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Visualising Safety, an Exploration

Drawings, Pictures, Images, Videos and Movies

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About this book

This open access book explores the role visual tools and graphical models play in safety management. It explains the importance of visualising safety, for teaching concepts, communicating ideas to peers, and raising awareness of potential threats through posters.

Visualising Safety, an Exploration introduces graphical models which have been influential in promoting ideas of safety, and impacting the organisational design of safety mechanisms, including the Heinreich ‘safety pyramid’ and Reason’s ‘Swiss Cheese’. It analyses these models, as well as other forms of visualization, presenting viewpoints from academics and practitioners in the fields of safety science, history, ethnography and interface design.

This brief will be of interest to anyone working in the field of safety management and design, including researchers, managers and students.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 1. Visualising Safety
An Exploration
Abstract
Safety research and practice has struggled with how to describe, define and represent safety in order to improve understanding or to communicate its importance. Though visual representations are widely used, little research on visualisation and its impact has been undertaken. We provide a brief overview of existing work in this area, in areas including cognitive engineering and ethnography, and provide an introduction to the chapters that constitute this volume on the visualisation of safety.
Jean-Christophe Le Coze, Teemu Reiman

Open Access

Chapter 2. Drawings, Posters and Metaphors in Safety Science: Some Historical Remarks
Abstract
Safety visualisations and their influences on safety concepts are presented. Visualisations like safety posters show a clear message of fear and guilt. This changes after World War II, due to a more tolerant atmosphere. Latent, organisational factors as decisive elements of accident processes appear in visualisations. An example shows a method to follow accident scenarios in real time.
Paul Swuste, Peter Schmitz, Karolien van Nunen, Genserik Reniers

Open Access

Chapter 3. Educating Nuclear Workers Through Images: The Work of Jacques Castan, Illustrator of Radiation Protection in the 1960s
Abstract
In France, the first industrial-scale nuclear reactors were built by the French Atomic Energy Commission at Marcoule during the fifties. Most of the staff who were recruited at the time knew nothing about such risks, and their inexperience made it difficult to protect them. In response, the Radiation Protection Service (SPR) developed a worker education programme. Its implementation drew upon the artistic talents of Jacques Castan, a draftsman of the SPR. This study highlights its contribution to worker education and showcases how its illustrations have captured the imaginary of the radiation protection. The focus on a series of posters dedicated to dosimetry devices identifies three elements—anxiety, anthropomorphism, sublimation—which represent an ambiguous relationship to radioactive risk. Such ambiguity can be compared to Girard’s definition of the “sacred”.
Aurélien Portelli, Frédérick Lamare, Sébastien Travadel, Franck Guarnieri

Open Access

Chapter 4. Ways of Seeing (and Not Seeing) Safety
Abstract
This chapter seeks to offer some explanation for the ubiquity of different types of visual representations in safety science. In particular, the chapter focuses on what these tell us about the thinking of safety researchers and practitioners, as well as how diagrams and other visual material influence their use of safety methods and tools.
Patrick Waterson

Open Access

Chapter 5. Representations, Metaphors and Slogans: From Organisational Safety to Societal Resilience
Abstract
We discuss what it is with representations of safety that makes them so powerful, and what is at stake when representations travel across contexts and scales. The discussion uses the sharp end/blunt end metaphor as a central case.
Torgeir Kolstø Haavik

Open Access

Chapter 6. Visualising for Safety or Visualisation of Safety?
Abstract
This chapter considers whether it is possible to visualise safety as a word, a construct, or a concept. It analyses both the instrumental approach of visualising for safety (the use of visual means as a help to make systems safe) and the ontological issue of visualisation of safety (the use of visual means to show what safety is). It is suggested that the answer depends on whether safety is defined as the absence of unacceptable outcomes (Safety-I) or as the presence of acceptable outcomes (Safety-II).
Erik Hollnagel

Open Access

Chapter 7. Visualizing Complex Industrial Operations Through the Lens of Functional Signatures
Abstract
In this chapter, the concept of functional signatures is presented as a way to understand complex industrial operations. Visualization of functional signatures can be used to improve tractability of complex operations, which can be valuable for safety analysis. Two techniques for visualizing functional signatures are presented: (1) cyclic functional signatures and (2) linear functional signatures. Both techniques are seen as valuable and selection of technique can be left to user preference. The two visualization techniques are demonstrated through an application of an ice management operation for an offshore petroleum installation performed in a simulated ship environment.
Doug Smith, Brian Veitch, Arash Fassihozzaman Langroudi

