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About this book

This book discusses major technological advances in the treatment and re-use of wastewater. Its focus is on both novel treatment strategies and the modifications and adaptions of conventional processes to optimize the treatment of a complex variety of pollutants, including organic matter, chemicals and micropollutants in different water resources, as well as the integration of water treatment with bioelectricity production. Written by leading researchers in the field, it will be of interest to a wide range of researchers in both industry and academia.

Table of Contents




Chapter 1. Introduction to Recent Advances in Water and Wastewater Treatment Technologies

Nowadays due to urbanization and industrialization, several pollutants and its derivatives are discharged into water environment. Most of the pollution is caused by organics, nutrients, and contaminants with low concentration but is highly toxic to human and aquatic environment. Especially, there are several micropollutants and its derivatives that exist in water and wastewater such as disinfection by-product (DBPs), endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), antibiotics, pesticides, heavy metals, etc. This book provides holistic approach in terms of measurement, monitoring, and recent advanced treatment technologies for water and wastewater treatment and water reuse. The technologies involve the novel physio-chemical, biological and advanced oxidation processes in which they are modified processes or coupled with nanomaterials and/or newly developed products for improving the performance of the current treatment processes. In addition, the membrane processes include recent research on the removal of challenging chemicals by various membrane bioreactors and reverse osmosis processes, and emerging techniques for evaluating membrane integrity and membrane fouling propensity.
Xuan-Thanh Bui, Chart Chiemchaisri, Takahiro Fujioka, Sunita Varjani

Water and Wastewater Treatment for Removal of Contaminants


Chapter 2. Microcystins in Freshwater Ecosystems: Occurrence, Distribution, and Current Treatment Approaches

Toxic cyanobacterial blooms (TCBs) are an environmental concern due to their ability to produce wide a range of hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, and dermatotoxins. Microcystins (MCs) are the most common toxin and are considered to be one of the most hazardous groups. The increasing occurrence and detection of MCs in recreation or drinking water sources pose a variety of challenges to water treatment. To ensure the safety of drinking water supplies, a variety of physical, chemical and biological processes, such as coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, disinfection, adsorption, and biodegradation have been applied for removal of MCs. It is important to determine which type of MCs is present and whether the toxins reside within the cell or as extracellular to optimize treatment approaches. Conventional treatments using coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration are effective for removing cyanobacteria intact cells. However, these methods are faced with the release of dissolved toxins as well as the requirement of regular backwashing. Dissolved MCs have been shown to be effectively removed by some techniques such as activated carbon adsorption or biological degradation. However, factors affecting the removal such as acclimation periods, biofilm composition, temperature, and water quality cannot be easily controlled. This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge of MCs including occurrence, distribution, as well as current methods of their removal from drinking water.
Thanh-Luu Pham, Tran Ngoc Dang

Chapter 3. Advanced Techniques for Characterizing DBP Precursors from Eutrophic Water and Their Applications for DBP Prediction

Algogenic organic matter (AOM) in eutrophic water has become a critical problem for the sustainable operation of water treatment plants. As AOM is a high-yielding precursor of disinfection by-products (DBPs), its occurrence in water sources intensively raises public attention on the issues of safe and stable supply of drinking water. This chapter presents current advanced knowledge of AOM characterization and their applications for the prediction of DBP formation upon chlorination. Herein, two dominant classes of carbonaceous DBP (C-DBPs), trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), were reviewed as major products of DBP from the eutrophic water. Overall, AOM is higher yielding THM and HAA precursors upon chlorination compared to terrestrial natural organic matter (NOM). Of the characterization tools, fluorescent spectrometry, i.e., excitation–emission matrix (EEM), is an advanced proxy to trace AOM-derived C-DBP formation over traditional bulk parameters or ultraviolet absorbance because of its greater sensitivity and selectivity. However, future work may use EEM technique in combination with bulk parameters, such as chlorine consumption, or MW properties to increase its predictability to AOM-DBP formation.
Lap-Cuong Hua, Chihpin Huang

Chapter 4. Application of Moringa oleifera Plant in Water Treatment

Moringa oleifera is a tropical plant that is native to India. The extractant from M. oleifera seeds can be used for water treatment, because coagulation-active components are contained in the seeds. M. oleifera coagulant (MOC) is traditionally extracted with water and used for the treatment of turbid water. Recently, many studies have been focused on revealing its practical application and improving its coagulation activity, including those on MOC purification or heavy metal removal by MOC. MOC has the potential for use in drinking water and wastewater treatment, especially in tropical regions.
Tetsuji Okuda, Eman N. Ali

