Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Hint

Swipe to navigate through the chapters of this book

2015 | OriginalPaper | Chapter

Where Snow is a Landmark: Route Direction Elements in Alpine Contexts

Authors: Ekaterina Egorova, Thora Tenbrink, Ross S. Purves

Published in: Spatial Information Theory

Publisher: Springer International Publishing

share
SHARE

Abstract

Route directions research has mostly focused on urban space so far, highlighting human concepts of street networks based on a range of recurring elements such as route segments, decision points, landmarks and actions. We explored the way route directions reflect the features of space and activity in the context of mountaineering. Alpine route directions are only rarely segmented through decision points related to reorientation; instead, segmentation is based on changing topography. Segments are described with various degrees of detail, depending on difficulty. For landmark description, direction givers refer to properties such as type of surface, dimension, colour of landscape features; terrain properties (such as snow) can also serve as landmarks. Action descriptions reflect the geometrical conceptualization of landscape features and dimensionality of space. Further, they are very rich in the semantics of manner of motion.

To get access to this content you need the following product:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 69.000 Bücher
  • über 500 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Testen Sie jetzt 15 Tage kostenlos.

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 50.000 Bücher
  • über 380 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




Testen Sie jetzt 15 Tage kostenlos.

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 58.000 Bücher
  • über 300 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Versicherung + Risiko




Testen Sie jetzt 15 Tage kostenlos.

