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2024 | Book

Utilitarianism in Outer Space

Space Policy, Socioeconomic Development and Security Strategies in Nigeria and South Africa

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About this book

This book showcases Nigerian and South African experiences on space politics, policy and strategy vis-à-vis their development and security aspirations, while contributing to the broader African and the Global-South perspectives on the subject. Space policy in developing countries such as Nigeria and South Africa is motivated by utilitarian promises that space and the attendant technologies have the potential to advance development and security interests of the affected nations. However, several decades into the orbital journey of these countries, little is known of their space politics, policies, strategies, capacities and capabilities, and realisation of desired objectives. Beyond pure and applied sciences reductionism, this book offers social science perspectives on space studies in Africa, as it examines the intricate relationships of historical, geographical, social, demographic, economic, political, administrative, and strategic factors, nationally, regionally and globally that have shaped research and development of space science and technologies, and their benefits, in Nigeria and South Africa.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Introduction

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Introduction: On Space Policy, Development and Security in Nigeria and South Africa
Abstract
This chapter introduces space policy, socioeconomic development and security in Nigeria and South Africa, and locates these countries in theoretical and empirical discussions in space politics and policy studies. In this case, utilitarian theory is adopted as a framework of analysing space policy, with the desire to promote socioeconomic development and security of the affected parties. Utilitarianism is relevant to post-Cold War efforts by space nations, especially the emerging ones, such as Nigeria and South Africa, to transcend the struggle for power, influence, status and prestige for tangible development and security utilities in space. In addition, this chapter examines space politics and policy in Nigeria and South Africa under three levels of analysis. At the global level, these countries are emerging space players; at the regional level, they are leading space players; and at the national level, they are made up of competing and complementary space and related institutions and interests. At all these levels, this chapter identifies the state and inadequacies of the extant literature on the subject. It is against this background that this book examines the space policy interests and commitments of Nigeria and South Africa, their determinants, trajectories, operationalisations, and contributions to socioeconomic development and security of the countries.
Samuel Oyewole
Chapter 2. Space Policy, Development, and Security: Conceptual Framework of Analysis
Abstract
This chapter offers relevant insights into debate and clarity on key concepts that underscore the subject of this book, such as space, space policy, development and security. On space, the chapter provides insights on the debates between pure and applied scientists on one hand and humanities and social scientists on the other hand, the resultant emergence of geometric and social spaces, and the perspectives on absolute, relative and relational spaces. This is important to reiterate the multidisciplinary perspectives that are required in this study. Although space (outer space) is generally geometric and specifically astronomical, it is interlocked with social spaces in its policy context. On this basis, this chapter align with utilitarian conception of space policy as the use of space and attendant technologies to promote the socioeconomic development and security of the affected party. Accordingly, the concepts of development and security are interrogated and then summarised as the aspirations of the affected party, that is, the people and government concerned.
Samuel Oyewole

Space Policy, Development, and Security in Nigeria

Frontmatter
Chapter 3. Space Politics, Policy, and Strategy in Nigeria
Abstract
Nigeria’s space policy and strategy are products of complex dynamics of its national scientific, technological, political, sociocultural and economic developments, with defence and security demands, and international engagements. This chapter examines Nigeria’s policy and strategic interests in space, and their social, economic, political, historical and international contexts and determinants. It provides a brief background information on Nigeria’s geography, history, state, societies, economy, politics and security as essential introduction to understand the space policy interests, strategies, capacities, benefits and challenges of the country. It examines the political, historical and socio-economic trajectories of Nigeria’s space policy and strategy from cultural astronomy in precolonial era to postcolonial spectator at the dawn of space age and then active participant in space research and development. The chapter further reviews extant laws, policies and strategies of Nigeria to determine its national interests and perspectives on space, science and technologies, socio-economic development, and security, as well as their interconnectivity.
Samuel Oyewole
Chapter 4. The Development of Space Capacities and Capabilities in Nigeria
Abstract
Nigeria has increasingly developed capacities and capabilities to match its policy and strategic interests in space. In the last three decades, the federal government of Nigeria has established African first dedicated agencies for civil and military space programmes, fully state-owned corporations for commercialisation of space, and numerous centres for space research and development. In addition, few private and non-governmental organisations with exclusive or inclusive interests in space have emerged in Nigeria. These institutions have played major roles in the development and mobilisation of financial, human and material resources behind space access and assets, which are key to the operationalisation of Nigeria’s space policy and strategy. To better understand the gap between space policy desires and achievements of Nigeria, this chapter provides an overview of the formation, locations, functions, finances, human and material resources and mobilisation of various governmental, non-governmental and private institutions that are involved in civil, commercial and military space programmes, as well as space advocacies and popularisation, and the resultant space access and assets of the country.
Samuel Oyewole
Chapter 5. The Contribution of Space Policy to Development and Security in Nigeria
Abstract
This chapter examines the extent that space policy and strategy have advanced the development and security interests of the government and people of Nigeria. It interrogates the convergence and divergence of space capacities and capabilities (such as institutional, financial, human and material resources, access and assets), and the realisation of set policy objectives. It explores records and gaps in space support for national competitiveness, economic growth and transformation, local technological capacity, defence, security, power projection, disaster management, human rights and the struggle for freedom, democracy, effective and good governance, food and water security, sustainable environment, quality of health and education systems, and international cooperation as indicators for national and human dimensions of development and security.
Samuel Oyewole

