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About this book

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Human.Society@Interet, HSI 2003,held in Seoul, Korea, in June 2003.

The 57 revised full papers and 31 revised short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 219 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on Web performance, authentication, social issues, security and document access, routing, XML, Internet applications, e-business, scheduling and resource allocation, wireless networks, Web components, multimedia communications, e-payment and auctions, cyber education, mobility and handoff, Internet protocols, mobile agents, and communications.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

Web Performance

Mesh Simplification for QoS Control in 3D Web Environment

The remarkable recent growth of network technology makes possible the real-time transmission of a lot of data in near real-time. However, to guarantee the real-time transmission of 3D graphic data, further improvements are still required. Highly complex model can provide a convincing level of realism but rather cause problems in real-time applications requiring fast interactivity. Thus, it is useful to have various simplified versions according to the performance of the system. In addition, it is desirable to represent an object using comparatively small amount of data set, if providing the same degree of realism. In this paper, we present a simplification algorithm, which can excellently preserve the characteristic features of the original model after drastic simplification process, even using relatively small datasets. The proposed algorithm is efficient in memory usage and useful in real-time rendering applications. We present experimental results of the proposed algorithm showing high quality approximations with excellent shape preservation.

Myeong-Cheol Ko, Yoon-Chul Choy

Content Adaptation and Transmission Strategy of Spatial Information for WWW and Mobile Applications

Recently, the necessity of using spatial information for web-based and mobile applications has been rapidly increasing. However, there are two challenges against the publication of spatial information. The first one is efficient data transmission, which is both large and complex, through a slow wireless communication link. The second one is how to provide the resultant adapted data for varied and heterogeneous clients. This paper proposes a new transmission method, namely, the Scale-Dependent Transmission method, with the purpose of improving the efficiency of vector spatial data transmission across the Internet. Its main idea is “Transmit what can be seen”. Scale is regarded as a factor naturally associated with spatial features so that not all features are visible to users at a certain scale. Additionally, the paper proposes Wavelet-based map generalization algorithm, which achieves O(n) time complexity and adapts data to fit the needs of varying clients. Experiments show that the response times of individual operations were substantially reduced when using the proposed method.

Chung-Ho Lee, Liang Chen, Jae-Dong Lee, Hae-Young Bae

Web Caching Performance: How Much Is Lost Unwarily?

Web caching system has been widely deployed to reduce user-perceived latency, network traffic and server load. The performance of web caching relies on cachability of web objects. The availability and duration of an object to be kept in cache are essentially determined by certain HTTP response headers. In this work, we studied the effects of these essential HTTP headers and determine how much cachability is lost due to the absence or improper settings of the headers. Our simulation results indicate that by configuring web servers properly, more than 30% of uncachable objects can be turned cachable and 30—80% of validation process can be avoided. This will lead to a significant improvement on web caching performance.

Jun-Li Yuan, Chi-Hung Chi

Authentication

A PKI-Based Authentication Framework for Next Generation Mobile Internet

The next generation mobile Internet is expected to develop towards “Always Best Connected (ABC),” or “Any Time, Any Where, Any Service,” and provide completely open environments for interconnection with the external world through the IP-enabled structure. In the paper, we propose a PKI-based authentication framework, which use PKI-based mutual authentication to establish trust relations between the communication entities and to guarantee minimized handover delay by extending the trust relations. The simulation results, in conjunction with the experiment conducted on a WLAN testbed, are presented that illustrate how the framework can best be applied to the next generation mobile environments.

Jabeom Gu, Sehyun Park, Ohyoung Song, Jaeil Lee

A Robust and Recoverable Tamper Proofing Technique for Image Authentication

Digital imagery has characteristic that allows it to be easily forged. If this problem cannot be alleviated, the popularization of digital imagery will be lessened. In this paper, a new image authentication technique is proposed for tamper detection and recovery. The method extracts the averages of pixel values of the blocks from the image as the verification information, and then the information is further compressed with error correction codes. Then, they are randomly embedded into the original image using a new digital watermarking technique. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively and securely detect and recover the modified image. In addition, it also can survive a certain degree of image processing operations. Compared with the related research, SRTPT, the proposed method obtains better results in all respects. The proposed method is therefore an effective, secure and robust tamper proofing technique.

Kuo-Lung Hung, Chin-Chen Chang

Efficient Distributed Reputation Scheme for Peer-to-Peer Systems

Reputation systems for Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are relatively new. Most of the existing systems are centrally controlled hence raising scalability issues and single points of failure. In this paper we present a completely decentralized reputation scheme for P2P networks. The system is based on a certificate, RCert, which is a document that resides on a participating P2P node, which consists of information ratings collected from previous transactions with other peers. Central to the scheme is the concept of Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), upon on which much of the mechanism is based. In order to facilitate updates of RCert certificates, we present two protocols, RCertP and RCertPX. RCertP does not prevent the node from using older copies of RCert. An extended version, RCertPX, solves this problem by keeping track of the latest timestamp.

Chu Yee Liau, Xuan Zhou, Stéphane Bressan, Kian-Lee Tan

Social Issue (Web)

A Study of the Conduct of Korean IT Participants in Ethical Decision Making

This study focuses upon IT participant’s conduct in Korea and their respective feelings which develop during the decision making process under the guise of the Mason’s information ethics system, which relies upon a system of ethical decision making based upon the principles of privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The definitive purpose of this study is to not only investigate the co-relation between the level of moral judgment of Kohlberg’s theory of Cognitive Moral Development, but also to research the availability of ethical decision making conducts set forth in the model of Bommer, Gratto, Gravander and Tuttle.

Kwang Hyung Kim

Educational Use of E-mentoring to Encourage Women into Science and Engineering

An important emerging area of Internet use for education is electronic mentoring or e-mentoring. The Internet provides an ideal communication medium that is both broad and flexible enough to provide unique opportunities for students and mentors. Today, women workers represent a minority in the fields of science and engineering. In Korea, a government sponsored pilot program Women into Science and Engineering (WISE) was begun in 2001 at Ewha Womans University to encourage female students at all school levels to pursue careers in science and engineering. Within the WISE program, an e-mentoring pilot study based on a bulletin board system was developed and tested as an educational tool for encouraging female students. The following conclusions were determined from the pilot study. While the survey of students indicated a positive response to the e-mentoring program, analysis of the bulletin board data revealed that less than half of the students actively participated in the program. The study suggests that e-mentoring programs require more than just a technical and administrative framework to be a success. It requires an active and constant feedback system to ensure that everyone is participating in the program.

Heisook Lee, Sunsook Noh

The Role of the Internet in the SME Hotel Sector in Austria

The fact that information and communication technology (ICT) has a significant impact on industries and single organizations is an already established and well researched issue. Markets are changing — becoming faster, bigger, more standardized as well as segmented, and more competitive. ICT has a considerable impact on nearly all areas of a company’s activities, especially for companies operating in information intensive industries such as the travel and tourism industry. This paper concentrates on the implications of ICT for the hotel sector in Austria and more specifically for the small and medium sector (SME) section of this market. This paper explores the major threats and opportunities for hotels by evaluating our framework for competitive advantage in eBusiness through an expert survey within the Austrian travel and tourism industry.

Markus Gratzer, Werner Winiwarter

Security and Document Access

A Study on Monitoring and Protecting Computer System against Interception Threat

Perfect protection against all system threats is considered to be impossible. The problem of monitoring against the threats has been an issue in literature, but its progress has not yet been met any practical need. Further, the inherent complexity of the problem in terms of any known approaches gives firm impressions that there are no practical solutions, and so fewer challenges have been made than those against virus and worms. This paper presents a new challenge of setting up traps against most interception threats that try to copy or read illicitly programs or data. Figuratively, traps are set up on the place where any legitimate program could not reach. The proposed technique uses sensor objects and is considered to be the best way of detecting unknown interception threats.

Seongje Cho, Chulyean Chang, Joonmo Kim, Jongmoo Choi

A Very Small Bytecode-Verifier Based on PCC Algorithm for Smart Card

Java is a popular development platform for mobile code systems, because it ensures application portability and mobility. The Java Virtual Machine verifies statically(during the loading phase) the program is well-behaved with intermediate(as called bytecode). This is done by a software security module called the bytecode verifier. Smart card that provide a Java Virtual Machine, called Java Card, are not supplied with such a verifier because of its complexity. In this paper, we propose a bytecode verifier with efficient algorithm to adapt to the hardware constraints of smart card.