Literature
1.
go back to reference Allen, G.L.: Spatial abilities, cognitive maps, and wayfinding: Bases for individual differences in spatial cognition and behavior. In: Golledge, R. (ed.) Wayfinding Behavior: Cognitive Maps and Other Spatial Processes, pp. 46–80. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore (1999) Allen, G.L.: Spatial abilities, cognitive maps, and wayfinding: Bases for individual differences in spatial cognition and behavior. In: Golledge, R. (ed.) Wayfinding Behavior: Cognitive Maps and Other Spatial Processes, pp. 46–80. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore (1999)
2.
go back to reference Allen, G.L.: Principles and practices for communicating route knowledge. Appl. Cogn. Psychol. 14(4), 333–359 (2000) CrossRef Allen, G.L.: Principles and practices for communicating route knowledge. Appl. Cogn. Psychol. 14(4), 333–359 (2000) CrossRef
4.
go back to reference Beavers, J., Levin, B., Tham, S.W.: The typology of motion expressions revisited. J. Linguist. 46(02), 331–377 (2010) CrossRef Beavers, J., Levin, B., Tham, S.W.: The typology of motion expressions revisited. J. Linguist. 46(02), 331–377 (2010) CrossRef
5.
go back to reference Bromhead, H.: Ethnogeographical categories in English and Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara. Lang. Sci. 33(1), 58–75 (2011) CrossRef Bromhead, H.: Ethnogeographical categories in English and Pitjantjatjara/Yankunytjatjara. Lang. Sci. 33(1), 58–75 (2011) CrossRef
6.
go back to reference Brosset, D., Claramunt, C., Saux, E.: Wayfinding in natural and urban environments: a comparative study. Cartographica: Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Geovisualization 43(1), 21–30 (2008) CrossRef Brosset, D., Claramunt, C., Saux, E.: Wayfinding in natural and urban environments: a comparative study. Cartographica: Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Geovisualization 43(1), 21–30 (2008) CrossRef
7.
go back to reference Bubenhofer, N., Scheurer, P.: Warum man in die Berge geht. Das kommunikative Muster ‘Begründen’ in alpinistischen Texten. In: Hauser, S., Kleinberger U., Kersten S.R. (eds.) Musterwandel – Sortewandeln. Aktuelle Tendenzen der diachronen Text(sorten)linguistik, pp. 245–275. Peter Land, Bern (2014) Bubenhofer, N., Scheurer, P.: Warum man in die Berge geht. Das kommunikative Muster ‘Begründen’ in alpinistischen Texten. In: Hauser, S., Kleinberger U., Kersten S.R. (eds.) Musterwandel – Sortewandeln. Aktuelle Tendenzen der diachronen Text(sorten)linguistik, pp. 245–275. Peter Land, Bern (2014)
8.
go back to reference Bubenhofer, N., Schröter, J.: Die Alpen. Sprachgebrauchsgeschichte–Korpuslinguistik–Kulturanalyze. In: Historische Sprachwissenschaft. Erkenntnisinteressen, Grundlagenprobleme, Desiderate. Studia Linguistica Germanica, vol. 110, pp. 63–287 (2012) Bubenhofer, N., Schröter, J.: Die Alpen. Sprachgebrauchsgeschichte–Korpuslinguistik–Kulturanalyze. In: Historische Sprachwissenschaft. Erkenntnisinteressen, Grundlagenprobleme, Desiderate. Studia Linguistica Germanica, vol. 110, pp. 63–287 (2012)
9.
10.
go back to reference Comber, A.J., Wadsworth, R.A., Fisher, P.F.: Using semantics to clarify the conceptual confusion between land cover and land use: the example of ‘forest’. J. Land Use Sci. 3(2–3), 185–198 (2008) CrossRef Comber, A.J., Wadsworth, R.A., Fisher, P.F.: Using semantics to clarify the conceptual confusion between land cover and land use: the example of ‘forest’. J. Land Use Sci. 3(2–3), 185–198 (2008) CrossRef
11.
go back to reference Crampton, J.: A cognitive analysis of wayfinding expertise. Cartographica: Int. J. Geog. Inf. Geovisualization 29(3), 46–65 (1992) CrossRef Crampton, J.: A cognitive analysis of wayfinding expertise. Cartographica: Int. J. Geog. Inf. Geovisualization 29(3), 46–65 (1992) CrossRef
12.
go back to reference Denis, M.: The description of routes: a cognitive approach to the production of spatial discourse. Cahiers de psychologie cognitive 16(4), 409–458 (1997) Denis, M.: The description of routes: a cognitive approach to the production of spatial discourse. Cahiers de psychologie cognitive 16(4), 409–458 (1997)
