Skip to main content


weitere Buchkapitel

2. Characteristics of Tourism and Hospitality Marketing

This chapter explores the characteristics of tourism and hospitality marketing. It begins with a discussion of the difference between services marketing and manufacturing marketing. The chapter then reviews the characteristics that make the marketing of these services different from the marketing of other products. These include intangibility, inseparability, variability, and perishability. Further, this chapter looks at the various marketing management strategies for tourism and hospitality businesses. It examines some of the marketing approaches, such as the to address the unique challenges facing the marketer. Finally, the characteristics of tourism and hospitality marketing are applied to low cost carrier Wizz Air.

Richard George

10. Promoting and Advertising Tourism and Hospitality Products

This chapter discusses the communication methods that are used to promote tourism and hospitality offerings. Marketers must communicate these offerings to consumers (including the travel trade). Promotion is used to communicate information about offerings to target markets. The chapter begins by explaining the relationship between promotion and marketing communications. Next, each of the seven stages of the promotional campaign, from determining the marketing objectives through to assessing the impact of the promotional techniques are discussed. Further, this chapter presents the concepts of integrated marketing communications (which involves the use of the promotional tools in combination with each other), convergence, and below-, above-, and through-the-line marketing. In the second half of the chapter, the role of advertising, which is considered to be the most dominant tool of the promotions mix is discussed. Major advertising decisions such as assigning objectives and a budget, designing, and evaluating an advertisement, and selecting various types of media are considered. Finally, the role of media agencies in tourism and hospitality marketing is discussed. The chapter’s in-depth case study examines the principles of marketing communication and advertising in the context of Matchbox Hostel, a backpacker hostel located in Singapore.

Richard George

Virtual Reality and Artificial Intelligence: Co-creation Process Between Consumers and Firms in an Area of Smart Cities

The aim of this study is twofold: provide an overview of the virtual reality and artificial intelligence conceptualization and applications and propose a framework of consumer -firm experience process in the context of smart cities. The framework will give a novel perspective on the topic and provide theoretical and contributions.

Mónica Ferreira, Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro, Hélia Pereira

Digital Transformation and Changing Marketing Dynamics in the World

With the development of technology, the changes experienced in consumers’ expectations have directed especially marketing world to new searches. Starting to take place in the literature and featuring the digital marketing because of that the traditional marketing approach for companies is not able to adequately meet the needs of our age, SAVE marketing mix consists of solution (S), access (A), value (V) and education (E) elements. The starting point of this new mix is customer focus, which is now at the forefront. It is an approach that creates value for the customer, tries to find quick solutions to possible problems of the customer by communicating with them constantly, provides convenience to the customer regarding access to the product, and that can educate its employees by raising awareness on these issues. The aim of this study is to examine the SAVE marketing approach, which is one of the marketing dynamics being changed along with the process created by the digital transformation in the world. Surely, it is possible that various changes or additions would also be experienced in this marketing mix over time. However, it is an undeniable fact that the sense of marketing of the future will be shaped by carrying SAVE marketing mix.

Funda Kara


Dieses Kapitel enthält die Stichworte zum Buchstaben W von Wachstumfalle bis Worst Case des Gabler Kompakt-Lexikon Unternehmensgründung.

Tobias Kollmann

The Positive Influences of Financial Omni-Channel Marketing Approach on Customer Satisfaction

Marketing approaches has seen dramatic changes throughout the last decade. With the change of marketing perceptions, consumer satisfaction has become one of the focal points of marketing and satisfaction can be considered as the finish line for marketers, to be obtained on consumers. Satisfaction is indispensable for most sectors and even for competitive sectors. Such sector should attract consumers at every potential channel. Omni-channel methods have started to be perceived as more beneficial as consumers may tend to use both online and brick and mortar stores, additionally they may tend to use these channels corporately. Electronic devices are among the channels of omni-channel and the increase of mobile penetration is one of the key factors to hoist omni-channel usage. As brands aim to gain consumer satisfaction intensively, utilizing both classic channels and online channels and using them corporately would create a great competitive advantage to brands for creating satisfaction. With the rapid increase of electronic devices, internet usage, smart phones and thus with a positive correlation omni-channel usage started to gain popularity and became a topic that must be researched by marketers. This paper studies omni-channel concept and its potential positive effect on consumer satisfaction with the perspective of consumer-oriented marketing mix (4C).

Barış Batuhan Geçit, Özgür Kıyak

Kapitel 4. Influencer-Marketing

Chancen, Potenziale, Risiken, Mechanismen, strukturierter Einstieg

Influencer-Marketing wurde in Deutschland im Laufe der Jahre 2016 und 2017 zu einem Hype-Thema. In den Medien wurde diese Marketing-Disziplin extrem kontrovers diskutiert. Mal wurde das Platzen der Blase prognostiziert und über die Fake-Follower gewettert. Wenige Tage später wurde Influencer-Marketing wieder gehypt und von Top-Agenturen berichtet, die sehr erfolgreich Influencer-Kampagnen für Top-Marken durchführen. Ich habe mir einmal den Spaß gemacht, einige Presseartikel aus den Zeiträumen Q4 2017 bis Q3 2018 zu sammeln.

Erwin Lammenett

Strategy of Rural Retailers Towards Sustainability: Case Study Evidence from Malaysian Micro Enterprise

The demand arising for retailing in micro enterprise sustainability in rural areas has received an attention in these recent years. There are great competition from the other rural retailers and immigrant retailers that become a threat for rural retailers to sustain especially in rural area. To remain sustain in the market, the rural retailers need to have an effective strategy and to explore the possibility of the strategy. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to explore the business strategy used by the rural retailers to sustain in the marketplace. This study use inductive approach, case study research strategy, cross sectional time horizon and thematic analysis technique. 9 informants have been interviewed based on interview protocol using in-depth interview technique. The findings reveal that rural retailers’ strategy to sustain in the rural area market are customer relationship, family influence, community engagement, marketing strategy, employee welfare, product and service quality, financial performance, and also the religious element. The results show that the new strategy to sustain in micro enterprise for rural retailers is within the domain of economic, social network and professional ethics. The findings of this study will be a guideline to the practitioners in retail micro enterprise to plan strategically towards business growth.

Anis Amira Ab Rahman, Noor Raihani Zainol, Sathiswaran A. L. Uthamaputran, Bahaaeddin Alareeni, Md Zaki Muhammad Hasan

Chapter 13. Marketing Online Learning

In the previous chapter, you explored the importance of testing your online learning components. Although testing is typically handled by a learning management system administrator, as an educator, you also must test your learning content for not only accuracy but comprehension. Not testing your content could expose potential errors that might negatively affect not only your reputation as an educator but also your school’s reputation. It is critical that you verify various aspects of your students’ experiences so that it is as error-free as possible. Likewise, you want to verify that all students can access and view your content as you intended.

Lisa Sims

Chapter 10. A Review for Managerial Guidelines for Social Media Integration of IMC in Digital Era

Technological developments have revolutionized the means through which organizations approach their marketing strategy. With increasing internet penetration, social media platforms are more popular now than ever. Hence, it is imperative for today’s organizations to integrate social media into their overall marketing strategy successfully. This chapter highlights social media platforms’ various features and how those platforms can be leveraged for marketing activities. Consequently, a detailed set of guidelines are provided, which can be implemented for successful social media strategy, planning, and execution. A managerial toolkit is also provided to aid in the implementation of social media strategy. Finally, specific themes are highlighted to help marketers navigate the dynamic domain of social media.

Bikramjit Rishi, Neha Reddy Kuthuru

Chapter 8. The Dynamic Rise of Digital Brands’ Market Mavens in Digital Entertainment: A Complete Know How for Curious Customers

Today, businesses use communication channels which are usually done to create brand value on consumers and to support the sale of the brand. However, it is controversial whether these efforts find the expected response in consumers. On the consumer side, there are word-of-mouth communication channels which have become an electronic WOM (eWOM) concept after the spread of internet and social networking sites. Consumers are seeking information about products/brands and taking into account the impact and approval of certain reference groups such as market mavens. Market mavens have become much more effective in the digital environment and has reached an impact power that both affects and directs consumers via eWOM. As confidence and commitment to market mavens developed, interest in the products/brands they offered increased. Today’s brands that realize the importance of market mavens will be able to survive and stand out in a competitive environment. Such brands can benefit from this marketing advantage by generating messages and content that can be viral for market mavens through eWOM.

Öğr. Üyesi Orhan Duman, Subhankar Das

Kapitel 1. Influencer Marketing – eine Bestandsaufnahme

Mit dem Internet haben sich die Möglichkeiten der Verbreitung von Botschaften vervielfacht. Unzählige Menschen können innerhalb kürzester Zeit Massen über die sozialen Medien erreichen und damit Influencer werden. Für Unternehmen sind diese Personen wertvoll und interessant. Die schier ungreifbare Menge potenzieller Markenbotschafter hat zu einem Paradigmenwechsel im Marketing geführt und die Disziplin Influencer Marketing hervorgebracht. Heute besteht die Herausforderung für Marketingabteilungen darin, aus einem Influencer-Überangebot die für sie am besten passenden herauszufiltern.

Marlis Jahnke

Advertising Media Selection Framework Using Fuzzy VIKOR Approach: A Case of New Insurance Product

Appropriate advertising strategies or media determine the potential customer reach, adaptability and acceptability, and help the brand image to attain competitive advantage. The selection of the advertising media is a challenging task, and furthermore, the complexity increases when it comes to the promotion of new product to the market. In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a framework for the selection of suitable advertising media for the release of a new insurance product using fuzzy VIKOR (meaning is multicriteria optimization and compromise solution) method. The case of this new insurance product is presented to exhibit the applicability of the fuzzy VIKOR method. The result of this study shows that it could be applied in new product promotion stage to accelerate a customer’s purchase intention through appropriate media mix.

M. Suresh, Deepak Joshy

Creating a Data Factory for Data Products

Data is seen as the next big business opportunity. From a demand side, the popularity of artificial intelligence (AI) is growing and particularly deep learning requires large amounts of data. From a supply side, new technology, such as Internet of Things (IoT) sensors and 5G mobile communications, will greatly expand data generation. However, data has remained a challenge. In data analytics companies are struggling with too much time spent on data preparation. As of today, data preparation for analytics has largely remained handmade and made-to-order like cars before Henry Ford industrialized the auto business through productization of cars and parts, and factory automation. Similarly, for data analytics to become a bigger business, data has to be productized. First “data factories” are emerging to create such data products economically. This article introduces a framework to guide construction of a data factory: What are the key modules, why are they important, how is best practice evolving? The article is building on (a) a foundation and in-depth case studies in the literature, (b) current meta research and systematic literature reviews (SLRs), and (c) our own observations building a data factory. This real-world application uncovered the important additional steps of data rights management and data governance that may be less obvious from a computer science perspective but critically important from a business and information systems view.

Chris Schlueter Langdon, Riyaz Sikora

Driving Factors of Online Reviews and eWOM in International Hotel Industry

Today online client reviews (OCR) are the crucial factor in choosing the best hotel to visit. However, as the number of reviews sites is growing, tourists tend not to write feedback about their stay, especially when everything was quite good. The aim of the present work is to determine the factors compelling the publication of online reviews by Russian consumers about hotels, they have visited recently, and to suggest methods of increasing their readiness to publish feedback. Quantitative approach (online questionnaire) was applied and based on principal component analysis 9 factors were revealed. People tend to write reviews more often because of desire to help others, satisfactory/unsatisfactory performance of hotel, positive or negative experience, company’s policy for reviews, whether it is easy to leave a review and some other incentives. At the end, we developed recommendations for hotels to achieve higher engagement rates for OCR publications from Russian hotel guests.

Ekaterina Buzulukova, Margarita Sarkisian

Journalismus & Werbung

Zur Trennung von redaktionellen Inhalten und kommerzieller Kommunikation

Der Trennungsgrundsatz zwischen redaktionellen Inhalten und kommerzieller Kommunikation schützt sowohl die Demokratie- wie auch die Werbeträgerfunktion von Massenmedien. Dieser Beitrag stellt für die diversen Aspekte des Trennungsgrundsatzes wie die Kennzeichnungspflicht, das Verbot von bezahlten Inhalten und Kopplungsgeschäften sowie die Handhabung zahlreicher Darstellungsformen redaktioneller Werbung alle verfügbaren gesetzlichen und standesrechtlichen Regelungen zusammen. Anschließend wird für die einzelnen Aspekte des Trennungsgrundsatzes der Stand der Forschung insbesondere hinsichtlich Beschreibung und Wirkung referiert. Schließlich werden Lösungsvorschläge für die aktuelle Anwendung und Desiderata zusammengetragen.

Stefan Weinacht

Media Planung

Unternehmen versuchen über den Einsatz der Marketinginstrumente ihre Produkte und Dienstleistungen zu verkaufen. Eine zentrale Bedeutung kommt dabei der Werbung zu, deren primäre Aufgabe darin besteht, Aufmerksamkeit zu generieren, Angebote bekannt zu machen, spezielles Interesse am Angebot zu wecken und letztlich Kaufentscheidungen der Konsumenten zu beeinflussen. Mediaplanung ist dementsprechend der Prozess, mit dem die geeigneten und optimalen Medien als Werbeträger ausgewählt werden. Aufgabe der Mediaplanung ist entsprechend die optimale kosteneffiziente und effektive Selektion zielgruppenspezifisch relevanter Medien oder Werbeträger für den Werbemitteleinsatz. Zur Durchführung dieser Aufgabe beauftragen die meisten Werbungtreibenden Spezialisten für Mediaplanung und Media-Einkauf, nämlich die Mediaagenturen. Als Basis für die Media-Entscheidungen fungieren nach wie vor Informationen und Daten der offiziell zugänglichen Mediaforschung. Dabei geht es vor allem um Daten über Reichweiten und Nutzer der Medien, zu Überschneidungen mit anderen Mediengattungen, zu qualitativen Aspekten und zur Wirkung von Werbeträgern. Diese Informationen stehen den Marktpartnern zur Verfügung und ermöglichen Mediaplanern und anderen Spezialisten in den Agenturen den direkten Zugriff auf die Daten. Die Aufgaben der Mediaagenturen haben sich in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten kontinuierlich erweitert. Dem früheren, eher einfacheren Vorgang der Selektion von Werbeträgern aus einem ziemlich überschaubaren Angebot, stehen heute eine Vielzahl von Werbeträgern und Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten gegenüber. Das führt zu radikalen Veränderungen in den Mediaagenturen und bei den Vermarktern, die auch die Werbungtreibenden vor eklatante Herausforderungen stellen.