Jeung-Bo Cho, Min-Soo Jung

A Preliminary Study on Multiple Documents Access via Mobile Devices

Current and upcoming use of mobile devices and services allows information to be provided anytime and anywhere while inherent constraints on mobile devices caused difficulties on mobile Internet access. In this paper, we first explore impact of human preferences on user interface for mobile Internet access with user preferences survey. It was found that commonly used features and access methodologies are often not the human preferred ones and vice versa. It was found that hierarchical document browsing interface is much preferred by human while most commonly used interfaces are list-based. Such a gap has probably resulted in difficulties on mobile Internet access. Thus, we further proposed and explored the feasibility on mobile web document access via concept hierarchies (i.e. hierarchical interface or HI). Our initial results showed that an unconventional combination of term frequency and inverse document frequency yielded similar performance (i.e. 71% ideal parent —child relationship) to previous work and the use of terms in titles achieved better performance than previous work (i.e. 82% ideal parent -child relationship). Our initial result of building concept hierarchies after clustering compared to that without is encouraging (c.f. 82% ideal parent -child relationship and 67% ideal parent -child relationship). We believe that HI can be enhanced to a level for commercial deployment for mobile Internet access.

D. L. Chan, E. K. S. Ho, R. W. P. Luk, Q. Lu

Routing

Practical Adaptive Routing Schemes Considering Load Balancing in WDM Networks

The three adaptive algorithms proposed in this paper address the routing and the wavelength assignment problems at once. They search for a route with the near-maximum number of available wavelengths between two nodes, resulting in the improvement of load balancing. Simulation results show that our algorithms improve blocking probability by up to 50%, compared to the least-loaded and the k-fixed routing algorithms. In addition, the path length of our algorithms is almost equal to that of the others according to the simulation and analysis.

Younghwan Yoo, Sanghyun Ahn, Chong Sang Kim

A Practical RWA Algorithm Based on Lookup Table for Edge Disjoint Paths

Routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem is an important issue in optical transport networks based on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technique. It is typically solved using a combination of linear programming and graph coloring, or path selection based graph algorithms. Such methods are either complex or make extensive use of heuristics. In this paper we propose a novel and efficient approach which basically obtains the maximum edge disjoint paths (EDPs) for each source-destination demand pair. And those EDPs obtained are stored in Lookup Table and used for the update of weight matrix. Routes are determined in order by the weight matrix for the demand set. The comprehensive computer simulation shows that the proposed algorithm uses similar or fewer number of wavelengths with significantly less execution time than bounded greedy approach (BGA) for EDP [2] which is currently known to be effective in practice.

Myung Hee Kim, Hyunseung Choo, Byung Ho Yae, JongHyun Lee

A Configuration Algorithm for Supporting VC-merge Concept under the Cell-Based MPLS Network

This paper proposes a configuration algorithm for determination of best VC-merge point under the cell-based MPLS network. This configuration algorithm solves two major problems: determining the most reasonable candidate ATM switch served as an ATM-LSR under the complex ATM network topology; and providing the most reasonable multipoint-to-point connections for deployment of cell-based MPLS network taking into account network resource utilization. This algorithm is subsequently composed of two procedures: ordering and backtracking. The ordering algorithm is for determining the orders of link and node taking the routing metrics of available bandwidth delay and hop count into account. The backtracking algorithm is to determine the best multipoint-to-point route based on the order information allocated by ordering algorithm. In addition, this paper describes the performance evaluation result of the proposed algorithms under the operational network environment of KT (Korea Telecom).

Daniel Won-Kyu Hong, Choong Seon Hong, Dong-Sik Yun

Social Issue (Communication)

Ill Effects of Broadband Internet under Flat Rate Pricing

This paper examines the properties of two Internet pricing systems — a flat rate and a usage-based pricing system — in terms of the social welfare, by generalizing the theory advocated by the scholars. This study contributes not only to the systematic generalization of the theory but also to the examination of the waste of resource innate in the flat rate tariff. We found that the superiority between the two charging systems with regard to the waste of resource is not decided by the generic features of the charging systems themselves but by the scarcity of network resource. In other words, the flat rate pricing is better when there is no limit in the supportable volume of network source. Otherwise, the usage-based pricing system is better in the respect of reducing the unnecessary waste of network resource.

Jee-Hyung Lee, Jeong-Seok Park

The Role of Government Policy for Diffusing the High-Speed Internet and the Spreading Economic Effects in Korea

The strong resolution of government policies, establishing KII(Korea Information Infrastructure) and providing PC and Internet education, were implemented to establish an advanced information society to encourage the Internet use and spread of the high-speed Internet service for the future of the nation in the cyber age, which led to the strong activity of economics via Internet transactions. In terms of economic effects, the introduction of high-speed Internet service and information infrastructure led the people use the public administrative system and service with the Internet, and result in the use of telecommuting services to improve the quality of the life for the people. And, the tremendous increase of the high-speed Internet service led to the development of the Internet related-technologies and the export of the related items by bringing new service and business models in the business. Lastly, this increase of Internet usage led to solving the constrains of physical problems and expanded to the activity of social and culture so as to make their life happy.

Chuhwan Park, Gilsoo Chang, Hakseong Jeon

Flow in Computer Hacking: A Model

In this study hackers’ motivation is investigated, using the flow paradigm. It was hypothesized that flow increases with the increase of hackers’ competence in the IT use. An on-line research was administered within the Russian-speaking community (N=457). The hypothesis was not confirmed: the relationship between hackers’ experience and flow is more complicated than the straightforward correlation. Periods of flow experience are changed by periods of flow crisis and then - of flow renovation. A model of hackers’ motivational development was presented. Possible measures for preventing the criminal hacking were suggested.

Alexander E. Voiskounsky, Olga V. Smyslova

XML

Ambiguity Correction Method for Free-Form Annotation in XML Documents

For the accurate creation of annotation information in a free-form annotation environment, the ambiguity that arises in the analysis stage between the geometric information and annotations needs to be resolved. Therefore, this This paper identifies, analyzes, and proposes presents solutions methods for the ambiguity that can occur between free-form marking and various contexts in XML-based annotation environment. The proposed method is based on context which includes various textual and structure information between free-form marking and annotated part. Therefore, the proposed method show that the annotated portions areas included in the free-form marking information are more accurate, achieving more accurate exchange results amongst multiple users in a heterogeneous document environment.

Won-Sung Sohn, Jae-Kyung Kim, Seung-Kyu Ko, Yoon-Chul Choy, Soon-Bum Lim

An XPATH Query Processor for a Decomposition Storage Scheme

XML is a markup language that is widely accepted as a standard way of information sharing and exchange, especially on the Web. One of the recent database research issues is to devise ways of storing XML documents as well as retrieving them efficiently. In this paper, we present an XPath query processor that can be used for retrieving XML documents that are stored in a relational database by a decomposition storage scheme. Our XPath query processor, when given an XPath query, translates it to appropriate SQL statements. The SQL query results are then transformed to a DOM tree that is a way of representing part of an XML document. The proposed query processor is optimized for element range queries by using DFS numbers along with path expressions. We evaluated the performance of the proposed query processor using XML documents of various sizes and common types of XML queries.

Young-Ki Ko, Eui-Kyeong Hong, Myung Kim

Fast Updatable Indexing Scheme for Structured XML Documents

In information retrieval (IR) community, recently, researches are in progress to apply its traditional indexing and retrieval schemes to the retrieval of XML documents. Most of the proposed indexing schemes, however, assume static environment where there is no update on the parts of XML documents. A fast and efficient indexing technique intended to support dynamic updates of XML documents in business domain is required. In this paper we propose an extended inverted index, which can process updates on the content and the structure of XML documents promptly. Using the proposed index structure, it is possible to support efficient update on the parts of XML documents as reducing space and time to be re-indexed dramatically. Experimental results show that our indexing scheme is faster than the previous ones for update operations.

Sung Wan Kim, Jaeho Lee, Hae Chull Lim

Internet Application

Collaborative Junk E-mail Filtering Based on Multi-agent Systems

Recently junk e-mail has been one of the most serious information overloading problems. This paper proposes multi-agent system to collaboratively filter spams from users’ mail stream. This multi-agent system is organized by personal agents automatically extracting features based on users’ manual filtering and facilitator managing knowledge extracted by personal agents. Especially, personal agents can analyze junk e-mails for extracting keyphrases and communicate with the others. Due to the domain specific properties of junk e-mail filtering we have formalized the features extracted from e-mail to be highly understandable and efficiently sharable. Thereby, we have defined two types of features in e-mail as apriori feature and keyphrase-based conceptual one. Besides, these features are integrated in the blackboard system of facilitator for collaborative learning. Finally, we show the filtering performance of collaborative learning by comparing with that of personal agent.