13.
go back to reference Denis, M., Pazzaglia, F., Cornoldi, C., Bertolo, L.: Spatial discourse and navigation: An analysis of route directions in the city of Venice. Appl. Cogn. Psychol. 13(2), 145–174 (1999) CrossRef Denis, M., Pazzaglia, F., Cornoldi, C., Bertolo, L.: Spatial discourse and navigation: An analysis of route directions in the city of Venice. Appl. Cogn. Psychol. 13(2), 145–174 (1999) CrossRef
14.
go back to reference Derungs, C., Purves, R.S.: From text to landscape: locating, identifying and mapping the use of landscape features in a Swiss Alpine corpus. Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci. 28(6), 1272–1293 (2014) CrossRef Derungs, C., Purves, R.S.: From text to landscape: locating, identifying and mapping the use of landscape features in a Swiss Alpine corpus. Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci. 28(6), 1272–1293 (2014) CrossRef
15.
go back to reference Egenhofer, M.J., Mark, D.M.: Naive geography. In: Frank, A.U., Kuhn, W. (eds.) COSIT 1995. LNCS, vol. 988, pp. 1–15. Springer, Berlin (1995) Egenhofer, M.J., Mark, D.M.: Naive geography. In: Frank, A.U., Kuhn, W. (eds.) COSIT 1995. LNCS, vol. 988, pp. 1–15. Springer, Berlin (1995)
16.
go back to reference Hirtle, S.C., Timpf, S., Tenbrink, T.: The effect of activity on relevance and granularity for navigation. In: Egenhofer, M., Giudice, N., Moratz, R., Worboys, M. (eds.) COSIT 2011. LNCS, vol. 6899, pp. 73–89. Springer, Heidelberg (2011) CrossRef Hirtle, S.C., Timpf, S., Tenbrink, T.: The effect of activity on relevance and granularity for navigation. In: Egenhofer, M., Giudice, N., Moratz, R., Worboys, M. (eds.) COSIT 2011. LNCS, vol. 6899, pp. 73–89. Springer, Heidelberg (2011) CrossRef
17.
go back to reference Hirtle, S., Richter, K.F., Srinivas, S., Firth, R.: This is the tricky part: When directions become difficult. J. Spatial Inf. Sci. 1, 53–73 (2015) Hirtle, S., Richter, K.F., Srinivas, S., Firth, R.: This is the tricky part: When directions become difficult. J. Spatial Inf. Sci. 1, 53–73 (2015)
18.
go back to reference Holton, G.: Differing conceptualizations of the same landscape: the Athabaskan and eskimo language boundary in Alaska. In: Mark, D.M., Turk, A.G., Burenhult, N., Stea, D. (eds.) Landscape in Language: Transdisciplinary Perspectives, pp. 225–239. John Benjamins Publishing, Amsterdam (2011) CrossRef Holton, G.: Differing conceptualizations of the same landscape: the Athabaskan and eskimo language boundary in Alaska. In: Mark, D.M., Turk, A.G., Burenhult, N., Stea, D. (eds.) Landscape in Language: Transdisciplinary Perspectives, pp. 225–239. John Benjamins Publishing, Amsterdam (2011) CrossRef
19.
go back to reference Hölscher, C., Tenbrink, T., Wiener, J.M.: Would you follow your own route description? Cognitive strategies in urban route planning. Cognition 121(2), 228–247 (2011) CrossRef Hölscher, C., Tenbrink, T., Wiener, J.M.: Would you follow your own route description? Cognitive strategies in urban route planning. Cognition 121(2), 228–247 (2011) CrossRef
20.
go back to reference Jackendoff, R.S.: Semantics and Cognition. MIT Press, Cambridge (1983) Jackendoff, R.S.: Semantics and Cognition. MIT Press, Cambridge (1983)
21.
go back to reference Jett, S.C.: Landscape Embedded in Language: the Navajo of Canyon de Chelly, Arizona, and their named places. In: Mark, D.M., Turk, A.G., Burenhult, N., Stea, D. (eds.) Landscape in Language: Transdisciplinary Perspectives, pp. 327–343. John Benjamins Publishing, Amsterdam (2011) CrossRef Jett, S.C.: Landscape Embedded in Language: the Navajo of Canyon de Chelly, Arizona, and their named places. In: Mark, D.M., Turk, A.G., Burenhult, N., Stea, D. (eds.) Landscape in Language: Transdisciplinary Perspectives, pp. 327–343. John Benjamins Publishing, Amsterdam (2011) CrossRef
22.