Michael Hofsäss, Dirk Engel

Kommerzielle Publikumsmarktforschung

Dieser Beitrag berichtet über die betriebswirtschaftliche Relevanz der Media- und Marktforschung. Gleichzeitig sollen den akademischen Forschern Hinweise über die erhobenen Daten geben werden, die für wissenschaftliche Zwecke durchaus nutzbar sind. Medien bewegen sich, neben Diversifikationsgeschäften (vgl. Tropp und Baetzgen in diesem Kapitel), in zwei Märkten: Dem Markt der Nutzer und dem der Werbekunden. Für letzteren sind die verlässlichen Daten über das Publikum wichtig, denn sie bilden die Grundlage für die Mediaplanung und damit für die Entscheidungen, in welche Werbeträger Werbungtreibende ihr Geld aufwenden. Es ist üblich, dass die Werbevermarkter ihre Leistung gegenüber ihren Auftraggebern nachweisen müssen. Da es zu einem Prinzipal-Agent-Konflikt (hat die Agentur wirklich die Werbegelder des Auftraggebers richtig investiert?) kommt, ist eine nachvollziehbare und gemeinschaftlich durch alle Marktpartner initiierte Erhebung dieser Daten notwendig. Dies wird durch Joint-Industry-Committees (JICs) gewährleistet. Die Mediaforschung ist eine sehr ausdifferenzierte Form der Sozial- und Marktforschung und arbeitet mit hohen methodischen Standards. Hier sind in erster Linie Media-Studien wichtig, da sie für die jeweiligen Mediengattungen vergleichbare Reichweiten und Strukturdaten für Werbeträger liefern, die im Werbemarkt als Währung akzeptiert sind. Hinzu kommen Markt-Media-Studien (die neben Mediennutzung auch Konsumverhalten und psychografische Zielgruppenmerkmale erheben) und die Werbestatistik für Auflagen und Werbeaufwendungen. Bei den Media- und Markt-Media-Studien kommen spezielle und gattungsadäquate Methoden zum Einsatz, über die in den JICs entschieden wird. Diese Daten werden für die Mediaplanung (vgl. Hofsäss und Engel in diesem Handbuch) und die Gestaltung der Werbepreise herangezogen. Ergänzend dazu werden sie für andere Zwecke eingesetzt, z. B. für Marketing- und Vertriebsmaßnahmen im Nutzermarkt. Um Werbekunden zu überzeugen, setzen Medienvermarkter noch eine Vielzahl anderer Studien ein. So gewinnen Untersuchungen zur Werbewirkung zunehmend an Bedeutung, was an der Digitalisierung und der besseren Verfügbarkeit von digitalen Daten liegt. Moderne statistische Analyseverfahren (Modelling) und automatisierte Prozesse (Predictive Analytics) übernehmen so auch Funktionen der etablierten, auf Reichweiten und Strukturen fokussierten Mediaforschung. Neben den Werbevermarktern und den JICs betreiben Werbe- und Mediaagenturen Publikums- und Werbewirkungsforschung, um einen Mehrwehrt für ihre Auftraggeber, die Werbungtreibenden, zu bieten. Neue digitale Kommunikationsformen und der dynamische Wandel im Mediengeschäft führen dazu, dass die klassischen Methoden der Mediaforschung durch andere Techniken und Datenlieferanten ergänzt werden, was den Einfluss der durch JICs organisierten Forschungsinstitutionen beeinträchtigt. Andererseits bilden sie die zurzeit beste Garantie für Transparenz und Verlässlichkeit, um den Prinzipal-Agent-Konflikt zu lösen. Die Dynamik des sich weiter digitalisierenden und ausdifferenzierenden Medienmarktes führt mittelfristig zu weiteren Anpassungen der Mediaforschungsmethoden, langfristig sind größere Umbrüche nicht auszuschließen.

Michael Hofsäss, Dirk Engel, Lena Kellerwessel

Film und Kino im Zeichen der Medienkonvergenz

Der Beitrag skizziert die wesentlichen Merkmale des Filmmarktes. Dazu werden zunächst die Eigenschaften des Films als mediales Wirtschaftsgut bzw. als Kulturgut vorgestellt. Anschließend werden die wichtigsten Parameter des Rezipientenmarktes und der wesentlichen Beschaffungsmärkte behandelt. In diesem Rahmen werden jeweils auch die Unterschiede zu anderen Mediengattungen herausgestellt. Die projektbasierte Wertschöpfung in der Filmbranche wird als Netzwerk dargestellt. Dabei werden auch aktuelle Trends in der Branche hinsichtlich der Veränderung von Produktion und Distribution im Zuge der Digitalisierung betrachtet. Schließlich geht der Beitrag noch auf das Kino als traditionellen Distributionskanal für Spielfilme ein und zeigt dessen Chancen auf.

M. Bjørn von Rimscha, Gianna L. Ehrlich

Chapter 4. Channel Strategy and Conflict Resolution

The introduction of a retailers’ store brand is sure to bring channel competition to the relationship between manufacturers and retailers because of channel encroachment. The reality is that it is easy for store brand products to compete with the national brand products of manufacturers, which may be problematic for the manufacturers. Most of the profit from store brand products accrue to the retailer, manufacturers cannot afford for their products to lose significant market share to the competition. Thus, even if national brand manufacturers become co-producers of store brand products, they still need to find a reasonable channel coordination method to mitigate channel conflicts caused by the introduction of store brands and achieve win-win outcomes. In this chapter, we discuss aspects of channel competition between traditional manufacturers and retailers, followed by aspects of channel competition that further consider store brand issues. We consider the relevant in the appropriate sections following.

Jiazhen Huo

Two-Stage Pricing Strategy with Price Discount in Online Social Networks

With the rapid development of online social networks (OSNs), more and more product companies are focusing on viral marketing of products through the word-of-mouth effect. For product companies, designing effective marketing strategies is important for obtaining profit. However, most existing research focuses on effective influence maximization analysis to disseminate information widely, rather than explicitly incorporating pricing factors into the design of intelligent marketing strategies. In this paper, we have studied the product’s marketing strategy and pricing model. We assume that the monopolistic seller divides product marketing into two stages, the regular price stage and the discount price stage. All users have their own expected price of the product. Only when the product price is not higher than the user’s expected price, the user will adopt the product. Therefore, we propose a pricing model named Two-stage Pricing with Discount Model (TPDM). We propose that companies use two marketing methods: Advertisement Marketing (AM) and Word-of-mouth Marketing (WM). To achieve the goal of maximizing the profit of product companies, we propose a Two-stage with Discount Greedy Algorithm (TSDG) to determine product price and discount rate. In order to study the impact of advertising and word-of-mouth marketing on product pricing on online social networks, we use several real social network data sets for experiments. The experimental results show that advertising marketing can significantly increase the profit of product companies.

He Yuan, Ziwei Liang, Hongwei Du

Fort Lauderdale

Nonprofits and business owners need new income streams to support their missions and business operations. Business owners and nonprofits typically have underutilized space that can be rented to event and meeting hosts seeking affordable and flexible options. Muuchit [moo-chit], an early-stage start-up in South Florida, is a rental marketplace connecting event hosts to local space owners who support causes.

Annette King

Chapter 11. WeChat Marketing Case Study: How to Use Social Media to Communicate with Virtual Audiences in China

Facing significant changes in online communication and consumption trends, marketers and practitioners in the communication and public relations industries are eager to learn how to use social media tools to engage the virtual audience and promote their messages and products to potential target audiences in the digital world. In China, WeChat is one of the most widely-used social media vehicles with an instant messaging function, making it attractive to international marketing practitioners who seek to grow brand awareness and improve brand loyalty in China. The Hong Kong Trade Development Council, a statutory body established in 1966, has been relying on WeChat to interact online with Mainland China since 2013. This chapter discusses the Hong Kong Trade Development Council’s official WeChat subscription account, and proposes a WeChat communication model based on a participant observation method between 1 November 2013 and 1 November 2015. It also uses an analysis of content gathered between 3 November 2015 and 3 November 2016 to offer message solutions for WeChat marketing in China.

Fei Fan

Chapter 3. The Cities

The Super Bowl is America’s premier sporting event. This chapter details basic economic facts about the game and examines the controversy surrounding the purported economic impact of the game on host communities. While the league and sports boosters claim that the game brings up to a $500 million economic impact to host cities, a review of the literature suggests that the true economic impact is a fraction of this amount.

Yvan J. Kelly, David Berri, Victor A. Matheson

Chapter 2. Brand Storytelling: A Review of the Interdisciplinary Literature

The power of digital technologies and social media has transformed the way brands talk to their customers. Contemporary marketing is less about the products we make and the services we offer, but more about the experiences brands create, giving customers numerous stories to tell. This chapter presents a critical review of the interdisciplinary theories of storytelling drawing on narrative philosophy, consumer psychology, research in branding and tourism. While covering the essential elements of a story, it also highlights the shift from predictable bowling to pinball wizardry due to the rapid advancement of digital technology and proliferation of social media in all aspects of our lives. The chapter also draws on the neuroscience’s perspective of how the brain responses to storytelling and reviews different approaches to brand research with associated brand storytelling.

S M A Moin

Chapter 8. Systematicness

Bill Gates wrote in The Road to the Future that in the early days of Microsoft's development, there were three operating systems on the market for pre-installation on IBM personal computers—Microsoft's PC-DOS, CP/M-86, and UCSD Pascal P-System. Only one of the three systems will succeed.

Jiang Yong Lu

Chapter 9. Dynamics

Dr. Kreuz Kutzville (MIT) put forward the Kutzville theorem in the book “Singularity Approaching”. The theorem states that all technological developments since the advent of humans have grown exponentially. That is to say, the development of technology at the beginning is slow, but once information and experience have accumulated to a certain foundation, development begins to grow rapidly and then grows in the form of exponential growth.

Jiang Yong Lu

Chapter 4. Start-Up

The general characteristics of start-ups’ users are “precise, accurate and distinctive". “Precise” means that angel users should be fewer but better."Accurate” means that start-ups need to focus on the key demand of users. “Distinctive” means that users should be different from that of existing competitors.

Jiang Yong Lu

Chapter 5. Growing-Up

Growth analysis: Answer the basic questions about users, organization, product and market of the growing-up stage.

Jiang Yong Lu

Inside the X-Rated World of “Premium” Social Media Accounts

During the last few years, there has been an upsurge of social media influencers who are part of the adult entertainment industry, referred to as Performers. To monetize their online presence, Performers often engage in practices which violate community guidelines of social media, such as selling subscriptions for accessing their private “premium” social media accounts, where they distribute adult content. In this paper, we collect and analyze data from FanCentro, an online marketplace where Performers can sell adult content and subscriptions to private accounts in platforms like Snapchat and Instagram. Our work aims to shed light on the semi-illicit adult content market layered on the top of popular social media platforms and its offerings, as well as to profile the demographics, activity and content produced by Performers.

Nikolaos Lykousas, Fran Casino, Constantinos Patsakis

Detecting Engagement Bots on Social Influencer Marketing

Influencer fraud, which can significantly damage authentic influencers and companies, has become one of the most important problems that can adversely affect the influencer marketing industry. Fraudulent influencers obtain fake engagements on their posts by purchasing engagement bots that automatically generate likes and comments. To identify bots that make fake engagements to influencers, we perform an in-depth analysis on the social network of influencer engagements, which consists of 14,221 influencers, 9,290,895 users, and 65,848,717 engagements. We find that bots tend to have low local clustering coefficients and write short comments which are similar to each other. Based on the analysis results of the unique engagement behavior of bots, we propose a neural network-based model that learns text, behavior, and graph representations of social media users to detect the engagement bots from audiences of influencers. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms well-known baseline methods by achieving 80% accuracy.

Seungbae Kim, Jinyoung Han

11. Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives for Tanzania Corporations and Not-for-Profit Organizations

The purpose of this study is to evaluate activities of the corporate citizens in Tanzania and find the best way of aligning CSR initiatives to attain mutual benefits between the organizations and general public.A total of 45 organizations, both for profit and not for profit, were engaged in this study from four different industries. The study used semi-structured interview guide to collect data and a focused group discussion was organized. Contents analysis was used to categorize the responses into five major themes, as discussed in the main document.The findings reveal that CSR is still at its initial stage and much has to be done for the corporations to draw the best out it.

Omary Swallehe

Business Location Selection Based on Geo-Social Networks

Location has a great impact on the success of many businesses. The existing works typically utilize the number of customers who are the Reverse Nearest Neighbors (RNN) of a business location to assess its goodness. While, with the prevalence of word-of-mouth marketing in social networks, a business can now exploit the social influence to attract enormous customers to visit it, even though it is not located in the popular but unaffordable business districts with the most RNNs.In this paper, we propose a novel Business Location Selection (BLS) approach to integrate the factors of both social influence and geographical distance. Firstly, we formally define a BLS model based on relative distance aware influence maximization in geo-social networks, where the goodness of a location is assessed by the maximum number of social network users it can influence via online propagation. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first BLS model that adopts the influence maximization techniques. Then, to speed up the selection, we present two sophisticated candidate location pruning strategies, and extend the Reverse Influence Sampling (RIS) algorithm to select seeds for multiple locations, thereby avoiding redundant computation. Lastly, we demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach by conducting the experiments on three real geo-social networks.

Qian Zeng, Ming Zhong, Yuanyuan Zhu, Jianxin Li

Image Strength and Identity Diffusion as Factors Influencing the Perception of Hospitals by Their Facebook Communities

Facebook provides hospitals many potential benefits but also forces them to adapt the way they connect with their stakeholders in various fields of application. Within these fields of application hospitals can act in various roles. Hospitals might influence these roles, but they are also dependent on how they are perceived by their Facebook community. In this paper, we aim to find out how hospitals differ in the perception by their Facebook communities and how these differences can be measured. Furthermore, we develop hypotheses with image strength and identity diffusion as factors influencing how hospitals are perceived by their Facebook communities. We test our hypotheses with data of all hospitals in Switzerland. Our statistical analysis provides strong support for all of our hypotheses. Our findings might help hospitals better to assess their position in their Facebook community and to adapt their intended roles as well as their strategies, content, and behavior in accordance to that.

Michael Beier, Sebastian Früh

Development Status and Marketing Strategy of Smart Speakers

2017 is the year of the explosion of smart speakers, because of the gradual maturity of voice interaction technology and the development of artificial intelligence technology. The production of smart speakers is constantly increasing, and the function of smart speakers is constantly improved and perfected. Also, there are more and more application scenarios of smart speakers. It is seen as a key entrance point for the smart home of the future. At the same time, there are various marketing strategies for smart speakers in the era of intelligent interconnection, and the traditional marketing theory combines with the current new marketing strategy. Based on this, this article analyzes the development status and marketing strategy of smart speakers and discusses its existing problems and the development of marketing strategies.

