Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the chapters of this book

2015 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

5. Urbanization and Disaster: Loss of Women’s Property Ownership in Leh, Ladakh

share
SHARE

Abstract

The Himalayan region along the northern border of India has been identified as a high-risk zone, vulnerable to earthquakes, landslides, flashfloods, and drought. Drawing on evidence from the mountain town of Leh in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, this chapter explores how State interventions to promote development affect women, particularly with respect to their property relations. This chapter elucidates that development efforts have aggravated the region’s vulnerability to natural disasters. A focus on tourism and associated urban development has affected women’s land ownership as well as adversely affected the environment, which in turn has increased women’s vulnerability to disasters in multiple ways. Women’s property claims are not supported by State law or community practices, compounding their difficulty in disaster response and recovery. We argue for a better alignment of strategies governing urbanization and disasters to mitigate risks and improve disaster responsiveness. We also suggest the need for a shift in strategies, for disaster-risk mitigation to move beyond relief operations. Further, recognition of a heterogeneity of tenure forms that allow women, migrants and relatively weaker groups to establish legal claims on property is required.
Footnotes
1
Although urbanization and lack of urban planning is a serious issue in this area, the focus of this chapter is on how disaster affects women's land ownership.
 
2
A Muslim committee headed by a gopa exists at the village level, playing a role similar to Buddhist gopas.
 
Literature
go back to reference Alexander, André; Catanese, Andreas, 2007: “Leh Old Town Conservation Project—Ladakh, Indian Himalayas”, in: E-Conservation, 1 (October). Alexander, André; Catanese, Andreas, 2007: “Leh Old Town Conservation Project—Ladakh, Indian Himalayas”, in: E-Conservation, 1 (October).
go back to reference Bhasin, Veena, 1999a: “Leh—an endangered city?”, in: Anthropologist, 1,1: 1–17. Bhasin, Veena, 1999a: “Leh—an endangered city?”, in: Anthropologist, 1,1: 1–17.
go back to reference Bhasin, Veena, 1999b: Tribals of Ladakh: Ecology, Human Settlements and Health (New Delhi: Kamla-Raj Enterprises). Bhasin, Veena, 1999b: Tribals of Ladakh: Ecology, Human Settlements and Health (New Delhi: Kamla-Raj Enterprises).
go back to reference Bhasin, Veena, 2004: “Ecology and Status of Women among Tribals of India”, in: Journal of Human Ecology, 15,4: 237–249. Bhasin, Veena, 2004: “Ecology and Status of Women among Tribals of India”, in: Journal of Human Ecology, 15,4: 237–249.
go back to reference Census, 2001: Census of India 2001 (New Delhi: Government of India) (5 June 2014). Census, 2001: Census of India 2001 (New Delhi: Government of India) (5 June 2014).
go back to reference Choudhury, Maitreyee, 2009: “Land and Forest in the Eastern Himalayas: A Critique on Agriculture and Agroforestry in Arunachal Pradesh”, in: Dialogue, 10,4 (April–June). Choudhury, Maitreyee, 2009: “Land and Forest in the Eastern Himalayas: A Critique on Agriculture and Agroforestry in Arunachal Pradesh”, in: Dialogue, 10,4 (April–June).
go back to reference Fernandes, Walter; Barbora, Sanjay, 2002: Modernisation and Women’s Status in North Eastern India: A Comparative Study of Six Tribes (Guwahati: North Eastern Social Research Centre). Fernandes, Walter; Barbora, Sanjay, 2002: Modernisation and Women’s Status in North Eastern India: A Comparative Study of Six Tribes (Guwahati: North Eastern Social Research Centre).
go back to reference GoI, 2002: Tenth Five Year Plan 2002–07 of Planning Commission (New Delhi: Government of India). GoI, 2002: Tenth Five Year Plan 2002–07 of Planning Commission (New Delhi: Government of India).
go back to reference GoJK, 2011: Jammu and Kashmir State Disaster Management Policy (Draft) (Srinagar: Government of Jammu and Kashmir). GoJK, 2011: Jammu and Kashmir State Disaster Management Policy (Draft) (Srinagar: Government of Jammu and Kashmir).