go back to reference Kearns, G.: The imperial subject: geography and travel in the work of Mary Kingsley and Halford Mackinder. Trans. Inst. Br. Geogr. 22(4), 450–472 (1997) CrossRef Kearns, G.: The imperial subject: geography and travel in the work of Mary Kingsley and Halford Mackinder. Trans. Inst. Br. Geogr. 22(4), 450–472 (1997) CrossRef
23.
go back to reference Kray, C., Fritze, H., Fechner, T., Schwering, A., Li, R., Anacta, V.J.: Transitional spaces: between indoor and outdoor spaces. In: Tenbrink, T., Stell, J., Galton, A., Wood, Z. (eds.) COSIT 2013. LNCS, vol. 8116, pp. 14–32. Springer, Heidelberg (2013) CrossRef Kray, C., Fritze, H., Fechner, T., Schwering, A., Li, R., Anacta, V.J.: Transitional spaces: between indoor and outdoor spaces. In: Tenbrink, T., Stell, J., Galton, A., Wood, Z. (eds.) COSIT 2013. LNCS, vol. 8116, pp. 14–32. Springer, Heidelberg (2013) CrossRef
24.
go back to reference Klippel, A., Winter, S.: Structural salience of landmarks for route directions. In: Cohn, A.G., Mark, D.M. (eds.) COSIT 2005. LNCS, vol. 3693, pp. 347–362. Springer, Heidelberg (2005) CrossRef Klippel, A., Winter, S.: Structural salience of landmarks for route directions. In: Cohn, A.G., Mark, D.M. (eds.) COSIT 2005. LNCS, vol. 3693, pp. 347–362. Springer, Heidelberg (2005) CrossRef
25.
go back to reference Krippendorff, K.: Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology, 2nd edn. Sage, London (2004) Krippendorff, K.: Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology, 2nd edn. Sage, London (2004)
26.
go back to reference Levinson, S.C.: Landscape, seascape and the ontology of places on Rossel Island, Papua New Guinea. Lang. Sci. 30(2–3), 256–290 (2008) CrossRef Levinson, S.C.: Landscape, seascape and the ontology of places on Rossel Island, Papua New Guinea. Lang. Sci. 30(2–3), 256–290 (2008) CrossRef
27.
go back to reference Lakusta, L., Landau, B.: Starting at the end: The importance of goals in spatial language. Cognition 96(1), 1–33 (2005) CrossRef Lakusta, L., Landau, B.: Starting at the end: The importance of goals in spatial language. Cognition 96(1), 1–33 (2005) CrossRef
28.
go back to reference Landau, B., Jackendoff, R.: “What” and “Where” in spatial language and spatial cognition. Behav. Brain Sci. 16(2), 217–265 (1993) CrossRef Landau, B., Jackendoff, R.: “What” and “Where” in spatial language and spatial cognition. Behav. Brain Sci. 16(2), 217–265 (1993) CrossRef
29.
go back to reference Lovelace, K.L., Hegarty, M., Montello, D.R.: Elements of good route directions in familiar and unfamiliar environments. In: Freksa, C., Mark, D.M. (eds.) COSIT 1999. LNCS, vol. 1661, pp. 65–82. Springer, Heidelberg (1999) Lovelace, K.L., Hegarty, M., Montello, D.R.: Elements of good route directions in familiar and unfamiliar environments. In: Freksa, C., Mark, D.M. (eds.) COSIT 1999. LNCS, vol. 1661, pp. 65–82. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)
30.
go back to reference Mackinder, H.J.: A journey to the summit of Mount Kenya, British East Africa. Geogr. J. 15(5), 453–476 (1900) CrossRef Mackinder, H.J.: A journey to the summit of Mount Kenya, British East Africa. Geogr. J. 15(5), 453–476 (1900) CrossRef
31.
go back to reference Mark, D.M., Turk, A.G., Burenhult, N., Stea, D. (eds.): Landscape in Language: Transdisciplinary Perspectives. John Benjamins, Amsterdam (2011) Mark, D.M., Turk, A.G., Burenhult, N., Stea, D. (eds.): Landscape in Language: Transdisciplinary Perspectives. John Benjamins, Amsterdam (2011)
32.
go back to reference Montello, D.R.: Scale and multiple psychologies of space. In: Campari, I., Frank, A.U. (eds.) COSIT 1993. LNCS, vol. 716, pp. 312–321. Springer, Heidelberg (1993) Montello, D.R.: Scale and multiple psychologies of space. In: Campari, I., Frank, A.U. (eds.) COSIT 1993. LNCS, vol. 716, pp. 312–321. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)
33.