Open Access

Chapter 8. Anticipating Risk (and Opportunity): A Control Theoretic Perspective on Visualization and Safety
Abstract
A central challenge in designing stable control systems is to identify the states that must be fed back to enable successful control. The quality of control (including safety) depends on our ability to visualize the state space underlying the functional dynamics of the work being managed. Building concrete visualizations is both a useful tool for knowledge elicitation with domain experts to discover the meaningful functional work constraints that determine this state space, and an essential part of interface design to support safe work in complex systems.
John M. Flach

Open Access

Chapter 9. Occupational Safety in Revamping Operations: Visualising Spaces to Monitor Uncertainty
Abstract
Deployed from 2009, the purpose of the Design Safety approach is, “to put in place the technical and/or organisational resources to reduce the risks incurred by those involved during the construction phase” (Mbaye and Saliou 2014). We seek to understand the role of spatial visualisation and workplace situations in risk prevention. A field study was conducted over a three-year period, suggesting that Design Safety involves strategic decision-making during upstream project phases, combined with operational decision-making during downstream phases, each with an impact on safety. In this context, the work of designers should be supported by specific artefacts (databases of photographs, technical documentation, 3D visualisation, etc.) to give them a better understanding of the workplace situation and visibility in terms of the risks incurred by the workers.
Charles Stoessel, Raluca Ciobanu

Open Access

Chapter 10. Network Visualisation in Supply Chain Quality and Safety Assurance of a Nuclear Power Plant Construction Project
Abstract
Supply chain quality and safety assurance aims to proactively create and maintain prerequisites for nuclear safety in the supply chain. An important task is being aware of the structure of the entire supply chain and how it affects safety. In this chapter, the authors describe how a network visualisation method was developed and used in supply chain quality and safety assurance of a nuclear power plant construction project.
Kaupo Viitanen, Teemu Reiman

Open Access

Chapter 11. Visualization for the Safe Occupation of Workspaces
Abstract
Through the example of the underground construction site for the extension of the Parisian subway, it will be analysed how, in this fluctuating, dark environment, visualization help to maintain safety requirements. How does visualization help with work? Based on the observation that pictorial representation can be used to drive and organize activities, this chapter will highlight the ways in which these visual artefacts advance safety in three ways, by helping participants inhabit, discuss, and synchronize their workspaces.
Elsa Gisquet, Gwenaële Rot

Open Access

Chapter 12. Screening Workplace Disaster: The Case of Only the Brave (2017)
Abstract
Media influence how we define and engage with our world, shaping our interpretations, attitudes, behaviours. Feature films in which work-related injuries, deaths, and disasters are the storylines can convey occupational safety messages to large, diverse audiences. Films can entertain, act as “powerful” and “poignant” memorials to workers, heighten peoples’ awareness of events, and even deepen their understanding of the causes of workplace disasters. However, it is unclear how films actually represent the complexities of workplace injury and industrial disaster. We examined the film Only the Brave (di Bonaventura, Luckinbill (Producers), Kosinski (Director) in Only the Brave [Motion Picture] (Columbia Pictures, United States, 2017)), which recounts the story of the deaths of 19 wildland firefighters in America. In particular, we examine how the film portrays workplace disaster and the factors which  led up to the event. We discuss some strengths and limitations of feature films as a form of visualizing workplace disaster.
Shane M. Dixon, Tim Gawley

Open Access

Chapter 13. Post-script: Visualising Safety
Abstract
This concluding chapter on visualisation for, and of, safety, weaves together ideas put forward by the volume’s contributors. It analyses how visualisations and their role have changed over time, their co-evolution with key concepts in safety science and impact on cognitive representations built by practitioners, whether success should be assessed by level of adoption or by impacts on safety outcomes. A number of open questions for future research are outlined.
Teemu Reiman, Jean-Christophe Le Coze
Metadata
Title
Visualising Safety, an Exploration
Editors
Jean-Christophe Le Coze
Teemu Reiman
Copyright Year
2023
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-33786-4
Print ISBN
978-3-031-33785-7
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-33786-4

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