Tianhong Fang, Xiaobo Fu

Chapter 4. Who Is an Indie Developer? Sorting Out the Categories

This chapter is the first chapter in the empirical section of the volume, and here a taxonomy of indie developers is provided on the basis of the interview material. In emerging industries, the analytical categories being employed to practically and cognitively structure the field are continuously modified, and the inconsistencies and tensions derived from emerging categories are largely indicative of quick changes in the industry. The empirical material indicates that indie developers as an operational and meaningful term can be defined on the basis of at least four different descriptions. Furthermore, the term “indie developers” is used in a pragmatic manner, that is, it serves a purpose to signal certain values, norms, and commitment to the video game industry and the gamer community, despite being vague in its contours. In general, “indie developer” is more of an associative than a denotative concept, and industry participants use it in a fairly uncomplicated manner to describe specific developer attitudes or convictions, or an aesthetics or game design that honours creative solutions and bricolage over technical virtuosity.

Alexander Styhre

4. Pricing StrategiesPricing strategies

A price is the amount of money charged for a product or service over a period or a specific point of time. It is the sum of all the values that consumers give up in order to gain the benefits of having or using a product or service (Kotler and Armstrong 2018). In business, a price is determined by what the customer or buyer is willing to pay and what the seller or maker is willing to accept (Clancy 2015). The price will define a quantity and number of products or services that are provided on the market. There are several pricing strategies as shown in Fig. 4.1. Any pricing strategy is relevant to certain aspects:

Marc Helmold

Kapitel 4. Marketing im Wandel

So wie die Welt und Organisationen dem Wandel der Zeit unterworfen sind, so ist es selbstverständlich auch das Marketing. Marketing ist sogar einer der Bereiche, der durch den digitalen Wandel sehr frühzeitig und stark beeinflusst wurde und immer noch wird. Mit Aufkommen des Internets und dem Sprung in das Privatleben von Milliarden Menschen, war Marketing eine der ersten Abteilungen, die darin eine Chance sah und die Kommunikation mit Kunden auch online stattfinden ließ. War es zunächst nur ein reiner Transfer von analogen Broschüren zu einem digitalen Web-Auftritt, so wurde das Internet immer sinnvoller genutzt, um auch online individuelle Maßnahmen zu gestalten. Nicht zuletzt das Aufkommen von Social Media veränderte die Kundenkommunikation grundlegend. In diesem Kapitel erfahren Sie, wie Kommunikationsmaßnahmen sich im Laufe der Zeit geändert haben. Gleichzeitig werden Sie erkennen, dass es immer schwieriger geworden ist und immer schwieriger werden wird, all den neuen Herausforderungen und Gegebenheiten erfolgreich gerecht zu werden. Auch Marketing muss umdenken, sich reorganisieren und geeignete Wege finden, mit diesem Wandel umzugehen.

Jens Kröger, Stefanie Marx

Chapter 5. Marketing Personal Brands

Marketing is the method by which a brand increases its awareness with the goal of converting visibility into economic returns. The more consumers are aware of a brand’s value, the more opportunities a brand has to increase its value. This chapter is an overview of the various marketing activities that personal brands must use to deliver value and build relationships with their audience. Before a personal brand can be marketed it must use mediums, channels, and platforms to promote the brand’s credibility and expertise.

Talaya Waller

Chapter 12. Value Transformation: From Online Community to Business Benefit

The aim of this chapter is to shed light on the generation and transformation of values through the production and consumption of ‘Let’s Play’, as a new area of practice in the creative economy. Let’s Play emerged from the practice of machinima, ‘animated filmmaking within a real-time virtual 3D environment’, and is referred to as non-narrative machinima taking the form of video game walk-throughs, reviews and other gameplay videos that are live-streamed to fan followers and archived in curated playlists. Whilst this form of user-generated content will become increasingly pivotal to the digital economy and to new emergent forms, the value of this important creative form remains largely undocumented. Drawing on empirical data, this chapter examines the value associated with economic, cultural, social and symbolic capital of Let’s Play as an emergent creative form.

Tracy Harwood, Jason Boomer, Tony Garry

3. Servant Leadership and Change: A Review of the Literature

One of the enduring images of Christianity is that of Christ as the good shepherd, which is a relevant metaphor for servant leadership’s emphasis on promoting enduring and desirable organizational change. Functional organizational change is a global construct that reflects the overall efficacy of servant leadership in promoting desirable employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance outcomes (Roberts, 2016). Servant leadership emphasizes two meta-dimensions of stewardship and servanthood directly promoting efficacious change management practices (Roberts, 2015). This chapter will review a large sample of servant leader empirical studies and present clear evidence of its positive influence on the attributes of servant leadership that promote effective organizational change. The research literature and subsequent analysis for this chapter is based upon 138 empirical mostly quantitative studies published from 2004 to 2019. Change related studies were then selected from this group of 138 by key word search in the 138 article abstracts. A total of 18 change related studies were identified through this process. The 138 studies generated 285 empirical outcomes of which 275 (96.5%) are favorable in directionality regarding the influence of servant leadership on change related outcomes. There were only nine nonsignificant (3.3%) and one negative (0.35%) relationships identified. Of the 138 studies, a final grouping of 104 studies was selected for the final analysis through the elimination of nonchange related dependent variables.

Gary Roberts

Entrepreneurial Marketing Mindset: What Entrepreneurs Should Know?

Marketing is regarded as one of the most essential activities for the survival and growth of small and medium enterprises, but, at the same time, it is considered as the greatest challenge for the SMEs. The lack of resources, knowledge, and expertise make it difficult for SMEs to perform traditional marketing practices. Consequently, operating in an environment with increasing dynamics, turbulence, and competition suggests that entrepreneurs have to overpass the conventional marketing principles and change them with new innovative ideas and actions such as the Entrepreneurial Marketing (EM). Entrepreneurial marketing is a relatively new field of study that has emerged at the intersection of marketing and entrepreneurship fields when it was noticed that the traditional marketing practices are not suitable for the small and medium companies. The aim of this chapter is to offer an overview on the history of the foundation of this relatively new field, the most common definitions that may be found in literature, the main types of EM, the EM dimensions, as well as the main differences between EM and traditional marketing. Finally, this study will emphasize the importance of this new marketing paradigm for small and medium enterprises. In the end, the study will provide recommendations for the use of entrepreneurial marketing by SMEs and will propose future research directions in this field.

Nora Sadiku-Dushi, Veland Ramadani

Holistic Measurement Approach of Customer Experiences – Findings from a Japanese New Car Buyer Study

Literature on customer experience management suggests that a seamless integration of touchpoints would create stronger customer experiences, but how to effectively do so is a key point of debate. This paper presents findings from an empirical study that surveyed Japanese car buyers in terms of their perception of touchpoints throughout their customer journey. The study is based on a framework drawing from “fluency” as a way to understand technology integration, in which the authors propose an integrated and holistic approach to measuring challenges that impede the “fluency” of experiences and result in what they call “friction.” Findings of this study show that while the majority of customers report that their car purchase experience was smooth and hassle free, a significant share also report points of resistance that made the customer journey more difficult or fragmented. Furthermore, a correspondence analysis of open-ended questions asking for suggestions to make the experience easier and hassle free demonstrated that each purchase stage is characterized by distinct word combinations, with a significantly high rate of requests to increase online touchpoints and enhancing test drives in the early pre-purchase stage, to facilitate negotiation in the purchase stage, and to increase after-sales contact and support activities in the post-purchase stage.

David Marutschke, Ted Gournelos

Social Media Made Me Buy It: The Impact of Social Media on Consumer Purchasing Behavior and on the Purchase Decision-Making Process

Social media has changed everything around us, with just one click of a button, any of us can share their opinions and reviews with a lot of people who can share them in their turn with plenty of others. Hence, the click of the button has become more of a political, economical and social power that can raise millions for charity, tear down companies and brands and even make presidents. The purpose of this paper is to research empirically, the impact of social media on the purchasing behavior of consumers, and especially on how the feedbacks and reviews influence each of the stages of the consumer decision making process, a sample of 828 randomly selected, Moroccan social media users, was investigated through a survey. The results show that consumers’ purchasing decision is highly influenced by social media networks. According to the results, the influence of social media on information and evaluation of alternatives stages is higher than the rest of the stages of the purchase decision making process. Finally, almost most of the survey respondents (85,4%) believe that social media has an impact on our purchasing behavior.

Bedraoui Oumayma

Kapitel 2. Konzeptionelle Grundlagen

Im zweiten Kapitel wird der Zusammenhang zwischen LOHAS und Online- Kommunikation im Lebensmitteleinzelhandel näher beleuchtet. Dabei werden zunächst aus der wissenschaftlichen Literatur die thematisch wichtigsten Begriffe definiert, Abgrenzungen gesetzt und erläutert. Folgend wird die Verwebung der Begriffe abgeleitet, um die theoretischen Forschungsfragen beantworten zu können und ein Zwischenfazit daraus zu ziehen. Das Theorie-Kapitel stellt die Grundlage für die empirische Auseinandersetzung der Thematik in Kapitel 3 dar.

Karin Weissinger

Chapter 4. Analysis of consumer behaviour related to social media

Customer communication can strongly influence brand awareness and, in particular, the economic results and market success of a company. Many online applications and platforms help expand the exchange of information and have a mutual influence on consumer behaviour. In the case of information about products that can be accessed regardless of the time, generated and stored in the public, the communicators in the online environment can act as multipliers.

Denisa Elena Vlad

The Japanese B2C Retail Industry in the Digital Age

This chapter shows (a) how digitalisation has impacted the way Japanese consumers behave in the B2C retail industry and (b) how successful players adapted to the new purchasing habits, technology improvements and service challenges. It will be of interest to business practitioners and academics as well in Japan as overseas.The development of E-commerce and M-commerce in the world’s second largest retail market has been a challenge for traditional businesses and a game-changing factor. Nowadays, Japan has shrugged off its initial reluctance. Business conditions have diversified; traditional retailers have transformed. Non-store retailers have flourished together with the spread of the Internet and mobile phones, as shown by market data. Several payment options have also become available. Online shopping has been central to both the economising and the nesting trends. In short, the traditional “Japanese consumer mindset” has been impacted.This chapter discusses the impact of digitalisation on Japanese consumer behaviours. The shift in attitudes of consumers stems from structural factors such as the digital revolution, the emergence of a less materialistic younger generation, the economic downturn and the “post March 11 consumer” effect. Among the consumer changes, let us highlight (i) spending more time surfing the Internet, (ii) buying differently and comparing prices anonymously and (iii) another perception of ownership.The chapter also identifies how retailers adapted. At the beginning, key players have been reluctant to invest online and to reinvent themselves (limited use of up-to-date technology), as online stores and physical stores are run differently. Illustrating with concrete examples, a focus will be done on online food, apparel and second-hand retail as well as luxury goods.Finally, the paper issues recommendations for building a successful online retail business, as B2C digital marketing and reinforced online presence (in Japanese) have become key. Successful brands increasingly rely on social media promotion and word-of-mouth marketing.

Philippe Huysveld

11. Social Media

Die Erfolgsfaktoren erfolgreicher Display-Werbekampagnen als auch von Marketing-orientierter Owned-Media Kommunikation in den sozialen Medien sind Gegenstand zahlreicher wissenschaftlicher als auch praktischer Veröffentlichungen. Im folgenden Kapitel werden zentrale Ergebnisse strukturiert dargestellt und diskutiert.

Dennis Ahrholdt, Goetz Greve, Gregor Hopf

4. Social Media

Durch die starke Verbreitung der sozialen Medien und deren Rückkanalfähigkeit wandeln sich Unternehmen von reinen Absendern einer Werbebotschaft zu Vertretern einer Marke, die im Dialog mit ihren Kunden stehen und ebenso als Content-Provider wie als „Ermöglicher“ für Kommunikation fungieren müssen. Die Bandbreite der verfügbaren Maßgrößen für die Steuerung der Unternehmenskommunikation in den sozialen Medien ist allerdings so groß, dass man sich gerne in einer Vielzahl möglicher Metriken verliert. Das Kapitel führt durch die wichtigsten Fragen und die dafür jeweils hilfreichen Kennzahlen angefangen von einem grundlegenden Social Media Listening bis hin zu spezifischen Social Media Insights.

Dennis Ahrholdt, Goetz Greve, Gregor Hopf

Chapter 7. A New Marketing Trend in the Digital Age: Social Media Marketing

Technology plays an important role in the lives of businesses. For this reason, today, it is not possible for a company to maintain its existence without using technology. In the digital age, along with increasing technology usage, the distance between businesses and consumers has disappeared. In other words, technology serves as a bridge between these two parties. With such technology usage in the activities of businesses, the companies have tried to reach their target markets by using their websites. However, today, they have also started to use social media networks as a way to attract their customers’ attention to their products and, thus, communicate with them more easily. In social media, it is not just the businesses that promote products and services. Consumers can influence each other’s preferences through comments that they share over social media. Their comments on social media are important in the promotion of goods and services. Therefore, it would not be wrong to say that social media is an effective marketing tool in today’s business environment. This chapter is aimed at examining the concept of social media marketing and its effects on the marketing activities of businesses.

Selay Ilgaz Sümer

Chapter 18. Digital Marketing Strategies and Business Trends in Emerging Industries

The digital age in which the Internet is located in the center has initiated a period that completely revised the whole marketing system from using traditional tools to using modern tools. Thus, this has led to the birth of digital marketing. Digital marketing can be defined as the marketing practices carried out by using digital channels such as internet, mobile, and interactive platforms. It provides cost advantage and competitive advantage for businesses through its distinctive features. New industries which bring new developments into economies such as new products and concepts are called emerging industries. There are several difficulties an emerging industry faces while entering into a market such as high costs, uncertainty, complexity, and instability. Traditional marketing may not be effective enough in these industries to deal with these difficulties due to the ongoing transformation in the technology and digital marketing. This is expected to present more useful and effective results. Therefore, the digital marketing potential in emerging industries will be presented in this study.

Buket Özoğlu, Ayşe Topal

Chapter 3. DevOps

DevOps has become a trending topic in the tech industry over the last decade, gaining the attention of both developers and the C-suite. Despite some legitimate debate over what it does and does not entail, this interest in DevOps has elevated the discussion around software development practices and the impact they can have on how businesses rise and fall. Figure 3-1 gives one indication of the acceleration of interest in the topic of DevOps over time.

Andrew Davis

Online C2C Interactions with Sports Brands: Insights from the #Mo Salah Brand

Online customer-to-customer interactions with sports brands on social media are gaining momentum in recent years. The salience of online brand communities in influencing sport spectators’ attitudinal dispositions warrants further investigation into the phenomenon of sports and athlete brand development. The Mo Salah brand has been emerging as an iconic athlete brand in both popular offline and online/social media. Based on the brand’s resonance online, which is a reflection of high brand equity, this research aims at exploring the cognitive, affective, and conative attitudes of football fans affiliated with the Mo Salah brand and extrapolating on the image of the brand in terms of athletic performance, attractive appearance, and marketable lifestyle as an extension to the work of Arai, Ko, and Ross (Sport Management Review 17:97–106, 2014). The research utilizes qualitative methods; particularly netnography and content analysis of online communications on social media for the #Mo Salah brand.

