Skip to main content
Top
Published in: Public Choice 1-2/2021

24-02-2021

When do voters boycott elections with participation quorums?

Authors: Karel Kouba, Michael Haman

Published in: Public Choice | Issue 1-2/2021

Log in

Activate our intelligent search to find suitable subject content or patents.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

With participation quorums present in elections and referendums, supporters of the status quo have to decide whether to vote against the proposition or boycott it by abstaining altogether to achieve the same result. This paper examines why one strategy or the other is implemented, using data from recall elections in 376 Peruvian municipalities mandating a 50% participation quorum to validate the removal of the mayor. While instrumental rationality under situations of strategic uncertainty in competitive settings goes far in explaining the incidence of boycotts, a bounded rationality approach whereby actors rely on inferential heuristics through spatial diffusion and past experience produces similarly consistent results. Boycotts are also more likely when voter coordination is easier. Personal traits of the status quo elites, on the other hand, are irrelevant. The paper contributes to the understanding of the quorum paradox warning that measures to increase voter participation, such as the introduction of a participation quorum, may actually depress it.

Dont have a licence yet? Then find out more about our products and how to get one now:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 340 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Versicherung + Risiko




Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Appendix
Available only for authorised users
Literature
go back to reference Aguiar-Conraria, L., & Magalhães, P. C. (2010a). Referendum design, quorum rules and turnout. Public Choice, 144(1–2), 63–81.CrossRef Aguiar-Conraria, L., & Magalhães, P. C. (2010a). Referendum design, quorum rules and turnout. Public Choice, 144(1–2), 63–81.CrossRef
go back to reference Aguiar-Conraria, L., & Magalhães, P. C. (2010b). How quorum rules distort referendum outcomes: Evidence from a pivotal voter model. European Journal of Political Economy, 26(4), 541–557.CrossRef Aguiar-Conraria, L., & Magalhães, P. C. (2010b). How quorum rules distort referendum outcomes: Evidence from a pivotal voter model. European Journal of Political Economy, 26(4), 541–557.CrossRef
go back to reference Aguiar-Conraria, L., Magalhães, P. C., & Vanberg, C. A. (2016). Experimental evidence that quorum rules discourage turnout and promote election boycotts. Experimental Economics, 19(4), 886–909.CrossRef Aguiar-Conraria, L., Magalhães, P. C., & Vanberg, C. A. (2016). Experimental evidence that quorum rules discourage turnout and promote election boycotts. Experimental Economics, 19(4), 886–909.CrossRef
go back to reference Aguiar-Conraria, L., Magalhães, P. C., & Vanberg, C. A. (2019). What are the best quorum rules? A laboratory investigation. Public Choice, 185, 1–17. Aguiar-Conraria, L., Magalhães, P. C., & Vanberg, C. A. (2019). What are the best quorum rules? A laboratory investigation. Public Choice, 185, 1–17.
go back to reference Alesina, A., Cassidy, T., & Troiano, U. (2019). Old and young politicians. Economica, 86(344), 689–727.CrossRef Alesina, A., Cassidy, T., & Troiano, U. (2019). Old and young politicians. Economica, 86(344), 689–727.CrossRef
go back to reference Anselin, L. (2009). Spatial regression. In A. S. Fotheringham & P. A. Rogerson (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of spatial analysis (pp. 255–276). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications. Anselin, L. (2009). Spatial regression. In A. S. Fotheringham & P. A. Rogerson (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of spatial analysis (pp. 255–276). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.
go back to reference Balík, S. (2009). Komunální politika: obce, aktéři a cíle místní politiky. Prague: Grada Publishing. Balík, S. (2009). Komunální politika: obce, aktéři a cíle místní politiky. Prague: Grada Publishing.
