth of real estate projects. However, information on urban expansion around the boundary of DMDP is very limited in literature. In this context, our research selected a study area outside DMDP jurisdiction, where private real estate developers are operating large-scale projects. This research aims to identify the land development activities that resulted in changes in the agricultural and wetland. This chapter explores the spatial proponents to this change, and investigates the existing institutional and legal frameworks. Remote sensing and satellite imagery were used to trace land use change. Besides, different participatory research tools were employed to explore causes associated with this change. A comprehensive quantitative-qualitative analysis was carried out to analyze the data. Proximity to Dhaka’s CBD, connectivity to major transportation network and availability of vast tract of undeveloped land were identified as the key issues that attract real estate developments. Increased selling price and low yield from existing land use were found as root causes for booming land sale. Besides these push and pull factors, this study identified the limitations of the local government policy initiatives responsible for this unplanned development. Detailed findings of the study are expected to contribute in formulating physical planning and policy strategies for sustainable development.

Bandhan Dutta Ayon, Md. Tanvir Hossain Shubho, Syed Rezwanul Islam, Ishrat Islam

Chapter 13. Consequences of Unplanned Growth: A Case Study of Metropolitan Hyderabad

This study focuses on the growth of metropolitan Hyderabad from 1971 to the present time. It identifies the factors which caused its massive growth and created multifaceted, complicated, and chaotic problems which are now defying solution. Hyderabad, since its foundation, has retained its status as the capital city despite the change in its territorial boundaries. While it was the capital of Andhra Pradesh, it saw a huge influx of migrants from Coastal Andhra, leading to a change in its demography, growth pattern, and morphology. In the later part of the last century, Hyderabad expanded as its service and quaternary sector expanded. As the city expands to surrounding regions and the population rapidly increases, the challenges of managing Hyderabad have grown manifold in last few years. Basic infrastructural supports such as housing, water supply, power distribution, transport facilities, waste and sewage treatment for the city are still limited within the municipal boundary. Infrastructure related to social development, such as education, health care support, housing facilities for the poor, sports, and other recreation facilities are not up to the standard and need larger investment and planning efforts. This unplanned growth and uncontrolled economic activities and residential colonies have created manifold planning and development problems. It is a daunting task to find solutions to the problems which plague this city.

Shah Manzoor Alam, Kalpana Markandey

Chapter 14. Slum Upgradation, Redevelopment and Relocation through Slum Vulnerability Assessment in Delhi

In India, one-third of urban inhabitants live in impoverished slums and squatter settlements. Because of urbanization, people from rural areas have been migrating to urban centres primarily to improve their economic and social opportunities. Nevertheless, the opportunity has been accompanied with degraded quality of life, fear of eviction and deplorable health, making slums and slum dwellers vulnerable. The purpose of the paper is to summarize varied perceptions on the slum vulnerability. It also attempts to identify attributes of Slum Vulnerability Assessment (SVA), thereby, establishing SVA as a tool for slum upgradation and improvement. The study is based on primary data and analysis of 23 slum pockets of Delhi. The study also includes review of secondary data consisting of the existing research studies, slum-related policies and guidelines of related authorities. The authors have attempted to establish SVA as an assessment tool for effective slum improvement policies in urban areas. The findings are suggestive that slums are dynamic and transforming with urbanization. The study reveals that there is an absence of suitable assessment criteria for making policies related to slum in situ upgradation, redevelopment and relocation. Slum vulnerability has been neglected as an attribute for making decisions related to slum upgradation. It is, therefore, imperative to assess vulnerability of slums and to identify criteria for slum improvement and upgradation to make effective slum policies. The study engenders a tool for slum vulnerability assessment for its upgradation and improvement. It establishes the need for a technique for effective slum policies in the era of ever-increasing urbanization. In the process of reviewing existing slum situation and slum-related policies, the authors have identified the gaps and suggested SVA, as an effective tool for slum upgradation and improvement.

