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2021 | Book

Vehicle and Automotive Engineering 3

Proceedings of the 3rd VAE2020, Miskolc, Hungary

Editors: Prof. Dr. Károly Jármai, Dr. Katalin Voith

Publisher: Springer Singapore

Book Series : Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering


About this book

This book presents the proceedings of the third Vehicle and Automotive Engineering conference, reflecting the outcomes of theoretical and practical studies and outlining future development trends in a broad field of automotive research. The conference’s main themes included design, manufacturing, economic and educational topics.

Table of Contents


Alternative Powertrains and Autonomous Vehicles

Development of an Advanced Durable Test Target for Autonomous Emergency Brake Testing

Rear-end collisions expose a significant part of all crashes with injuries. The driver assistance autonomous braking function intends to mitigate the effect of the rear-end collisions. Usually, the terminology refers to this function as AEBs (Automated Emergency Braking system). The goal of this assistance to prevent accidents in emergencies where detection-based emergency braking intervention is activated automatically without the driver’s operation. For testing of these functions dedicated target test tools are used which allow tests without considerable damage on the vehicles. There are several available devices today for this purpose which have a significant purchase price and these targets normally can be used in daytime conditions. Since during these investigations of AEB performance, harsh impacts can occur the target has to be robust to endure them. With the help of a comprehensive overview, we are investigating the current test procedures and benchmark actual used test tools for car to car rear-end collision situations. Based on this specification a brand new prototype target has been manufactured. In addition, a unique feature - not included in officially approved targets - has been mounted such as tail-lights and brake lights that extends the possibilities of the test conditions. The purpose of this paper is to present a realistic target that is suitable for night tests and has a tough construction for long term usage and is at the same time a cost-efficient solution. This article demonstrates the developed test target compliance with our requirements defined by us based on inputs coming from industrial experiences, furthermore has to be proved by more different tests in both day and night conditions too. So far the industrial AEB test protocols contained only daylight tests but with the usage of this target, we had the opportunity to investigate AEB performance under limited vision condition which is a big challenge for cameras. The tests were executed with different types of passenger vehicles. The research also points to improvement opportunities based on these test results.

Márton Pataki, Zsolt Szalay
Trajectory Tracking Control of an Autonomous Car

Development in the field of autonomous vehicles has been rising over the past decade. Most autonomous driving systems must be able to perform a wide variety of tasks, such as driving across an intersection, following another car, or negotiating complicated city streets.Even though these seem to be complex problems, they can be further decomposed into three major fields of development. Detection, where the car first has to observe the different objects in its environment. Decision making, as the car has to have a high-level strategy based on the detected objects, deciding where it wants to go, and identifying obstacles to avoid. Finally, the actual control values, the needed vehicle speed and steering angle value have to be defined, so the car can actually perform according to the high-level decisions.Current work presents possible control methods for trajectory tracking of self-driving cars. At first, a proper mechanical model, the well-known bicycle model is demonstrated. While this model represents the behavior of a vehicle within a linear range, the added effects of different tire models are also shown. The model is transformed into a state-space with distance and angular deviation from the trajectory as state variables. This form of the bicycle model can be used for controller design.Four different control methods are presented, the Stanley controller, that won the DARPA Challenge in 2005, the first competition where driverless cars were competing against each other. A linear quadratic regulator (LQR), a model predictive controller (MPC) and a model predictive controller with input and state constraints. By testing the implemented controllers with the described model it is shown, that although the LQR method seems to be the one with the best dynamics, the constrained MPC can handle the proposed task more robust, as we can be sure that the calculated values by this method can be realized by an actuator.

Zakariás Erõsdi, Gergely Bári, János Papp
Trajectory Tracking Controller Testing in Software in the Loop Environment

The future of the automotive industry is about self-driving cars, in the recent years, numerous studies has been done on the future development of autonomous vehicles. The increase can already be seen on the streets as well. Big corporations testing their latest algorithms on the highway, autonomous features like automated parking, lane keeping algorithms, ADAS (advanced driver assistance system) appearing on the newest cars and so on.With this sudden increase in development, an advanced simulation environment is necessary, as testing each new software feature in the real world on the test-tracks or on the streets, can often be too costly or too dangerous.The self-driving car problem is usually decomposed into three major subsystems. First the perception, with the goal of detecting different objects in the environment. Second, the high-level path planning, that defines the desired trajectory based on the target destination and detected objects in the previous layer. Finally the motion control that defines the inputs for the actuators of the car.In an efficient simulation environment, these subsystems can be evaluated separately, while the behaviour of the whole system can still be evaluated.This paper presents a possible way for testing advanced autonomous controller algorithms in software in the loop environment, focusing on the third subsystem, but testing the algorithm in the entire environment. First the controller itself is tuned and evaluated, by basing on a simple linear vehicle model built in Matlab. Afterwards this linear controller is tested on a nonlinear, dynamic model. Controller inputs are obtained directly from the simulated environment, while the outputs are the steering angle and vehicle velocity, so the controller works as it would on a real car. The simulation can also be driven with a predefined “driver model”, so the algorithm is compared to the driver. The importance of a refined high-level strategy is shown, as in both cases, the control-problem is solved, yet the results, the actual trajectories are significantly different.

Zakariás Erõsdi, Gergely Bári, Gábor Sipos
Range-Reducing Effect of Contaminants in Case of Solar Vehicles

Over the past decade, the numbers of solar power plants and the capacity installed have increased rapidly. In Hungary, the total installed capacity of solar power plants in 2010 barely exceeded 2 MW, in 2020 this value will already exceed 1000 MW. Hungary wants to reach 6000 MW in the capacity of solar power plants in this decade. Solar panels are not only spread in solar power plants, smaller ones have also used in laptop and mobile phone charges, as well as in electric or hybrid vehicles. Solar-powered ships appeared years earlier, and it didn't take long to create solar-powered airplane. In the case of land vehicles, light vehicles for 1–2 people appeared in the first round, but we can also find examples of family cars and vans.

Dávid Matusz-Kalász, István Bodnár, Rafael Ruben Boros
Alternative Propulsion Buses in the Metropolitan Public Transport

The lecture is analysing the possibility of an optimal energy mix through the example of a Hungarian metropolis. Using the city bus routes, we analyse and compare the traditional Diesel, CNG, and electric propulsion. An optimal energy mix is provided by using SWOT analysis.