Space Policy, Development, and Security in South Africa

Frontmatter
Chapter 6. Space Politics, Policy and Strategy in South Africa
Abstract
The South Africa’s space policy and strategy, and the attendant capacities and capabilities have emerged from centuries of the nation’s scientific, technological, political and socioeconomic developments, and defence, security and international engagements. This chapter examines the national and international sociocultural, economic, political, historical and military contexts, determinants and interests in space policy and strategy, the attendant capacities and capabilities of South Africa. It examines the trajectories of South Africa’s space policy and strategy from the indigenous cultural astronomy and settlers’ modernisation of space R&D in precolonial and colonial eras to the amateur rocketry, militarised apartheid nuclear, missile and space triad programme, and the post-apartheid new dawn. It is against this background that this chapter examines extant laws, policies and strategies of South Africa to determine its national interests and perspectives on space and related technologies, socioeconomic development, and security.
Samuel Oyewole
Chapter 7. The Development of Space Capacities and Capabilities in South Africa
Abstract
This chapter examines various South African institutions (governmental, non-governmental and private entities) that are involved in space policy processes, the resources that are available to them (such as funds, human and materials: facilities and equipment), and their capacities to mobilise and covert these into capabilities (such as space assets and access). Beyond different government entities for civil, commercial and military space programmes and NGOs, South Africa has the most deregulated African space industry with flourishing private sector. Building on its space heritage, the government has supported science and technological innovations in its academic institutions, which have generated spin-off companies that are playing critical roles in the realisation of set objectives in the national space policy and strategy. This understanding of space capacities and capabilities of South Africa is important to the nexus between the national interests in space, and the extent that such policy objectives have been realised, especially in advancing the development and security aspirations of the people and government.
Samuel Oyewole
Chapter 8. The Contribution of Space Policy to Development and Security in South Africa
Abstract
This chapter examines the extent that South Africa has employed its space and related capacities and capabilities (such as institutional, financial, human and material resources, access and assets) to advance both the national and human dimensions of development and security of the country. It provides insights into the convergence and divergence of space policy objectives of South Africa and the extent of their realisation. Accordingly, this chapter interrogates the progress and challenges of South Africa in space support for national competitiveness, economic growth and transformation, indigenisation of technological capacity, defence, security, power projection, disaster management, human rights and the struggle for freedom, democracy, good governance, food and water security, sustainable environment, quality health and education systems, and international cooperation as indicators for both (national and human) development and security.
Samuel Oyewole

Final Conclusions

Frontmatter
Chapter 9. Conclusion: On Space Policy, Development and Security in Nigeria and South Africa
Abstract
This chapter provides a concluding reflection on space policy, development and security in Nigeria and South Africa. It summarises major themes that featured in the subject of discussion, from where a comparative analysis of the experiences and perspectives of Nigeria and South Africa were drawn. Nigeria’s space policy revolves around government and academic institutions with limited private sector, unlike South Africa’s academic and private sector-driven and government coordinated model. The chapter also explores the state of knowledge on space policy and politics in the study areas, which are located in the contexts of emerging African and Global-South studies, as well as the unique contribution of this volume to literature, and relevant areas for future research.
Samuel Oyewole
Metadata
Title
Utilitarianism in Outer Space
Author
Samuel Oyewole
Copyright Year
2024
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-49646-2
Print ISBN
978-3-031-49645-5
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-49646-2

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