Jason J. Jung, Geun-Sik Jo

A Framework for Building Flexible Internet-Based Collaboration Environment

We present a framework for building flexible collaboration environment. The framework is based on the notion of room that represents virtual shared workspace. Users can work together with collaborative applets and objects in a room. The framework allows new applets to be added to collaboration environment. It also permits users to change the configuration of shared workspace dynamically by manipulating the applets and objects in rooms. The framework supports access-controlled collaboration environment for easy access over the Internet by users. Rooms can be used not only for synchronous collaboration but also for asynchronous collaboration by supporting persistence. For the open access over the Internet, room participants are given different roles with appropriate access rights. A prototype of the model had been implemented in Java and used by users with Java-enabled Web browser. The implemented system had been used by 95 users including 79 space scientists around the world in a scientific campaign that ran for 4 days. The usage evaluation of the campaign is also presented.

Jang Ho Lee

A Chinese Automatic Interactive Feedback System for Applying in a Website

As the prevailing of internet applications, an automatic interactive feedback facility provided in a website should make it more attractive. There are still some problems for computers to understand the natural language used by people especially for the Chinese language. First, Chinese language has no space to segment the lexical entry. Therefore, the segmentation method of Chinese Language is more difficult than English. Second, the lack of complete grammar for Chinese language makes the parser more difficult and complicated. The difficulty could be solved by building an automatic Chinese feedback system for special application domains. In this paper, an interactive method is proposed to parse and understand the Chinese language. This method utilizes a specific lexical database according to the particular application. In this way, an automatic Chinese interactive feedback system for special domain application is built and also improved the response time and accuracy.

Jui-Fa Chen, Wei-Chuan Lin, Chih-Yu Jian, Ching-Chung Hung

E-business

The Virtual Enterprise: Redefining the Concept

In this paper, we critique the definitions of the virtual enterprise that have appeared in the previous literature, and propose a new definition. We define a ‘pure’ virtual enterprise as an enterprise that does not own traditional production factors, based on the observation that these are the source of rigidity in the management of the real enterprise. The virtual enterprise newly defined in this paper is an ideal enterprise, which may not exist even in the future. The pure virtual enterprise can be used as a benchmark model in future research. In addition, the difference in virtualness between the pure virtual enterprise and today’s real enterprise can be used as a measure to gauge the level of virtualization of the real enterprise. In this paper, we also derive the characteristics of a virtual enterprise from the new definition, rather than assert them without explaining their origin.

Youngsun Kwon, Hong-Kyu Lee, Sunmi Lee, Jungsub Lee

Compete with the Retailing Giants for Survival: A Procurement Alliance Approach Enabled by Internet Technology

After China enters WTO, its antique retailing and wholesaling sector is faced with tough competition as the global retailers rush to enter the field. The flea market and independent operators characterize the Chinese retail and wholesale industries. Those pa and ma shops could not compete with their giant counterparts in terms of cost, product quality and consumer convenience. They are faced with a life or death situation in next few years. How to raise the competitiveness of those small shops radically is an urgent problem that has to be addressed quickly.This study represents the strategy we used to help one Chinese company to create a new business format and to enable small shops to compete with the large chain stores. The strategy we used is to form a procurement alliance of small retailers and wholesalers. The procurement alliance accumulates individual small orders from independent shops into a large order. The large order is sent to direct providers to obtain procurement advantages of low cost and high quality. At the same time, the alliance cuts off any unnecessary intermediate layers and provides an efficient logistics support for goods distribution. In order to implement the procurement alliance, we use the Internet technology to enable the accessibility, manageability and availability of the alliance services from our clients and suppliers all over the world. By using e-commerce solutions, we provide a huge selection of products, excellent convenience and timely service. This demonstrates the power of right technology in doing new business in a creative way in the new age.

Junsheng Long, Siqing Peng, Lihua Chen

A Virtual Logistics Network and an E-hub as a Competitive Approach for Small to Medium Size Companies

As small to medium sized logistics companies strive to be more competitive with the larger ones, computer processes will progressively be carried out differently than in the traditional manner. Progressively more and more computation will occur on the Internet rather than just make use of it as a gateway. Programs will be distributed throughout a network and the World Wide Web and work together in a highly developed manner. A virtual logistics network provides an organisational framework for collaboration in this manner is proposed. In this paper we propose a virtual logistics network that provides an organizational framework for collaboration between small to middle sized companies. This employs an e-hub structure utilizing XML based mobile agents to provide seamless integration between isolated information systems for small to medium sized logistic providers.

Elizabeth Chang, Tharam Dillon, W. Gardner, A. Talevski, R. Rajugan, T. Kapnoullas

Scheduling & Resource Allocation

An Efficient Buffer Allocation Technique for Virtual Lanes in InfiniBand Networks

InfiniBand Architecture(IBA) adopts a mechanism of Virtual Lanes(VL) to support various QoS, improve link utilization and avoid deadlock. IBA packets are placed in a buffer corresponding to each VL and are scheduled by a VL arbiter. Since the number of the packets through each VL may be different, the throughput can be improved by allocating buffers according to the packet characteristics. In this paper, a new buffer allocation scheme using VL arbitration table is proposed and the superiority of the network performance is shown through the simulation results.

HyunBean Yi, SungJu Park, Misook Kim, Kiman Jeon

Integrated Scheduling Using Rendezvous Window and Sniff Mode for Wireless Personal Area Networks

Radio resource (bandwidth) and power are limited in wireless personal networks. So these scarce resources are to be used efficiently from the system’s perspective while they should be allocated fairly or differently depending or users’ requirements or traffic characteristics from individual user’s perspective. We propose an integrated and efficient piconet and scatternet scheduling mechanism. In our mechanism, the scheduling of scatternet and piconet is performed by appropriately selecting rendezvous window or sniff parameters according to either QoS requirements or dynamic traffic characteristics. We have shown via analysis and simulations that ours can achieve differentiated and efficient bandwidth allocation both in a scatternet level and in a piconet level as well as power saving, which is desired for wireless personal area network systems.

Tae-Jin Lee, Sae-Rom Park

Topological-Order Based Dynamic Polling Scheme Using Routing Path for Network Monitoring

This paper presents a topological-order based dynamic polling scheme that effectively controls the overhead on polling traffic, by creating a network topology that follows the actual routing path for network monitoring. While the existing schemes use the polled roundtrip time or line usage to change polling rate for controlling the polling overhead, they were not capable of considering the topological order on polling nodes, which result in an inaccurate reflection of the current state of the network. Therefore, the scheme presented in this paper understands the relationship among nodes through the routing paths of network nodes within a management domain, uses this to determine the polling order, and carries out a dynamic polling to minimize the overhead on polling. Also, this paper proves that the scheme is more efficient in reducing polling time and number of messages compared to the polling scheme that does not consider topological-order.

Byoungwoo Yoon, Seongjin Ahn, Jinwook Chung

Wireless Network

An On-Demand Energy-Efficient Routing Algorithm for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Ad hoc networks are non-infrastructure networks which consist of mobile nodes. Since the mobile nodes have limited battery power, it is very important to use energy efficiently in ad hoc networks. In order to maximize the lifetime of ad hoc networks, traffic should be sent via a route that can be avoid nodes with low energy while minimizing the total transmission power. In addition, considering that the nodes of ad hoc networks are mobile, on-demand routing protocols are preferred for ad hoc networks. However, most existing power-aware routing algorithms do not meet these requirements. Although some power-aware routing algorithms try to compromise between two objectives, they have difficulty in implementation into on-demand version. In this paper, we propose a novel on-demand power aware routing algorithm called DEAR. DEAR prolongs its network lifetime by compromising between minimum energy consumption and fair energy consumption without additional control packets. DEAR also improves its data packet delivery ratio.