István Lakatos, Ferenc Szauter, Dániel Pup, Andor Nagy
Structural Analysis of a Multi-axle Steering Linkage for an 8 × 8 Special Purpose Vehicle

Considered as a safety sub-system, steering linkages should work under variable loads that arise in any extreme conditions during operation of the vehicle. Therefore, they should resist failure during service conditions, which require sufficient mechanical strength against different stress values. During the mechanical design stages of a steering linkage, taking the critical loading into account for a singular steering wheel position may not represent the most challenging case. Therefore, it should be applied for the full turning ranges of the steer axle wheels in order to obtain the critical steering wheel angle that forces the elements and joints the most. In this study, the variation of joint forces in the steering mechanism of an 8x8 ARFF vehicle was investigated by using FE (finite element) analysis. Stress distributions and bearing loads on the critical structural elements were established within the full turning range of the system. Firstly, the conformity of the results obtained from FE model was validated by means of a kinetic analysis that was carried out in MATLAB® environment by using a sub-linkage of the steering mechanism. Subsequently, a detailed FE model of the multi-axle steering linkage was created in order to determine the maximal joint forces and stress variation on the connection elements in full turning ranges of the steer axle wheels. Finally, the effect of steering booster was revealed on joint forces, as well as the stress behavior of critical structural components of the mechanism.

Mehmet Murat Topaç, Onur Çolak, Levent Bilal, Arda Tanrıverdi, Merve Karaca, Mustafa Maviş

Materials and Manufacturing

Three Generations of Advanced High Strength Steels in the Automotive Industry

Sheet metal forming is one in all the foremost important production processes in car manufacturing; therefore its developments are significantly determined by the demands of the automotive industry. Recent trends in car production are also characterized by applying lightweight principles. Its main priority is to fulfil both the customers’ demands and also the increased legal requirements. Applying high strength steels could also be thought to be one in all the potential possibilities. Applying high strength steels have a positive response for several of the requirements: increasing the strength may result in the appliance of thinner sheets leading to significant mass reduction. Mass reduction ends up in lower consumption and increased environmental protection. Increasing strength often leads to a decrease in formability. In this paper, an outline of recent material developments within the automotive industry concerning the employment of recent generation advanced high strength steels are going to be given.

Miklós Tisza
Development of Cutting Edge Radius Size of Solid Carbide Mills When Drag Finishing

The article deals with the influence of time of the drag finishing process on the size of the cutting edge radius for cutting tools. In the experiments, four-tooth cemented carbide mills with diameter of 10 mm were used that were ground on Reinecker WZS60 tool grinding machine from Ceratizit CTS20D. Tools were drag finished on OTEC DF3Tools with the use of SIX 70/16 granulate and grinding oil. The time of the drag finishing process was varied from 1 to 10 min. After drag finishing, the tools were measured on the Zeiss Surfcom 5000 shape and countour measuring machine. The aim of the paper was to determine the influence of time as a parameter on the achieved cutting edge radius size rn. Cutting edge radius size on both the face teeth and helical teeth was measured. The dependence of cutting edge radius from process time when drag finishing in the mentioned granulate was determined and described in the article.

Boris Pätoprstý, Marek Vozár, Peter Pokorný, Tomáš Vopát, Ivan Buranský, Miroslav Zetek, Šárka Cajthamlová, Vít Laudát
Micromechanical Analysis of Glass Fiber/Epoxy Lamina

Fiber reinforced polymer composite materials have been a major class of engineering materials. Their applications diversify between automobiles, aircraft, space vehicles, and others because of their notable offer of mechanical properties, ease of fabrication, and super design flexibility. Moreover, fiber composites are distinguished due to their light weight, excellent fatigue strength, and good corrosion and impact resistance. The current paper investigates the mechanical behavior of a unidirectional fiber reinforced polymer composite lamina consisting of fibers embedded in epoxy resin as a matrix. Micromechanical analysis is done on a square-patterned unit cell of the above composite to predict the longitudinal modulus (E1), Transverse modulus (E2), In-plane shear modulus (G12) and Major Poisson’s ratio (Ѵ12). These engineering constant are evaluated to three types of fiber (E-Glass, R-Glass, and S-Glass) with various fiber volume fractions based on the theory of elasticity approach. Computer Aided Design Environment for Composites (CADEC) software is used to do the numerical analysis. This theoretical investigation helps to realize the bearing ability of unidirectional fiber reinforced composite subjected to longitudinal load by analyzing the engineering design constants.

Saad Alsarayefi, Károly Jálics
Non-destructive Test for Control of the Surface Quality of Semi Product at the Automotive Industry

The aim of the research is to develop a measurement method that can determine the degree of decarburization on the surface of heat-treated or even on finished parts, without any damage, with high reliability. Several times the decarburization is revealed only in the semi-finished or finished state when the surface of the component does not have the required parameters. In this case, a cut from the sample has to be used to verify the process, while the component becomes waste. Centerless X-ray diffractometers have been developed primarily for non-destructive, residual stress measurement. Internationally unique, two such diffractometers, at the Institute of Physical Metallurgy, Metal Forming and Nanotechnology and in the 3D Laboratory are available. The basic idea of the present research is to determine and to use the characteristics of the interference function detected by the diffractometer, which goes far beyond the residual stress test [1]. One such feature is the broadening of the peaks on the interference function, which correlates with the chemical composition of the diffracting phase and the micro stresses [2–5]. Changes in chemical composition occur, for example, as a negative consequence of the heat treatment in component during decarburization.

Péter Szobota, Máté Sepsi, Valéria Mertinger
Investigation into Applicability of Automotive Quality Regulations in the Steel Industry

The supply chain of the automotive industry mainly consists of processing and assembling companies. Raw material producers, such as manufacturers of plastic-, rubber-, aluminium- and steel industry, are exceptions to some extent. The continuous process industry has its own peculiarities. This study is searching for the limits of the applicability of automotive quality requirements concerning the rolled product manufacturing segment of the steel industry, where the quality of the end product determines the ability of production, the usability and the durability of the parts assembled in automobiles. In the present study firstly the peculiarities of the steel- and automotive industry is presented, based on technical literature. Then the quality rules of the automotive industry are outlined in detail with special focus on their aims. The study is based on IATF 16949 standards and the relevant customer specific requirements. Finally, the limits and difficulties of the application and compliance of these rules and regulations are discussed.