go back to reference Goodall, Sarah, 2004: “Rural-to-urban Migration and Urbanization in Leh, Ladakh. A Case Study of Three Nomadic Pastoral Communities”. in: Mountain Research and Development, 24,3 (August): 220–227. Goodall, Sarah, 2004: “Rural-to-urban Migration and Urbanization in Leh, Ladakh. A Case Study of Three Nomadic Pastoral Communities”. in: Mountain Research and Development, 24,3 (August): 220–227.
go back to reference Goodall, Sarah, 2007: From Plateau Pastures to Urban Fringe: Sedentarisation of Nomadic Pastoralists in Ladakh (PhD dissertation, University of Adelaide: Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Adelaide). Goodall, Sarah, 2007: From Plateau Pastures to Urban Fringe: Sedentarisation of Nomadic Pastoralists in Ladakh (PhD dissertation, University of Adelaide: Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Adelaide).
go back to reference Gupta, A.K.; Nair, S.S., 2011: “Urban floods in Bangalore and Chennai: Risk Management Challenges and Lessons for Sustainable Urban Ecology”, in: Current Science, 100,11: 10. Gupta, A.K.; Nair, S.S., 2011: “Urban floods in Bangalore and Chennai: Risk Management Challenges and Lessons for Sustainable Urban Ecology”, in: Current Science, 100,11: 10.
go back to reference Gupta, Preeti; Khanna, A.; Majumdar, S., 2012: “Disaster Management in Flash Floods in Leh (Ladakh): A Case Study”, in: Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 37,3 (July–September): 185–190. Gupta, Preeti; Khanna, A.; Majumdar, S., 2012: “Disaster Management in Flash Floods in Leh (Ladakh): A Case Study”, in: Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 37,3 (July–September): 185–190.
go back to reference Hewitt, Kenneth; Mehta, Manjari, 2012: “Rethinking Risk and Disasters in Mountain Areas”, in: Journal of Alpine Research, 100,1: 2–10. Hewitt, Kenneth; Mehta, Manjari, 2012: “Rethinking Risk and Disasters in Mountain Areas”, in: Journal of Alpine Research, 100,1: 2–10.
go back to reference LDC, 2011: Ladakh District Disaster Management Plan 2011 (Leh: District Administration). LDC, 2011: Ladakh District Disaster Management Plan 2011 (Leh: District Administration).
go back to reference Mann, Michael (Ed.), 1987: Macmillan Student Encyclopaedia of Sociology. (London, Basingstoke: Macmillan). Mann, Michael (Ed.), 1987: Macmillan Student Encyclopaedia of Sociology. (London, Basingstoke: Macmillan).
go back to reference Marak, Kumie R., 1997: Tradition and Modernity in a Matrilineal Tribal Society (New Delhi: Inter- India Publications). Marak, Kumie R., 1997: Tradition and Modernity in a Matrilineal Tribal Society (New Delhi: Inter- India Publications).
go back to reference Oza, Sanchit; Prajapathi, Kalpesh, 2012: Long Term Recovery Efforts in Cloudburst Affected Urban Area of Leh (Ahmedabad: All India Disaster Mitigation Institute). Oza, Sanchit; Prajapathi, Kalpesh, 2012: Long Term Recovery Efforts in Cloudburst Affected Urban Area of Leh (Ahmedabad: All India Disaster Mitigation Institute).
go back to reference Pelliciardi, Vladimiro, 2010: “Tourism Traffic Volumes in Leh District: An Overview”, in: Ladakh Studies, 26: 14–23. Pelliciardi, Vladimiro, 2010: “Tourism Traffic Volumes in Leh District: An Overview”, in: Ladakh Studies, 26: 14–23.
go back to reference Pirie, Fernanda, 2007: Peace and Conflict in Ladakh: The Construction of a Fragile Web of Order. Pirie Tibetan Buddhist Studies Series (Leiden: Koninklije Pirie). Pirie, Fernanda, 2007: Peace and Conflict in Ladakh: The Construction of a Fragile Web of Order. Pirie Tibetan Buddhist Studies Series (Leiden: Koninklije Pirie).
go back to reference Planning Commission, 2003: Jammu & Kashmir State Development Report (New Delhi: Government of India). Planning Commission, 2003: Jammu & Kashmir State Development Report (New Delhi: Government of India).
go back to reference Rizvi, Janet, 1999: Ladakh: Crossroads of High Asia (New Delhi: Oxford University Press). Rizvi, Janet, 1999: Ladakh: Crossroads of High Asia (New Delhi: Oxford University Press).
go back to reference Sharma, Manish, 2008: “Rethinking of Urbanisation in Arunachal Pradesh”, in: Indian Journal of Regional Science, 40,2: 142–150. Sharma, Manish, 2008: “Rethinking of Urbanisation in Arunachal Pradesh”, in: Indian Journal of Regional Science, 40,2: 142–150.
Metadata
Title
Urbanization and Disaster: Loss of Women’s Property Ownership in Leh, Ladakh
Author
Bhuvaneswari Raman
Copyright Year
2015
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16616-2_5