Chapter 5. Phytoremediation Strategies on Heavy Metal Removal

Over many decades, treatment and reuse of wastewater has been a key research area for environmentalists. Scientists have succeeded in the usage of wastewater for agricultural purposes. However, the discharge of effluent from the industries led to a constant increase in effluent concentration and adversely affects the health of human, plants, and animals. Phytoremediation is one of the wastewater treatment technologies used to eradicate the contaminants from marine and soil environment without disturbing the environment. The ability of plants roots to accumulate, translocate, and degrade the contaminants from environment plays a major role in phytoremediation process. Phytoremediation follows mainly five mechanisms which are phytoextraction, phytostabilization, phytodegradation, phytovolatilization, and phytofiltration. Aquatic or terrestrial plants are used to accumulate, immobilize, or degrade the contaminants from air, soil, and water. It is an inexpensive technique and it could be applied to large contaminated areas without any significant damage to environment. Treatment of contaminated site would take long period is one of the few limitations to overcome. Chelating agents are used to enhance the accumulation ability of plants. Inorganic chelating agents are more aggressive and enhance high accumulation of contaminants. To protect the environment and to enhance the accumulation ability of plant, organic acids are used as chelating agents. The success of phytoremediation is determined not only by accumulation ability but also by the bioavailability of contaminants in environment and plant. This chapter discusses the potential mechanisms and strategies available to widen the application of phytoremediation.
Myilsamy Dineshkumar, Muthulingam Seenuvasan, Gopalakrishanan Sarojini

Chapter 6. Membrane Technologies for the Treatment of Pharmaceutical Industry Wastewater

In course of past few years, pharmaceutical industries have huge contribution in the economic development of the country, but concurrently the pharmaceutical pollutants can also be responsible for severe hazards to the environment. Traditional methods of wastewater treatment cannot erase these pollutants from the water due to their hostile behavior. The advent of the pharmaceutical pollutants leads a demand for assessment and depiction of the wastewater discharged from the pharmaceutical industry as per the norms recommended by the official agency (Pollution Control Board). Vast number of treatment strategies are adapted by the pharmaceutical industries to reuse wastewater and regulate environmental pollution. In this chapter, we mainly focus on the finest membrane based methodologies to abolish the pharmaceutical compounds. At present, no individual technology has the potential to expel out the pharmaceutical pollutants from wastewater. Merging of traditional methods with membrane reactors leads to the best hybrid wastewater treatment technology.
Ankush, Mrinal Kanti Mandal, Manisha Sharma, Khushboo, Shailesh Pandey, Kashyap Kumar Dubey

Chapter 7. Recent Research on Ozonation By-products in Water and Wastewater Treatment: Formation, Control, Mitigation, and Other Relevant Topics

Ozone is a powerful oxidant and disinfectant widely used in water and wastewater treatment. Unlike chlorine, ozone does not produce chlorinated and brominated organic disinfection by-products, such as trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. However, ozone-based treatment produces its own disinfection by-products, namely bromate, nitrosamines (such as N-nitrosodimethylamine or NDMA), aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, bromate and NDMA have been classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) and probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A), respectively. Because of its relevance in drinking water, bromate has been regulated in many countries as a primary drinking water contaminant. The formation and control of these compounds during water and wastewater treatment using ozone has been an active research topic in the water and wastewater industry. Recently, the use of ozone in advanced water purification and reuse has attracted much interest and is adding new aspects in ozonation-by product research. In this chapter, recent research on these ozonation by-products is reviewed. The emphasis will be given on two of the ozonation by-products, bromate and NDMA, because of their relevance in drinking water and recycled water and the difficulty of their complete removal/mitigation with currently available technologies.
Keisuke Ikehata

Chapter 8. Degradation of Complex Organic Pollutants in Wastewater by Homogeneous Electro-Fenton

