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About this book

This book describes vector network analyzer measurements and uncertainty assessments, particularly in waveguide test-set environments, in order to establish their compatibility to the International System of Units (SI) for accurate and reliable characterization of communication networks. It proposes a fully analytical approach to measurement uncertainty evaluation, while also highlighting the interaction and the linear propagation of different uncertainty sources to compute the final uncertainties associated with the measurements. The book subsequently discusses the dimensional characterization of waveguide standards and the quality of the vector network analyzer (VNA) calibration techniques. The book concludes with an in-depth description of the novel verification artefacts used to assess the performance of the VNAs. It offers a comprehensive reference guide for beginners to experts, in both academia and industry, whose work involves the field of network analysis, instrumentation and measurements.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. General Introduction

Abstract
A vector network analyzer (VNA) is a complex and versatile instrument that is used in the field of radio frequency (RF) engineering for accurate and precise measurements. The goal of this chapter is to review briefly the VNA architecture and the measurement errors. The VNA calibration standards and the calibration techniques will also be discussed. This chapter will conclude with an overview of the measurement uncertainty.
Nosherwan Shoaib

Chapter 2. Waveguide Measurement Uncertainty

Abstract
This chapter will deal with the analytical treatment of the VNA measurement uncertainty evaluation. In particular, the measurement uncertainty evaluation for the waveguide standards will be presented. The uncertainty propagation flowchart highlighting the interaction of different measurement uncertainty sources will be discussed. The dimensional characterization of the waveguide standards will also be described.
Nosherwan Shoaib

Chapter 3. VNA Calibration Comparison

Abstract
A VNA calibration procedure characterizes and reduces the systematic errors of the instrumentation from the raw measurement data. The measurement accuracy mainly depends on the quality of the VNA calibration. Therefore, the choice of the calibration procedure is very critical. The goal of this chapter is present a comparison of the state of the art 2-port VNA calibration techniques at millimetre frequencies. This comparison will be useful to analyze the efficiency of two different VNA calibration techniques.
Nosherwan Shoaib

Chapter 4. VNA Connection Repeatability Investigation

Abstract
The connection repeatability is one of the uncertainty sources associated with the VNA measurements. Its investigation is helpful to understand the variability of the repeated VNA measurements. In this chapter, the connection repeatability investigation of the VNA at millimetre frequencies will be presented. The mathematical formulations for the connection repeatability will also be described.
Nosherwan Shoaib

Chapter 5. VNA Verification Artefacts

Abstract
The performance of the VNA systems is necessary to verify in order to achieve accurate measurements and traceability to the International System of Units (SI). This chapter will present the suitable verification artefacts to verify the performance of the VNAs including their applicability to coaxial and waveguide systems. The transmission loss errors of the verification artefacts, due to the dimensional tolerances and the flange misalignments, will also be discussed.
Nosherwan Shoaib

Backmatter

Additional information