Hong-Ryeol Gil, Joon Yoo, Jong-Won Lee

A Grid Architecture for Building Hybrid Museums

The advent of the Internet has led to dramatic changes in the cultural habits of citizens, the most remarkable of which is undoubtedly the democratization of the access to the culture. Focusing in the museum world, we foresee a new generation of information systems providing compatibility with the sensorial richness of existing in-place visits, augmentation of visits with virtual information so that artworks are better understood, dynamic content management, and ubiquity. In this paper we introduce the notion of Hybrid Museum as a virtual organization consisting of a physical museum where visitors are present, plus a distributed heterogeneous collection of sources of catalogued artwork, a middleware infrastructure to provide ubiquitous access to those sources and a wireless infrastructure so that disseminations may be available to visitors at any moment. We aim at building hybrid museums by integrating heterogeneous distributed sources that are managed and operated independently. We identify the different services hybrid museums must provide, and use the grid architectural model which has been successfully tested in other virtual organizations, to define their architectural features. Finally, we also describe MoMo, an implementation of a hybrid museum running on market-based handheld PCs to prove the feasibility of our ideas.

Javier Jaén Martínez, Jose H. Canós

A Graph-Based Approach to Compute Multiple Paths in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Multipath on-demand routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks try to reduce control overhead and end-to-end delay by computing multiple paths with a single route discovery process. We propose Graph-based Multipath Routing (GMR), a novel multipath routing protocol that generate the network topology graph to compute all link disjoint paths in the network. The destination node computes link disjoint paths using the local graph search algorithm. We present our simulation results compared with DSR and Multipath DSR

Gunyoung Koh, Duyoung Oh, Heekyoung Woo

Web Component

Computer Vision-Assisted Interaction in X3D Virtual Environment on WWW

X3D is the next generation Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML97) using Extensible Markup Language (XML) and provides a standardized, portable, and platform-independent way to render dynamic interactive 3D scenes across the Internet. Accordingly, the current paper presents the integration of a more flexible user interface into X3D using computer vision-based techniques. The proposed method enables navigation of a virtual environment on the WWW using only a USB camera and client program, without the need for a mouse or keyboard interface, specific equipment, or environmental setup. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach facilitates an easy to use User Interface (UI) on the WWW.

Dong Hoon Lee, Soon Ki Jung

Implementation of a Web Robot and Statistics on the Korean Web

A web robot is a program that downloads and stores web pages. Implementation issues of web robots have been studied widely and various web statistics are reported in the literature. First, this paper describes the overall architecture of our robot and the implementation decisions on several important issues. Second, we show empirical statistics on approximately 73 million Korean web pages. We also identify what factors of web pages could affect the page changes. The factors may be used for the selection of web pages to be updated incrementally.

Sung Jin Kim, Sang Ho Lee

DOC: A Distributed Object Caching System for Information Infrastructure

Object caching is a desirable feature to improve the both scalability and performance of distributed application systems for information infrastructure, the information management system leveraging the power of network computing. However, in order to exploit such benefits, we claim that the following problems: cache server placement, cache replacement, and cache synchronization, should be considered when designing any object cache system. We are under developing DOC: a Distributed Object Caching, as a part of building our information infrastructures. In this paper, we show how each problem is interrelated, and focus to highlight how we handle cache server deployment problem.

Taehee Lee, Junho Shim, Sang-Goo Lee

Multimedia Communications

Reliable Real-Time Transport of Stereo Video for Immersive Media Communication

Emerging high-speed next-generation Internet is enabling immersive media communication systems and applications to realize geographically distributed team collaborations, overcoming the limit of distance and time. Focusing on the reliable real-time delivery of 3D (i.e., stereo) video among corresponding parties, in this paper, key schemes for stereo video processing/display and reliable transport of stereo video packets over high-speed Internet are designed and implemented. The performance of proposed stereo video delivery system is evaluated both by emulating various network situations for quantitative comparison and by transmitting over real-world Internet up to the speed of around 100 Mbps. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system in supporting the desired immersive communication.

Hyeyoung Chang, Sehchan Oh, JongWon Kim, Woontak Woo, Jaesung Kwak

Development of a Multipurpose Audio Transmission System on the Internet

— To Realize Multiple Audio Communication Scenes —

It is becoming easy to use audio communications on broadband networks. There have been many variations of audio communications. In our study, we classify conditions of audio communications required in various situations and design a multipurpose audio transmission system called as “MRAT (Multipurpose RAT)”. We enhance RAT (Robust Audio Tool) that is one of audio communication tools, and add two new options. One is to keep shorter delays between end-nodes. Another is an error recovery using a Forward Error Correction with Reed- Solomon code, to recover packet losses. By using these options, MRAT has three modes; a Chorus mode, a Conversation mode, and a Broadcast mode. Therefore, MRAT can correspond to various scenes. We show some evaluations of MRAT like measurements of end-to-end delays and effects of an error recovery. We also show practicality of MRAT by practical experiments such as distance chorus at multi-points and distance lectures.

Takashi Kishida, Kaori Maeda, Eitaro Kohno, Tohru Kondo, Kouji Nishimura, Reiji Aibara

Admission Control for TCP Connections in QoS IP Network

The paper describes a new admission control (AC) algorithm for greedy TCP connections. The algorithm has passed positive tests in pre-production QoS EP network [2], developed inside European IST project AQUILA1 network. The algorithm operates per single TCP flow and it assumes the setting of advertised receiver TCP window size for maintaining ideal TCP behaviour (no packet losses). The QoS objective is to guarantee the requested bit rate, say Rreq, a user demands from the network. Furthermore, on the basis of the Rreq and information about round trip time (RTT), the user request is mapped into the form of single token bucket parameters, i.e. token accumulating rate (R) and bucket size (BS), constituting input parameters for AC decision. For admitted TCP connection the Rreq is guaranteed, even if running connections differ in Rreq and RTTmin| Included simulation results confirm the efficiency of the algorithm.

Wojciech Burakowski, Halina Tarasiuk

E-payment and Auction

A Study on Mobile Payment System with United Mileage Using USIM

As the demand for mobile terminal increase, E-Commerce is transforming to M-Commerce. Especially, business models using mobile device are actively being developed and the expense transaction method using mobile device is becoming diverse since these various business models require payment system. In this paper, efficient payment system using USIM(IMT-2000) in M-Commerce is proposed. Especially proposed payment system supports united mileage policy. The system is an independent program saved on USIM and can calculate and save electronic money, the mileage from various shopping mall(united mileage). Although the characteristic of the mileage is different from shopping malls, the system can unite mileage. The system is developed to encourage the efficiency of a system after comparing and contrasting between established systems and the newly designed one in simulation.

Jang-Mi Baek, In-Sik Hong

Peer-to-Peer Money: Free Currency over the Internet

This paper proposes a resilient, alternative monetary system on the Internet called i-WAT, based on WAT System[1] which uses a form of promissory note as the medium of exchanging goods and services. i-WAT uses an electronic version of the note, ownership of which is transferred by exchanging messages signed in OpenPGP[2].i-WAT can be used as the basis of various interpersonal/corporative transactions in the globally distributed computing environment. Specific applications being investigated include distributed consumer reports, an alternative copyright system and spam-free e-mail exchange.A prototype of an i-WAT checkbook has been developed as a plug-in for a Jabber[3] client. Experiments are ongoing.

Kenji Saito

A Framework of Winner Determination Algorithms for Internet Auctions

Auctions have become popular in conducting trade negotiations on the Internet. The design of new auction formats and other negotiation protocols has become an important topic for researchers in both industry and academia. Traditional auction mechanisms typically allow price-only negotiations for which the winner determination is a computationally simple task. However, the need for new auction mechanisms that allow complex bids such as bundle bids and multi-attribute bids has been raised in many situations such as corporate procurement. The winner determination in these auctions is a computationally hard problem. The computational complexity has been a significant hurdle for the wide spread use of these advanced auction models. In this paper, we will outline the auction design space and classify winner determination algorithms along multiple dimensions. Then, we will explain the design of an object framework providing a programming interface to different types of winner determination algorithms. This framework enables application programmers to specify buyer preferences, allocation rules and supplier offerings in a declarative manner, and solve the winner determination problems without having to implement the computationally complex algorithms.

Juhnyoung Lee, Sang-goo Lee, Suekyung Lee

Cyber Education

CESUE: A Cooking Education System in ubiHome Environment

In this paper, we propose a cooking education system for the ubiHome environment (CESUE). Generally, web-based cooking education system runs without considering the user’s learning state. Therefore, if a user misses the lecture, he/she must find the missed part using a time bar or other ways. With the help of rapidly deploying ubiquitous computing, the proposed CESUE can provide user-oriented multimedia cooking lectures by allowing the user to control each step interactively over the network. The proposed system consists of three key components; (i) vision-based interface, (ii) interaction for contents control, and (iii) visual and sound feedback. According to the scenario-based experiments, CESUE provides a more efficient cooking class than conventional text-based or web-based classes. The proposed system can be used as not only in the education system but also in various media applications.