There has been a recently increasing interest in homogeneous electro-Fenton technology for the remediation of organic pollutants in water streams. In the electro-Fenton process, organic compounds are oxidized by direct electrolysis on the anode in the electrolytic cell based on the generation of a very powerful oxidizing agent, such as the hydroxyl radical (OH) in a solution. This chapter presents a review on the fundamentals and realistic application of electro-Fenton as an effective degradation process for complex organic pollutants in wastewaters. The classification of this technique, along with the effect of influencing factors such as current density, concentrations of H2O2, Fe2+, anions, etc. are also discussed in this chapter. In addition, the existing challenges and the most important techniques for eliminating complex aqueous organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters are discussed.
Ha Manh Bui, Xuan-Thanh Bui

Chapter 9. Removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine for Potable Reuse: Reverse Osmosis Treatment and Monitoring Technologies

For the protection of public health, robust quality assurance and quality control are critical elements in wastewater treatment for potable water reuse. Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane technology is a powerful wastewater treatment process that results in the removal of most contaminants. However, the efficacy of using conventional RO membranes for the removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), which is a probable human carcinogen, is often low and highly variable due to NDMA’s small molecular size and uncharged characteristics. Moreover, the credibility of RO membranes for NDMA removal is very low due to the lack of technologies for monitoring membrane integrity for continuous assurance. To enhance confidence in water treatment systems for potable reuse, it is important to develop new RO membranes to achieve high removal of NDMA. Additionally, the ability to continuously monitor NDMA concentrations in RO permeate is needed to ensure the safety of recycled water and establish credibility in RO treatment. This chapter provides an overview of recent studies focusing on RO membrane and analytical techniques for the enhanced removal and monitoring of NDMA for potable reuse.
Takahiro Fujioka

Chapter 10. Realistic Advancement in Engineered Osmosis for Water Treatment

The industrial revolution led to tremendous change in global population and pollution rate. Especially, polluting the available freshwater is creating unexcelled demand for water to meet the global needs. The conventional water reclamation techniques endure energy cost and technical efficiency. Hence, there is a need for sustainable water reclamation technique with low cost, high operation flexibility, performance and maintenance. Forward osmosis or engineered osmosis emerged as the powerful substantial technique suitable for water treatment. This chapter focuses on the advantages, feasibility, challenges and opportunities of engineered osmosis for water treatment. The significant progress of engineered osmosis in the area of water treatment, commercial availability, process configurations and operations are discussed. Further, emanate the potential area of improvement in the near future, integrated designs and other innovative technologies for water treatment by engineered osmosis are also discussed.
Ravichandran Rathna, Ekambaram Nakkeeran, Sunita Varjani

Biological Wastewater Treatment and Biological Activities


Chapter 11. Recent Developments in Biological Nutrient Removal

Conventionally, activated sludge process (ASP) is most commonly employed for wastewater treatment. However, the conventional treatment system is inefficient for the removal of biological nutrient to greater extent. Nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) has high influence on the receiving water body, cause eutrophication and algal bloom. It leads to reduce of dissolved oxygen (DO) level and in turn high risk to aquatic life. Eutrophication is a major problem in developing countries and is responsible for water pollution. Removal of biological nutrient in the wastewater is an essential task to lead the positive impacts on solving the environmental pollution issues. Developing the biological nutrient removal approach in the wastewater treatment to balance the biogeochemical system of the receiving aquatic environment. Biological nutrient removal is a challenging task and number of operational parameters governs its efficiency. This chapter focusses on recent development in the biological nutrient removal and governing factors of the process.
R. Yukesh Kannah, M. Gunasekaran, Gopalakrishana Kumar, U. Ushani, Khac-Uan Do, J. Rajesh Banu

Chapter 12. From Conventional Activated Sludge Process to Membrane-Aerated Biofilm Reactors: Scope, Applications, and Challenges