Anika Kapoor, Baleshwar Thakur

Chapter 15. Geographies of Indian Women’s Everyday Public Safety

Public spaces are those spaces where all citizens, irrespective of gender, caste, class, sexuality, disability or any other social identity have a right to access. Importantly, the geographies of public space are gendered and ‘practiced place’, where individuals use these spaces to fulfil their varied needs and aspirations of their everyday life while trying to maintain dignity, safety and self-respect. With increased urbanization and neoliberal economic transformation, Indian women’s mobility through public spaces has increased. A number of recent evidence including the high-profile December 2012 Nirbhaya (fearless) gang-rape case in New Delhi suggest that the towns and cities lack a sense of belongingness and fail to safeguard its women and vulnerable population. The horrific Nirbhaya incident, which triggered massive nationwide protest led to the constitution of a number of committee/commission like Justice Verma Committee (JVC), Justice Usha Mehra Commission as well as amendments to a number of legislations—Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013, Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015—all aimed at enhancing women’s safety. Yet, the incidents of women’s assaults continue to bear powerful resonance. Arguably, women’s safety is development. The key aim of this chapter is two-fold. First, it aims to review the spatialities of women’s unsafety using the National Crime Records Bureau database. Second, using these data and in conjunction with the recommendations of the JVC report, Justice Usha Mehra Commission, the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 and Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015, it makes suggestions for improving the geographies of gendered public space in order to make them liveable.

Rituparna Bhattacharyya, Sanjay Prasad

Chapter 16. Transformation of Dalit Population in Independent India: A Study of Regional Differentials in Northwestern India

The paper examines regional and sub-regional differentials in socio-economic transformation of Dalits, officially known as scheduled castes, in Northwest India with the help of three indicators, namely literacy level, residential mobility or degree of urbanization, and rural occupational transformation making district as a unit of data mapping and analysis. Data on these indicators have been used from Census of India, covering a period of six census decades, 1961–2011. Deprivation index method has been used to prepare composite index of socio-economic transformation. In Northwest India, every fifth person belongs to dalit category of population, against the national average of one in each six persons. Dalit population is lagging far behind the general population in socio-economic transformation in different parts of India. There were, however, wide inter- and intra-state disparities in their well-being. Within NW India, Jammu and Kashmir and Chandigarh (UT) recorded the high level of socio-economic development of dalit population, both in 1961 and 2011. But Haryana performed well, especially in comparison to neighboring Punjab, in terms of socio-economic transformation during 1961–2011. It is satisfying that the pace of socio-economic transformation of dalits has accelerated during post-Independence era, narrowing down the wide gap between dalits and general population in the country. This speaks of the success of government sponsored programs and policies for their socio-economic transformation, initiated by the State in Independent India. The former dalit castes are now more awakened in social, political, and economic terms. This trend is likely to continue in future, but with greater benefits to newly emerged elite class within the dalits. The government programs and policies in future must concentrate not only on reducing the inter- and intra-regional disparities in their socio-economic well-being, but also addressing those inequalities found between “dalit” and “non-dalit” castes, on one hand, and “creamy” and “non-creamy” layers within the dalits.

Surya Kant

Urban Governance and Politics

Frontmatter

Chapter 17. State-Led Urbanity: Reexamining Modern Movement Servicescapes

Is retail to be planned to achieve urban quality? While collective identity markers are constantly evolving in today’s city, the hyper-consumption society has allowed retail, even though greatly transformed, to remain a community hub for socialization. Society’s commodification takes shape precisely within the public realm and the urban scene: sprawling analogous drivable retail-only suburbs and turning city centers into bland, soulless, and undefined places displaying homogeneous frontages characterized by the same retail storefronts worldwide. More than ever, urban policies on retail-oriented servicescapes seem crucial to urban and regional planning from a sustainable perspective. Modern movement new towns, as the most radical form of state-led retail planning, have failed to assure a lively retail offer able to create centrality as planned. Through the study case of a modern movement servicescape, the only modern Spanish planned city of Tres Cantos, our research focuses on what can we learn from the state-led planning model and its policies. How could we today foster urbanity in complex projects through retail without succumbing to the prevailing commodification of the public realm?