Minkyung Lee, Woontack Woo

Teaching Methods of Web Authoring

Providing information on the Internet requires the knowledge of HTML[1], and we have been teaching it mainly to the students who belong to Informatics departments by means of teaching HTML tags. As the Internet has become more popular, many people provide information on the Internet. It has become necessary to teach HTML to students whose major is not Computer Science and who have fewer chances to write HTML but have more chances to provide information on the Internet. In spite of the different goals of these two types of students, we are still teaching them in the same way. Here, taking the difference into consideration, we propose to develop our method of teaching web authoring as to fit current needs. We also consider and try to explain what are the good pages. We also propose a method to teach how to create good pages with simple and restricted conditions. Although they are not perfect, we refer this topic in order to start discussion.

Yoshihiko Usui

Dynamic Conceptual Network Mechanism for a Web-Based Authoring System

To cope with the increasing demand of continued or distance learning, most universities are taking advantages of technology for their Web-based education. Since the target users who have the self-learning expectation and individual academic background are normally different from traditional classroom, student-centered course materials become critical. In fact, preparing Web-based course materials are very complicated and time consuming as the target users normally are in a very wide range. To the best knowledge of our understanding, most of existing course material editing facilities are quite primitive. In this paper, we introduce a conceptual framework for building of reusable student-centered course materials through 1) dynamic conceptual network mechanism for capturing the relationships among learning concepts to facilitate the author for reusing and interoperation with the course materials, and 2) intelligent knowledge base facilities, such as personal profiles, to help understand students’ behavior so as to provide studentcentered results to different learning groups.

Elvis Wai Chung Leung, Qing Li

Mobility & Handoff

Mobility Agent with SIP Registrar for VoIP Services

The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is likely to play a key role in the convergence of Internet and the conventional cellular networks. Several issues related to mobility management in SIP enabled networks remain to be resolved. While other work has compared and contrasted mobility management in SIP and Mobile IP (MIP), in this paper we investigate possible integration techniques that combine the mobility management capabilities of both protocols. After illustrating some of the issues with each protocol when used in isolation in various mobile VoIP scenarios, we propose an integrated model (MIP+SIP), that reduces the disruption time during handovers. Our combination of network and application layer mobility management models reduces the global signaling load and provides fast handoff for ongoing conversations. Simulation results show that our proposed mechanisms achieve better performance than isolated SIP and MIP mobility management. Simulation results presented in this paper are based on the ns2 mobility package[6], which we extended with new capabilities to model SIP components (i.e., user agents, redirect servers, proxy servers, registrars) and SIP-based VoIP traffic.

Jin-Woo Jung, Doug Montgomery, Jung-Hoon Cheon, Hyun-Kook Kahng

MAT: An End-to-End Mobile Communication Architecture with Seamless IP Handoff Support for the Next Generation Internet

The technological advancement in the area of handheld mobile devices has resulted in a movement towards total mobility. Real-time applications are demanding such a flexible mobility support that would not interact adversely with the existing protocols, especially with Quality of Service (QoS) and security mechanisms. We believe that this could be achieved by providing mobility services through the mobile nodes themselves rather than via proxies. This paper proposes an end-to-end mobile communication architecture, called Mobile IP with Address Translation (MAT). MAT does not require any modification in the core network. To realize mobility we use address translation within host-nodes at the IP layer. We describe MAT architecture and show its mobility capability by prototype implementation and evaluation. Preliminary results show that MAT is fully compatible and works fine in both IPv4 and IPv6 environment. We also compare its features with Mobile IPv4 (MIP), Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) and Location Independent Network Architecture (LIN6) protocols. Furthermore we propose a handoff technique based on MAT which helps to reduce service disruption interval significantly.

Riaz Inayat, Reiji Aibara, Kouji Nishimura, Takahiro Fujita, Yoshihiro Nomura, Kaori Maeda

Flow Handoff Scheme to Support Group Mobility in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

In this paper we present a flow handoff scheme and network architecture to support group mobility in a wireless ad hoc network. Because a wireless ad hoc network does not have a fixed backbone network and the mobile base station moves randomly, the conventional handoff scheme can not efficiently predict group mobility and is not feasible to support a burst handoff traffic occurring due to group mobility. In this paper, we propose a new flow handoff scheme to support this problem. In the proposed handoff scheme, we use hello message extended of AODV routing protocol to predict group mobility and remote information to support a burst handoff call traffic occurring due to group mobility. An analytical Markov model is developed for the proposed scheme and the numerical results discussed. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared to the other conventional handoff scheme.

Joo-Hwan Seo, Ki-Jun Han

Internet Protocols

A Flexible Transition Scheme within a Dual Stack Host in IPv4/IPv6 Coexistence Phase

In an early transition period, the Internet consists of IPv4-only, IPv6-only or IPv4/IPv6 dual networks. Users want to connect to the Internet without any restriction and also still use their existing applications even after migration from IPv4 to IPv6 networks. Thus, we propose a new flexible transition scheme called CHADH (Coexistence of Heterogeneous Applications within a Dual stack Host). At this scheme, DSTM (Dual Stack Transition Mechanism) is tightly coupled with BIA (Bump In the API). With these coupling, Users can use their existing IPv4 applications to communicate with IPv6 host within IPv6 networks. Furthermore, seamless interworking with IPv4 networks can be also assured. Additionally, it can provide the users with adaptive environments to easily use their terminals in various networks environments. DNSv6 resolving can be also available to the users with the help of CHADH. We have implemented the prototype of CHADH on the Microsoft Windows 2000 and XP platforms. We have verified its usability through various experiments with existing applications and evaluated the performance in each network environments.

Hee-Cheol Lee, Hyoung-Jun Kim, Ki-Shik Park

Design and Implementation of IPv6-IPv4 Protocol Translation System Using Dynamic IP Address

With the development of IPv6, several IPv6-IPv4 protocol translation systems for communicating between IPv6 networks and IPv4 networks have been proposed. However, the existing IPv6-IPv4 protocol translation systems are impossible to deploy IPv6 networks using dynamic IP address because they necessarily require predefined IP address space for protocol translation. In this paper, we design and implement the IPv6-IPv4 protocol Translation System using Dynamic IP address (64TSD). In order to verify the feasibility of 64TSD, we present experimental results with variable applications and performance evaluation results.

In-Yeup Kong, Joong-Lyul Lee, Jung-Tae Lee

TCP Performance Improvement with ACK Pacing in Wireless Data Networks

Wireless data services are fundamental in ubiquitous networks. In wireless data networks, the TCP congestion mechanism can mistake a wireless channel error or blackout for congestion on the route. Several wireless TCP protocols have been proposed considering TCP performance degradation in wireless systems. However, these protocols are too complex to deploy in wireless systems. In this paper, we propose the ACK Pacing algorithm for long lasting loss periods like a hand-off or a blackout. By pacing ACK packets sending, we prevent bursty data delivery to the old path and a spurious timeout occurrence. Also, paced ACK packets trigger the route update to the new path faster. The proposed algorithm can be implemented in the wireless-node-side which is easily applicable to wireless systems. From simulation results, ACK Pacing improves TCP performance compared with many TCP variations. The ACK Pacing algorithm shows good performance during a long lasting loss period.

Seongho Cho, Heekyoung Woo

Mobile Agent

Message Transferring Model between Mobile Agents in Multi-region Mobile Agent Computing Environment

In this paper, we will propose a message transferring model between mobile agents using broadcasting the receiving notification of message by home site creating the corresponding mobile agent or Mobile Agent Name Server(MANS) in the current region of the corresponding mobile agent. Proposed message transferring model adapts the previous broadcasting scheme for transferring the message between mobile agents located in other sites. However, it only broadcasts the receiving notification of message instead of message itself. Proposed message transferring model reduces the communication cost occurred between the home site and the current site of mobile agent by only broadcasting the receiving notification of message instead of message itself and solves the scalability problem in multi-region mobile agent computing environment by using the MANS.

