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2021 | Book

Wastewater Technologies and Environmental Treatment

Proceedings of the ICWTET2020


About this book

This proceedings book provides the latest developments on water as a unique resource that can meet the fundamental needs of human beings and ecosystems. Wastewater generated in industrial, commercial, residential and sensible places must take care as it may pollute the ground and surface water if not treated properly. Environmental pollution discharged from industrial, commercial, residential and sensible places must take care as it may pollute the air, water and land if not treated properly. Most of the design and development of wastewater technologies and environmental treatment were unable to take load as there is huge amount of wastewater and environmental pollution that was generating every day. This threatens the sustainable development, and it needs to solve in accurate, reliable, urgent and timely. Our interest is sustainable innovative and technological transfer approaches which can be used available for supporting, operationalizing and delivering sustainable wastewater technologies and environmental treatment. The authors hope that the book covers possible spectrum of wastewater technologies and environmental treatment to high level of environmental protection, clean and green management lessons, identifies the barriers for transformative change and then informs agenda and initiatives for the sustainable development. ICWTET2020 is dedicated to wastewater technologies and environmental treatment, with a focus on the high level of environmental protection. The aim of the ICWTET2020 is to disseminate current knowledge and sustainable development, share experience and lessons learned and stimulate discussion and reflection, thus promoting a sustainable paradigm shift. The final purpose is to contribute transformative change towards sustainable development through dissemination of sustainable wastewater technologies and environmental treatment.