Marta Alonso

Chapter 18. Urban Governance under Neoliberalism: Increasing Centralization or Participatory Decentralization

Urban governance has become the buzzword for urban planning under the present trend of liberalisztion, globalization and privatization. Urban governance in general refers to a market-led entrepreneurial activity including risk-taking by the urban local bodies, though often argued as ‘maximum governance’ and ‘minimum government’. However, in the fray of attracting more and more international finance, it seems that, especially in the developing world, opposite is equally happening. The state adopts a proactive approach at identifying market opportunities for urban regeneration. In India, urban governance has been propagated by the national as well as international agencies as an approach that will make the create solutions for the existing problems of urban India. Governance on the one hand has resulted in withdrawal of state from various sectors conspicuously from housing and basic civic amenities. The New Economic Policy in India was introduced as a means of decentralization of administration, finance and function with greater autonomy to sub-national and urban local bodies. Over the period of last few decades, however, it has become clearer that resources, capital, investment and growth are increasingly getting concentrated in mega-cities of the country often at the cost of smaller towns and urban centres. This is quite contrary to the proclaimed objective of bringing decentralization. The present chapter emphasizes the state’s initiatives of urban rejuvenation programmes through analysing cases from India to understand the contemporary urban governance situation.

Bikramaditya K. Choudhary, Diganta Das

Chapter 19. Participatory Comprehensive Planning of Amphawa District, Thailand

The objectives of this article are to examine comprehensive planning process in Thailand and to discuss community participation in Amphawa’s Comprehensive Planning for the year 2030. The methodology of Amphawa’s Comprehensive Planning incorporated the principles of H. M. King Bhumibol’s “Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy” and UNESCO’s “Sustainable Development Model” into Thai common planning process. Major participation techniques were planning workshops and informal community leaders’ meetings. Community visioning and mapping techniques were applied to raise common understandings and to generate future land use and transportation plans.

Wannasilpa Peerapun

Chapter 20. Decentralized Governance Versus State Dependence: Financial Challenges and Participatory Development in Small Cities of West Bengal

The urban planning regime in Independent India started with the Master plan and the Town and Country Planning Act (1947), and continued for decades with an overwhelming importance on large and metropolitan cities. In the 1980s, the emphasis on urban planning and development experienced a shift from large cities to small and medium cities following the Integrated Development of Small and Medium Towns (IDSMT) Program launched in 1979. In 1990s, the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act (CAA) was passed to ensure decentralized planning and participatory development of cities in India under independent local governments. The present chapter, based on both secondary sources and empirical findings in the context of smaller cities, tries to explore the trajectories of changes in governing cities over the last three decades, especially after the 74th CAA and the impact of such changes. The models of urban governance differ from state to state followed by the State Municipal Acts. This chapter looks into the changes in the urban governance structure and in the pattern of municipal financing in West Bengal, and their impact on the efficiency of the provision of basic service in smaller cities. The paper critically analyses the nature of changes at the city level and shows how decentralization and people’s participation are undermined by the omnipresence of the party and the State in controlling the local governments of financially dependent smaller cities in West Bengal. For in-depth understanding of the ground level situation, the chapter focuses on four cities of West Bengal—Burdwan, Durgapur, Balurghat and Kalimpong.

Gopa Samanta

Chapter 21. Gentrification and Its Implication in the United States

This paper discusses a contentious issue in regard to gentrification and displacement in the United States. The urban gentrification process shows how hard it can be to formulate housing policies that are devoid of major side effects, while striving to achieve create successful integrated communities with mixed-income. This paper traces the process of gentrification during the period of urban renewal and slum clearance. It then discusses the nature of gentrification in major U.S. cities, and identifies overall impact of housing programs and federal housing policies. The paper concludes by showing both negative and positive impacts of gentrification, and planning policies to address any negative impacts of future gentrification projects.

Samuel Thompson, Keya Willis

Chapter 22. Confronting Styles and Scales in Puerto Rico: Comprehensive Versus Participative Planning Under a Colonial Estate

The ongoing economic and colonial crisis in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico has sharpened an already polarized environment between the government and many sectors of the local society. These conflicts had translated in the implementation of planning practices at different scales. Public planning has been coordinated by the Puerto Rico Planning Board since 1942 but in the past 25 years has been adopting neoliberal approaches and spatial frameworks. During this period numerous marginal communities, local governments, environmental organizations, political groups, and scholars’ groups has been confronting the institutional styles in the planning decision-making process. These communities and organizations has progressively been responding through open demonstrations such as mobilizations, camp sites, blockages, and open forums in social networks as a daily response against public planning. Every day, more citizens demand more participation in the formal planning processes. The local recession and the ratified colonial status of Puerto Rico by the U.S. government has widened the difference not only in the development scenarios but also in the planning process. This chapter’s focus lies on the Puerto Rican experience where planning has been serving as a method to construct a sense of democracy in the status quo. Participative planning practices have been used as framework to challenge not only the institutionalized normative planning but the existing colonial conditions in the island.