go back to reference Montello, D.R.: Cognitive geography. In: Kitchin, R., Thrift, N. (eds.) International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, vol. 2, pp. 160–166. Elsevier Science, Oxford (2009) CrossRef Montello, D.R.: Cognitive geography. In: Kitchin, R., Thrift, N. (eds.) International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, vol. 2, pp. 160–166. Elsevier Science, Oxford (2009) CrossRef
34.
go back to reference Montello, D.R., Sullivan, C.N., Pick, H.L.: Recall memory for topographic maps and natural terrain: Effects of experience and task performance. Cartographica 31, 18–36 (1994) CrossRef Montello, D.R., Sullivan, C.N., Pick, H.L.: Recall memory for topographic maps and natural terrain: Effects of experience and task performance. Cartographica 31, 18–36 (1994) CrossRef
35.
go back to reference Papafragou, A., Massey, C., Gleitman, L.: Shake, rattle, ‘n’roll: The representation of motion in language and cognition. Cognition 84(2), 189–219 (2002) CrossRef Papafragou, A., Massey, C., Gleitman, L.: Shake, rattle, ‘n’roll: The representation of motion in language and cognition. Cognition 84(2), 189–219 (2002) CrossRef
36.
go back to reference Piotrowski, M., Läubli, S., Volk, M.: Towards mapping of alpine route descriptions. In: 6th Workshop on Geographic Information Retrieval. ACM, New York (2010) Piotrowski, M., Läubli, S., Volk, M.: Towards mapping of alpine route descriptions. In: 6th Workshop on Geographic Information Retrieval. ACM, New York (2010)
37.
go back to reference Raubal, M., Worboys, M.F.: A formal model of the process of wayfinding in built environments. In: Freksa, C., Mark, D.M. (eds.) COSIT 1999. LNCS, vol. 1661, pp. 381–399. Springer, Heidelberg (1999) Raubal, M., Worboys, M.F.: A formal model of the process of wayfinding in built environments. In: Freksa, C., Mark, D.M. (eds.) COSIT 1999. LNCS, vol. 1661, pp. 381–399. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)
38.
go back to reference Richter, K.-F., Klippel, A.: A model for context-specific route directions. In: Freksa, C., Knauff, M., Krieg-Brückner, B., Nebel, B., Barkowsky, T. (eds.) Spatial Cognition IV. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3343, pp. 58–78. Springer, Heidelberg (2005) CrossRef Richter, K.-F., Klippel, A.: A model for context-specific route directions. In: Freksa, C., Knauff, M., Krieg-Brückner, B., Nebel, B., Barkowsky, T. (eds.) Spatial Cognition IV. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3343, pp. 58–78. Springer, Heidelberg (2005) CrossRef
39.
go back to reference Richter, K.F., Winter, S.: Landmarks. GIScience for Intelligent Services. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland (2014) CrossRef Richter, K.F., Winter, S.: Landmarks. GIScience for Intelligent Services. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland (2014) CrossRef
40.
go back to reference Sarjakoski, T., Kettunen, P., Halkosaari, H.M., Laakso, M., Rönneberg, M., Stigmar, H., Sarjakoski, T.: Landmarks and a hiking ontology to support wayfinding in a national park during different seasons. In: Raubal, M., Mark, D.M., Frank, A.U. (eds.) Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space, pp. 99–119. Springer, Heidelberg (2013) CrossRef Sarjakoski, T., Kettunen, P., Halkosaari, H.M., Laakso, M., Rönneberg, M., Stigmar, H., Sarjakoski, T.: Landmarks and a hiking ontology to support wayfinding in a national park during different seasons. In: Raubal, M., Mark, D.M., Frank, A.U. (eds.) Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space, pp. 99–119. Springer, Heidelberg (2013) CrossRef
41.
go back to reference Smith, B., Mark, D.M.: Do mountains exist? Towards an ontology of landforms. Environ. Plann. B 30(3), 411–428 (2003) CrossRef Smith, B., Mark, D.M.: Do mountains exist? Towards an ontology of landforms. Environ. Plann. B 30(3), 411–428 (2003) CrossRef
42.