go back to reference Beaulieu, E. (2014). Electoral protest and democracy in the developing world. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef Beaulieu, E. (2014). Electoral protest and democracy in the developing world. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef
go back to reference Beaulieu, E., & Hyde, S. D. (2009). In the shadow of democracy promotion: Strategic manipulation, international observers, and election boycotts. Comparative Political Studies, 42(3), 392–415.CrossRef Beaulieu, E., & Hyde, S. D. (2009). In the shadow of democracy promotion: Strategic manipulation, international observers, and election boycotts. Comparative Political Studies, 42(3), 392–415.CrossRef
go back to reference Bendor, J., Diermeier, D., & Ting, M. (2003). A behavioral model of turnout. American Political Science Review, 97(2), 261–280.CrossRef Bendor, J., Diermeier, D., & Ting, M. (2003). A behavioral model of turnout. American Political Science Review, 97(2), 261–280.CrossRef
go back to reference Brinks, D., & Coppedge, M. (2006). Diffusion is no illusion: Neighbor emulation in the third wave of democracy. Comparative Political Studies, 39(4), 463–489.CrossRef Brinks, D., & Coppedge, M. (2006). Diffusion is no illusion: Neighbor emulation in the third wave of democracy. Comparative Political Studies, 39(4), 463–489.CrossRef
go back to reference Brollo, F., & Troiano, U. (2016). What happens when a woman wins an election? Evidence from close races in Brazil. Journal of Development Economics, 122, 28–45.CrossRef Brollo, F., & Troiano, U. (2016). What happens when a woman wins an election? Evidence from close races in Brazil. Journal of Development Economics, 122, 28–45.CrossRef
go back to reference Brueckner, J. K. (2003). Strategic interaction among governments: An overview of empirical studies. International Regional Science Review, 26(2), 175–188.CrossRef Brueckner, J. K. (2003). Strategic interaction among governments: An overview of empirical studies. International Regional Science Review, 26(2), 175–188.CrossRef
go back to reference Carreras, M., & Bowler, S. (2019). Community size, social capital, and political participation in Latin America. Political Behavior, 41(3), 723–745.CrossRef Carreras, M., & Bowler, S. (2019). Community size, social capital, and political participation in Latin America. Political Behavior, 41(3), 723–745.CrossRef
go back to reference Côrte-Real, P. P., & Pereira, P. T. (2004). The voter who wasn’t there: Referenda, representation and abstention. Social Choice and Welfare, 22(2), 349–369.CrossRef Côrte-Real, P. P., & Pereira, P. T. (2004). The voter who wasn’t there: Referenda, representation and abstention. Social Choice and Welfare, 22(2), 349–369.CrossRef
go back to reference De Benedetto, M. A., & De Paola, M. (2017). Candidates’ education and turnout: Evidence from Italian municipal elections. German Economic Review, 18(1), 22–50.CrossRef De Benedetto, M. A., & De Paola, M. (2017). Candidates’ education and turnout: Evidence from Italian municipal elections. German Economic Review, 18(1), 22–50.CrossRef
go back to reference Dhillon, A., & Peralta, S. (2002). Economic theories of voter turnout. The Economic Journal, 112(480), F332–F352.CrossRef Dhillon, A., & Peralta, S. (2002). Economic theories of voter turnout. The Economic Journal, 112(480), F332–F352.CrossRef
go back to reference Downs, A. (1957). An economic theory of democracy. New York: Harper. Downs, A. (1957). An economic theory of democracy. New York: Harper.
go back to reference Erlingsson, G. Ó. (2008). The spatial diffusion of party entrepreneurs in Swedish local politics. Political Geography, 27(8), 857–874.CrossRef Erlingsson, G. Ó. (2008). The spatial diffusion of party entrepreneurs in Swedish local politics. Political Geography, 27(8), 857–874.CrossRef
go back to reference Feddersen, T. J. (2004). Rational choice theory and the paradox of not voting. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(1), 99–112.CrossRef Feddersen, T. J. (2004). Rational choice theory and the paradox of not voting. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(1), 99–112.CrossRef