In the midst of increasing global production of domestic wastewater over the years, the treatment capacities did not show promising increments to keep up with it. Traditionally, biological treatment systems such as wetlands, conventional activated sludge (CAS), trickling filter processes, and rotating biological reactors were used to treat these wastewaters. The capital and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of the process play a critical role in the final system selection. During the past decade, membrane bioreactor (MBR) has progressively replaced these biological wastewater treatment systems. For example, the most advanced form of MBRs called membrane-aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs) could be operated with higher energy efficiency of 70% compared to CAS process. Moreover, even at a low footprint, MBRs could achieve a high volume of treatment in existing area with records of up to 50% extra capacity. Following these MBR systems, the next technological innovation was membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR), which uses the bubbleless aeration through the lumen of fiber membrane. The bubbleless aeration, in fact, assists the smooth growth of microorganisms compared to the bubbled aeration in CAS process which often interferes with the microbial growth in the system. Apart from providing diffused aeration, the membrane also serves as attachment medium for microorganisms that consume organics and nitrogen, thereby purifying the wastewater. Thus, within a single reactor, simultaneous nitrification and denitrification are achieved. The MABRs have been successful in the treatment of variety of pollutants such as landfill leachate, pharmaceutical wastewater, ammonia-rich wastewater, domestic wastewater, and anaerobic digestion liquor. In addition, their applications have flourished for the treatment of high carbon and nitrogen wastewater, volatile organic compounds, and xenobiotic components. However, the major limitation of this process is maintaining optimal biofilm thickness on the membrane surface and scaling-up mechanisms to real scale plants.
Deepak Karna, Chettiyappan Visvanathan

Chapter 13. Non-conventional Anaerobic Bioreactors for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment

Conventional anaerobic bioreactors have proven to be useful for energy recovery and removing organic pollutants from wastewater. Unfortunately, the application of most conventional anaerobic systems is limited due to their applicability over a narrow range in substrate composition and single type of pollutant removal. The background of the research and development for non-conventional anaerobic bioreactors mainly includes design limitations, technical and economic issues along with environmental impacts from traditional systems. In this connection, the initial approach for developing non-conventional bioreactors included the improvement on existing conventional anaerobic bioreactors with pre- and post-treatment processes. As these improvements only increased the pollutant removal efficiency up to a certain level, research initiatives were carried out to develop non-conventional hybrid systems. These non-conventional bioreactors usually involve a combination of conventional biological system with physical/chemical treatment process to aid the removal of non-biodegradable pollutants. Recently developed non-conventional systems include the modifications in bioreactor designs such as bio-electrochemical systems, multistage bioreactor arrangements and hybrid anaerobic processes. Performance evaluation of these non-conventional anaerobic systems shows improved product yield and efficient pollutant removal compared to the traditional processes. The key findings from this discussion were listed in the conclusion section along with future insights for this technology.
Huu Hao Ngo, Mohd Atiqueuzzaman Khan, Wenshan Guo, Ashok Pandey, Duu-Jong Lee

Chapter 14. Advances of Photobioreactors in Wastewater Treatment: Engineering Aspects, Applications and Future Perspectives

The photobioreactor is an efficient artificial system in terms of biomass cultivation and removing pollutants. Compared to other conventional technologies, its design and operational processes are superior. Therefore, the photobioreactor specifically targets and tailors for the increasing demand for biomass and stringent pollutants removal standards. Since the early 1950s, there has been a variety of photobioreactor types, and these have been addressing the different technical issues over time and others more recently. As well, diverse applications of the photobioreactor process are becoming more widespread, and this opens for a good opportunity for future sustainable developments. This book chapter discusses advances being made in photobioreactor technology, encompassing: (1) modelling; (2) designs and classifications; (3) applications and (4) future perspectives.
Huu Hao Ngo, Hoang Nhat Phong Vo, Wenshan Guo, Xuan-Thanh Bui, Phuoc Dan Nguyen, Thi Minh Hong Nguyen, Xinbo Zhang

Chapter 15. Microbial Community in Anaerobic Digestion System: Progression in Microbial Ecology

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biochemical process that involves four microorganism groups, namely, hydrolyzers, acidogens, acetogens, and methanogens. These groups function in syntrophy and have intra-dependent metabolic pathways. Changes in one group (e.g., over-/underexpressed population and function) can alter this chain of anaerobic process and consequently AD performance. With recent progress in culture-independent techniques, an array of previously unknown and uncultured microorganisms has been recently uncovered in the AD process. Discoveries on the diversity and structure of the AD microbial community can provide new information on digester stability and performance (e.g., biogas production). This chapter provided a critical analysis of the current knowledge on the AD microbial community, focusing on the factors affecting microbial community and the relationship between microbial community and AD performance. Gaining a better understanding of microbial ecology could be the key for greater AD efficiency and biogas production capacity.
Luong N. Nguyen, Anh Q. Nguyen, Long D. Nghiem

Chapter 16. Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Solid Wastes and Leachate at a Municipal Solid Waste Dumpsite in Thailand