Noha El-Bassiouny, Sara Hamed, Hadeer Hammad, Hagar Adib, Nesma Ammar

Chapter 11. Understanding Consumer Behavior in Technology-Mediated Spaces

Substantial improvements in technology have been influencing not only strategies and structures of firms but also consumers’ social and economic lives. In terms of the former, in order to respond to the alterations in the technological environment, and ultimately, to stay ahead of the competition, firms have been making continuous attempts to fit their internal resources and competencies with the external circumstances. Concerning the latter, having an enormous impact on the manner of communicating, consuming, and progressing, technological advancements have been shaping consumers’ daily lives. Specifically, digital technology has affected consumers’ routines and habits, which in turn has led to changes in consumer behavior. In today’s highly digitalized environment, it is indisputable that technological developments considerably influence how both firms and consumers behave. Notably, the extensive usage of the Internet and, ultimately, consumers’ growing involvement in digital devices have led to noticeable changes in consumer behavior by affecting the ways to communicate, consume, and progress. Together with these, the roles of firms and consumers have significantly altered, which in turn have yielded to the increase in the importance of digital marketing activities in general, and online customer experiences, e-customer relationship management, and customer co-creation practices, in particular.

İlayda İpek

Kapitel 9. Digitale Musikkultur im Social Web – Synthese

Die Analysen der Inszenierungsstrategien musikindustrieller Akteure (Kapitel 7) und der digitalen Musikpraktiken von Fans (Kapitel 8) entsprechen der doppelten Artikulation des instrumentellen Medienbegriffs der Mediatisierungsforschung (Krotz 2012). Demnach fungieren auch soziale Medien einerseits als Inszenierungsapparate für vornehmlich institutionalisierte Akteure (Mesoebene), und andererseits als Erlebnisräume für Nutzerinnen und Nutzer (Mikroebene). Diese konzeptionelle Klammer hat die hier eingenommene Perspektive auf die Ermöglichungsräume digitaler Musikkultur in sozialen Medien, in der Inszenierung und Praxis eng miteinander verwoben und reflexiv aufeinander ausgerichtet sind, angeleitet.

Mario Anastasiadis

Chapter 4. Branding Strategy

Strategy is an approach in consonance with the goal the company wants to achieve. The strategies are formulated for the short and long run according to the goals of the company. The goals indicate what a company wants to achieve in a given environment and time frame; the strategy answers how to get there. Every business must develop a tailor-made strategy for achieving its goals. The corporate business strategies should possess three generic points: overall cost leadership, differentiation, and focus. The managerial strategy in business should be to reduce the cost of production and distribution. The company cultivates the strengths that will give it a competitive advantage in one or more benefits. The companies seeking quality leadership must make or buy the best components put together expertly after careful examination.


The Return on Investment of Professional Social Networks

The rise of social media marketing leads to questions about its return on investment (ROI). In this paper we develop a new set of metrics to evaluate both financial and non-financial ROI of social media. While most studies on social media deal with Facebook and Twitter, this is one of the rare studies that address the ROI from the perspective of one-to-one message campaigns on professional social networks. Data were collected from a French business school campaign on LinkedIn aiming to recruit new students. We used this free available data to propose a new model for calculating the ROI. This model can be easily adopted by marketers to assess the social media ROI both in monetary and non-monetary terms.

Yamen Koubaa, Fares Medjani

Maximizing Profit in Word-of-Mouth Promotion with Incremental Chance Model in a Social Network

WOM promotion can be an effective marketing strategy in social networks. Initiating from a set of influential seed customers, many other individuals can be activated to purchase the product due to WOM effects. In this paper, we study the problem of finding optimal nodes in a social network that could maximize the profit in such a viral marketing campaign. We adopt the incremental chance model to characterize the information diffusion process, which considers the complete influence. To solve this model, we design a framework of greedy algorithms that achieves a trade-off between optimality and complexity. Finally, numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithms.

Xiaojie Sun, Zuxiong Tan

The Importance of Trust for Interface Quality and Acceptance

As digital interfaces become common for their development and to offer a sustainable bridge between devices and users, trust in the interface is essential. In this paper we undertake a multi-method research to show from experiment results various dimensions of trust. The results confirm that trust is indeed necessary by so if raising and keeping the user interest and technical competence in the interface design and operation.

Robert Raeside, Thomas Peisl, Jesus Canduela

Chapter 8. The Market/Your Customers

The Purpose of your Software Product Manager Role

Finding prospects in the vast market and creating satisfied customers that value your software product—that’s your purpose as a product manager and the lifeline of Software Product Management. This chapter describes in detail The MarketPYPR dimension The Market/Your Customers Market /Your CustomersCustomer dimension that represents “The Purpose of the Software Product Manager Role”.This PYPR dimension focuses on the external view of your product, including the target market and customer perception of your product, customer engagements and communities, customer support and references, thought leadershipThought leadership , influencersInfluencer , and analystsAnalyst . As product managers, we are continuously talking to the market and to existing customers. The target market segment defines your potential for product growthProduct growth potential , while the existing customers define the adoption of your product.As the General Manager of YourProduct Inc., you balance market and customer requirements. You balance the special attention required for current product capabilities (e.g. Go-to-Market, software demonstrations, training, enablement), for future product capabilities (e.g. product vision, strategy and planning), and the manifestation of your work (e.g. user feedback, surveys, references) regarding customers, prospects, and other external matters.

Timo Wagenblatt

Chapter 2. The Product Yield Potential Radar

This chapter introduces a novel and “business” tested way to structure the vital dimensions of Software Product Management. You will learn how to create focus and alignmentAlignment on the things that matter for product success that product managers and product teams must master day to day. You will learn about the Product Yield Potential Radar and how this framework can drive an ongoing discipline that helps the whole product team and product organization to understand all the required ingredients for product success in your context consistently assess the weak and strong parts when holistically assessing your product decide, based on a common understanding where focus and time investments are required find the right balanceBalance for product longevity and continuous improvement.Continuous improvement We will cluster all important Software Product Management activities into six dimensions. We will examine and detail each dimension by defining for each dimension, the tasks and items that are important to achieve the product’s full potential. Then we will look at how all dimensions together define and limit the yield potential of a software product. We will further examine how to agree and define for each stakeholder the role and responsibilities within each Software Product Management dimension.Additionally, I will introduce the law of the minimum and the law of tolerance that together illustrate how well product managers can use the Product Yield Potential Radar to recognize the limiting factorsLimiting factor of product success. We will leverage the knowledge and insights from other research disciplines to improve our understanding of managing software products, from the initial idea to market leadership.

Timo Wagenblatt

Kapitel 5. Kommunikationsqualitative Kriterien des Inputs

Aus den drei notwendigen Kriterien der Kommunikation – Selektivität, Reflexivität und Kontextualität – resultieren die kommunikationsqualitativen Kriterien der Input-Phase Moderner Marketing-Kommunikation: Achtsamkeit, Marketing-Kommunikationswissen und Input-Relevanz. Aus ihnen lassen sich die Input-Erfolgsfaktoren der heutigen Marketing-Kommunikation gewinnen: Schadensprävention (Achtsamkeit) (Kap. B I 1.1), Erwartungen der Akteure in Unternehmen und Agenturen hinsichtlich der Erwartungen an die Alltagspassung, des Erlebniswertes und der Konsistenz der Marketing-Kommunikationsangebote seitens der Zielgruppen und -personen (Marketing-Kommunikationswissen) (Kap. B I 1.2), die individuelle Zufriedenheit der Passung gewählter Entscheidungsalternativen mit dem beruflichen Alltag des Mitarbeiters, die unternehmens- beziehungsweise agenturinterne Orientierungskraft sowie der Informationsstatus hinsichtlich der Marktgegebenheiten (Input-Relevanz) (Kap. B I 1.3). Diese kommunikationsqualitativen Erfolgsfaktoren stellen für das Kommunikationsmanagement die Entscheidungsvoraussetzungen dafür, welche Analysen wie erfolgen, wie ihre Ergebnisse interpretiert werden, welche Ziele mit welchen Strategien und mit welchem Budget verfolgt werden. Sie steuern also die unternehmensinterne Kommunikation über die Marketing-Kommunikation des Unternehmens.

Jörg Tropp

Kapitel 8. Moderne Kommunikationsdisziplinen

Infolge der stattfindenden Neuausrichtung des Marketing-Kommunikationssystems mit der damit einhergehenden Fokussierung der Unternehmen auf die Gestaltung qualitativ hochwertiger Kommunikationsprozesse entstehen neue Kommunikationsdisziplinen: Partizipative Marketing-Kommunikation (PMK), Utility Marketing (UM), Corporate-Social-Responsibility-Kommunikation (CSR-Kommunikation), Guerilla Marketing (GM) und Word-of-Mouth-Marketing (WOM-Marketing). Ihnen gemeinsam ist, dass sie jeweils in unterschiedlicher Intensität und Kombination auf das Erreichen von Aufmerksamkeit, darauf, dass die Konsumenten/Rezipienten die Kommunikationsangebote als relevant wahrnehmen, und auf die Auslösung von Anschlusshandlungen/-kommunikationen zielen. Gleichzeitig gewinnt die Kommunikationsart des Dialogs zunehmend an Bedeutung und dient der grundsätzlichen Orientierung bei der Output-Gestaltung. Dies muss jedoch gemäß der ökonomischen Logik des Marketing-Kommunikationssystems unter Kosten-Nutzen-Abwägungen erfolgen.In einer Synopse (Kap. B II 2.7) werden abschließend die modernen Kommunikationsdisziplinen zusammengefasst.

Jörg Tropp

Kapitel 2. Moderne Marketing-Kommunikation

Nach einer kurzen Klärung des Marketing-Konzeptes (Kap. A 2.1.1) wird die Marketing-Kommunikation neben der internen Unternehmenskommunikation und der Public Relations (PR) als eine spezifische Art der Unternehmenskommunikation vorgestellt (Kap. A 2.1.2).Es erfolgt die Einführung des Kriteriums der Kommunikationsqualität, dem heute die zentrale Rolle bei der Konzeption und Umsetzung Moderner Marketing-Kommunikation zukommt. Die Diskussion vorliegender Konzeptualisierungen zeigt, dass besonders das Erwartungskonzept vielversprechende Ansatzpunkte aufweist, es sich aber auf die Output-Qualität konzentriert. Um aber den Marketing-Kommunikationsprozess in seiner Gesamtheit nach kommunikationsqualitativen Kriterien gestalten zu können, wird zur theoretischen Fundierung des Konstruktes im Folgenden auf die notwendigen Kriterien von Kommunikation – Selektivität, Kontextualität und Reflexivität – zurückgegriffen. Diese manifestieren sich Marketing-kommunikationsspezifisch als Erzielen von Aufmerksamkeit, Relevanz der Kommunikationsangebote und Auslösen von Anschlusshandlungen (Kap. A 2.1.3 bis 2.1.6).Nach erfolgter Definition der Modernen Marketing-Kommunikation (Kap. A 2.2) werden Formen der Marketing-Kommunikation vorgestellt, die auf oberster Ebene in solche der Individual- und der öffentlichen Kommunikation unterschieden werden können (Kap. A 2.3).Die Struktur der Modernen Marketing-Kommunikation stellt sich dar als ein sechs- bzw. siebenstufiger Selektionsprozess, der sich von der Auswahl dessen, was mitgeteilt werden soll, bis hin zur Selektion der Verarbeitungsweise des rezipierten Marketing-Kommunikationsangebots erstreckt (Kap. A 2.4).Anschließend wird der Prozess der Marketing-Kommunikation erläutert und in einem Modell zusammenfassend dargestellt (Kap. A 2.5).Es können drei Paradigmen der Marketing-Kommunikation ausgemacht werden: die persuasive Markenkommunikation, die beziehungsorientierte Direktmarketing-Kommunikation und die integrierte Marketing-Kommunikation (Kap. A 2.6). Zuletzt genanntes ist das heute dominierende Paradigma. Ihm kann am ehesten der Ansatz der Modernen Marketing-Kommunikation zugerechnet werden. Er darf aber nicht auf die zentralen Annahmen dieses Paradigmas verkürzt werden.

Jörg Tropp

Chapter 1. The Politics of Purchasing: Ethical Consumerism in Turkey

Today’sEthical consumerism consumers make consumption decisions not only to meet their needs but also to influence the activities of firms. This study examines antecedents and consequences of ethicsEthics domain of behavioral intentions of consumers living in TurkeyTurkey . In this framework, consumers’ ethical and environmental valuesEnvironmental values of consumers as well as political efficacyPolitical efficacy are defined as antecedents on the ethical domain of consumer behaviorsConsumer behavior . Also, the moderating roles of demographic characteristics are examined. As for the data collection, we have conducted a face-to-face survey on 661 participants through convenience sampling. Analysis of the research model developed for the study proceeds by using structural equation modeling. Theoretical and management implications associated with the abovementioned results are discussed.

Abdülkadir Öztürk, Sima Nart, Remzi Altunışık

The New Approach of Chinese Animation: Exploring the Developing Strategies of Monkey King - Hero Is Back

The Chinese animation ‘Monkey King: Hero is Back’ had remarkable box office success and earned a good reputation for Chinese animated films, indicating a resurgence in Chinese animation, and that the successful marketing strategy is worth exploring. This study uses literature analysis and SWOT analysis to explore this animation’s marketing strategies. The purpose of this research is to: (1) dissect the contents of the marketing strategy of this animation; (2) explore the developing strategies of the sequel to this animation; (3) provide this animation’s developing strategies as reference for the development plan of Chinese animated films. Through SWOT analysis, this study pinpoints the developing strategies for Chinese animation. Firstly, animation designers ought to design the artwork incorporating elements of Chinese traditional culture and animation companies should specially train marketing personnel to promote the marketing model. Secondly, managers should improve the spin-off products, and the country vigorously support the animation industry. Thirdly, the film must meet the psychological needs of consumers and play a part in closing the distance between designers and audiences, and also help consumers choose conveniently. Fourthly, companies ought to introduce relevant personnel to improve the production technologies of animation films. Finally, designers should adopt innovative principles to retain their exquisite market advantages. The marketing ideas and promotion methods of Chinese animation films are still in their infancy and in the future, Chinese animation marketing must follow the principles combining with tradition and innovation.