go back to reference Funk, P. (2010). Social incentives and voter turnout: Evidence from the Swiss mail ballot system. Journal of the European Economic Association, 8(5), 1077–1103.CrossRef Funk, P. (2010). Social incentives and voter turnout: Evidence from the Swiss mail ballot system. Journal of the European Economic Association, 8(5), 1077–1103.CrossRef
go back to reference Gabriel, R. D. (2020). Who should you vote for? Empirical evidence from Portuguese local governments. Portuguese Economic Journal, 19(1), 5–31.CrossRef Gabriel, R. D. (2020). Who should you vote for? Empirical evidence from Portuguese local governments. Portuguese Economic Journal, 19(1), 5–31.CrossRef
go back to reference Gendźwiłł, A., & Swianiewicz, P. (2017). Breeding grounds for local independents, bonus for incumbents: Directly elected mayors in Poland. In D. Sweetin (Ed.), Directly elected mayors in urban governance: Impact and practice (pp. 179–200). Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRef Gendźwiłł, A., & Swianiewicz, P. (2017). Breeding grounds for local independents, bonus for incumbents: Directly elected mayors in Poland. In D. Sweetin (Ed.), Directly elected mayors in urban governance: Impact and practice (pp. 179–200). Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRef
go back to reference Gessler, T. (2017). The 2016 referendum in Hungary. East European Quarterly, 45(1–2), 85–97. Gessler, T. (2017). The 2016 referendum in Hungary. East European Quarterly, 45(1–2), 85–97.
go back to reference Geys, B. (2006). Explaining voter turnout: A review of aggregate-level research. Electoral Studies, 25(4), 637–663.CrossRef Geys, B. (2006). Explaining voter turnout: A review of aggregate-level research. Electoral Studies, 25(4), 637–663.CrossRef
go back to reference Haman, M. (2019). The Colombian anti-corruption referendum: Why it failed? Colombia Internacional, 100, 175–199.CrossRef Haman, M. (2019). The Colombian anti-corruption referendum: Why it failed? Colombia Internacional, 100, 175–199.CrossRef
go back to reference Herrera, H., & Mattozzi, A. (2010). Quorum and turnout in referenda. Journal of the European Economic Association, 8(4), 838–871.CrossRef Herrera, H., & Mattozzi, A. (2010). Quorum and turnout in referenda. Journal of the European Economic Association, 8(4), 838–871.CrossRef
go back to reference Hizen, Y., & Shinmyo, M. (2011). Imposing a turnout threshold in referendums. Public Choice, 148(3–4), 491–503.CrossRef Hizen, Y., & Shinmyo, M. (2011). Imposing a turnout threshold in referendums. Public Choice, 148(3–4), 491–503.CrossRef
go back to reference Holland, A. C., & Incio, J. (2019). Imperfect recall: The politics of subnational office removals. Comparative Political Studies, 52(5), 777–805.CrossRef Holland, A. C., & Incio, J. (2019). Imperfect recall: The politics of subnational office removals. Comparative Political Studies, 52(5), 777–805.CrossRef
go back to reference Huckfeldt, R., & Sprague, J. (1987). Networks in context: The social flow of political information. American Political Science Review, 81(4), 1197–1216.CrossRef Huckfeldt, R., & Sprague, J. (1987). Networks in context: The social flow of political information. American Political Science Review, 81(4), 1197–1216.CrossRef
go back to reference Jimeno, J. L., Pérez, J., & García, E. (2009). An extension of the Moulin No Show Paradox for voting correspondences. Social Choice and Welfare, 33(3), 343–359.CrossRef Jimeno, J. L., Pérez, J., & García, E. (2009). An extension of the Moulin No Show Paradox for voting correspondences. Social Choice and Welfare, 33(3), 343–359.CrossRef
go back to reference Kahn, K. F. (1996). The political consequences of being a woman: How stereotypes influence the conduct and consequences of political campaigns. New York: Columbia University Press. Kahn, K. F. (1996). The political consequences of being a woman: How stereotypes influence the conduct and consequences of political campaigns. New York: Columbia University Press.