Béla Kondás, Csaba Deák

Sustainability and Logistics

Artificial Aging of Ultra-low Viscosity Lubricant Samples on a Programmable Oil Aging Rig

An artificial lubricant aging rig was developed in order to simulate aging processes of automotive lubricants. This article presents the development of the aging apparatus and its control system as well as results of artificial aging of SAE 0W-20 grade automotive lubricant with a modified thermal cycling procedure. Friction and wear measurements on a high frequency reciprocating rig were conducted to describe the lubricating properties of the artificially aged samples. Select oil samples were analyzed through FTIR spectroscopy.

András Lajos Nagy, Ibolya Zsoldos
Smart Contracts in the Automotive Industry

The automotive industry has undoubtedly significantly changed our societies and daily life. It is among the most advanced, complicated, and innovative industries. The automotive industry is an essential driving factor of many other advanced industries, it requires the contribution of many other technologies like advanced manufacturing systems, cyber-physical systems, and robotics. Blockchain technology can be highly beneficial for the automotive industry, to enhance its data security, integrity and reliability, tracking and location management, enhanced connectivity, mobility-as-a-service, tamper prevention, and fraud detection. One of the emerging blockchain capabilities is smart contract enforcement and autonomy. In this article, a basic overview of smart contracts is given, early history, definition and concepts, relation with the blockchain, listing its benefits, data sources, design, and describing its importance, finally we highlighted some serious, outstanding and worth to mention steps toward activation and enabling the smart contracts and blockchain roles in the automotive industry specifically and the industry in general.

Olivér Hornyák, George Farid Alkhoury
A Review on the Differences Between Particle Emission, Filtration and Regeneration of Particulate Filters of Diesel and Gasoline Engines

The exhaust aftertreatment systems of diesel passenger cars have been equipped with diesel particulate filters since 2009 when the EURO 5 standard was introduced. This device is a trap for particulates, which originate from internal combustion engines in soot form. These particles must be filtered because they are able to enter the bloodstream through the human respiratory system and can cause an adverse effect on health. Investigations conducted after the 2016 diesel scandal concluded that gasoline engines with direct injection systems commonly in use today, also produce a high number of particles, therefore they must be equipped with gasoline particulate filters. The current EURO 6d TEMP regulation introduced in September 2017 specifies that the NEDC-regulation has to be replaced gradually with the WLTP investigation and the RDE realistic vehicle tests, thus making the real results of the measurements impossible to avoid. Also the particulate emission per one hundred kilometers will be observable in case of direct injection gasoline engines. This paper presents the formation of soot particles during the combustion processes of diesel and gasoline engines, the deposition of particles in particulate filters and explores and analyses the differences between the regeneration processes due to the deposition of particles.

Péter Nagy, Ibolya Zsoldos
Electromagnetic Emission Rates Between 2-Phase and 3-Phase Motors

In all departments of electronic design and manufacturing, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is one of the most important factors. As a part of a bigger project, we study BLDC motors. The main type has 2-phase stator winding, but another has 3-phase and this article is about comparing these two different motors with each other. The base of the comparison is EMC, even though we know in advance what results are possible. 3-phase windings are more symmetrical electrically, but we did not know in these cases exact numbers. In the first section, we introduce the project and BLDC motors briefly to understand what we work on. In the second section, our measuring method, arrangement, evaluation process will be written. Finally, the most important, our results and consequences will be also included, according to the title. Unless we do not have proper EMC measuring equipment, we are not possible to show proper emission numbers, but for comparing different versions of these motors, the method we used can work fine.

Dániel Erdősy, István Bodnár, Rafael Ruben Boros
Life Cycle Assessment of Traditional and Electric Vehicles

This paper presents the LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of traditional and electric vehicles. Among the traditional cars, we examined diesel, petrol, LPG, and CNG, as well as petrol hybrid and diesel hybrid cars. In case of analysis took into production (indirect) and in-use (direct) environmental emissions from a vehicle. While using traditional vehicles, direct emissions are higher than for electric vehicles. In contrast, the environmental impact categories from vehicle production show reverse proportionality. Among the cumulative impact categories, there is no large difference. Depending on the design life and mileage of the vehicles and how they are used, an electric car can pose an even greater environmental risk over its lifetime than a conventional car.

Rafael Ruben Boros, István Bodnár, Dávid Matusz-Kalász
Special Optimization Process for Warehouse Layout Design

Warehousing activity is essential for all manufacturing companies (final assemblers and suppliers) of the global supply chains. Warehouses are also key elements of global automotive supply chains because the optimal formation and operation of warehouses play important role in manufacturing companies in order to maintain and increase their competitiveness. Warehousing is one of the most important and cost-intensive logistical processes in which the main goal is to reduce costs and improve efficiency. Determination of the ideal warehouse layout is a special optimization process, not a typical mathematical optimization. Therefore, the warehouse layout design has many special characteristics. In the article, the detailed procedure and characteristics of the special optimization process of the warehouse layout design are described. Furthermore, the study also introduces the most commonly used objective functions, their calculation methods, and a large number of design constraints and limitations. The author elaborated a three-step method for defining the ideal warehouse layout which is also introduced in the paper. The main added-value of the study is, that a detailed procedure of the special optimization process of warehouse layout design was elaborated and described by the author. There is a gap in the existing literature in the research topic of the special optimization process of warehouse layout design because there is not available any article which especially discusses the complex and detailed procedure of the special optimization process in any depth.