José R. Díaz-Garayúa, Carlos J. Guilbe-López

Chapter 23. Planning to Segregate: The Case of Bogota, Colombia

Planning of cities is a perilous process, demanding the striking of a series of delicate balances between competing interests. Going against each other are the forces of power, public policy and justice. Planning practices in Bogota have come to be characterized by a clash between the ideal, and the “real world” of bargaining, controversy and concessions. This chapter investigates the competing interests, the people who make the decisions and the processes they use. It also answers questions such as who makes these decisions, how, and why are some choices made rather than others? An examination of the historical and structural arguments demonstrates that Bogota’s land use management policies tend to reproduce and deepen socio-economic inequalities. In the case of Bogota urban fragmentation, social segregation, and discrimination is visible as a result of “estrato zoning”. Bogota’s planning process is influenced by the interplay between the “00” and the many, between one small group and another, and between one bloc of the “many” and its rivals. Estrato zoning is marked by two basic sociopolitical processes: cooperation and conflict. As a result, the challenge of Bogota is to enforce the role of urban planning and therefore the intervention of the state in favor of mass and not only the elite.

Luis Sánchez-Ayala

Chapter 24. Knowledge and Skills for Planning Profession in the High Growth Period of Urban Transformation in India

There are several knowledge communities and professional organizations responding to the emerging urban sector opportunities in their own ways. Irrespective of their affiliations and objectives, all these generate new knowledge. The call for specific skills to address the urban complexities in an effective manner has grown louder in recent times. These multiplicities offer a rich opportunity to review the entire landscape of urban planning skill and its potential future directions. According to Heurkens et al. (2015:630), ‘helping planners operate more effectively in markets, requires the analysis and classification of how different types of planning instruments impact on the decision-making environments of development actors’. The authors attempt to review the gaps in the current system and what could be achieved by the urban planning profession by making it growth oriented. This paper tries to assess the various planning knowledge and skills required in the process of current urban transformation in India. It also assesses the job market conditions that will be required to support the new trajectory of urban planning. It relies on the secondary sources of data in identifying the current and future demand of urban planners in India. This paper draws upon the available evidences regarding new competencies for the leading employers from the various sectors. Data shows that the planners are more often in subordinate positions rather than in active decision-making roles. These have resulted in several barriers for shaping the right market conditions for urban planners in the country.

Debjani Ghosh, Ajith Kaliyath, Anil Kumar Roy

Chapter 25. Ethics and Professionalism in Planning Practice: An Experience from Dhaka

Ethical and professional dimensions of planning practice deal with the art and science of urban planning, in its many aspects. Ethics in planning are the values, standards, and philosophies that planners live by. Ethical planning helps planners establish codes of professional behaviors, and collectively ethics which translated into institutional, government policies and programs. In Dhaka, planning practitioners struggle with three priorities, i.e. environmental protection, economic development and social equity in the context of a fast paced urbanization and limited resources. In this chapter, we explore how the ethical issues of planning were perceived by the professionals, academics, civil society, media, government and politicians during the preparation, monitoring and implementation of Detailed Area Plan (DAP) of Dhaka Metropolitan Area.

Shakil Akther, Ishrat Islam

National and Local Responses to Urban Transformations

Frontmatter

Chapter 26. Public Debt and Regional Inequality in India: Spatial Planning Implications