Wen Ting Fang, Mei-Ling Hsu, Po-Hsien Lin, Rungtai Lin

Identifying Opinion Leaders in Virtual Travel Community Based on Social Network Analysis

With the thriving development of internet industry and continuous increase of consumer demand in outbound tourism in China, opinion leaders in virtual community have significant effects on consumers’ decision making process. Hence, identifying the opinion leader in virtual travel community (VTC) is significantly important for virtual community of outbound tourism. This study proposes the opinion leader recognition model based on social network analysis (SNA), and identifies leader value presented by construal influence, content influence, and activity to measure and evaluate the effect of opinion leader on consumers’ cognition. Based on the empirical data, this study examines the soundness of SNA in VTC dimensionally and comprehensively, and establishes the opinion leader recognition, which can be used in future research to explore the assessment mechanism of opinion leader’ effect on consumers.

Jinbi Yang, Yukang Zhang, Libo Liu

Chapter 7. Business Network Analytics: From Graphs to Supernetworks

A large number of problems in business and consumer analytics have input graphs or networks. These mathematical entities have a long standing tradition in discrete applied mathematics and computer science. In many cases, they are the most natural means to represent some type of relationships in data. Consequently, a large number of solution methods based on heuristics and exact algorithms exist for problems that have graphs and/or networks as part of their input. While the number of possible applications of these techniques is not limited to problems in business and customer analytics, we have chosen to present some of them in a survey that would allow newcomers to the field of data science to create some familiarity with the key questions that motivate the area. We have also provided a survey on recent applications and new algorithmic approaches for data analytics. In addition we discuss issues related to the computational complexity of some problems associated with them. Other chapters of this section complement the discussion in this chapter with specific examples of interest or that could motivate new novel research direction and application.

Pablo Moscato

Investigating the Social Media Potential to Attract Customers in the Banking Services Industry Using Fuzzy Delphi and Analytic Hierarchy Process

Customer attraction is a fundamental goal for most companies that cannot be seen as a simple process but as a complex mix of factors and decisions. The world of Social Media offers new ways and opportunities for customer attraction, allowing companies to showcase their products and reach clients. They also amplify word of mouth marketing, affect purchasing decisions and help raise brand awareness. In this paper, the way in which aspects of social media usage affect customer attraction were analyzed. The study was focused on retail banking services and was based on the opinions of bank marketing experts. The most important factors were initially identified through a Fuzzy Delphi process. A hierarchical model of the importance of each factor was then built using the Analytic Hierarchy Process Multi-Criteria Decision Method. The results showed that the provision of reliable information from the company’s side and efficient management of complaints were more important than the promotion of products and services and the acquisition of information on the customers’ views. It is crucial that through consistency and honesty, companies improve their reputation and gain potential customers’ trust, encouraging their active involvement.

Eleni-Maria Mousouraki, Dimitrios Kardaras, George Stalidis, Stavroula Barbounaki, Eleutherios Papathanasiou

Modeling and Simulation of the Strategic Use of Social Media Networks in Search Engines for the Business Success of High Technology Companies

In this research paper, we will analyze how and why the integration of Social Media into the market and sales with the goal of the business success of IT companies is necessary. Nowadays, there is a substantial shift in power from the recent heavy industries that dominated the business of marketing, public relations, advertising, the media market (newspapers, magazines, radio stations, television, and advertising boards) to the users of the Internet who can communicate, update, control, compare, recommend, comment on products, services, and companies. We are informed by Social Media, which is also being updated by us.

Damianos P. Sakas, Dimitrios K. Nasiopoulos, Panagiotis Reklitis

Modeling and Simulation of the Strategic Use of the Internet Forum Aiming at Business Success of High-Technology Companies

Internet forum is a platform in which its members exchange views and acquire knowledge through dialogue. The interested person has the opportunity to visit the forum of the field that concerns him, in order to exchange views and gain knowledge.By using the forum, businesses benefit greatly. In this way, they promote their products and/or services through social marketing. The users are able to provide documented opinions about the products and if these are positive, then visitors of the forum are encouraged toward their market.

Damianos P. Sakas, Dimitrios K. Nasiopoulos, Panagiotis Reklitis

Implementation of Current Marketing Communication Tools into Practice in the Czech and Slovak Republic

The aim of the article is to map out how much are used current marketing communication tools (guerrilla marketing, digital marketing, mobile marketing, viral marketing, word of mouth marketing, buzz marketing, product placement) in the Czech and Slovak market. Article is based on quantitative research realized in the form of online survey, which respondents were professionals in the marketing communication field (employees of full-service and specialized advertising agencies, people from marketing departments).

Tomáš Šula, Milan Banyár

Chapter 6. The Transparency of Big Data, Data Harvesting and Digital Twins

Computer storage and cloud computing has become more powerful with multiple algorithms running complex data analysis looking at intelligence trends, user behaviour, profiling and ways to make use of these outputs. Added with the artificial intelligence (AI) interaction has meant a new and dynamic method to create models forging analysis to be more clinical, proficient and continually seeking more improvement with the self-learning and intelligent programming of machine learning (ML). In the healthcare sector there is deep interest in collecting, curating the data and making the best use of silo’d data through methods such as blockchain. This can then lead to a multitude of innovations such as precision based medicine, targeting individual variability in genes, their environment, etc. It also means that big data analytics in healthcare is evolving into providing these insights from very large data sets and improving outcomes while reducing costs and inefficiencies. However, there also are some ethical impacts in the process of Digital Twins which can lead to segmentation and discrimination. Or perhaps the data that is automatically collected from healthcare sensors in IoMT and what type of governance are they scrutinized to. It is clear that data is the most important asset of not just an organisation but also to the individual and why the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has taken an important stance in data protection by design and default, that all organisations needs to follow. This chapter aims to highlight some of the concerns.

Stefan Kendzierskyj, Hamid Jahankhani, Arshad Jamal, Jaime Ibarra Jimenez

Subsistence Entrepreneurship: The Role of Collaborative Innovation, Sustainability and Social Goals

The goal of this chapter is to discuss the role of subsistence entrepreneurship in the society. Increasingly both business and government are focusing at low-income consumers and the role they play in the innovation process. This has meant greater emphasis has been given to understand the role of these consumers who are called ‘subsistence consumers’ because they live at the bottom of the pyramid and exist on low income and wages. This chapter discusses subsistence consumers in terms of how they can be innovative and also the importance that collaboration plays in achieving social goals. Managerial and social implications are discussed in terms of how business can harness the collective power of subsistence entrepreneurs in order to create a better global community.

Vanessa Ratten, Paul Jones, Vitor Braga, Carla Susana Marques

Gesamtergebnis und Leitsätze

Im Folgenden wird die Quintessenz der vorliegenden Arbeit in einem Gesamtergebnis zusammengefasst, in dessen Anschluss die Kernaussagen der Arbeit in Leitsätzen formuliert werden.

Peter J. Fries


Um den Untersuchungsgegenstand des Influencer-Marketings erfassen und in dieser Arbeit entwickelte Lösungsansätze nachvollziehen zu können, sind einige begriffliche Erläuterungen ebenso erforderlich wie Darstellungen des Anwendungsumfelds des Influencer-Marketings und dessen Vergleich mit bestehenden Marketing-Ansätzen.

Peter J. Fries

4. Case Study: Gender and Enterprise Development in Africa

This chapter explores the question of how female micro entrepreneurs can transition into transformational entrepreneurs. Using case studies, the chapter draws on the experiences of successful women entrepreneurs who have succeeded in growing their businesses from micro enterprises into impactful ones. In addition, the chapter conducts a cross-case analysis and highlights lessons learnt for policy making.

Keren Naa Abeka Arthur

How Conventional Printers Lead into Customized Web-to-Print

“Web-to-Print (W2P)” has become a new trend of printing industry. A widely definition of W2P is commercial activities for trading of printing services through the internet. Most of Asian printers still use traditional processes to print orders. Comparing to the printers in the U.S. or European countries, Asian printers seem not so active in the development. Under the influence of digitalization, it will be very important to consider how to provide W2P services. The development of W2P in Asia is on the stage of cloud printing for paper-related product. In the meantime, printers in North America and Europe have elevated their services from W2P to customized W2P due to the great need of personalization. The study carried out in-depth interviews of experienced printers, educators and content analyses of many W2P platforms not only to explore how Taiwanese printers view the requirements and obstacles but also to comprehend the web structure of a customized W2P platform. This study disclosed the essential functionalities and obstacles of a successful customized W2P platform. We hope that this study will elevate competitiveness of conventional printing enterprise.

Yungcheng Hsieh, Mingchw Wei, Xinyi Wong

Culture as Opportunity: Skilled Migration and Entrepreneurship in Australia

The diversity of migration to Australia today and the shift to skilled migration render necessity-driven entrepreneurship an incomplete explanation of the motivations behind new patterns in immigrant entrepreneurship. This chapter presents the findings of a mixed-method comparative case study of entrepreneurial motivation amongst immigrant entrepreneurs in Australia. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were utilised, including face-to-face interviews, thematic coding and descriptive statistics. The study found a preference for opportunity-driven entrepreneurship amongst participants in the study. Other factors included prior entrepreneurial experience, the desire for autonomy and opportunity recognition in the market and level of education. The four small business cases presented found a combination of skilled migration background, cultural and social capital and cultural values contributed to the entrepreneurs’ ability to identify opportunities. While one business catered to their co-ethnics as clientele, others hired their co-ethnics, another business utilised their cultural capital to market cuisine to a broader audience and, lastly, a cultural orientation to business risk and self-employment was identified. The findings of the comparative case study shed light on the black box of entrepreneurial motivation and map a shift in the pattern of immigrant entrepreneurship in Australia from necessity- to opportunity-driven entrepreneurship. New policy initiatives should identify how to serve and support immigrant entrepreneurs more effectively to start up their own businesses. This chapter observes a mindset change amongst skilled immigrant entrepreneurs and recommends strategies to facilitate immigrant entrepreneurship, build innovation and capitalise on diversity.

Nelia Hyndman-Rizk, Saskia de Klerk

Chapter 17. App Store Listing

The most important marketing for any app is listing the app in the App Store. Every listing is formatted by Apple automatically, so the only thing that differentiates your app is the content you put on it. This is the thing everyone in the world sees before downloading your app.

Megan Holstein

Chapter 5. Fair Pricing

After you've decided on a business model, you need to determine how you'll make money. Picking a good pricing model for your app is difficult. The App Store is a highly volatile market, and the best pricing model can change as quickly as the App Store itself. Additionally, price wars have driven the median price of an app down to $0.99, so it can be hard to justify an app that’s more expensive than that.

Megan Holstein

Chapter 3. Lean Culture in Higher Education—A Model Approach

The chapter has a conceptual character. The author discusses issues related to organisational culture in HE, defines the notion of Lean Culture (LC) and approaches to research on LC, and describes the external context for the shaping of a mature LC. The discussion is followed by the author’s original Lean Culture Maturity Model in HE (LCMMHE). Within the model, the author defines seven dimensions of LC and describes them in detail on the basis of the results of the conducted research. The author reflects on the extent to which the Lean Management concept changes during the course of its implementation in HE. The adopted research perspective broadened by tools typical for the interpretative-symbolic paradigm allows the author to gain a deeper insight into LC, as well as a better understanding of its essence, dimensions, and descriptors. The author treated LC as a social construct and a metaphor of organisational culture.

Justyna Maciąg

Chapter 10. Proposal for a New Participatory Creative Production Model

In the previous chapters, I observed how the production process of the Chinese creative industries sector evolved since 2001. I have studied the dynamics of this system from a macro to a micro level and I have identified obstacles that potentially affect both production efficiency and the emergence of new local creative talents. There is a need for a new model, at least for a model that encompasses certain changes. In the wake of the threat of receding box office revenues (Yan 2016), how can Chinese cinema further develop and support the emerging film makers?

Patrice Poujol

Chapter 8. A System Dynamics-Based Simulation Model to Analyze Consumers’ Behavior Based on Participatory Systems Mapping – A “Last Mile” Perspective

The complexity of the term sustainability is encouraging both policy makers and industry, to expand their methodology of solving environmental, social, and economic issues. In the field of applied science, sustainability-related research is thematic and policy driven; therefore involving the widest possible range of stakeholders is of importance. High uncertainty problems and high-risk decisions such as sustainability-related topics are difficult to analyze and solve with conventional scientific approaches and tools. Accordingly, discrete, simple, and short-term systems regarding one specific problem are increasingly being replaced by dynamic, complex, long-term, real-time, interdisciplinary models. This peculiarity requires decision-makers to have a system thinking approach. Participatory systems mapping (PSM) is, in this context, a methodology in which a structured process is used to design cause-and-effect relationships between different factors and elements in a defined system. It provides a multi-perspectival understanding of problems and can help to formulate effective policies for complex sustainability issues. This will be represented, in a first instance, as a causal loop diagram (CLD) and, subsequently, as a stock and flow diagram (SFD) which is an equation-based system dynamics (SD) modeling technique. This will be of assistance in developing strategies and recommendations for the food industry, where consumers are creating a dynamic environment through quickly adapting their consumption habits which are currently characterized by a growing demand for sustainable food production. As a result, this increasing importance of local and organic food logistics networks has a direct impact on the last mile and its sustainability performance. Therefore, the present study intends to contribute to the understanding of the system dynamics in local food logistics networks.

Gustavo De La Torre, Tim Gruchmann, Vasanth Kamath, Ani Melkonyan, Klaus Krumme

Chapter 7. Location-Based Social Network Data for Tourism Destinations

Social media networks are a resource for valuable knowledge about tourist destinations through the collection of data by Location-Based Social Networks (LBSN). A major problem is the lack of knowledge in respect to the visitors’ views about a destination, as well as the fact that the visitors’ behavior needs and preferences are not visible. Many enterprises and local authorities are still using traditional methods for acquiring knowledge to make strategic decisions, by collecting data from questionnaires. Nonetheless, this process, despite its benefits, is short-lived and the number of the participants is small compared to the number of visitors. This chapter discusses a methodology for the extraction, association, analysis, and visualization of data derived from LBSNs. This provides knowledge of visitor behaviors, impressions and preferences for tourist destinations. A case study of Crete in Greece is included, based upon visitors’ posts and reviews, nationality, photos, place rankings, and engagement.

Konstantinos Vassakis, Emmanuel Petrakis, Ioannis Kopanakis, John Makridis, George Mastorakis

Kapitel 4. Influencer-Marketing

Chancen, Potenziale, Risiken, Mechanismen, strukturierter Einstieg

Influencer-Marketing wurde in Deutschland im Laufe der Jahre 2016 und 2017 zu einem Hype-Thema. In den Medien wurde diese Marketing-Disziplin extrem kontrovers diskutiert. Mal wurde das Platzen der Blase prognostiziert und über die Fake-Follower gewettert.