György Kovács
Towards Ammonia Free Retrofitting of Heavy-Duty Vehicles to Meet Euro VI Standards

Heavy-Duty Vehicles (HDVs) account only for 4% of the vehicle population. However, they are responsible for almost 33% of EU greenhouse gas emissions and have a high contribution to climate change. Diesel engine Heavy- Duty vehicles exhaust gas contains pollutants, hence HDV emissions regulations are becoming more and more stringent worldwide. Furthermore, in lean combustion conditions of the diesel engine, an increased concentration of oxygen is produced, making the reduction of NOx challenging. Herein, a Catalytic Emission Control System (CECS) that is consisted of a Three-Way Catalyst (TWC), a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), an Oxygen Reduction System (ORS) and a Reduction Catalyst (RC) is presented. The aim of this CECS is to retrofit the exhaust system of various Pre-Euro up to Euro III HDVs. The Oxygen Reduction System (ORS) is a multi-tubular formation consisted of carbonate membranes that allow the permeation of oxygen, thus eliminating the use of the corrosive and dangerous ammonia (NH3) to improve the performance of the RC. The permeated oxygen can be either released to the atmosphere or used onboard to improve the efficiency of the engine utilizing the high O2 content. Lab experiments, on carbonate membranes, showed a permeation rate up to 75 μmol/sec, which is promising for utilization for ORS scale up applications.

I. I. Betsi-Argyropoulou, A. M. Moschovi, E. Polyzou, I. Yakoumis
Applying Sustainable Logistics in Industry 4.0 Era

Sustainability and Industry 4.0 are very common terms nowadays that are used in almost all areas. Industry 4.0 has wide influence and effect because of its numerous new applications that come from the recent technological revolution. That led to the intelligent technologies that were built on the internet and interconnecting several areas, linking the fields of information technology, artificial intelligence, logistics systems, and environmental engineering to each other. On the other side, sustainability is an inclusive term that includes many dimensions, covers many areas like economy, industry, human, environment, and energy. Therefore, there increasing interest in applying sustainability to reach a better world. Logistics area is significantly affected by Industry 4.0 in an accelerated way and there is persistent need to use these new technologies to support sustainability by increasing the efficiency, reliability, and flexibility all along with saving energy and time with protecting the environment. Within the frame of this paper, the authors present an approach that combines sustainability and Industry 4.0 in the logistics area. After an introduction and theoretical background talk about the circular economy, reverse logistics, sustainability, and industry 4.0, the authors show modern applications aiming to apply circular economy and reverse logistics to save data, collect, move and treat waste in order to reuse, recycle and regenerate materials and energy. Then, it is discussed the expected results and outcomes regarding those applications on different aspects like sustainability, environment, and economics.

Mohammad Zaher Akkad, Tamás Bányai

Design and Noise

Formulation of a Mathematical Model for the Prediction of Fatigue Life in the High Cycle Regime

Application of the concepts and procedures of verification, validation and uncertainty quantification with reference to a mathematical model formulated for the prediction of the fatigue life of structural and mechanical components in the high cycle regime are described. Such models are used for the formulation of design rules and estimating the probability of fatigue life remaining in support of condition-based maintenance (CBM) decisions.

Barna Szabó, Ricardo Actis
Experimental Investigation of Vibroacoustic Behaviour of an Automotive Turbocharger with Semi-floating Bearing

Due to the strict European emission standards and the constant aspiration for the higher power density, turbochargers became essential components of the modern internal combustion engines. Turbochargers are high-speed operating machines thus the design of the rotor and the bearing system requires special attention. The motions of the rotor are affected by several parameters, such as bearing design, clearances, structure of the surface and also the quality and the physical properties of the used lubricant. If the motions of the rotor are intensive in a wide rotational speed range, the bearing load increases, resulting in a reduced lifespan. The motion of the rotor induces vibrations, which leads to audible noise emission to the environment.In this article, the vibrations of a four-cylinder spark ignition engine’s turbocharger are presented, based on component test-bench experiments. Furthermore, the main vibration components and their influencing factors are briefly introduced. During the experiments, the noise and vibrations of the turbocharger have been measured with different viscosity grade oils from 20 °C to 140 °C inlet temperature. The results showed that the amplitudes of both the synchronous and subsynchronous vibrations changed significantly and the volumetric flow is highly dependent on the temperature. The effect of the changing oil temperature will be analyzed with an emphasis on the subsynchronous vibrations and the possible cause of the phenomenon will be presented. Finding the optimal parameters with the lowest possible vibration response could result in an extended lifetime and provides important information for the balancing process during production.

Balázs Rácz, Márk Pesthy, Péter Sass, Jan Rohde-Brandenburger
Passive Damping Techniques for Vibration Suppression in Boring Operation with Long Overhangs

Tool vibration is more critical in the machining of deep holes, where the tool overhang is greater, and, consequently, is the tendency to chatter. This work presents recent designs and dynamic models of boring bars with different passive damping configurations explored in the internal turning in deep holes using hardened materials, where tight tolerances and low surface roughness were always reached. Furthermore, its passive auxiliary systems increased the damping capacity of the tool with a varied physical mechanisms that dissipate mechanical energy.

Wallyson Thomas, Zsombor Fulop, Attila Szilágyi
Test Method for Investigation of Reactive Loads on Gear Drives with Supporting Function

Today’s vehicles typically have a number of gear drives in which small plastic gears provide power transmission. During the design of small dimensional plastic gear drives, the effect of reactive loads must be considered in all gear-pairs with supporting function. However, this effect must be tested according to the real loads. Typically affected units are the drives of the air conditioning and the rear-view mirrors. Reactive loads can come from the wind force and in the case of rear-view mirrors from the force of manual adjustment through direct pressing on the mirror, or from pressing the mirror during cleaning. In cases when the gears in the final step of the drive cannot be dimensioned to carry a load such that they are not adversely affected by such forces, the gear unit shall operate in the reverse energy direction. In this case, the inertia of all steps as well as the losses due to friction must also be taken into account in determining the design parameters. Bearings of small plastic gearboxes are typically very simple, so friction losses could be extremely high. In this article, we present experiments where, in the case of large gears with ratios above 1:300, the torque required for reverse rotation is investigated so that the gears are made with the same gears but with different bearings. The torque required for reverse rotation determines the maximum load exerted on the gear pair providing support function.