The Indian economy has shown a high rate of growth of gross domestic product of 7.56% during 2015–16 relative to 6.69% during 2011–12. In the post-liberalization economic era the size of fiscal debt has been skyrocketing as well. The fiscal debt is defined as the difference between total government expenditure and current revenue which has been escalating to an unsustainable level in recent periods. Maharashtra the most industrialized state in Western India has the largest debt followed by Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal in Central and Eastern India. Also, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh in the south have witnessed the maximum increase in debt during the past five years. Although Kaur et al. (2014) suggest that debt position of states at the aggregate level is sustainable. Gupta (2001) on the contrary opined unsustainability of debt at the state level. Government borrows debt to finance plan expenditure such as building roads, dams and airports and non-plan expenditure such as paying salaries or making interest payments. Debt is not bad provided states are growing at a rapid economic rate to service loans. This implies the interest payment to gross state domestic product (GSDP) ratio will be a better indicator of sustainability. Using these criteria, it is observed that states from all corners in India, i.e. Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Gujarat and Punjab have been consistently paying huge amounts of servicing costs. Given this overview, this research examines temporal and spatial patterns of state debt in India during the period 2002–15. National and state level data are utilized to study the spatial analysis of state debt in India for 30 regions comprising 28 states and 2 territories, i.e. National Capital Territory of Delhi and Puducherry. The following questions are addressed in this paper: (1) What insights does the literature on public debt provide in improving the understanding of the relationship between public debt and growth? (2) What are the broad trends of public debt and regional inequality in India at the state level? and (3) What are the characteristics of space-time patterns of public debt in India during 1991–2015? Several spatial analytical methods such as Gini Coefficient, Kernel density, Theil Entropy and regression analysis are utilized to identify and describe spatial patterns of state liability and its geographical dynamics in India. Data for analysis are obtained from Planning Commission and Reserve Bank of India. Spatial planning implications are addressed as well.

Sudhir K. Thakur

Chapter 27. Studies in Tourism Geography of India: Definition, Approaches and Prospects

Tourism geography is a novel area of research and broadly examines the interaction among such themes as ‘spatial organization’, ‘land-man relations’ and ‘areal differentiation’ (Taaffe 1974; Gibson 2008) in the study of the distribution and spatial pattern of tourist places. Tourist activities generate wealth and employment, attract foreign exchange, promote travel and hospitability industry, advance cross-cultural communication and understanding, build infrastructure, and lead to local as well as global development. Pearce (1979) examined the range and scope of tourism geography and opined the centrality of spatial interaction in the geographies of tourism. The geography of tourism examines a variety of areas like ‘the effects of scale’, ‘spatial distribution of tourist phenomenon’, ‘tourism impacts’, ‘planning for tourism’, and ‘spatial modeling for tourist development’ (Williams 1998). The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD 2016) reports that tourism will continue to grow in most Western developed economies. Recently, Indian geographers have been interested in the spatial dimension of tourism in India (Mir 2016). Given this overview, the objective of this chapter is to address two research questions: (1) how is tourism conceptualized by geographers? (2) what insights do Indian studies provide about tourism geography?

Rajrani Kalra

Chapter 28. Leveraging Brewing History: The Case of Cincinnati’s Over-the-Rhine Neighborhood

The United States is experiencing a craft beer revolution. There are over 7,000 craft breweries in the United States; in 1980 there were only eight. The rise of craft breweries is a response to consumer dissatisfaction with the beer offered by mega-breweries such as Anheuser-Busch. Craft breweries offer consumers a higher quality product and a wide variety of different beer styles. The growing popularity of craft beer has also resulted in a renewed interest in the history of beer and brewing. The focus of this paper is Cincinnati, Ohio. During the nineteenth-century Cincinnati was the destination of tens of thousands of immigrants from Germany. Most of these immigrants settled in what would become known as the Over-the-Rhine neighborhood. By the 1870s Over-the-Rhine was one of the most densely populated German-speaking neighborhoods in the western hemisphere—German-speaking churches, German-language schools and newspapers filled the neighborhood. Over-the-Rhine was also home to 13 breweries, which provided the local population with German-style lager beer. During the twentieth century, the number of breweries in the United States declined as a result of a decades-long period of consolidation in the American brewing industry. In Cincinnati, as in other American cities, breweries closed one-by-one as national breweries, like Anheuser-Busch and Pabst, came to dominate the brewing landscape. Old brewery buildings either sat empty of were adaptively re-used for other purposes. Recognizing the historical value of these old brewery buildings, in 2005 residents established the Over-the-Rhine Brewery District Community Urban Redevelopment Corporation (BDCURC), a 501(c)3 non-profit organization. The mission of the BDCURC is to “make the Brewery District a healthy, balanced and supportive neighborhood economy by preserving, restoring and redeveloping our unique brewing history and historic urban fabric.” The purpose of this chapter is to examine how Cincinnati’s brewing history is being leveraged as a part of the city’s broader neighborhood redevelopment efforts.