go back to reference Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. London: Penguin Books. Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. London: Penguin Books.
go back to reference Kanazawa, S. (1998). A possible solution to the paradox of voter turnout. The Journal of Politics, 60(4), 974–995.CrossRef Kanazawa, S. (1998). A possible solution to the paradox of voter turnout. The Journal of Politics, 60(4), 974–995.CrossRef
go back to reference Karahan, G. R., Coats, R. M., & Shughart, W. F. (2009). And the beat goes on: Further evidence on voting on the form of county governance in the midst of public corruption. Kyklos, 62(1), 65–84.CrossRef Karahan, G. R., Coats, R. M., & Shughart, W. F. (2009). And the beat goes on: Further evidence on voting on the form of county governance in the midst of public corruption. Kyklos, 62(1), 65–84.CrossRef
go back to reference Karahan, G. R., Morris Coats, R., & Shughart, W. F. (2006). Corrupt political jurisdictions and voter participation. Public Choice, 126(1–2), 87–106.CrossRef Karahan, G. R., Morris Coats, R., & Shughart, W. F. (2006). Corrupt political jurisdictions and voter participation. Public Choice, 126(1–2), 87–106.CrossRef
go back to reference Knoke, D. (1982). The spread of municipal reform: Temporal, spatial, and social dynamics. American Journal of Sociology, 87(6), 1314–1339.CrossRef Knoke, D. (1982). The spread of municipal reform: Temporal, spatial, and social dynamics. American Journal of Sociology, 87(6), 1314–1339.CrossRef
go back to reference Kouba, K. (2018). Determinants of student participation in higher education governance: The case of student turnout in academic senate elections in Czechia. Higher Education, 76(1), 67–84.CrossRef Kouba, K. (2018). Determinants of student participation in higher education governance: The case of student turnout in academic senate elections in Czechia. Higher Education, 76(1), 67–84.CrossRef
go back to reference Levitsky, S. (2018). Peru: The institutionalization of politics without parties. In S. Mainwaring (Ed.), Party systems in Latin America: Institutionalization, decay, and collapse (pp. 326–358). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef Levitsky, S. (2018). Peru: The institutionalization of politics without parties. In S. Mainwaring (Ed.), Party systems in Latin America: Institutionalization, decay, and collapse (pp. 326–358). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef
go back to reference Maškarinec, P., & Klimovský, D. (2017). Determinants of women’s descriptive representation in the 2014 Czech and Slovak local elections. Lex Localis, 15(3), 387–410.CrossRef Maškarinec, P., & Klimovský, D. (2017). Determinants of women’s descriptive representation in the 2014 Czech and Slovak local elections. Lex Localis, 15(3), 387–410.CrossRef
go back to reference Mişcoiu, S. (2020). Recall practices in central and eastern Europe: From citizen accountability to partisan account settling. In Y. Welp & L. Whitehead (Eds.), The politics of recall elections (pp. 143–157). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRef Mişcoiu, S. (2020). Recall practices in central and eastern Europe: From citizen accountability to partisan account settling. In Y. Welp & L. Whitehead (Eds.), The politics of recall elections (pp. 143–157). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRef
go back to reference Moran, P. A. (1950). A test for the serial dependence of residuals. Biometrika, 37, 178–181.CrossRef Moran, P. A. (1950). A test for the serial dependence of residuals. Biometrika, 37, 178–181.CrossRef
go back to reference Most, B. A., & Starr, H. (1990). Theoretical and logical issues in the study of international diffusion. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 2(4), 391–412.CrossRef Most, B. A., & Starr, H. (1990). Theoretical and logical issues in the study of international diffusion. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 2(4), 391–412.CrossRef