Ferenc Sarka, János Bihari, Ágnes Takács, Zsolt Tóbis
Analysis of Wear Curves as Sigmoid Functions

Sigmoid functions (growth function, logistic function, evolution function, etc.) are used in several fields of science to describe, study and forecast several phenomena of life. Since the sigmoid curves are nonlinear curves, the application of the Fisher- Pry transformation is used for calculating the regression coefficients of the approximated curves. In this paper, the nature of the investigated wear curve makes it necessary to compare the logistic curves and growth function curves. The process of the approximation is based on the principle of least squares: the minimum of the squared sum of differences is searched by the Nelder- Mead unconstrained minimization algorithm. The variables of the optimization are the parameters in the equation of the approximating function. The sigmoid curves can describe mainly the beginning phase and the normal wearing phase of the wear curve, the ending phase of the wear curve is a very quickly increasing function. Therefore on the basis of the results of this study, it could be possible to build a wear- monitoring system, in order to see and follow the differences between the sigmoid curve and the original wear curve, and if these differences are higher than a given limit, this could be the basis of some alert or warning, signaling the possible end of the lifetime.

Ferenc János Szabó
Utilization of Lessons Learned in Product Development

New product development is the engine of competitiveness in the automotive industry. Beyond the technical content, the success of a project is significantly influenced by management performance, procedures, and teamwork. Lessons learned within a project and between projects can reduce efforts, development time, and costs. This knowledge sharing contributes to company-level sustainability of success by preventing the reoccurrence of mistakes and errors. 105 experts filled a voluntary online survey about their opinion about lessons learned. Two-third of the respondents use any form of lessons learned. Shared files are evaluated as the most useful way of managing the information flow, followed by targeted databases. Cluster analysis explored three utilization patterns of lessons learned. A minority of the experts found that managing lessons learned are problematic to feasible, but they are the source of information. Next to them, an active and inactive user group is identified.

László Soltész, László Berényi
Comparison of Center of Gravity Height Estimation Methods

Well established vehicle models and simulation methods are more and more important in nowadays technical evolution. With the rise of learning-based techniques in self driving car research, simulated environments have rising importance.With the advances in vehicle dynamic softwares in the recent years, building models, and defining test cases getting easier, but finding the proper parameters for these vehicle models is usually very labor intensive. One of the most basic parameters of a vehicle model is its center of gravity height.This paper investigates different center of gravity height estimation methods. The goal is to get a picture about their accuracy, field of suitable application, required time, necessary technical equipment, financial and human resources. We also investigate the possible sources of inaccuracy, and developed procedures to avoid, or at least minimize those.Three types of estimation methods were examined. First, a static case, when the car is not moving, and the center of gravity height is calculated from the changes in the tire normal force during lifting one axle. These measurements can be carried out in a properly equipped workshop.Then two dynamic methods are described, where the car is moving and the center of gravity height is calculated from the logged data of an advanced measurement system, that makes possible to log tire normal forces, lateral or longitudinal accelerations, damper potentiometer displacements. These measurements require a lot of sensors in the chassis and suspension and a data logging system. Both calculation methods are based on the dynamic load transfer during accelerations. First, the changes in the measured tire normal forces during longitudinal or lateral accelerations were used to determine center of gravity height, and in the second dynamic case, the tire normal forces were not measured but estimated from damper potentiometers.The results confirm the widespread use of a well performed “lifted axle method”, as turns out to be an efficient choice, without the need for costly sensors and tools. A good comparison is also established about these estimation methods, and detailed procedures for each are developed to avoid mistakes during the different measurements.

Attila Widner, Gergely Bári
Numerical Solutions of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang Interface Growing Equation with Different Noise Terms

The one-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang dynamic interface growth equation with Gaussian noise and without noise term is analyzed in various initial conditions and its amplitudes. As an analytical point, there some initial conditions with noise term amplitude changes added. From the mathematical point of view, these can be considered as various amplitude distribution functions. Three different conditions and various amplitudes were investigated between Gaussian noise and without noise term. Numerical solutions are evaluated and analyzed for both cases.

Okhunjon Sayfidinov, Gabriella Vadászné Bognár
Effect of Cooling Channels to the Press Hardening Tools Temperature

Environmental and safety regulations strongly influence the developments in the automotive industry. To achieve the fuel-efficient vehicles with the safety standards it needed, higher strength material required. Because of this, the new high strength aluminium, and also the Ultra High Strength Steels (UHSS) like 22MnB5 become commonly used, particularly in the Body in White sheet metal part production.To achieve a complex shaped structural product from the Ultra High Strength boron steel, a hot stamping forming process needed. The manufacturing of the 22MnB5 sheet metal part has two phases. At first, the blank is heat treated to above 930 °C (to the austenitization temperature), after then a forming operation and a quenching operation (between the closed and cold dies) occur simultaneously. It can be seen the temperature in the viewpoint of the preheated blank, and the change of the temperature in the viewpoint of quenching plays an important role in the stamping process.The forming process for the new material is given, but because nowadays the finite element analysis becomes as a necessary step before manufacturing the tryout dies, the dedicated FE codes must also keep up with the developments. However, the reliability of the simulations strongly depends on the used constitutive models. An accurate description of the plastic behavior of the material can be complicated for a hot stamping process because of its strain rate and temperature dependence.At the end of the stamping process the preheated blank contact with the surface of the dies under pressure and due to the heat transfer, the temperature of the die elevated. In case of repetitive manufacturing cycles, the temperature elevation of die can lead to inadequate cooling speed and also inappropriate microstructure of the material. To avoid this phenomenon, cooling channels are applied. The present paper described the effect of the cooling channels to the die temperatures. For this purpose, simulations of hot stamping an A-pillar was carried out with different arranging cooling channels. The simulation was performed with AutoForm R8 FE code, by using thin shell elements.