Neil Reid, Jay D. Gatrell, Matthew Lehnert

Chapter 29. Returning Migrants as a Force to Urban Transformation—A Case Study from Poznan, Poland

Literature has documented how urban landscapes around the world have been altered by immigrant groups but not much has been written on how returning migrants influence urban spaces in their home countries. This chapter focuses on the changes in Poznan, Poland precipitated by the return of Polish migrants from extended labor migration in the UK and other countries. Returning migrants diversify the city by introducing or creating a market for new businesses formerly unknown to the population of Poznan. The return of migrants inspires the introduction of ethnic (but not Polish) cultures and cuisines. These businesses were started and are operated by former emigrants or by travelers who had gained cultural knowledge by living, working, and interacting with different cultures during their stay away from Poland. Returning migrants also become the customer base for new businesses and help to shape and energize new consumer trends. This chapter will describe the origins, process, and outcomes of changes in the urban landscape caused by return migration.

Weronika A. Kusek

Chapter 30. Intermediary Cities of Refuge: From Istanbul to Kolkata

The spaces of refuge are an intricate tapestry woven across the globe. As of 2016, there are 65.3 million people displaced worldwide which include 21.3 million refugees and further 10 million stateless people (UNHCR 2016). The question of transnational borders, justice and human rights are increasingly contested terrains that States must contend with in increasingly complex ways. What then constitutes spaces of refuge in the twenty-first century? What is its institutional basis and socio-political form? Camps, as a space of temporary to long term refuge, hosts many refugees such as Dadaab in Kenya, Zataari camp in Jordan or Mae La in Thailand. In this chapter, however we examine the urban as an intermediary space of refuge. The urban is often a place of convergence for displaced migrants due to the opportunity structures it provides. From Istanbul to Accra, Kolkata to Jordan, 60% of refugees are noted to reside in cities, the Global South often hosting the largest number of refugees. In this chapter, we conceptually and empirically explore two contrasting cities—Istanbul and Kolkata. In 2016, Turkey was noted as the largest host country of refugees under UNHCR’s mandate in the world. Turkey hosted 2.5 million Syrian refugees and over 250,000 refugees of other nationalities mostly living in cities. Similarly, India has historically hosted the largest number of refugees after partition. More recently as of June 2014, India was home to 198,665 refugees. The urban provides a habitat conducive for displaced populations: the infrastructure necessary for shelter and day to day living; informal economy allowing varying livelihoods; the anonymity of living in largely populated cities provides a safeguard against deportation; and the freedom to live outside a camp environment affords a certain kind of flexibility. Yet the challenges in a complex world of poverty, violence and insecurity make the struggle of survival a complicated process of daily negotiations. Using the examples of Istanbul and Kolkata we argue that such contradictions necessitate that we rethink cities of the twenty-first century through the lens of transnational justice and refuge.

Ranu Basu, Pelin Asci

Future: Sustainable Development

Frontmatter

Chapter 31. Sustainable Cities in the Global South: Lessons from the African Continent

A watershed moment occurred in 2008 when, for the first time in human history, most of the global population could be categorized as residing in urban areas. Contributing to this remarkable transition has been the rapid population growth in cities of Africa. Natural increase and rural to urban migration patterns throughout Africa have resulted in striking rates of urbanization across the continent. Such rapid growth in urban population has fostered awareness for the need to address such development in a sustainable fashion. A regional approach to understanding the needs and addressing the issues of sustainable urban development provides opportunity to examine best practices of generating sustainability through twenty-first century efforts of planning and governance. Examination of cities as case studies affords meaningful cross-cultural context and better opportunity to identify transformational practices in policy and planning. Cities selected for examination in this research are noted for their pioneering and dynamic approaches to planning. Linking economic expansion with social equity and environmental protection, such cities may well serve as global vanguards in a new urban era.