MaengSoon Baik, KwonWoo Yang, JinGon Shon, ChongSun Hwang

A Secure Mobile Agent System Using Multi-signature Scheme in Electronic Commerce

Mobile agent is a program which can autonomously migrate from a host to another and it provides a useful framework for Electronic Commerce. But, in spite of mobile agent system’s benefits, it has been exposed to the serious security attacks from malicious hosts or agents. So, there has been a lot of works in the mobile agent’s security, and recently, Kim and Chung proposed a security protocol for mobile agent system [5]. But their protocol has some security weaknesses; i.e., it is vulnerable to intruder-in-the-middle attack and the previous agent platform can forge the multi-signature. In this paper, we show that their protocol has the security weaknesses. And then we propose a new security protocol for secure mobile agent system that solves the weaknesses of their protocol and provides the security services such as the mutual authentication, the confidentiality, the non-repudiation, and the prevention of replay attack. Our protocol is very suitable for protecting mobile agent from malicious host in the Electronic Commerce Web site that searches the best price of the products.

Seung-Hyun Seo, Sang-Ho Lee

A Nested Token-Based Delegation Scheme for Cascaded Delegation in Mobile Agent Environments

In mobile agent environments, cascaded delegation occurs frequently among places due to the mobility of agents. Because the existing scheme considers only the delegation between two places which participate in migration of an agent, it is inadequate in the situation that needs cascaded delegation. In this paper, we propose a delegation scheme that provides agents with secure cascaded delegation. The proposed scheme achieves the goal by nesting each delegation token within the signed part of the next immediate delegation token. We prove that the proposed scheme is secure against the attack of replaying a message and the attack of substituting a delegation token.

Hyeog Man Kwon, Moon Jeong Kim, Young Ik Eom

Misc Topics in Communications

New Mechanisms for End-to-End Security Using IPSec in NAT-Based Private Networks

While the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 has been considered to extend the IP address space, the NAT protocol is widely used as an interim solution. Using the NAT protocol with the end-to-end IPSec resulting a conflict due to the address transition operation of the NAT. In this paper, we design two mechanisms which provide the end-to-end security service even if a NAT is used for private networks. The first proposed mechanism defines a notification message to deliver the address translation information in advance. This mechanism uses already defined protocols and does not need additional protocol modification. The second proposed mechanism uses SSL and IPSec to protect user data and IP header. Although this mechanism needs chip redundancy on packet length, it can save duplicated encryptions caused by SSL and IPSec encryptions. Procedures and parameters to support the mechanisms are designed in this paper.

Sung Yong Kim, Jin Wook Shin, Sun Young Sim, Dong Sun Park

Network Management Services in GSMP Open Interface

General switch management protocol (GSMP) is an open interface between a label switch and a controller, and it provides connection, configuration, event, performance management and synchronization. Traditionally, network management services are classified into five categories: those are configuration, performance, fault, accounting, and security management services. Network management functions for these services can be located in the either controller or label switch. We analyzed the complexity of switch implementation and the efficiency of resource usage according to the location of network management functions in the GSMP interface. We also described each network management service and its related managed objects in the GSMP interface.

YoungWook Cha, TaeHyun Kwon, ChoonHee Kim, JunKyun Choi

The Bitmap Trie for Fast Prefix Lookup

This paper introduces a new data structure to perform forwarding lookups at Gigabit speed by condensing the forwarding table of backbone routers to fit into cache, eliminating slow memory accesses. The proposed structure bases on the conventional trie, which is good at partial string search. Each link in the proposed trie denotes some portion of IP address and a node also holds a pointer to a routing entry when the entry’s destination is equal to the concatenation of IP prefixes assigned over the link path down to the node. For reduction of the trie’s size, our trie encodes a set of child and routing entry pointers as a bit array where a single bit represents a pointer. So, we call this proposed structure bitmap trie. The experiments show that the bitmap trie compacts backbone routing table small enough for 512Kbyte L2 cache.

Seunghyun Oh, Yangsun Lee

Short Contributions

Framework of Control Protocol for Relayed Multicast

In this paper, we introduce Relayed Multicast Control Protocol (RMCP). The RMCP has been designed for realizing and managing the relayed multicast. Relayed multicast, as known as Overlay Multicasting or Application-level Multicasting, is a data delivery scheme for one-to-many multicast application, in which one or more intermediate Multicast Agents are employed for relaying application data from a sender to many receivers along a tree hierarchy. In RMCP, a special-purpose entity, named Session Manager, is used to manage the overall control operations. RMCP is designed to ensure that the multicast applications and services can be provided along with the associated relayed data transport schemes over current Internet environments in which IP multicast has not completely been deployed.

Seok Joo Koh, Juyoung Park, Jae Hong Min, Ki Shik Park

The Framework for the Message Transport Agent in a Web-Based Information System

The main role of the messaging system or message transport agent (MTA) in a Web-based information system is the correct and reliable processing of applications serviced by the system in the presence of system failures. In this paper, we define a general framework for the MTA in a Web-based information systems based on the XML platform. Two important issues that need to be addressed by the MTA are (1) the message protocol to be used to ensure interoperability and (2) the technique used to ensure database consistency in processing user applications. The framework for the MTA is defined by how the two issues are addressed and we show the design of the MTA. A prototype system has been implemented based on the design.

Kyung-Chang Kim, Young Chul Kim, Hewon Lee

Semantic Web Search Model for Information Retrieval of the Semantic Data

In this paper, we propose the ontology-based semantic web search model to enhance efficiency and accuracy of information retrieval for unstructured and semi-structured documents. New evaluation model is also proposed to measure the similarity between documents with semantic information. It is implemented and compared with the existing web models.

Okkyung Choi, SeokHyun Yoon, Myeongeun Oh, Sangyong Han

Building a Web-Enabled Multimedia Data Warehouse

Data warehousing has drawn attention as a useful approach to integrate heterogeneous data sources. Since most of data warehouses have been developed based on the relational database technology, however, difficulties are encountered, when we integrate multimedia data sources, which need a flexible data model and a content-based query language. In this paper, we study a framework for multimedia data warehousing, which integrates diverse types of multimedia data from disparate sources. Because of the interoperability and flexibility of the XML, we use the XML technology for our framework. The multimedia data warehouse supports content-based integration and retrieval of multimedia data, and manages changes of data sources efficiently in a distributed environment. Therefore, our framework significantly simplifies development of Web-based advanced multimedia application.

Hyon Hee Kim, Seung Soo Park

Dynamic Order of Rules for RBR Based Network Fault Diagnosis and Recovery System

The purpose of this paper is to study the method to make the rule application order dynamic during fault occurrence within the system that performs the RBR (Rule-Based Reasoning) based Fault Diagnosis and Recovery. Various agents are applied according to a static rule order whenever a fault occurs within the initially assigned order. Contrast to the existing systems that diagnose and recover a fault by applying rules in static order, the algorithm presented in this paper reflects the fault possibility and changes the order of rules dynamically.

Yunseok Jang, Seongjin Ahn, Jin Wook Chung

Symmetric and Asymmetric Cryptography Based Watermarking Scheme for Secure Electronic Commerce via the Internet

We present a watermarking scheme using symmetric and asymmetric cryptography. The scheme provides four essential features, confidentiality, authentication, integrity, and nonrepudiation, which are necessary for secure electronic commerce. To achieve this, the proposed idea consists two fold: one using traditional cryptography and the other using digital watermark that inserts the digital signature into the multimedia data. The advantage of this scheme is that the transmitted data including the encrypted digital data and the digital signature are contained in the same file. Simulation results show that if even a single bit has been changed, or wrong key is used, the received data are regarded as violation of four essential features.

Sung-Cheal Byun, Byung-Ha Ahn

Improving Disk I/O Performance by Using Raw Disk for Web Proxy Servers

The common bottleneck of web proxy servers is disk I/O. Most general-purpose file systems are very inefficient on handling web cache workload and have high overloads. In this paper we are interested in exploring a way to reduce disk I/O overhead by using raw disk instead of the file system. To show the superior performance potential of raw disk approach, we design a simple Block-structured Storage Management System (BSMS) and implement Web Proxy Server over RAW disk (WPS-RAW) that incorporates BSMS in Squid. Comprehensive experimental evaluations by using the Web Polygraph proxy performance benchmark suggest that raw disk can be a good solution to improve disk I/O performance of web proxy server significantly.

Jong-Ik Shim, Jae-Dong Lee

Superposed Multiple QoS Guarantee in Optical Access Networks

In this paper, a design alternative for guaranteeing various kinds of QoS constraints in an emerging optical access network technology, Ethernet-Passive Optical Network (E-PON), is studied. New applications delivered by E-PON will require various and superposed QoS, for example streaming video requires superposed delay and jiiter QoS. Since traditional fair queuing does not have much of interest in the superposed QoS, it is not able to fully support advent applications. A scheduling algorithm called delay jitter loss adaptive scheduler (DJLAS) is proposed to guarantee tunable any kinds of superposed QoS constraints (delay, jitter, and loss rate) for applications like video, voice, and data over E-PON. The DJLAS is devised to guarantee QoS especially in short-term period because QoS guarantee of long-term period does not appeal to users.