Table of Contents

Effects of Argillaceous Shale Efflorescence on Soil Water Content and Soil Properties in Newly-Increased Farmland
In the land remediation of the Weibei Loess Plateau, a large number of argillaceous shale efflorescence was mixed with newly-increased farmland soil. To study the effect on soil water content in newly-increased farmland by argillaceous shale efflorescence, a mixture of argillaceous shale efflorescence and local loess, ancient soil was researched in this study to investigate its effect on soil water in two types of soil. The results showed that the addition of argillaceous shale efflorescence could slow the infiltration of loessial soil to a certain extent and improve the water holding performance; while the argillaceous shale efflorescence could accelerate the infiltration of soil water to a certain extent after adding to the clayey ancient soil. The argillaceous shale could also improve the quality of the newly cultivated land and has potential application value for improving the soil texture.
Qiguang Dong, Na Li, Yufei Xiong, Jing He
New Methodological Approach to Water Purification from Long-Lived Radionuclides and Heavy Metals Under Emergency Conditions
The presented research results show a possibility of using a synthesized sorption material impregnated with iron (III) oxyhydroxide and manganese (IV) dioxide fixed on a polyurethane foam sheet and forming a nanostructure in the whole volume of this sheet. The above material can be used for the purposes of water purification from radionuclides and heavy metals to reach the level of potable water. The research was carried out using: (1) model systems obtained by mixing metal salt solutions and radionuclides: (Pb2+—5 mg/l, Hg2+—1 mg/l, Cd2+—10 mg/l, Cu2+—50 mg/l, 238U—10 mg/l, 137Cs—100 Bq/l, 242Pu—5 Bq/l) and (2) water samples from surface water reservoirs. When compared, the two methods of purifying model water samples (sorption and co-precipitation) show consistent results. The residual content of the introduced metals and radionuclides varied within the error of the techniques of sample preparation and detection. However, the application of the developed sorbent showed considerable advantages due to its rapidity and ability to simplify the water purification process which is especially valuable for the application under field conditions. The suggested scheme of water purification can be used for effective water treatment including the conditions of emergencies.
Lydia Bondareva, Nataliia Fedorova
Analysis of the Effects of Flood Control Constructions for Harbin Under Different Typical Historical Flood Conditions
The effectiveness of two reservoirs constructed for flood control for Harbin were analyzed using historical flood data. These analyses demonstrated that the effectiveness of Baishan and Fengman reservoirs vary with the type of flood. They significantly reduced flood peaks when the flood mainly came from the basin above Fengman reservoir, while they had little effect when the flood mainly came from the upper and middle reaches of Nen River. The multi-reservoirs in the Nen river basin and Second Songhuajiang river basin contributed minimally to flood control for Harbin. Pangtoupao and Yueliangpao retention basins played important roles in flood control for Harbin. However, analysis of recent rainfall data of the area indicates that rainfall intensity in the flood season has significantly increased compared with that in the 2000s. Consequently these flood control projects cannot meet future flood control requirements of Harbin.
Gongxun Guan, Changchun Ding, Ming Gao, Lei Zhang
Global Bibliometric Analysis of Research Activities on Plant Defense Against Abiotic Stresses from the Web of Science (2005–2017)
Agriculture is fundamental for food production. The aim of modern agriculture is to improve or maintain food quality and production without exerting any negative influence on the environment. However, crops grow in a complex environment, and they suffer adverse effects from external factors. Non-biological factors (e.g., drought, low temperature, high temperature, heavy metals) can cause abiotic stress in plants, resulting in physiological injuries in plants and eventually leading to reduced plant productivity. To combat abiotic stress, plants have developed complex defense mechanisms in their growing stages. Therefore, understanding these defense mechanisms can help prevent crop yield losses. In this study, a bibliometric analysis of abiotic stress was conducted based on the Web of Science database. Different aspects of publications, including publication type, research field, journal type, country and its institutions, frequencies of keyword occurrence, and plant species in abiotic stress research, were analyzed. Results showed that abiotic stress research is flourishing worldwide, and the number of publications is increasing yearly. The journals selected by authors to publish their outputs are all related to plants, with the Journal of Experimental Botany being the most influential. From a global perspective, countries are in close cooperation on abiotic stress research. According to the results of keyword analysis, rice, wheat, tobacco, maize, and tomato are the most studied plant species. And drought, high salt, active oxygen, and heavy metals are found to induce abiotic stress more than other factors. In conclusion, sustained efforts have been made by the scientific community in the field of abiotic stress with the purpose of understanding, regulating, and controlling the negative effects of abiotic stress on plants.
Jian Zheng, Zhengjiang Feng, Chuanyuan Zhu, Xingyun Qi, Yan Wang, Jian Wang
Inactivation of Bioaerosols in Dentist Clinic by Carbon Nanotube Discharge Plasma
This work aimed to apply carbon nanotube discharge plasma system to explore the feasibility of inactivating bacterial bioaerosols in dentist clinic environments. A dentist clinic operating environment in a medical center had been chosen as the testing indoor environment. The nanotube carbon plasma device with operating voltages of 6.0 kV was used for evaluating the bioaerosol inactivating ability of this plasma system. The results showed that bacterial bioaerosol concentration in the test environment is 815–1,518 CFU/m3. When using the nanotube carbon discharge plasma system, the bacterial bioaerosol concentration would decrease 70% with 120 min system working. The overall space bioaerosol inactivating ability is about 70%. These results indicated that carbon nanotube discharge plasma system had the effective ability on airborne bacterial bioaerosols inactivating.
Hsiao-Chien Huang, Ying-Fang Hsu, Shinhao Yang, Chi-Yu Chuang, Wei-Ting Liu
Spatial Distribution and Temporal Trends of Monthly Precipitation Concentration in Poyang Lake Basin