go back to reference Moulin, H. (1988). Condorcet’s principle implies the no show paradox. Journal of Economic Theory, 45(1), 53–64.CrossRef Moulin, H. (1988). Condorcet’s principle implies the no show paradox. Journal of Economic Theory, 45(1), 53–64.CrossRef
go back to reference Nový, M. (2016). Explaining turnout in local referenda in the Czech Republic: Does a NIMBY question enhance citizen engagement? East European Politics, 32(4), 487–504.CrossRef Nový, M. (2016). Explaining turnout in local referenda in the Czech Republic: Does a NIMBY question enhance citizen engagement? East European Politics, 32(4), 487–504.CrossRef
go back to reference Oliver, J. E., Callen, Z., & Ha, S. E. (2012). Local elections and the politics of small-scale democracy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRef Oliver, J. E., Callen, Z., & Ha, S. E. (2012). Local elections and the politics of small-scale democracy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRef
go back to reference O’Loughlin, J. (2002). The electoral geography of Weimar Germany: Exploratory spatial data analyses (ESDA) of Protestant support for the Nazi party. Political Analysis, 10(3), 217–243.CrossRef O’Loughlin, J. (2002). The electoral geography of Weimar Germany: Exploratory spatial data analyses (ESDA) of Protestant support for the Nazi party. Political Analysis, 10(3), 217–243.CrossRef
go back to reference Palfrey, T. R., & Rosenthal, H. (1985). Voter participation and strategic uncertainty. American Political Science Review, 79(1), 62–78.CrossRef Palfrey, T. R., & Rosenthal, H. (1985). Voter participation and strategic uncertainty. American Political Science Review, 79(1), 62–78.CrossRef
go back to reference Panagopoulos, C. (2008). The calculus of voting in compulsory voting systems. Political Behavior, 30(4), 455–467.CrossRef Panagopoulos, C. (2008). The calculus of voting in compulsory voting systems. Political Behavior, 30(4), 455–467.CrossRef
go back to reference Paredes, M., & Došek, T. (2020). The subnational indigenous quota in Peru: The paradoxes of political representation. Latin American Politics and Society, 62(3), 123–148.CrossRef Paredes, M., & Došek, T. (2020). The subnational indigenous quota in Peru: The paradoxes of political representation. Latin American Politics and Society, 62(3), 123–148.CrossRef
go back to reference Pavlaković, V. (2005). Serbia transformed? Political dynamics in the Milošević Era and After. In S. P. Ramet & V. Pavlaković (Eds.), Serbia since 1989: Politics and society under Milošević and after (pp. 13–54). Seattle: University of Washington Press. Pavlaković, V. (2005). Serbia transformed? Political dynamics in the Milošević Era and After. In S. P. Ramet & V. Pavlaković (Eds.), Serbia since 1989: Politics and society under Milošević and after (pp. 13–54). Seattle: University of Washington Press.
go back to reference Revelli, F. (2005). On spatial public finance empirics. International Tax and Public Finance, 12(4), 475–492.CrossRef Revelli, F. (2005). On spatial public finance empirics. International Tax and Public Finance, 12(4), 475–492.CrossRef
go back to reference Rocha, F., Fernandez Orellano, V. I., & Bugarin, K. (2018). Elected in a close race: Mayor’s characteristics and local public finances. EconomiA, 19(2), 149–163.CrossRef Rocha, F., Fernandez Orellano, V. I., & Bugarin, K. (2018). Elected in a close race: Mayor’s characteristics and local public finances. EconomiA, 19(2), 149–163.CrossRef
go back to reference Scarrow, S. E. (1996). Parties and their members: Organizing for victory in Britain and Germany. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRef Scarrow, S. E. (1996). Parties and their members: Organizing for victory in Britain and Germany. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRef
go back to reference Scarrow, S. E., & Webb, P. D. (2017). Investigating party organization: Structures, resources, and representative strategies. In S. E. Scarrow, P. D. Webb, & T. Poguntke (Eds.), Organizing political parties: Representation, participation, and power (pp. 1–27). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRef Scarrow, S. E., & Webb, P. D. (2017). Investigating party organization: Structures, resources, and representative strategies. In S. E. Scarrow, P. D. Webb, & T. Poguntke (Eds.), Organizing political parties: Representation, participation, and power (pp. 1–27). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRef
go back to reference Shachar, R., & Nalebuff, B. (1999). Follow the leader: Theory and evidence on political participation. American Economic Review, 89(3), 525–547.CrossRef Shachar, R., & Nalebuff, B. (1999). Follow the leader: Theory and evidence on political participation. American Economic Review, 89(3), 525–547.CrossRef
go back to reference Smith, I. O. (2014). Election boycotts and hybrid regime survival. Comparative Political Studies, 47(5), 743–765.CrossRef Smith, I. O. (2014). Election boycotts and hybrid regime survival. Comparative Political Studies, 47(5), 743–765.CrossRef
go back to reference Stockemer, D. (2017). What affects voter turnout? A review article/meta-analysis of aggregate research. Government and Opposition, 52(4), 698–722.CrossRef Stockemer, D. (2017). What affects voter turnout? A review article/meta-analysis of aggregate research. Government and Opposition, 52(4), 698–722.CrossRef
go back to reference Tuesta Soldevilla, F. (2014). Perú: entre la participación y la gobernabilidad local (1997–2013. In Y. Welp & U. Serdült (Eds.), La dosis hace el veneno: análisis de la revocatoria del mandato en América Latina, Estados Unidos y Suiza (pp. 7–30). Quito: Derechos reservados Instituto de la Democracia. Tuesta Soldevilla, F. (2014). Perú: entre la participación y la gobernabilidad local (1997–2013. In Y. Welp & U. Serdült (Eds.), La dosis hace el veneno: análisis de la revocatoria del mandato en América Latina, Estados Unidos y Suiza (pp. 7–30). Quito: Derechos reservados Instituto de la Democracia.
go back to reference Verba, S., & Nie, N. (1972). Participation in America-political democracy and social equality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Verba, S., & Nie, N. (1972). Participation in America-political democracy and social equality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
go back to reference Welp, Y. (2015). Recall referendums in Peruvian municipalities: A political weapon for bad losers or an instrument of accountability? Democratization, 23(7), 1162–1179.CrossRef Welp, Y. (2015). Recall referendums in Peruvian municipalities: A political weapon for bad losers or an instrument of accountability? Democratization, 23(7), 1162–1179.CrossRef
go back to reference Welp, Y., & Milanese, J. P. (2018). Playing by the rules of the game: Partisan use of recall referendums in Colombia. Democratization, 25(8), 1379–1396.CrossRef Welp, Y., & Milanese, J. P. (2018). Playing by the rules of the game: Partisan use of recall referendums in Colombia. Democratization, 25(8), 1379–1396.CrossRef
go back to reference Welp, Y., & Whitehead, L. (2020). Recall: Democratic advance, safety valve or risky adventure? In Y. Welp & L. Whitehead (Eds.), The politics of recall elections (pp. 9–27). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRef Welp, Y., & Whitehead, L. (2020). Recall: Democratic advance, safety valve or risky adventure? In Y. Welp & L. Whitehead (Eds.), The politics of recall elections (pp. 9–27). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRef
go back to reference Weyland, K. (2019). Revolution and reaction. The diffusion of authoritarianism in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef Weyland, K. (2019). Revolution and reaction. The diffusion of authoritarianism in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef
Metadata
Title
When do voters boycott elections with participation quorums?
Authors
Karel Kouba
Michael Haman
Publication date
24-02-2021
Publisher
Springer US
Published in
Public Choice / Issue 1-2/2021
Print ISSN: 0048-5829
Electronic ISSN: 1573-7101
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127-021-00885-y

Other articles of this Issue 1-2/2021

Public Choice 1-2/2021 Go to the issue

Premium Partner