In this study, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contamination in solid wastes disposed at a municipal solid waste dumpsite in Thailand was investigated. Due to poor upstream segregation, several volatile organic compounds such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and trichloroethylene were detected in yard wastes, food wastes, plastic wastes, and foam wastes components. Their concentrations were found varied from 1 to 5 mg/kg of solid wastes, being highest in fresh wastes and reduced according to the age of wastes (between 2 and 7 years) and waste locations (upper and lower parts in the waste pile). Field measurement was used to assess the fate of emission of those compounds from solid waste dumping area (7.4 ha). It was found that benzene was the most emitted compound from the waste pile to the atmosphere whereas trichloroethylene was majorly drained out with leachate form and subsequently emitted to the atmosphere from leachate holding pond. The rising temperature in the waste pile from normal temperature of 40–80 °C during daytime increased the emission of VOCs from the wastes by four folds. Their emissions could be significantly reduced by the provision of cover material and heat management.
Chart Chiemchaisri, Wilai Chiemchaisri, Maneerat Boocha

Chapter 17. The Role of Microbes in Chromium Bioremediation of Tannery Effluent

Leather-based industries utilize nearly 90% of chromium-containing tanning agents for converting raw skin/hides into leather. Apart from chromium, different metals such as iron, aluminum, zircon, and titanium are also used for various tanning applications. Tannery wastewater is highly complex and contains high amount of inorganic, organic, and dissolved solids including chlorides and sulfates. The chromium present in the effluent can have adverse effects on the environment. Hence, the treatment of effluent before releasing it into the environment becomes an important issue. Bioremediation is a recent technique for treatment and disposal of industrial wastewater. This approach is advantageous as compared to conventional treatment methods which are costly, time-consuming, and generate toxic end products. Bioremediation is the potential, cost-effective, and environmental-friendly technique that uses several microbes in treatment of wastewater, soil, and sediments. Hence, this chapter focuses on the role of microbes in chromium remediation from tannery effluent. This chapter will also focus on the various mechanisms such as biosorption, bioaccumulation, and microbial reduction of chromium by microbial cells.
Pratishtha Gupta, Rupa Rani, Avantika Chandra, Sunita Varjani, Vipin Kumar

Chapter 18. Biofouling Detection on Reverse Osmosis Membranes

Reverse osmosis (RO) membrane technology is considered to be the premier process used for the purpose of seawater and brackish water desalination and water treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater for water reclamation and reuse. Membrane biofouling is a significant challenge in RO processes due to the interference of biofilm formed on the membrane surface on membrane performance. Thus, diverse areas of research are geared towards the understanding, prevention, and control of biofouling. Diagnosis of biofouling is difficult since no single microbial assay on the source water can accurately predict biofouling during the RO process. Biofouling evaluation methods of fouled membranes and collected biofoulants from the treatment processes are counterproductive when biofouling prevention is warranted. It is therefore important for the detection tests to be predictive enough taking into consideration the water quality characteristics of the source feed water, the properties of the RO membrane used for the water treatment, and the hydrodynamic properties during the RO process. This chapter provides an overview of biofouling tests most commonly used for detection of biofouling in the source feed water, and in the foulants and fouled membranes. It has a brief section on the use of flow cell units that can simulate hydrodynamic conditions in the RO plant with the ability to predict biofouling.
Cervinia V. Manalo, Wataru Nishijima

Advanced Materials and Technologies for Future Water and Wastewater Treatment


Chapter 19. Applications of Nanotechnology and Biotechnology for Sustainable Water and Wastewater Treatment

Nowadays, water pollution and freshwater scarcity have become a serious problem worldwide, causing concerns to both public health and the environment. To reduce these challenges, various treatment technologies have been adopted. Among these technologies, nanotechnology- and biotechnology-based techniques are usually applied separately for water (domestic purposes) and wastewater (reuse) treatment. This chapter focuses on new and emerging nano- and biotechnologies for the sustainable removal of pollution causing constituents during water and wastewater treatment. Besides, the toxicological and safety aspects of different nanotechnologies and their current and future perspectives are discussed.
Adhena Ayaliew Werkneh, Eldon R. Rene

Chapter 20. Nanofibers for Water and Wastewater Treatment: Recent Advances and Developments