Viktor Gál, Zsolt Lukács
Design and Testing of a Water Injection System of a Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine in Testbench Environment

In the scope of this article, the design and testing of a water injection system applicable for a spark ignition engine are presented. Increasingly stringent emission standards within the framework of EURO7 require either directly or indirectly the internal combustion engines to be optimized across the entire field of an engine map, therefore they must comply with the emission standards at each operating point. The greatest challenge is expected to be the Lambda = 1 operation on the full field. The conversion efficiency of the exhaust gas after treatment systems is the highest at this point, therefore it is foreseeable that no deviation can be made. As a result, fuel enrichment for performance enhancement and to protect components against thermal load will not be tolerated, so the resulting thermal loads will need to be reduced in other ways. It is possible to reduce the excess thermal loads by using water injection. Evaporation of water in the intake system and combustion chamber takes off heat and the temperature of the contacting components and fluids decreases. The affected components include pistons, combustion chamber, cylinder head, exhaust valves, exhaust manifold, turbine wheel, turbine housing, and as a medium, the temperature of the intake air. Reducing the temperature of some components is important in the aspect of mechanical strength, while for some components the knock limit can be extended. This article presents the detailed design process and testing phase of a water injection system. An important aspect in system design is compatibility with different engine layouts in a cost-effective manner. Injector nozzle testing also includes analysis of mass flow, dispersion and spray pattern. The scope of the work is the implementation of a water injection system, which is capable of performing measurements in testbench environment at the Department of Internal Combustion Engines and Propulsion Technology of Széchenyi István University.The result of the measurements is the successful cylinder selective application of water injection to the intake system, whereby the addition of water reduces the temperature of the intake air and the exhaust gas, which can be reduced to standard calibration temperature in Lambda 1, without fuel enrichment.

Máté Tóth, Attila Gyuris, Balázs Rácz, Péter Sass, Jan Rohde-Brandenburger
Method of Validating the Importance of Aerodynamic (Drag) Parameters for Electric Racing Environments

In the 21st century, electric cars are forging ahead on the streets and taking over the place of combustion cars in the traffic. This process can be observed in the world of motorsports too. In the world of open wheelers, Formula E has begun in 2014, and from 2020 this will be an official FIA World Championship while in the world of tin-top racecars, Electric Touring Car Championship (ETCR) will start in 2020 too. One of the key differences between combustion and electric cars are the energy usage. In electric car racing, there is much less energy stored compared to the power demand for a given time, also batteries used nowadays heats up heavily, resulting in the fact that both the stored energy and the temperature of the batteries can be limiting factors on the car performance. Considering these facts, by switching to electric race cars, we need to revise the priorities between the components of performance. This way the effect and importance of drag need to be revised, as it can have more influence on race results than in case of internal combustion engine powered racing. In this paper, a validated simulation model is presented, and based on this model the importance of drag is investigated. According to simulations a very little (1–2%) change in the drag coefficient of the car results countable, because it can be mean 3–4 tenths in laptime, can still result many places on the grid, and can cause big differences during an overtaking maneuver.

Gergely Szűcs, Gergely Bári, Gábor Sipos
Simulation Environment Developed for Advanced Suspension Design Methods

In the 20th century, a lot of methods were based on thumb rules in suspension design, a lot of terminologies were introduced, such as virtual swing arm, roll center, anti-dive, anti-squat, anti-lift. With these concepts, suspension design became easier to understand and visualize, also quantifying the so called anti-geometries and creating graphs about cambergain, roll center height, or toe gain in function of wheel travel became more straightforward.On the one hand, with the raise of computers, more and more tools became available for suspension design, and the motion of suspension can be calculated correctly and quickly. On the other hand, there is more information from tyres by measurements, so suspension design can focus on to maintain suspension values where tyres produce the highest grip.In this paper, a novel suspension design method is shown, based on in-plane acceleration direction (G-G direction), instead of the aforementioned characteristic-based methods. Also, a simulation environment is created that assists this method. In this environment, a multi-body suspension model is used that allows suspension kinematics and joint forces to be calculated as a function of the direction of in-plane acceleration, while in the past suspension parameters were calculated as function of wheel-to-chassis relative displacement. Acceleration and steering input from real, measured log data can also be added to this model, and normal forces at the tyre contact patches can be calculated too.

Gergely Szűcs, Gergely Bári
Validation of Formula Student Race Car Simulation Environment and Parameter Sensitivity to Race Results

Formula Student is a competition series for university teams who build their own formula style race cars according to Formula SAE rules. Teams who participate in this event have to design and build a car, and they also have to create the financial background to build the car and get to the competition. Thus, Formula Student is a project management competition too.From a project management point of view, both financial and human resources are limited. Therefore, every Formula Student team has to decide which parameters should they focus on, and which parameters are less important during the design phase of their race car. To make this decision easier, teams should do a parameter sensitivity analysis to know which parameter has the most effect on the results.For helping the above, this paper introduces a process about how a team can make a valid model of an electric FS race car and how to calculate the effect of different parameters on the amount of points to be earned. It is also shown, how they can decide which parameters of the car are important and which ones have less effect on the car’s performance.

Gergely Szűcs, Zakariás Erõsdi, Gergely Bári, János Papp
CFD Analyzes of an Axial Fan

The main objective of this study is to determine the flow in and around a cooling fan of an automotive engine by means of CFD computations using the commercial software package ANSYS Fluent. Two distinct external disturbances are applied: external flow characterized by the in-flow velocity U and covering plates placed on the suction side of the fan. Two sets of computations are carried out: (1) when U is varied between U = 0 and 72 km/h without the covering plate and (2) by covering the full or half of the suction side of the fan at U = 0 km/h. The covering plates represent the structural elements that cover the flow in front of the fan due to its installation. In both external disturbance cases, the aerodynamic noise and force on the axial fan are analyzed. The results show that the aerodynamic noise increases with U and the maximum acoustic sound power is located at the edge of the blade on the pressure side of the fan. By employing covering, the acoustic power level on the suction side increases on the particular blades behind the plate.

Betti Bolló
Robotic Production Oriented Engine Design and Manufacturing

Unmanned, fully robotic manufacturing is one of the trends in Industry 4.0 industrial revolution. To achieve this, the entire product design must prepare for it and the manufacturing and assembly process must be subjected to work without human labor. The article describes the construction of an innovative rotary piston internal combustion engine, which, due to its simplicity and optimized design for standard production equipment, can be easily manufactured and assembled on a production line using only robotic service. The first part of the paper describes the design of the engine structure, while the second part shows the structure of the unmanned automated production line. The innovative engine construction applies standard involute gears as working elements and simple engine body assembly. The advantage of the construction beside the clear rotary motions is the smooth operation owing to the many mating tooth pairs that form working cavities. Due to the simplicity of the parts, the production on automated manufacturing and assembly lines is easy.