Erwin Lammenett

Designing Valuable Augmented Reality Tourism Application Experiences

Augmented Reality (AR) has gained increased popularity in the tourism sector, for its ability to create enhanced tourist experiences. This, coupled with the proliferation of technologies has increased pressure for tourism organisations design and add value to tourist experiences. Whilst much research attention has focused on the potential of AR, exploring areas such as adoption, acceptance and usability, there is a lack of research outlining guidelines for the design of valuable AR application tourist experiences. This study uses a small UNESCO recognised museum in the UK, to identify key value adding features for the effective design of AR tourism applications. Adopting a multi-stakeholder approach, fifty interviews were held with five stakeholder groups, revealing four AR design categories; visitor value, organisational value, stakeholder value, economic value. Findings identified these categories should be considered for the effective design and implementation of enhanced tourist experiences, bridging a gap in current research.

Eleanor E. Cranmer

Mega-Trend Individualisierung: Personalisierte Produkte und Dienstleistungen am Beispiel der Verpackungsbranche

Digitalisierung, Vernetzung und damit gekoppelt erhöhte Kundenerwartungen stellen Unternehmen heute vor große Herausforderungen. Nachhaltiger Erfolg hängt mittlerweile von der Fähigkeit des Zuschneidens von Angeboten auf die Bedürfnisse der Zielgruppe, der sogenannten Personalisierung, und der ganzheitlichen Ausrichtung auf den Kunden, der sogenannten Customer Centricity, ab. Personalisierte Produkte und Dienstleistungen ermöglichen es den Unternehmern, sich von den Wettbewerbern abzugrenzen. Hierzu muss zwangsläufig ein Wandel in der Kundenansprache und -interaktion durch den Vertrieb und das Marketing stattfinden. Konsequent auf die Zielgruppe ausgerichtetes personalisiertes bzw. gar hyperpersonalisiertes Marketing während der gesamten Kundenreise („Customer Journey“) sowie individuelle und personalisierte Verpackungslösungen on demand verschaffen den Unternehmen, die sich dem Mega-Trend Individualisierung stellen wollen, entscheidende Marktvorteile.

Bernhard Kölmel, Thomas Pfefferle, Rebecca Bulander

Chapter 2. Big Data Analytics in Smart Tourism Destinations. A New Tool for Destination Management Organizations?

In the last years, the amount of data and the possibilities of its analysis have risen rapidly. Leading retail businesses are able to work with complex sources of data, embrace intelligence tools and generate better outcomes. Tourism industry is becoming smarter; however, because of its fragmented nature and small size of tourism businesses, it lags behind the other industries. Today’s destination management organizations (DMOs) are struggling with several challenges and have difficulties in adapting to new market conditions. Within the smart tourism concept, the big data analytics is seemed to be a promising tool for overcoming the challenges. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to find out the possibilities of overcoming challenges of today’s DMOs based on the analysis of current state and best practices of big data analytics in tourism destinations. The analysis is based on multiple case studies, with the main focus on Central Europe. The paper presents a conceptual view on big data analytics and concludes that the application of big data analytics allows DMOs to better define destination boundaries, understand the needs of today’s tourists, effectively manage destination stakeholders and be more competitive and sustainable.

Tomáš Gajdošík

Kapitel 4. Kirchliches Marketing

In ihrer Untersuchung „Zur (Un-)Vereinbarkeit von Marketing und Kirche“ resümieren Tscheulin/Dietrich (2003), dass „Marketing von den Kirchen in erster Linie mit kommunikationspolitischen Maßnahmen in Verbindung gebracht wird“, wobei „eine Umsetzung betont öffentlichkeitsbedachter Maßnahmen jedoch nicht in Betracht gezogen werden will“. Dies stimmt nicht weiter verwunderlich, ist doch die Kirche als soziokulturelle NPO und als Gemeinschaft gottgläubiger Menschen bei der Vermittlung ihrer Inhalte bzw. Realisierung ihrer Aufgaben und Ziele sowohl auf die personale als auch auf mediale Kommunikation angewiesen. Dabei wurden und werden marktschreierische Attitüden oder „Guerilla-Aktionen“, wie sie sich gerade im Konsumgütermarketing in immer kürzeren Abständen an origineller Peinlichkeit überbieten, von der Kirche und ihren Gemeinden weitestgehend vermieden.

Thomas Peters

Kapitel 6. Ergebnisse und Diskussion

Zur Verifikation der Hypothesen dieser Arbeit wurde eine Online-Befragung katholischer Studenten und Akademiker durchgeführt.

Thomas Peters

10. Marketing of Media and Information

The marketing of media products and services differ from the marketing of other products in a variety of ways, in particular because it is often two-sided: it requires the promotion of media products to end users and for the promotion of the media outlet to advertisers. The authors discuss the role of marketing in the product design. The analysis of positioning requires demand and audience studies, diffusion models, competitor analysis, and branding. Several dimensions of promotion are then discussed: timing; word of mouth; publicity and public relations; and product placement. The authors then look at advertising: optimal budgets and the mix of media choices. Critical to success is promotion to advertisers, retailers, and distributors, all with their own techniques. These marketing activities have been impacted by the Internet with its new tools and approaches. The authors then analyze the promotion of media products—film, TV channels, music, books, newspapers, magazines, videogames, and technology. Next discussed is the regulation of marketing. The authors conclude by investigating marketing performance tools. The issues are highlighted by a case discussion on the marketing efforts for a planned magazine by Condé Nast.

Eli M. Noam

4. Technology Management in Media and Information Firms

The author discusses how R&D is managed, a particularly important function in a sector characterized by disruptive technology. Tasks covered include: technology assessment; selection of R&D projects for funding; integration of technology with firm strategy; the location of R&D activities; the organizational structure of R&D activities; budgeting; implementing R&D alliances; standards strategy; and collaboration with open community-based R&D. The second part of the chapter covers the six stages of media-tech convergence and introduces the various elements that jointly form the media-tech sector. The first convergence was that of calculating devices, components, and control code, resulting in computers. The second convergence is that of computers with communications hardware, and includes telecommunications, cellular telephony, and the Internet. The third convergence joins the elements of consumer electronics, the fourth those of content, and the fifth leads to the emerging online-based media cloud. Anticipated is the next convergence, that of bio-electronics and human cognition. Throughout the chapter, the Japanese firm Sony is discussed with its struggles to integrate across multiple hardware and content segments.

Eli M. Noam

10. Marketing of Media and Information

The marketing of media products and services differs from the marketing of other products in a variety of ways, in particular because it is often two-sided: it requires the promotion of media products to end users and the promotion of the media outlet to advertisers. The author discusses the role of marketing in product design. The analysis of positioning requires demand and audience studies, diffusion models, competitor analysis, and branding. Several dimensions of promotion are then discussed: timing; word of mouth; publicity and public relations; and product placement. The author then looks at advertising, specifically optimal budgets and the mix of media choices. Critical to success is promotion to advertisers, retailers, and distributors, all of which have their own techniques. These marketing activities have been impacted by the Internet with its new tools and approaches. The author then analyzes the promotion of media products—film, TV channels, music, books, newspapers, magazines, videogames, and technology. Next discussed is the regulation of marketing. The author concludes by investigating marketing performance tools. The issues are highlighted by a case discussion on the marketing efforts for a planned magazine by Condé Nast.

Eli M. Noam

Seeding – Die virale Strategie für eine erfolgreiche Onlinekommunikation

Wie hat sich unsere Kommunikation im Zuge der Digitalisierung verändert und welchen Einfluss hat sie auf die Onlinekommunikation heutiger Unternehmen? Wie entwickeln Unternehmen ein an Kundenbedürfnisse angepasstes Online-Marketing mithilfe einer zielführenden und mehrwertschaffenden Seeding-Kampagne? Folgen Sie Nadine Schultze in diesem Kapitel und lassen Sie sich durch die Betrachtung verschiedener Marketing- und Seeding-Konzepte, sowie zukünftiger Entwicklungstendenzen und Trends, die Chancen und Risiken einer Seeding-Kampagne aufzeigen. Sie kommunizieren mit und über Ihre Zielgruppe hinaus und können durch Seeding von einer erfolgreiche Onlinekommunikation profitieren.

Nadine Schultze

A Framework for Destination Image Analytics

In recent years there has been a tremendous growth of user-generated content. In the travel, tourism and hospitality fields, travel blogs, and later online travel reviews (OTRs), have proliferated. Many researchers have taken advantage of this abundant, spontaneous and freely accessible information source and have analysed OTRs to extract insights about attractions, hotels and restaurants to improve management and marketing policies. OTRs are tourist destination image (TDI) formation agents because they show the image perceived (and transmitted) by visitors and are consulted by prospective tourists. This research proposes a conceptual and methodological framework to analyse and measure TDI from textual and paratextual elements in OTRs. The model was applied on a random sample of a million OTRs (200,000 on Things to Do, 300,000 on Hotels, and 500,000 on Restaurants) written in English, between 2013 and 2017, by visitors of the Canary Islands.

Estela Marine-Roig, Eva Martin-Fuentes, Berta Ferrer-Rosell

Kapitel 5. Crossmediale Kommunikation

Für erfolgreichen Markenaufbau und eine zielgenaue Kommunikation auf der Customer Journey genügt es heute in den meisten Fällen nicht, auf einzelne Kanäle zu setzen. Vielmehr ist eine intelligente Verbindung verschiedener Owned-, Earned- und Paid-Angebote in Verbindung mit Social Media erforderlich.

Michael C. Schmitt

The Influence of Social Media on Entrepreneur Motivation and Marketing Strategies in a Developing Country

Entrepreneurs are increasingly using social media in running their businesses. This phenomenon is remarkable especially in developing countries where entrepreneurs now exploit business opportunities by using cheaper platforms. Prior studies claim that social media plays a crucial role in establishing a business and ensuring its survival through effective marketing. However, from the context of developing countries, limited research has sought to understand the role of social media in motivating entrepreneurs to start and market their businesses. This current study seeks to investigate this issue through a field study comprising interviews with Nigerian entrepreneurs. The research explores how social media shapes Nigerian entrepreneurs’ motivation to start a business and how they market their businesses via social media. It was found that most of the entrepreneurs interviewed were opportunity-driven rather than necessitydriven due to opportunities afforded by SM. Furthermore, entrepreneurs devised several social media marketing approaches across different platforms to reach their audiences.

Abdus-Samad Temitope Olanrewaju, Naomi Whiteside, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Paul Mercieca

Kapitel 9. Soziale Umwelt

In diesem Kapitel lernen Sie, wie Bezugsgruppen das Konsumverhalten beeinflussen, wie Menschen in die Rolle des Konsumenten hineinwachsen, wann der Einzelne seine Entscheidungen an andere anpasst, was Meinungsführer auszeichnet und wann Konsumenten nichts tun, weil andere das schon erledigen, indem Sie die soziale Umwelt durch folgende Theorien und Modelle betrachten: Theorie des sozialen Vergleichs, Theorie der sozialen Identität, Rollentheorie, und soziales Dilemma.

Stefan Hoffmann, Payam Akbar

Driver to Gain from Digitalization in Tourism—Insights from South African Experts

Digitalization is an ongoing process and a widely discussed topic of our time. Few are only investigating the impact of digitalization and the potentials for business in tourism. Therefore, this paper focuses on investigating the capability of digitalization in the tourism industry in South Africa (ZA). The empirical research is based on a theoretical foundation build on the work of Härting et al. [1]. The results are determined by using the structural equation modeling methodology. The objective of this quantitative study is to detect the main driving forces of digitalization in the tourism sector in ZA. After the literature review, the authors find six potential drivers (sales increase, sharing economy, process costs, personalized offers, social networks, and client reviews) that do have a positive influence on the potential of digitalization in the South African tourism sector. The results show that sales increase, sharing economy, and process costs actually do have a significant as well as positive impact regarding the digitalization potential in the South African tourism sector.

Ralf-Christian Härting, Christopher Reichstein, René Haarhoff, Nina Härtle, Jürgen Stiefl

3. Cham Saar: The First Syrian-German Cheese Manufacturer

This case study portrays Cham Saar GmbH, the first dairy producer in Germany to specialize in Arabic cheese. Abdul Saymoa, together with Anna and Matthias Riehm Jr, established the business in a rural area in Southern Germany. Abdul Saymoa produces three different types of cheese with milk from the Riehm’s farm. They are sold at local markets, through the farm trade and via online delivery. The acceptance of Cham Saar in the local community makes marketing redundant. The founding team had to struggle with restricted access to external funding for refugee entrepreneurs, bureaucratic burdens and regulations for cheese manufacturing.

Carina Hartmann, Katharina Schilling

Kapitel 7. Referral Marketing on Social Media Platforms—Guidelines on How Businesses Can Identify and Successfully Integrate Opinion Leaders in Their Online Marketing Strategy

Over the last few years, influencer marketing has become the next big thing when it comes to getting the attention of millennials. But what are the factors motivating influencers to create sponsored content with certain brands? Which platforms and influencers are right for your product, brand and budget and what do you have to keep in mind when it comes to content decisions? Guidelines on how to create effective influencer marketing on social sharing platforms help to navigate this for some brands and advertisers still quite new territory.

Amelie Müller

Chapter 6. Blogs and Microblogging

This chapter mainly discusses the concept, characteristics and cases of the blog and Weibo, the issue of information cocoons brought about by Weibo and pays special attention to the studies of the generation, expansion and evolution laws of public opinions on Weibo in China.

Wenbo Kuang

Learning the required entrepreneurial best practices using data mining algorithms

In this research, our focus is to establish a relationship between some of the entrepreneurial best practices such as good networking skills, developing a clear vision, perseverance and ability to take risks with the business success in the field of kiwifruit contractors. Failures at the initial stage of this business is a common occurrence in the Bay of Plenty region of New Zealand. For aspiring kiwifruit contractors achieving success is a herculean but a possible task. The success factor in this research is calculated based on the number of hectares cultivated land and the number of employees hired by the contractors. The research design adopted in this study is the quantitative research approach, the instrument of a well-structured questionnaire was devised, which was based on the 5 point Likert scale format. Weka, a well known data mining toolbox was used for the analysis of primary data collected from the respondents. In this research, rule based and decision tree algorithms were used to extract useful and actionable information from the data. The study concluded that clear vision and risk taking capabilities are two most important features required to become successful in this business.

Waseem Ahmad, Shuaib K. Memon, Kashif Nisar, Gurpreet Singh

Chapter 2. Then vs. Now: Influencer Marketing (Re-)Defined

This chapter explains the emergence of modern-day influencer marketing—it has existediPhone for decades in different forms (ex: word of mouth marketing, traditional celebrity endorsements). However, it is more relevant today due to the widespread adoption of new technologies (Internet/social media platforms) and the decline in effectiveness of traditional mass-media (ex: television advertisements). Influencer marketing in an Internet-enabled, global business environment, allows savvy marketers to connect with their target audiences in an authentic manner, and avoid using interruption marketing techniques of the past that have lost effectiveness due to ad blockers and other information filters.