The study on monthly distribution of annual precipitation is of great significance to drought or flood and water resources management. The 14-station monthly rainfall data in the Poyang Lake basin from 1957 to 2012 was collected. To analyze the distribution of monthly precipitation, the Precipitation Concentration Degree (PCD) and Precipitation Concentration Period (PCP) were adopted. Moreover, the modified Mann-Kendall (MMK) was applied to find the trend of precipitation concentration indices. It shows that these indices are applicable in this basin. The precipitation concentration detected by the PCD gradually increased from southwest to northeast in this basin. The variation range of precipitation concentration period is from early April to mid-June, with a downward trend from the west part to the east part. The precipitation concentration index shows an insignificant decrease trend in most of parts in this basin. Additionally, the result of the PCP shows an insignificant delay trend.
Liying Xiao, Guiqing Gao, Weilin Liu, Yong Ji
Preliminary Research on Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Characteristics of River Waters in the Source Region of the Yangtze River and the Lancang River
By surveying and evaluating the δD and δ18O values of the water in the source region of the Yangtze River and the Lancang River, the characteristics of the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope composition have been analyzed. The results showed that the ranges of δD and δ18O values varied from −126.28‰ to −47.96‰ and −16.77‰ to −7.13‰. The standard deviation of δD and δ18O value are 18.58‰ and 2.34‰. The stability of δ18O value is better than δD. Atmospheric precipitation is the principal source of river water supply in the region. The Local Meteoric Water Line equation is δD = 7.73 δ18O + 4.81 (R2 = 0.96, n = 19). Due to strong evapotranspiration, its slope and intercept are smaller than the Global Meteoric Water Line. The strong evapotranspiration in the source regions causes most of the d-excess to be negative, and the ice-snow melt water replenishment feature causes some d-excess to be positive. δD and δ18O values in the source regions exhibited certain latitude effect and continental effect.
Liangyuan Zhao, Wei Deng, Min Liu, Yuan Hu, Lingxian Xie
Evaluating Remanufacturing Lithium-Ion Batteries
Waste management of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) after retirement is worrying as the wide application of electric vehicles. More and more attention has been paid to the remanufacturing of LIBs, because it can reduce the environmental burden of spent LIBs and the risk of raw materials supply when remanufacturing LIBs. This paper use the life cycle assessement to evaluate the environmental impacts and employ the process-based cost model to calculate the economic influence. Results show that remanufacturing NCM111 battery with pyrometallurgical recycling method could decrease the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission by 4.76% and reduce costs by 8.11%. In addition, this study uses sensitivity analysis method to analyze the influence of battery types. The cost of remanufacturing NCM811 is the least among three types of LIBs, which costs 19.72 dollars per cell. Remanufacturing NCM622 emits the most GHG among three types of LIBs, which emits 11,009.75 g GHG per cell. In a word, remanufacturing LIBs is environmentally-friendly and commercially-profitable.
Meihan Yu, Bo Bai, Xiaoming Ma
Design and Utilization of Heritage Resources in Chongqing Air-Raid Shelter Project During the Anti-Japanese War
The heritage resources of the air-raid shelter project in Chongqing during the Anti-Japanese War have built the spiritual soul of the city, and should respond to its effective regeneration design and utilization, and lead the optimization of its air defense value, social value, cultural value, and commercial value with the continuation of the spirit. Make it fully integrated with environmental functions in the regeneration design, and enhance the environmental value of the area where it is located.
KaiGe Liu, DeXiang Deng, Xi Zhou, JiaNi Liang
Design of Express Packaging Recycling System Based on Sustainable Concept
In recent years, global warming, excessive consumption of resources, and pollution of air and water resources have threatened the survival and development of human society. The rise of online shopping in China has stimulated the utilization rate of express packaging, and at the same time has resulted in the waste of express packaging, the phenomenon of faults in the recovery system consumes a lot of resources and runs counter to green economy and green development. This article is based on the concept of sustainable development, starting from the entire system of express packaging recycling, combining consumer needs, transportation processes, and corporate incentives, and discussing the “interactive ritual chain” of express packaging recycling based on the “green treasure box” Design the system.
Xi Li, Xi Zhou, DeXiang Deng, MengNan Wang
Application of Sediment Fluidization by High Frequent Mechanical Vibrations into Slurry Transport
Friction reduction of sediment-transporting pipeline is very important in dredging engineering. Because of the two rheological behaviors of cohesive sediments, shear-thinning and thixotropy, cohesive sediments can usually be fluidized by the shear load which enables easier transportation of cohesive sediments and produces greater mobility of the sedimentary bed. This paper investigated the effect of the application of sediment fluidization by high frequent mechanical vibrations on the viscosity and transportation property of sludge and slurry using the method of settling ball and capillary rheometer respectively. The experimental results indicate that the high frequent mechanical vibrations can greatly influence the viscosity and the transport velocity of slurry. The vibrations applied on the sludge induce the mutual collision of the sediment particles which can break the bond between particles, so that the fine sediment bulk or sludge of high viscosity becomes a kind of slurry fluid which has quite low viscosity and good flow ability. Moreover, the effect of the vibration on the sediments decreases with the increasing distance to the vibration source, i.e., the closer the sediments to the vibration source, the lower the viscosity are. Meanwhile, the slurry velocity increases with the vibration duration until it reaches a stable value. Finally, two applications of the technique of sediment liquefaction are introduced in shortly.
Wenkai Wang, Guoliang Yu, Minxi Zhang
Wastewater Technologies and Environmental Treatment
Prof. Dr. Rosemary M. Gutierrez
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