Rabab Benotsmane, László Dudás
Experimental Investigation of the Air-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient on Louver Finned Tube Automotive Radiator

In this article, we experimentally and analytically studied the heat transfer characteristics of a louver finned automotive radiator. These automotive radiators are one of the most critical devices in the engine cooling systems. These are fluid-gas type heat exchangers, where the fluid phase is cooling fluid, which heated in the engine block, and the gas phase is air from the wind edge. These radiators are commonly used in every vehicle from the simplest scooter to the trucks, but their size is highly depending on the performance of the engine. This study would like to summarize the theoretical background of the louver finned heat exchangers, to show the expressions to calculate the heat performance of the constructions. For the measurements, an experimental setup was made. The airflow provided by fans. In the function of the frequency of the current, the mass flow rate across the fan can be variable. From the results of the measurements, an analytical calculation method can be developed, which fitted to the empirical results.

Máté Petrik, Antal Erdős, Károly Jármai, Gábor Szepesi
Cutting and Hauling Mining Adapter for Dimension Stone

The MIOCÉN project aims to develop a small volume mining production and transport adapter. The mining tool to be developed for both production and transport can reduce the number of machines to be used in the mine. It is planned to reduce the expenses of mining businesses, which include mining operations and costs of maintenance. During the extraction of the block stone, the cut rock material can be lifted and moved with the help of the product. Based on technology, the adapter can be divided into two main machine units. One is the rock chain saw unit combined with a feed consisting of hydraulic cylinders for feeding and rotating and a hydraulic rotating unit. The other is used to support and stiffen the first main machine unit during slotting. This paper shows a prototype of a dimension stone mining adapter. The prototype adapter is under design protection.

Zoltán Virág, Géza Fülöp, Viktor Géza Fülöp


Optimum Design of Solar Sandwich Panels for Satellites Applications

The aim of the article was to verify the optimum design of solar sandwich panels for microsatellites applications. The sandwich panel consists of aluminum honeycomb core and aluminum materials facesheets. In this study, a methodology for a combined weight and/or cost optimization for sandwich panel with aluminum facesheets and honeycomb core is presented. The fmincon Solver Constrained Nonlinear Minimization/Interior Point Algorithm was used to solve the single objective function the weight or the cost of the honeycomb sandwich panel. The Multiobjective optimization technique was applied to minimize the weight and the cost of the sandwich panel included the Weighted Normalized Method with Excel Solver program and Genetic Algorithm Solver with Pareto front in Matlab program. The weight and/or the cost of the sandwich panel are the objective functions subjected to required constraints based on total stiffness (bending and shear stiffness), total deflection (bending and shear deflection), facing skin stress (bending load), core shear stress, facing skin stress (end loading), overall panel buckling (critical bending and shear buckling load), shear crimping load, skin wrinkling (critical stress and load) and intracell buckling (facesheet dimpling). The design variables are thicknesses of core and facesheets. The use of sandwich construction results in light structure.

Alaa Al-Fatlawi, Károly Jármai, György Kovács
Survey on New Trends of Robotic Tools in the Automotive Industry

In the last decade, industrial robotics sector has known an evolution at level of its technological platform, especially with the appearance of Industry 4.0, therefore we are entering a new era of automation where intelligent production and digital factories produce increasingly complex and high-volume quality products with less human effort. The automotive industry which is already revolutionizing the transition to electric cars has to deal with the change in construction and the tools used to produce them. The use of evermore collaborating intelligent robots with machines and humans of smart manufacturing and assembly lines represents a new level of development in automation. This article provides an overview of the latest tools, directions and intelligent methods available today in this area, from virtual reality to wearable machine intelligence devices for human-driven systems, all the while focusing on robotic applications. Describes the latest industry trends in each field, by highlighting detection systems designed to achieve security, response speed, detection completeness, and reliability, introducing security vision systems of robotic systems, ultrasonic and laser sensors and their efficiency issues. In the final stage, the paper will compare the state of the art in automotive robotics by analyzing the development of leading car manufacturers in Europe, the United States and the Far East.

Rabab Benotsmane, László Dudás, György Kovács
Trial - and - Error Optimization Method of Pick and Place Task for RV-2AJ Robot Arm

In recent years, industrial robots have played an important role in the revolution of a production line in factories, and especially in the growth of Industry 4.0 concept, due to their flexibility to execute tasks and cooperate with their environment fluently, today manipulator arms takes a large part in the production chain especially in the automotive sector where the robot can be configured due to the control terminal for the different task process as welding, painting, pick and place heavy parts. Manipulator arm used in the industry is usually combined 6 degrees of freedom to have a large workspace and manipulation capability. In this article we present an optimization approach regarding a pick and place application for RV-2AJ robot arm which has five degrees of freedom in order to execute different movements, the approach aims to build a card house using one manipulator arm and a support element. Trial – and – error optimization method proposed in this article highlights a good solution regarding the positioning problem for RV-2AJ arm, which has five degrees of freedom that limits its workspace.

Rabab Benotsmane, László Dudás, György Kovács
Optimization Algorithms for Inverse Kinematics of Robots with MATLAB Source Code

This work presents a methodology to solve the inverse kinematic problem for any kind of robot arm using optimization algorithms. Forward kinematic is usually a straightforward analysis for any robot while inverse kinematic is hard to be solved for many cases. Thus, depending on a set of the forward kinematic equation, the objective function can be formulated to be minimized to find the inverse position. This methodology makes the inverse kinematic very simple operation for all types of the robot, even for those who are complicated with a high degree of freedom. A particle example of 5DOF revolute joint arm was used to present this methodology with source code written in MATLAB for the objective function. Dynamic differential optimization algorithm DDAO was used to minimize the objective. DDAO has promising usage for embedded systems when prototyping a controller that estimates the inverse kinematic as per user request.

Hazim Nasir Ghafil, Károly Jármai
Newer Manufacturing Technologies and Their Costs in Automotive Structures, A Review

The costs of a construction consisting of material, production, transport, installation and maintenance costs. The manufacturing costs of welded structures include cutting, preparation (assembly and stitching), welding, ancillary (electrode changing, deslagging, cleaning) and painting costs. In this paper, a review is made to show some newer manufacturing technologies and their cost calculation opportunities. To calculate the costs for comparison purposes, we rely on internationally measured times and multiply them by a variable cost factor.