go back to reference Slobin, D.I.: The many ways to search for a frog: Linguistic typology and the expression of motion events. In: Strömqvist, S., Verhoeven, L. (eds.) Relating Events in Narrative: Typological and Contextual Perspectives, pp. 219–257. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc., Mahwah (2004) Slobin, D.I.: The many ways to search for a frog: Linguistic typology and the expression of motion events. In: Strömqvist, S., Verhoeven, L. (eds.) Relating Events in Narrative: Typological and Contextual Perspectives, pp. 219–257. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc., Mahwah (2004)
43.
go back to reference Talmy, L.: Toward a Cognitive Semantics. MIT Press, Cambridge (2000) Talmy, L.: Toward a Cognitive Semantics. MIT Press, Cambridge (2000)
44.
go back to reference Tenbrink, T.: Cognitive Discourse Analysis: Accessing cognitive representations and processes through language data. Lang. Cogn. 7(1), 98–137 (2015) CrossRef Tenbrink, T.: Cognitive Discourse Analysis: Accessing cognitive representations and processes through language data. Lang. Cogn. 7(1), 98–137 (2015) CrossRef
45.
go back to reference Tenbrink, T.: Relevance in spatial navigation and communication. In: Stachniss, C., Schill, K., Uttal, D. (eds.) Spatial Cognition 2012. LNCS, vol. 7463, pp. 358–377. Springer, Heidelberg (2012) CrossRef Tenbrink, T.: Relevance in spatial navigation and communication. In: Stachniss, C., Schill, K., Uttal, D. (eds.) Spatial Cognition 2012. LNCS, vol. 7463, pp. 358–377. Springer, Heidelberg (2012) CrossRef
46.
go back to reference Tenbrink, T., Bergmann, E., Konieczny, L.: Wayfinding and description strategies in an unfamiliar complex building. In: Carlson, L., Hölscher, C., Shipley, T.F. (eds.) Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pp. 1262–1267. Cognitive Science Society, Austin (2011) Tenbrink, T., Bergmann, E., Konieczny, L.: Wayfinding and description strategies in an unfamiliar complex building. In: Carlson, L., Hölscher, C., Shipley, T.F. (eds.) Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pp. 1262–1267. Cognitive Science Society, Austin (2011)
47.
go back to reference Timpf, S., Frank, A.U.: Using hierarchical spatial data structures for hierarchical spatial reasoning. In: Hirtle, S.C., Frank, A.U. (eds.) COSIT 1997. LNCS, vol. 1329, pp. 69–83. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg (1997) Timpf, S., Frank, A.U.: Using hierarchical spatial data structures for hierarchical spatial reasoning. In: Hirtle, S.C., Frank, A.U. (eds.) COSIT 1997. LNCS, vol. 1329, pp. 69–83. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg (1997)
48.
go back to reference Tversky, B., Lee, P.U.: How space structures language. In: Freksa, C., Habel, C., Wender, K.F. (eds.) Spatial Cognition 1998. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 1404, pp. 157–175. Springer, Heidelberg (1998) CrossRef Tversky, B., Lee, P.U.: How space structures language. In: Freksa, C., Habel, C., Wender, K.F. (eds.) Spatial Cognition 1998. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 1404, pp. 157–175. Springer, Heidelberg (1998) CrossRef
49.
go back to reference Van der Zee, E., Nikanne, U., Sassenberg, U.: Grain levels in English path curvature descriptions and accompanying iconic gestures. J. Spat. Inf. Sci. 1, 95–113 (2015) Van der Zee, E., Nikanne, U., Sassenberg, U.: Grain levels in English path curvature descriptions and accompanying iconic gestures. J. Spat. Inf. Sci. 1, 95–113 (2015)
50.
go back to reference Whymper, E.: Scrambles Amongst the Alps in the Years 1860-69. J. Murray, London (1872) Whymper, E.: Scrambles Amongst the Alps in the Years 1860-69. J. Murray, London (1872)
51.
go back to reference Williams, M., Kuhn, W., Painho, M.: The influence of landscape variation on landform categorization. J. Spat. Inf. 5, 51–73 (2012) Williams, M., Kuhn, W., Painho, M.: The influence of landscape variation on landform categorization. J. Spat. Inf. 5, 51–73 (2012)
Metadata
Title
Where Snow is a Landmark: Route Direction Elements in Alpine Contexts
Authors
Ekaterina Egorova
Thora Tenbrink
Ross S. Purves
Copyright Year
2015
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-23374-1_9

Premium Partner