Myoung Hun Kim, Hong Shik Park

A Selection Process of COTS Components Based on the Quality of Software in a Special Attention to Internet

Because of rapid change of Internet software technology over the past decade, a number of software professionals have been concerned with component-based development methodologies. However, it is difficult to find out a systematic technique for the selection of COTS component in a special attention to Internet from consumers’ viewpoints. Up to date, the evaluation of the component quality has been performed on the basis of software metrics. This paper presents a selection process of COTS component on the basis of the quality by using MCDM technique. The quality criteria of component are classified into functionality, efficiency and usability in accordance with ISO/IEC 9126. This paper shows that the proposed selection process can be applicable for the selection of COTS component in a special attention to Internet such as an EJB component. The authors believe that the results of this paper can be widely used for the selection of COTS components from consumers’ viewpoints.

Kie Sung Oh, Nam Yong Lee, Sung Yul Rhew

Robust Authentication of Multimedia Stream over Multicast Network

In multicast environment, data loss is occurred frequently during transmission, so we should consider the loss in real-time message’s authentication. We propose robust loss tolerate scheme. We solve previous studies’ disadvantages which are long verifying time and not tolerating error loss in special situation. This mechanism endures to burst and random data loss and provides fast verification time. The analysis are shown that our mechanism is suitable for real-time multicast environment.

Miyoun Yoon, Kiyoung Kim, Yongtae Shin

Strong User Authentication in IEEE802.11 Wireless LAN

The authentication of the existing wireless LAN standard IEEE802.11b is not user authentication but it is device authentication also this have many vulnerabilities. As a result to complement the weak of IEEE802.11b authentication, the IEEE802.1x had developed in the sense of providing strong user authentication with appropriate mechanism. But this new mechanism do not perform AP (Access Point) authentication and there are also some weak points. For that reason in this paper we propose strong user authentication mechanism in IEEE802.11 wireless LAN environment. This mechanism is based on existing 802.1x and through TLS the user authentication is performed in all of wireless LAN components.

Jong-hu Lee, Jae-cheol Ryou

Refundable Electronic Cash for Mobile Commerce

BOCC is Brand’s offline cash with a counter, in which a temper-resistant device is used for prior avoidance of double-spending and a unit coin means a variable price on satisfying electronic cash attributes. BOCC should be reformed for easy use in mobile commerce. To support the variable limitation of price, refundability, and performance improvement, ECVL, RECVL, and REECVL are presented in this paper. Comparing REECVL with BOCC on PC simulation, 64% of withdraw and 68% of payment were improved.

Eun-Kyeong Kwon, Yong-Gu Cho, Kijoon Chae

Improved Client Authentication Using Session Authentication in the Internet

It is general process of client authentication for a user to gain authority by the user’s ID and password. But using client’s password is not always secure because of various security attacks of many opponents. In this paper, we propose an improved client authentication adding session authentication process to current systems based on user’s ID and password. Before a client requests information processing to web application servers, the user acquire session password from authentication server. The session authentication procedure makes our systems secure during transaction processing by using duplicated password system. And using our proposed session authentication, we can detect intrusion during unauthorized client’s transaction because we can know immediately using a stored session authentication password when a hacker attacks our network or computer systems.

Jae-Woo Lee, Doo-Kwon Baik

Performance Analysis of MAC Protocol for EPON Using OPNET

A MAC Protocol of EPON is based on TDMA, we classify this protocol into a fixed length slot assignment method suitable for leased line supporting Qos and a variable length slot assignment method suitable for LAN/MAN with the best effort. In this paper, for analyzing the performance of these protocols, we design an EPON model using OPNET. To establish the maximum efficiency of a network, we verify a MAC Protocol and determine the optimal number of ONUs that can be accepted by one OLT and propose the suitable buffer size of ONU based on the End-to-End Ethernet Delay, Queuing Delay, Throughput, and Utilization.

Yongseok Chang, Jonghoon Eom, Chang-Gyu Choi, Sung-Ho Kim

Constructing an Internet Chatting Dictionary for Mapping Chatting Language to Standard Language

We construct a relation table that contains the comparison of the general vocabulary and chatting vocabulary. Also this study proposes a method for constructing a comprehensive chatting dictionary that includes the several sublists of the Internet chatting vocabulary, the relations between those sublists and the information of the attributes of the chatters. With the use of the constructed dictionary this study presents a resolution method for ambiguity that occurs during the process of mapping of the chatting language into the standard language.

Yun Sik Kim, Dong-Yul Ra

Speaker Verification System for PDA in Mobile-Commerce

Recently, the capacity of PDA has extended and been popular for mobile environment such as M-commerce. However, the practical application of speaker verification (SV) utility to PDA device requires too much computational complexity. To solve this problem, we propose a new method to relieve the computational burden by applying the Sequential Probability Ratio Test(SPRT) in Hidden Markov Models (HMM). Our experimental results show that the proposed method can reduce the computation complexity up to 20% and 30% in the enrollment and the test stages, respectively, accompanied by slight accuracy degradation compared with the full search algorithm in the SV.

Younjeong Lee, Changwoo Seo, Joohun Lee, Ki Yong Lee

Efficient Change Detection in Tree-Structured Data

We present X-tree Diff, a change detection algorithm for treestructured data such as XML/HTML documents. X-tree Diff uses a specially designed data structure, called X-tree. Nodes of X-tree have a special hash-valued field representing the structure and data of the subtree rooted at each node, which enables us to compare between subtrees efficiently. X-tree Diff allows exact matchings at early stage, so as to reduce the possibility of wrong matchings. We show that X-tree Diff runs in O(n), where n is the number of nodes in X-trees, in worst case as well as in average case.

Dong Ah Kim, Suk-Kyoon Lee

Composition of MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors for Detecting Adult Images on the Internet

We describe a similarity based adult image detection technique (SID) exploiting composed MPEG-7 visual descriptors. The technique with a large set of training adult image database and a smaller set of training non-adult image database is practically useful in detecting adult images with little false negatives. SID achieved 99% correct detections with 23% false positives when experimented with a database containing 1,300 training non-adult images, and 93.5% correct detections with 8.4% false positives when experimented with a database containing 12,000 training non-adult images. 9,900 training adult images are used for both experiments. Given a query, ten most similar images are retrieved. If majority of the retrieved are adult images, then the query is determined to be an adult image. Otherwise, it is determined to be a non-adult image. SID can detect adult Internet content with the aid of text filtering system as described in the later section.

Seong-Joon Yoo, Min-ho Jung, Hee Beom Kang, Chee Sun Won, Soo-Mi Choi

Block Splitting Indexing for Supporting Containment Queries

There is structural discrepancy between XML documents and relational databases. The structural information should be represented additionally when XML documents are stored in relational databases. Numbering schemes have been proposed for representing the structural information of XML documents. However, the numbers in these schemes should be updated whenever deletion or insertion of an object occurs. If an XML document is modified frequently, the overhead of redefining numbers can’t be ignorable. Hence, in this paper, we propose a mechanism for representing structural information of XML documents using grouping, which can reduce the overhead of redefining numbers when deletion or insertion of objects occurs. We also develop algorithms for processing containment queries of XML documents using our representation scheme. We implement our algorithms and compare the performance of them with the performance of standard join method and non-grouping join method. The experiment shows that the performance of our scheme is better than that of standard join method, and is similar to that of index nested loop join method.

Min Jin, Jong-Myoung Kim

Dynamic Deployment of Software Defined Radio Components for Mobile Wireless Internet Applications

Software Defined Radio (SDR) is a key enabling technology for mobile wireless Internet. SDR represents unique opportunity to provide Internet connectivity to handheld devices over a limitless range of communication standards. For SDR systems to realize their full potential, they must be reconfigurable through the dynamic deployment of SDR components. However, the current SDR Forum standard, Software Communication Architecture (SCA), is insufficient in this respect since it fails to provide a complete component framework. In this paper, we propose a SCA-based component framework for SDR. Specifically, we present (1) a component model that defines a component as a specialized CORBA object that implements object management functionality, (2) a package model exploiting the existing XML descriptors of the SCA, and (3) a deployment model that defines a SCA-based deployment environment, a boot-up process to restore deployment state, and a deployment process supporting lazy application instantiation and dynamic component replacement. Frameworks that incorporate these improvements will meet the dynamic software deployment needs of nextgeneration wireless Internet applications.