Károly Jármai


Application of Laser-Arc Hybrid Welding to Thick Steel Plates for Bridge Structures

For examining the application of laser-arc hybrid welding to the fabrication of steel bridge members, a series of experiment and investigation was conducted. The weld cracking tests were performed on the steels for bridge structural members with 15 mm in thick for identifying the welding condition by which one-pass full-penetration welding without cracks and defects was achieved. Then, butt welded joints were fabricated by the specified condition. The same dimensional butt joints were fabricated by the conventional arc welding. The welding time, heat input, welding distortion and residual stress generated by the hybrid welding were compared with those by the conventional arc welding for clarifying the effectiveness of hybrid welding. The welding time of hybrid welding was shorter than that of arc welding by 98% due to the high-speed welding. Because of the low heat input and the one-pass full-penetration welding, the angular distortion by hybrid welding was reduced by 96% compared to that by arc welding. The field of tensile stress in the longitudinal direction by hybrid welding was reduced by 25% to 50% compared to that of arc welding. Finally, it was confirmed that the hybrid welded joints did not include the weld defects and satisfied the basic mechanical performances.

Mikihito Hirohata, Natsumi Sakai, Kuya Morioka, Naoyuki Matsumoto, Kengo Hyoma, Koutarou Inose
Research on Laser Beam Welding of Nickel

A study of weld joints of nonferrous, Nickel 201 alloy sheets using a new generation disk laser as the green welding technology for effective manufacturing was carried out, and the results are presented in this paper. Weld joints of the Nickel 201 sheets 2.0 mm thick were welded by laser without an additional material at a flat position, using high purity argon as the shielding gas. The influence of laser welding parameters on weld quality and mechanical properties of test joints was studied. The influence of welding speed and laser power to the joint quality was investigated. The study of quality and mechanical properties of the joints were determined by metallographic evaluation, tensile and hardness tests.

Ingrid Kovaříková, Beáta Šimeková, Erika Hodúlová, Jozef Bárta, Pavel Kovačócy
Arc Sensor Parameter Optimisation for Robot Welding

In this article, the authors present the arc sensor supported robot welding process and the task of the sensor in the welding practice. Arc welding is a very important industrial process. The welded joint needs to be high quality besides the high productivity and cost-effective manufacturing. The joint quality depends on the welding process realization and the used welding parameters. The sensor in the case of the robot welding process supports the regularity of the joint. The arc sensor on the base of the welding currents checking during the welding process continually corrects the arc position by the correction of the robot control. The checking intensity of the sensor depends on the data input range what is determined by the sensor control parameters (weaving and correction condition).In this research by a practical experimental method, the sensor condition optimization is introduced in the case of the used Motoman welder robot and the used advanced arc sensor.

Abdallah Kafi, Tünde Anna Kovács
Experimental Study of Electron Beam Welding of Inconel Alloy

The scope of this study is to ascertain the weldability of Inconel 625 alloy sheets using an electron beam welding method. Weld joints of the Inconel alloy sheets 2.0 mm thick were welded by an electron beam without an additional material at a flat position. The influence of electron beam welding parameters on weld quality and mechanical properties of test joints was studied. The study of quality and mechanical properties of the joints were determined by metallographic evaluation, tensile and hardness tests.

Ingrid Kovaříková, Beáta Šimeková, Ján Urminský, Pavel Kovačócy, Erika Hodúlová
Investigation of Thermal Effects of Flame Straightening on High-Strength Steels

The use of high-strength steels in the automotive industry is increasing. In many cases, the use of flame straightening to reduce deformation after welding is unavoidable in the manufacture of trailers, semitrailers, heavy vehicles, earthmoving machinery, military bridges etc. Due to the not very concentrated but relatively high temperature heat source, the process can cause significant changes in the microstructure which can endanger the safe use of these steels. This may be particularly true for the high-strength steels tested, for which we have very little experience and concrete measurement results. Due to the different thermal-physical properties of the flammable gases, the resulting heat effect varies depending on the gas and technology used. Nowadays, there is a lack of studies that analyse the effect of these types of heat cycles. During our experiments, we investigate the changes of the microstructure and mechanical properties caused by heat effect on unalloyed structural and high strength steels (S355J2+N, S690QL). The situation is complicated by the fact that manual technology typically also carries a high risk of local overheating, which can cause heat effects that are too long in time and/or too high temperature. In addition to the direct thermal effect study, a Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical physical simulator was used to perform thermal cycles measured during the technology. Two heating flames (acetylene/oxygen, propane/oxygen), three characteristic peak temperatures (1000 °C, 800 °C and 675 °C) and two types of cooling conditions (air cooling and intensive water cooling) were studied. Both the real direct thermal effect study and physical simulation showed a clear negative effect of overheating and intensive water cooling for the exanimated steels.

László Gyura, Marcell Gáspár, András Balogh
High Cycle Fatigue Resistance of 700 MPa and 960 MPa Strength Categories High Strength Steels and Their Gas Metal Arc Welded Joints

High cycle fatigue tests were performed on two strength categories (700 MPa and 960 MPa) of high strength steels, on quenched and tempered (Q+T) and on thermomechanical (TM) types, on base materials and their welded joints, as well as on different mismatch conditions (matching (M), undermatching (UM), overmatching (OM), and matching/overmatching (M/OM)). Specimens cut and in full machined from base materials and welded joints, furthermore cut from welded joints were tested. Measured and analyzed data were compared and discussed. Statistical approach was applied during the evaluation of the experiments, which have been allowed for the expansion of the results and increasing their reliability. The parameters of the high cycle fatigue strength or design curves were calculated based on the Japanese (JSME) testing and evaluating method, which uses basically 14 specimens. The article presents and evaluates our results, comparing with each other and with literary data.

János Lukács, Haidar Faisal Helal Mobark, Ádám Dobosy
Vehicle and Automotive Engineering 3
Prof. Dr. Károly Jármai
Dr. Katalin Voith
Copyright Year
Springer Singapore
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN

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