Joel Backaler

Chapter 17. A Multidimensional Approach to Equity Crowdfunding: Bridging the Equity Gap and Boosting Social Capital

Drawing inspiration from microfinance and crowdsourcing, equity crowdfunding has become a valuable source of fundraising for entrepreneurs and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Crowdfunding facilitates access to finance for those companies that would otherwise have great difficulty in accessing it and is viewed as a potentially revolutionary application of social networking with direct consequences for supporting sustainability and innovation. Our aim is twofold: (a) to explore the characteristics of equity crowdfunding campaigns launched by different European platforms and (b) to analyse the relationship between social capital created online and the number of investors sustaining the campaign. Given the web context in which it develops, the role of online social capital in the project’s success should be considered from a broad perspective that involves both the founder’s and the project’s social networks. These two levels of analysis represent different networks that mobilize different resources and frame different types of crowds.Our results are relevant for the field of equity crowdfunding research, as they shed light on a flourishing tool for bridging the equity gap of start-ups and innovative SMEs at the same time as proposing a new perspective on the online social capital framework.

Bernardo Balboni, Elisabetta Gualandri, Ulpiana Kocollari, Alessia Pedrazzoli, Valeria Venturelli

Kapitel 3. Influencer Marketing als Baustein der Social-Media-Strategie

Durch Social Media erlebt das klassische Empfehlungsmarketing eine Neuorientierung als digitale Mundpropaganda. Der positive Effekt besteht darin, dass nicht das Unternehmen, sondern der Influencer Absender einer Werbebotschaft ist. Dadurch sieht die Community die Botschaft nicht als direkte Werbung, sondern vielmehr als Empfehlung eines neutralen Dritten. Das Influencer Marketing ist die Planung, Steuerung und Kontrolle des gezielten Einsatzes von Social-Media-Meinungsführern und -Multiplikatoren in die Zielgruppenansprache, um durch deren Empfehlungen die Wertigkeit und Glaubwürdigkeit von Markenbotschaften zu steigern und den Kaufentscheidungsprozess positiv zu beeinflussen. In einigen Branchen haben Influencer bereits heute einen signifikanten Einfluss auf die Vermarktung von Produkten und Dienstleistungen. Dies betrifft insbesondere den Fashion- und Beauty-Bereich, aber auch Lifestyle, Travel, Fitness und Food. Das Influencer Marketing muss strukturiert aufgebaut und entwickelt werden. Eine Roadmap als Stufenmodell mit der Abfolge sequenziell zu bearbeitender Schritte bietet einen Handlungsrahmen für die Implementierung des Influencer Marketings im Unternehmen.

Frank Deges

Increasing Brand Experiences and Word of Mouth in Experiential Retailing - A Cross-Cultural Perspective

Brands increasingly make use of innovative experiential retail formats in order to provide unique and memorable brand experiences (Dolbec and Chebat, 2013; Kim et al., 2010; Pine and Gilmore, 1998). BMW, Chanel, Hermès, Lacoste, Mont Blanc, and Porsche, for example, launched temporal brand pop-up stores in different cities around the globe. Particularly, luxury brands follow the trend of experiential store concepts to create brand experience and WOM for their brands, in the Western and the fast growing Eastern market (Ko, Phau, and Aiello, 2016).

Isabelle Köhler, Franz-Rudolf Esch

9. Learning from a Premium Dining Restaurant to Implement a Delight Strategy in a Bar/Grill: Applying Experiential Learning

Episodes of service delight were identified in a UK premium casual dining restaurant chain using 408 mystery diner reports. Skills required in various jobs in the premium casual dining restaurants that promoted service delight were identified. In a second research phase, a yearlong study in a newly opened bar/grill in Liverpool used an experiential learning set that met weekly and implemented business improvements. Phase two showed how the new business continually improved as a result of applying specific skills identified in phase one and implementing improvements following weekly reflections by the learning set on real business encounters. The city bar/grill financial reports and position on TripAdvisor were analysed and showed the business continually improved as a result of putting the learning into action.

David Bamber, Clay Gransden

The Moderating Roles of Network Density and Redundancy in Lurking Behavior on User-Generated-Content Online Communities

Sharing content is one of the important ways of information diffusion in online UGC (User-Generated Content), communities. Most of previous research on the sharing behavior focused on predicting the sharing behavior by the inherent characteristics of the posts. This study addressed the important role of social networking characteristics, including network structure and information density, on users’ sharing behavior. Based on a social network from a large UGC platform in China, this study analyzed the panel data of 10,000 users of their daily activities. The results showed that network density and redundancy jointly influenced users’ sharing behavior. This study contributes to social network theory by providing new empirical evidence on user-generated content diffusion in UGC community. In particular, it explained how network density moderating the effect of users on UGC diffusion. This study also had important management implications for platform managers to design effective product strategies to increase UGC diffusion.

Xingyu Chen, Yitong Wang, Xianqi Hu, Zhan Zhou

Chapter 8. Other Areas of Corporate Communication

A corporate communication practitioner’s responsibility includes the development and safeguarding of a positive corporate image and reputation, corporate identity and corporate vision and mission statements. A particular challenge is his role in a multicultural corporate environment as international experience and inter-cultural communication competence is required. Special challenges for Corporate Communication further include trade shows, as they are a touchstone for the company’s integrated communication activities. Some different rules apply for communications in trade/business associations, which are frequently characterised by the “lowest common denominator”. Very specific communication activities are required when communicating for business clubs, entertainment venues and nightclubs, in the hospitality (hotel) and in the arts sectors (art galleries, museums and individual artists), in areas, which are characterised by strong supporter identification (communication with fans) and in the growing domain of self-branding, in which communication is supposed to help a person to stand out from the crowd.

Rudolf Beger

To Be or Not to Be (Green)

Does Communication Experts’ Environmental Sensitivity Affect their Marketing Communication Plans?

The rise of environmental sensitivity stands out as one of the most thriving trends of the twenty-first century that has gradually been reflected in marketing communication strategies. In this research, we aim to find out to what extent and how communication experts reflect their environmental sensitivity to the marketing communication strategies they develop. By purposive sampling, we choose senior communication students as the unit of analysis since they represent the forthcoming communication experts. Using a mixed-method approach, we follow a three-stage data collection procedure: In order to evaluate environmental sensitivity at an individual level, we first carry on a survey based on the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale. In the second stage, we ask participants to develop a green marketing communication plan for a brand that they choose. After analyzing the survey results statistically and the communication plans with content analysis, we move on to the last and the final stage in which we did in-depth interviews with representative participants from the first two stages in order to go in deeper in our discussion. We discuss our results on the basis of the similarities and differences between the strategies and the ideological preferences reflected in communication plans and interpret how ideology and practices rather converge or diverge from each other. Finally, it is found that there is significant convergence between experts’ green ideologies and the communication strategies that they planned which reflects one of innovator, investor, and propagator roles and characteristics.

Ebru Belkıs Güzeloğlu, Elif Üstündağlı Erten

A Study on Micro Women Entrepreneurs in UAE

Nurturing entrepreneurial activity in growing economies is vital as it leads to improved economic efficiencies. The role of women entrepreneurs in the economic development is very crucial. The major objective of the study is to understand issues and challenges being faced by micro level women entrepreneurs in the UAE region, including their educational and training requirements. A sample of 200 micro women entrepreneurs from all the Emirates were identified through convenient sampling method, but only 121 (60.5% response rate) micro women entrepreneurs have responded from five Emirates (e.g., Dubai, Fujairah, Sharjah, Ajman, and Abu Dhabi). There were no responses from the other two Emirates (e.g., Ras-Al-Khaimah and Umm Al Quwain), as the micro women entrepreneurs under the study were not interested to participate in the survey. It was found that the micro women entrepreneurs under the study from the UAE are facing majorly two major challenges, viz: (i) Cost of Operations and (ii) Competition. As far as the ‘Cost of Operations’ are concerned, the major component goes to cost of rentals and leased accommodations. From the study, it was also observed that they completely lack knowledge and awareness on competitive strategy. It was also found that the micro women entrepreneurs under the study have no formal education and training on business management (or) entrepreneurial process. The study was original and carried out in UAE region in all the Emirates. It has some implications on Government policies with regard to micro women entrepreneurs.

A. Srinivasa Rao

A Qualitative Investigation on Chinese Middle-Aged People’s ICT Adoption and Use

Information and communication technologies show many advantages in addressing the challengers resulted from population ageing. However, there is a ‘intergenerational gap’ of ICT adoption and use between older adults and young people and divided by middle-aged generation. This study aims at exploring middle-aged people’s ICT adoption and use to better understand the ‘generational gap’. The semi-structure interview is employed in the study. The qualitative data is analyzed from four themes, including the access to ICTs, access to ICT support, influencing factors on ICT adoption and use, and the attitudes on ICT adoption and use in the future. Based on the analyses, the theoretical and practical implications are discussed respectively.

Shijie Song, Jianjun Sun, Bin Geng, Yuxiang Zhao

Die Vielfalt der Lebensstile – wird das Konsumverhalten unberechenbar?

Die erste Entscheidung ist gefallen: Ein Produkt soll gekauft werden. Doch wo soll es erworben werden – im Ladengeschäft um die Ecke oder über eine große Internetplattform? Immer wichtiger ist dem Kunden, wie andere Kunden das Produkt bewertet haben und was Bekannte dazu sagen – mehr als jeder Expertenbeitrag dazu, ganz zu schweigen von offiziellen Aussagen von Produzentenseite zu dem Thema. Auch Qualitätssiegel gewinnen in dem Zuge an Bedeutung, obwohl man die Fülle und Aussagekraft dieser oftmals nicht mehr überblicken kann. Der Kunde ist auf der Suche nach dem besten Deal, dem schönsten Einkaufserlebnis, der bequemsten Lieferoption. Das Konsumverhalten im digitalen Zeitalter folgt zwar Trends, ist aber gleichzeitig individuell immer schwieriger zu bestimmen. Marketingstrategien setzen eine genaue Analyse des Kunden voraus. Eine Klassifizierung von Lebensstilen bietet Orientierungsmodelle.

Anabel Ternès, Hans-Peter Hagemes

The Multicriteria Model Support to Decision in the Evaluation of Service Quality in Customer Service

Understanding the needs of the customer is one of the key factors in achieving competitive advantage. For that reason, the expectation associated to the management of the relationship with the client are very challenging. In context, we observed the need to identify the factors that go in a successful customer service in order to monitor the quality of such service. The purpose of this paper is to identify and classify influencing elements of the customer’s satisfaction with after sales service using a multi-criteria model of decision. We contextualize customer relationship marketing and then we use cognitive mapping to pinpoint the factors that are more relevant and that affect the client’s overall satisfaction with the post sales service.

Tatyana Belém de Oliveira Barreto, Plácido Rogério Pinheiro, Carolina Ferreira Gomes Silva

Strategic Renewal in Corporate Entrepreneurship Context: A Multi-case Study

The main purpose of this article is to explore the delineating process, content, and outcome of the strategic renewal and its potential to affect the long-term prospects of organizations, and its distinctive features in corporate entrepreneurship context. Using the systematic grounded theory method and drawing on 20 in-depth case studies of four entrepreneurial Ceramic-Tile organizations of Iran, the result suggested that the entrepreneurial strategic renewal is the processes of reconsidering the organizational capabilities to balance the exploration and exploitation of opportunities. Within the entrepreneurial context, the interactional strategies of entrepreneurial strategic renewal are product regeneration, organization revitalization, marketing mix reformulation and business model renovation strategies. This process is responsive to intra-organizational inappropriateness, extra-organizational challenges, as well as to the governmental, economical, societal, cultural, geographical, regional, and industrial and market conditions and finally its outcomes are leveraging the industrial position, growth of sales in local market, penetration to the foreign market and inspiration of the entrepreneurial culture in organizations.

Amir Mohammad Colabi, Datis Khajeheian

19. Distributed Leadership: When People Claim Brand Ownership

Current consumer-brand relationship scenario is increasingly characterized by empowered individuals who claim ownership of brands and brand-related contents and manifest leadership in activating, nurturing, and quitting conversations that contribute to brand value creation or destruction beyond the efforts of marketers. When brand actors are only one of the players and not even the most impactful one in generating, modifying, or even overturning brand meanings and values, who does then take the lead in making sense of brands? And how does that happen? This chapter aims at elucidating the concept of distributed leadership of current networked individuals toward their brands and support it with anecdotal evidence of groundbreaking practices of people leadership in brand value creation at the global level.

Silvia Biraghi, Rossella C. Gambetti, Stephen Quigley

15. CRM in Social Media

Within a short period of time, social media has risen to a multi-faceted, two-way marketing and service channel. Its handling bears novel opportunities, but also large risks. Consumers and firms act and interact on social media platforms in various ways: from exchanging thoughts and recommendations about products and services, seeking help or stating complaints, up to taking part in challenges and co-creation activities. The spectrum of what social media means for CRM extends well beyond simple advertising. Yet, these advancements are still rather young, often prompting firms to act on instinct rather than a solid foundation of truths about social media management. We shed light on different topics in the realm of CRM on social media, each of which presents unique challenges for management: word-of-mouth (WOM) and its impact on brands, return on social media campaigns, brand sales in the entertainment industry, and social couponing. Each paragraph discusses the factors that determine success and failure in social media management, and gives recommendations for marketers.

V. Kumar, Werner Reinartz

7. Cases of Business Excellence: Emphasis on Human Capital

This chapter introduces four cases of excellence where the emphasis is on the role and importance of human capital. These four organisations represent the retail, construction, and service sectors. The main aim of this chapter is to highlight the importance and relevance of human capital and people management in high-performing organisations. The chapter illustrates the various strategies that have helped these organisations in achieving high employee engagement. The best practices of these organisations mainly stem from excellence models and total quality management (TQM) foundations.

Flevy Lasrado, Vijay Pereira

6. Werbung

Die meisten Menschen begegnen Werbung ambivalent. Einerseits schätzen sie es, von Werbung unterhalten und informiert zu werden. Andererseits lehnen sie es ab, Verlockungen ausgesetzt und zum Kauf animiert zu werden. So oder so erfüllt Werbung mehrere Funktionen für Anbieter und Konsumenten. Verschiedene Modelle versuchen zu erklären, wie Werbung diese Funktionen erfüllt. Dabei zeigt sich, dass es inhaltliche und formale Regeln zu beachten gilt, wenn Werbung Wirkung zeigen soll. Diese Wirkung kann auch gemessen werden – allerdings wird in der Praxis oft davon abgesehen. Auch subliminale Werbung wirkt, allerdings nur schwach. Von solchen und anderen ethisch bedenklichen Formen von Werbung sollte abgesehen werden. Verschiedene Einrichtungen wachen über die Einhaltung ethischer Grundsätze in der Werbung – auch im Internet, das der Werbung neue Möglichkeiten eröffnet. Ein Großteil der Werbung zielt auf das Image, daher betrachten wir abschließend Funktionen und Effekte von Images.