Christopher Cusack, Julie Elwell

Chapter 32. Growing Sustainable Transportation in an Autocentric Community: Current Trends and Applications

Transportation is among the highlights of human achievement, but it comes at a major cost in exhausting nonrenewable resources and increasing environmental pollution. In particular, the expansion of automobiles throughout the world has led to higher levels of air pollution, greater degree of congestion, and the promotion of urban sprawl. This chapter examines how initiatives in sustainable transportation can counter some of the environmental distress caused by our current transportation system. It first looks at the meaning of sustainable transportation by looking at what makes our transportation system unsustainable, including resource depletion, air pollution, congestion, and inequities in access. It then examines several means by which to shift transportation modes to more walking and bicycling by altering the community infrastructure, encouraging denser housing, functional integration, and traffic calming. It then discusses how to enhance the efficiency of personal vehicles through improvements in gas mileage, introduction of electric and hybrid vehicles, and strategies to make traffic run more smoothly. Finally, the chapter shows how accessibility can be improved for those who have been left behind through greater investments in transit and in making automobiles available for short term use. Taken together, many of these initiatives can lead to a more sustainable transportation future.

David H. Kaplan

Chapter 33. Holy-Heritage City Development and Planning in India: A Study of Ayodhya

Religious heritage as religious properties and sacred places can be an integral part of larger ensembles, such as historic cities, cultural landscapes and natural sites. Religion had played a role for controlling power in Indian monarchy in the ancient past, and in contemporary India too it played a role in the formation of religious nationalism and corporate identity of religious heritage, through commonly using processions, pilgrimage, religious assemblies, religious fairs (melā), and visit to sacred places. Situated on the right bank of Ghaghara River (Sarayu), Ayodhya is primarily an ancient tirtha (riverfront sacredscapes) and salvific city that has settlement continuity since at least ca 800BCE. Ayodhya is the sacred place not only for Hindus, but also for other religions of India, like Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhs and Islam (Muslims). In Hindu mythologies, it is described as the birthplace of Lord Rama, a major deity of Vaishnavite group. Ayodhya records many rituals, festivities, pilgrimages journeys and important ancient temples, river ghats (stairways and bathing places), holy tanks, holy wells and holy ponds and their aesthetic qualities and heritage values; those are the representative grandeur of art and tangible and intangible heritage values of the city. Presently around 1.9 million pilgrims pay visit to Ayodhya every year on various religious occasions. Now, most of the religious heritage sites and monuments are dilapidating and are in abandoning condition in lack of rational and viable conservation and preservation strategy, good administration management and lack of people awareness and their involvement. The present paper deals with the historical and cultural development of the heritage-sacred city of Ayodhya and examines the strategies in process for the future development, taking into consideration the National programmes of HRIDAY and PRASAD, and development of pilgrimage sites.

Rana P. B. Singh, Sarvesh Kumar

Chapter 34. A Review of Preservation Practices and Attitudes in Historic District Act Municipalities of Pennsylvania

In a growing number of communities preservation planning has been recognized and pursued for its benefits such as making history, heritage and historic character strong building blocks for revitalization, growth, tourism and job creation. Conceptually, preservation planning in the United States dates back to the decades preceding the civil war when efforts to preserve resources associated with significant figures and events in American history. Subsequent to that time, federal, state, and local legislation, including the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, have contributed significantly to legitimizing historic preservation activities. In Pennsylvania state legislation such as the Historic District Act (HDA; Act 167 of 1961), the Municipalities Planning Code (MPC; Act 247 of 1968), and Home Rule Charters have all paved the way to provide legal authority for local communities to regulate for historic preservation. Given this legal context, this chapter presents a discussion of the significance and evolution of historic preservation in the United States, the role of federal, state and local governments in historic preservation, outlines the historic preservation in Pennsylvania with a focus on the Historic District Act and finally presents findings of a survey of stakeholders conducted to understand what strategies, techniques and tools are being used under the auspices of the HDA, as well as an assessment of how effective these tools are. The survey reveals that while community attitudes are positive toward historic preservation activities, there is some unevenness in implementation. The public at large is broadly supportive of historic preservation activities, whether they be regulatory or non-regulatory approaches. The findings also suggest that, despite this overall level of public support and municipal satisfaction though, there seems to be a lack of capacity in addressing preservation.

Megan McNamee, George M. Pomeroy
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