Materials of nanofibrous morphology and structure are attractive for solving environmental problems including water-related issues. In recent years, increasing interest is geared on the use of specially designed electrospun nanofibers for water/wastewater treatment applications. The nanofibers can be used in the form of nonwoven structures, as stand-alone membranes, as support layer or as a surface modification layer that enables added functionality to a composite material. Continuous research has been carried out in optimizing the nanofiber membrane design and structure by manipulating material, process and surrounding parameters in the electrospinning process. This chapter highlights the recent advances and developments on the potential and application of electrospun nanofibers for water/wastewater treatment. Comprehensive discussion is presented here on various designs and structures of nanofibers and their applications to water-related treatment and the future prospects of such materials.
Leonard D. Tijing, Minwei Yao, Jiawei Ren, Chan-Hee Park, Cheol Sang Kim, Ho Kyong Shon

Chapter 21. Current Trends of Electrospun Nanofibers in Water and Wastewater Treatment

The increased disposal of highly hazardous organic pollutants without sufficient treatment into the natural water bodies has become an immediate threat to the living organisms. Pesticides, surfactants, halogens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, microorganisms, dyes, and other contaminants need to be removed completely by facile and eco-friendly technology. Among various advanced materials, nanofibers symbolize a next generation of nanocatalyst that offers unique properties to overcome water pollution crisis as compared to conventional catalyst. Electrospinning is a most proficient method for the fabrication of nanofibers. Metal oxide nanofibers such as zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, etc. are attractive material for wastewater treatment due to their capability of total mineralization of organic contaminants under atmospheric conditions with greater removal efficiency. These composite nanofibers, due to their synergetic effect promotes the production of hydroxyl radicals by enhancing their light absorption and better photon harvest property, thereby reduce the recombination of semiconductor surfaces and complete removal contaminant occurs. Thus, this review highlights the recent trends of nanofibers as adsorbent, photocatalyst, filter media, and sensor in water and wastewater treatment.
Aiswarya Devi Sekar, Matheswaran Manickam

Chapter 22. Nanotechnological Interventions for the Decontamination of Water and Wastewater

Nanotechnology has created revolution in all fields of developmental research and technology which includes environmental aspects too. At the present scenario, there is a global demand for potable water and treatability of wastewater and the constraints are mainly due to the climate change associated with global population growth. In order to combat the present haphazard, novel treatability methods that upgrade the existing method of treatment should be adopted. The interventions of notably advanced nanotechnology to upgrade the traditional water treatment and wastewater engineering render new opportunities. The advent of nanotechnology in all aspects of science and technology is because of their distinct special characteristics at the nanoscale level such as greater specificity, larger surface area and high loading capacity for improved catalysis as well as high reactivity. And also to the aforementioned features, the nanomaterials have advantageous mechanical, electrical, optical and magnetic properties which are significantly different from the conventional materials. This chapter envisages the overall use of distinct nanomaterials in all the treatment aspects of water and wastewater.
Chanchpara Amit, Chandarana Helly, Madhava Anil Kumar, Sunita Varjani

Chapter 23. Application of Microbial Fuel Cell in Wastewater Treatment and Simultaneous Bioelectricity Generation

The overpopulation in the future will result in burning issues of our environment and the negative effects of global warming, environmental pollution, and habitat loss in the worldwide human community. Moreover, the nonrenewable natural resources such as fossil fuels and clear water are consumed at the speed faster than their rate of regeneration. Worldwide demand has increased year by year, which is required to exceed production from known and anticipated resources. Last but not least, the demands of water used in agriculture, industries, and supporting population growth have increased and become of the most challenges in later centuries. Under those circumstances, there are prerequisites for finding alternative renewable energy resources and cost-effective wastewater treatment technologies with less energy expenditure. Among various technologies that have been well investigated, microbial fuel cell might be the potential candidate to administer with the recent situation of wastewater–energy nexus. In general, the microbial fuel cell is a cross-disciplinary technology so that survey area has extended to energy, material sciences, biology, and environment. In this chapter, we aim to present the possibility of generating electricity in MFC from a wide range of organic waste and hazardous wastes. In addition, the integrations between microbial fuel cells and other technologies are also introduced which have supposedly made great opportunities to concurrently reach sustainable energy production, efficient wastewater treatment, and reuse.
Thanh Ngoc-Dan Cao, Shiao-Shing Chen, Saikat Sinha Ray, Huy Quang Le, Hau-Ming Chang
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