Saehwa Kim, Jamison Masse, Seongsoo Hong

Fostering Spatial Visualization Ability through Web-Based Virtual-Reality Program and Paper-Based Program

This study was conducted to investigate the gender-related effects of two instructional programs on the spatial visualization skills of ninth grade students. Two instructional programs were developed for this study: a web-based virtual reality (VR) graphics program and a paper-based program. 119 ninth graders from two middle schools in Seoul participated in this study. The data analysis indicated that both the web-based and paper-based programs were effective in improving the spatial visualization skills of experimental groups. When deleting the effect of covariance of the pretest, there were no statistically significant differences in the post-test results. This paper demonstrates the promise of virtual reality on the Internet in the context of spatial visualization.

Oh Nam Kwon

Web-Based Instruction Model for Interactive Classroom Learning

Advances in information technology have provided opportunities for students and teachers to explore new educational media. In particularly, Web-based instruction has spearheaded the growing importance of interactivity within learning environments. This trend has led to many studies supporting the need for interactivity on the Web. In this paper, we suggest that the increased participation in the Web-based classroom instruction enhances student learning with Web-based materials. Finally, we present an example to demonstrate.

Beom-Soo Han, Jeong-Yong Ahn, Kyung-Soo Han

A Watermarking Method for Halftone Images Based on Direct Binary Search

Watermarking techniques previously developed deal with on-line digital data. In this paper we deal with printed images rather than on-line data. Printed image watermarking is performed by exploiting the printing process itself i.e. halftoning. It hides watermark data at pseudo-random locations within a halftone image. The proposed method tries to find the best halftone image which has the least perceived halftoning error by iterative direct binary search method. The artifacts due to the inserted watermark are removed by finding the best neighborhood pixel pattern. By integrating data hiding into halftoning operation, relatively large amount of data can be hidden within a halftone image while the visual quality of final halftone image is maintained. Experimental result shows that the proposed method generates watermarked halftone images with good visual quality.

In-Gook Chun, Sangho Ha, Jongkeun Ahn

A Study on Mobile Commerce AAA Mechanism for Wireless LAN

Wireless LAN is rapidly becoming a crucial component in the next generation mobile communication. In spite of this success, user’s privacy and access control like the authentication problems along with the Accounting and the Billing problems are arising. Especially in the accounting field, the research for the packet accounting based on IP is insufficient so that several ISP’s adopted a fixed sum system for the accounting. This paper presents a packet accounting model compatible with the International Standards for mobile commerce and the verification results.

Gwanyeon Kim, Chinu Lee, Sehyun Park, Ohyoung Song, Byungho Jung

Analysis of User Utility Function in the Combined Cellular/WLAN Environments

Recent advances in wireless networking technologies enabled nomadic users connected to the Internet anywhere from the outdoor environments such as airport, hotel, subway station, or university campus as well as conventional indoor uses. As wireless technologies evolve, multiple wireless access technologies have been adopted. Cellular service and wireless LAN are two most popular access methods currently. In this paper, we open up new aspect of user utility function [1] in the circumstances that nomadic users have access to multiple wireless access methods. In cellular networks with wireless LAN hotspots overlaid, users have to frequently switch among multiple access technologies. Our goal is to find optimal strategy for choosing among multiple access technologies in view of maximum user utility, i.e. the degree of user satisfaction. By taking user utility function into account, one can figure out whether the change of wireless link benefits for the user satisfaction or not. In addition, ISPs can also utilize the concepts for the design of overlaid wireless network architectures to guarantee some appropriate level of user satisfaction. Mathematical derivation of user utility and numerical examples are provided for our proposal.

Jae-Hwan Kim, Young Yong Kim

New Adaptive Trust Models against DDoS: Back-Up CA and Mesh PKI

Most of Public Key Infrastructures (PKIs) are based on the ITU-T X.509, and the top-down hierarchical structure is extensively employed for the PKI community. However, the prominent drawback of the hierarchical PKI structure is that the CAs can be the target of serious attacks such as Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS). In this paper, we present two new models, Back-up CA and Mesh PKI, to cope with such Internet attacks. The proposed Back-up CA sets up an alternative path when an original CA is under attack, consequently improving availability and flexibility. Mesh PKI is a collection of CAs dynamically linked by multiple peer-to-peer cross-certifications. The Mesh PKI is very attractive, not only because they are robust to attacks but also because they help to reduce overall certificate validation time and to balance the load across multiple CAs.

Jaeil Lee, Minsoo Lee, Jabeom Gu, Seoklae Lee, Sehyun Park, JooSeok Song

An Efficient Broadcast Scheme on a Single Broadcast Channel in a Wireless Internet Environment

Data broadcast is an effective public data dissemination method from an Internet server to numerous mobile clients. There have been various broadcast schemes based either on mobile users’ data access frequencies or on semantic relations of data. In this paper, we present an efficient data broadcast scheme based on not only data access frequencies but also semantic relationship to improve mobile users’ data access time.

Song-Yi Yi, Sungwhan Choi, Sungwon Jung

Experiences with Media-Integrated Distributed Control for C4I Applications in Global Military Infosphere

This paper describes our experiences with the design and implementation of a heterogeneous distributed continuous media management system for the global military infosphere, which has been sponsored by U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory. The salient features of our framework are explained. The paper explores the challenges faced in integrating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) object-oriented products into the framework, and how it affected the design and implementation. Our framework includes a component that performs admission control and adaptive multi-resource scheduling based on applications’ Quality-of-Service (QoS) needs.

Wonjun Lee, Raja Harinath, Jaideep Srivastava, Difu Su, James Richardson, Mark Foresti

TDM: Enforcement of Security Management System for XML-Centric Electronic Commerce

There are many types of security that have been applied to secure Electronic Commerce nowadays. Mainstream security depends on equipment-based security mechanisms, which are a concern in terms of security issues as a whole. The necessity of strong security for Electronic Commerce has increased as a result of the whole process and the devices used. This thesis proposes an appropriate security management system TDM which is enforced security management system for ECommerce. The idea of QoSS and a Threat-Adaptive Security Policy is examined in detail in order to apply a conceptual approach to the XML document which is a standard data format for data exchange including that of the Internet. An analysis of the existing system is used in order to suggest appropriate next-generation security management for XML document security. This work contributes to expanding existing security management in the XML document area in order to establish a flexible security policy.

Minji Kim, Younghee Lee

A minimum-Bandwidth Guaranteed Scheduling Algorithm for Data Services in CDMA/HDR System

CDMA/HDR system is designed to provide High Data Rate services in the cellular networks compatible with IS-95B CDMA network. It uses a PF(Proportional Fairness) scheduler that improves total throughput by using multi-user diversity in a forward link while supporting user’s average throughput proportional to channel conditions. Therefore, PFS does not guarantee the minimum data rate to the users with poor channel conditions. We propose a new scheduling algorithm, which bounds the throughput ratio(RminRmax) between the best-channel user and the worst-channel user and maximizes the total throughput. Thus, it can guarantees minimum bandwidth by adapting the throughput ratio(RminRmax). Furthermore, if the user data in the queue is less than the accommodation size of the assigned slot, there will be a loss of efficiency. We add a function to the scheduler to protect the system from this performance degradation.

Seong-il Hahm, Hee-jin Lee, Jong-won Lee

Fair Real-Time Resource Allocation for Internet End System’s QoS Support

We present a resource allocation framework that can handle both the bandwidth and deadline requirements in allocating time shared resources at an Internet end system. The proposed framework has a two-level hierarchy. At the top-level, a proportional share scheduler, called Earliest Finish Time Credit/Debit (EFT-C/D) scheduler, allocates a time shared resource like CPU to the bottom-level schedulers in proportion to the specified rate of each bottom-level scheduler. The bottom-level schedulers each employ different scheduling disciplines to handle different timing requirements. Our major contributions are twofold. First, we present the EFT-C/D algorithm that can achieve nearly perfect fairness when compared to the ideal GPS server. Second, we present a utilization-based schedulability analysis for the EDF scheduler at the bottom-level. Our analysis technique enables on-line admission control by allowing us to easily test the schedulability of a given task set by simply computing required resource utilization.

Jungkeun Park, Minsoo Ryu, Seongsoo Hong

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