Prof. Dr. Christian Fichter

Chapter 15. Managing Public Trust: Cases from Taiwan

In this chapter, we present four cases that demonstrate the characteristics of relevance, psychology, risk, goodwill, and decision-making in public trust. In addition, public trust is examined with regard to the use of various systems, mechanisms, and behaviors. One case describes trust in government with regard to food safety policies and use of a software system for food traceability and good agriculture practices. Three cases describe trust in businesses: the Sinon Corporation, which uses various mechanisms to establish public trust in a supermarket; a hot-pot restaurant operator, who deals with negative word-of-mouth by behavior; and a home builder, who sells real estate thanks to a positive word-of-mouth reputation.

Chun-Yu Chien, Lee, Tzong-Ru (Jiun-Shen)

Kapitel 6. Wie Unternehmen aus Micro-Influencern Co-Marketer machen

Das Influencer-Marketing hat sich zu einem differenzierten Marketing-Bereich mit sehr unterschiedlichen Ansätzen und Zielsetzungen entwickelt. Dabei ist Influencer nicht gleich Influencer. Dieser Artikel stellt die unterschiedlichen Kategorien von Meinungsmachern vor. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt liegt dabei auf der Zusammenarbeit mit Micro- bzw. Real-Life Influencern im Rahmen des Word-of-Mouth-Marketings. Zum Abschluss zeigen Unternehmen, wie sie das neue Verhältnis zwischen Marken und Konsumenten nutzen können, um Influencer als Co-Marketer wertsteigernd für sich zu gewinnen.

Melanie Lammers

Kapitel 1. Ist Influencer-Marketing wirklich neu?

Ist Influencer-Marketing wirklich neu? Mit dem Internet haben sich die Möglichkeiten der Verbreitung von Botschaften vervielfacht. Heutzutage sind nicht mehr nur TV-Sternchen oder Hollywood-Stars Influencer und Meinungsmacher. Unzählige Menschen können innerhalb kürzester Zeit Massen über die sozialen Medien erreichen und damit Influencer werden. Für Unternehmen werden diese Personen immer wertvoller und interessanter. Auf der anderen Seite schaukelt sich die Begehrlichkeit von Bloggern, Instagrammern und YouTubern immer weiter hoch und die Preisschraube dreht sich nach oben. Influencer-Marketing gewinnt dynamisch an Bedeutung – dieses Kapitel beantwortet einige grundlegende Fragen dazu: Ist Influencer-Marketing nur ein vorübergehender Hype und wird die Blase irgendwann platzen? Was sind Influencer eigentlich und wieso spielen sie in Marketingstrategien eine zunehmend bedeutende Rolle? Wie unterscheiden sich Testimonials, Blogger Relations und Influencer-Marketing? Welches sind die wichtigsten Entwicklungen und Begrifflichkeiten?

Marlis Jahnke

Das emotionale Vermächtnis – eine Betrachtung eines Spezialfalls emotionaler Intelligenz aus Sicht des Relationship Marketing

Marketing hat sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten kontinuierlich weiterentwickelt (für einen Überblick z.B. Homburg 2012, 6ff.; Meffert, Burmann, Kirchgeorg 2012, 7ff.; Bruhn 2016, 14ff.). Seit den späten 90er Jahren hat dabei insbesondere das sogenannte „Relationship Marketing“ an Bedeutung gewonnen, in dem weniger das „Verkaufen“ von Leistungen, sondern viel mehr der Aufbau und (langfristige) Erhalt der Beziehung eines Unternehmens zu seinen Anspruchsgruppen, insbesondere seinen Kunden im Vordergrund steht (Gummesson 1987; Grönroos 1994; für das hier folgende Begriffsverständnis insbesondere auch Bruhn 2015, 12). Ausgehend von ersten Überlegungen und Studien in den 90er Jahren (insbesondere Reichheld/Sasser 1990) hat sich damit verbunden die Erkenntnis durchgesetzt, dass gerade langfristige Kundenbeziehungen ökonomisch besonders erfolgversprechend sind (Bruhn 2015, 3).

Henry Kobsch, Florian U. Siems

Chapter 3. Personal Branding and the Challenges of the Information Revolution

This chapter characterizes the process of shaping a personal brand with an overview of the challenges posed by the information revolution. This chapter includes a comparison of traditional methods of shaping a personal brand and e-branding. It presents the characteristic traits of each strategy and places them into the broader context of generational differences among message recipients. It illustrates the marketing potential of the Internet with examples of effective e-branding campaigns.

Mateusz Grzesiak

Chapter 2. Ten Hot Spots of China’s Cruise Industry Development During 2016–2017

Hot spots in China’s cruise tourism development during 2016–2017 include Cruise Industry Proactively Follows “the Belt and Road” Initiative and Develops a New Open and Cooperation Pattern for the Cruise Industry; China’s Cruise Market has Risen to the Second of the World and Wusongkou International Cruise Terminal has Joined the First Group; The First Industrial Fund for Cruise Industry is Founded and China Force Joins the Building of Luxury Cruise; Shanghai Takes the Lead to Innovate the Mode of Provisioning for Cruise Ships and Makes Great Effort to Build the Asia-Pacific Center for Global Cruise Ship Provisioning; New Voices Rise in International and Domestic Cruise Conferences and Forums, Exploring a New Chinese Model of International Cruise Industry; With Increasing Attraction of Chinese Cruise Market, Famous International Cruise Lines Compete to Capture the Chinese Market; Enhanced Industrial Policy and Research Support from National Ministries and Commissions Help Promote Stable and Further Development of Chinese Cruise Industry; Academic Research of Chinese Cruise Industry Finds a Brand-new Perspective, Exploring the New Rules of International Cruise Industry in Depth; Exploring the Chinese Path of Cruise Distribution Model under the Heated Debate on Cruise Distribution Model Innovation and Transformation; The Nanhai Cruises Opens up Xisha Islands Route, Setting off on a Path to off-shore Cruise Ship in China.

Hong Wang, Jianyong Shi, Younong Wang, Xingliang Ye, Ling Qiu, Ke Chen, Junqing Mei, Xie Xie, Mingyuan Wu, Ruihong Sun, Guodong Yan, Xia Li, Tian Hu, Taotao Li, ERbing Cai, Shuang Cai, Fengri Wang, Feng Yu

Crowdsourcing Project as Part of Non-formal Education

Crowdsourcing is the latest revolution brought by the digital technologies of computing and communication. It is a nowadays popular way of finding services, concepts, or content by asking contributions from a large group of people, particularly from users. According to Jeff Howe, crowdsourcing generally refers to the participatory online activity of calls for individuals to voluntarily undertake a task. The key elements of a crowdsourcing project are the open call format intended for an enormous network of potential contributors. It is a revolution that brings people together and harnesses their collective intelligence. Crowdsourcing in an online, distributed problem-solving model that pulls the collective intelligence of online communities to assist explicit goals. Online communities, or crowds, are given the opportunity to answer to crowdsourcing activities requested. In crowdsourcing, there is no clear frontier between the subjects of a research and the researchers themselves. It differs from traditional outsourcing as it involves a random, volunteer crowd and not previously selected group of individuals. A crowdsourcing - along with big data and citizen science – is a key part of an important scientific, methodological and educational phenomenon. With advent of crowdsourcing, a paradigm shift can be witnessed in information procurement, transfer, storage and processing as well as in learning. In the practice, crowdsourcing forms a firm bond with the phenomenon of wisdom of the crowds and user-generated content.

György Molnár, Zoltán Szűts

Kapitel 2. Theoretische Grundlagen und Entwicklung des Bezugsrahmens

Die energetische Gebäudesanierung bzw. die Modernisierung im Wohnbau ist ein komplexes und vielschichtiges Thema, dessen vollständige Erfassung einige Vorüberlegungen erfordert. Diese Vorüberlegungen werden im ersten Kapitel von Teil B angestellt.

Mart Verhoog

Factors Affecting Consumer Visiting Spa Shop: A Case in Taiwan

The research aims to search for factors that influence the customer’s decision-making process regarding spa services of a case study spa in Taiwan based on a Count Data Model. The estimation is via Poisson regression analysis and negative binomial regression analysis. 167 questionnaires were collected from Taiwanese customers. The results of both Poisson regression and negative binomial regression are statistically significant at the conventional levels, which provides the predictions of the consumer’s decision-making. The study shows that the customer’s demography and customer satisfaction towards the case study spa have an impact on a consumer’s decision-making process when selecting spa services. Therefore, the spa can consider its marketing strategies based on the result.

Meng-Chun Susan Shen, I-Tien Chu, Wan-Tran Huang

Chapter 3. Digital Technologies and Business Model Innovations for Urban Mobility

Cities have long been at the forefront of sustainable, multimodal mobility due to the transportation demands placed on a city by a large, densely located population. There is a considerable movement towards a more advanced and intelligent approach to urban mobility. Cities are moving toward a model of on-demand mobility in which citizens can take advantage of clean transportation options that meet their immediate needs, increase accessibility and contribute to much higher quality of life in urban areas.

Tomasz Janasz

Kapitel 4. Personalrekrutierung und Recruiting Tools

In diesem Kapitel geht es um die konkreten Schritte beim Personalmarketing, seine gegenwärtigen Herausforderungen und Möglichkeiten und um aus der Literatur erfasste Erfahrungen sowie aus dem praktischen Wissen abgeleitete Lösungswege.

Kathy Krüger

Chapter 2. Putting Conscious Business Into Context

The second chapter comprises the theoretical foundation for conscious businesses. At first, essential terms are defined to clarify the terminology and contextual direction of the concept conscious business. Key characteristics represent an essential aspect of this chapter as they offer a practical view regarding organizational behavior and development within a complex economic system. Corporate social responsibility is often associated with conscious businesses and represents a misleading direction. Therefore, this chapter addresses fundamental differences between various concepts such as B Corporations or the Economy for the Common Good. Conscious businesses operate within existing markets and complex economic systems. Hence, economic and social drivers are outlined to clarify major forces behind the movement. In addition, the second chapter provides an overview regarding the used research framework. The framework itself is split into four major components that are defined as higher purpose, stakeholder integration, conscious culture, conscious leadership and linked aspects such as an organization’s business direction. Each aspect is illustrated by describing the activities of four distinct businesses (Whole Foods Market, Zappos, Southwest Airlines and LinkedIn).

Nicolas Josef Stahlhofer, Christian Schmidkonz, Patricia Kraft

Guess the Movie - Linking Facebook Pages to IMDb Movies

In Facebook, the set of pages liked by some users represents an important knowledge about their real life tastes. However, the process of classification, which is already hard when dealing with dozens of classes and genres, is made even more difficult by the very coarse information of Facebook pages. Our work originates from a large dataset of pages liked by users of a Facebook app. To overcome the limitations of multilabel automatic classification of free-form user-generated pages, we acquire data also from IMDb, a large public database about movies. We use it to associate with high accuracy a given cinema-related page on Facebook to the corresponding record on IMDb, which includes plenty of metadata in addition to genres. To this aim, we compare different approaches. The obtained results demonstrate that the highest accuracy is obtained by the combined use of different methods and metrics.

Paolo Fornacciari, Barbara Guidi, Monica Mordonini, Jacopo Orlandini, Laura Sani, Michele Tomaiuolo

The Nature and Dimensions of Knowledge Mobility for Competitive Advantage

Knowledge exchange generally leads to mutual benefits, but unintentional knowledge transfer may have negative consequences for the original knowledge owner. Knowledge loss may be caused by, e.g., key employees leaving, and if key knowledge assets are obtained by competitors, it may harm the competitiveness of the firm. As the dynamics of overall knowledge mobility are rather abstract and difficult to grasp, this study first reviews the debate on the relevance of knowledge mobility and protection for competitive advantage. To identify the dimensions of knowledge mobility we seek explanations for how and why knowledge moves, what kind of knowledge moves, and where and how knowledge flows occur. Based on earlier literature and empirical evidence from qualitative research, we develop a categorization of dimensions of knowledge mobility. In particular, we suggest that intentionality of knowledge mobility reveals other dimensions of the type, modality, and locus. This categorization allows a sharper analytical evaluation of the nature of the connection between knowledge mobility and protection.

Pia Hurmelinna-Laukkanen, Heidi Olander, Max Von Zedtwitz

Personalized Information Visualization of Online Product Reviews

This paper presents a new method for visualizing online product reviews considering customer profiles. Typically, product review data are unstructured and have no fixed format or structure. The review data can be used by customers and also an e-business company. Potential consumers can acquire useful information on product characteristics and decide whether to buy or not depending on the review data. Also, the company can understand customers’ experiences or opinions on the product and reflect them in developing marketing strategies. In order to provide valuable information to the customers from enormous and unstructured review data, the process of collecting, storing, and preprocessing of review data should be performed firstly. And then text mining and personalization techniques can be integrated to extract properly visualized data. Thus, customers can utilize review data conveniently with the assistance of the proposed system.

Jooyoung Kim, Dongsoo Kim

8. Social Commerce: Foundations, Social Marketing, and Advertising

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Define social commerce and describe its roots and evolution.2.Describe the scope, drivers, and content of the social commerce field.3.Summarize the benefits and limitations of social commerce.4.Describe the major models of social shopping.5.Explain how advertising and promotions are conducted in social networking environments.6.Describe how social networking can facilitate customer service, customer support, and CRM.

Efraim Turban, Jon Outland, David King, Jae Kyu Lee, Ting-Peng Liang, Deborrah C. Turban

Chapter 5. Integrated Marketing Communications

Promotion Promotionis one of the four major elements of the marketing mixMarketing mix. Therefore, an integrated marketing communications (IMC) Integrated marketing communicationsstrategy Strategyconsisting of a combination of promotional tools could be an essential element of the businesses’ overall marketing strategy. Different promotional tools could foster an increased awareness of a company’s products or services, inform people about features and benefits, and move them to make a purchase. In this light, this chapter examines these promotional tools, individually. It suggests that effective IMC plans promote the companies’ products and services, by sending clear, consistent and complementary messages that are ultimately intended to turn prospects into customers. In conclusion, it posits that the marketing managers must consider the 6Ms (including the market, the mission, the message, the media, money and measurement) when they are preparing an IMC plan.

Mark Anthony Camilleri

Information Extraction Engine for Sentiment-Topic Matching in Product Intelligence Applications

Produktbewertungen sind eine wertvolle Informationsquelle sowohl für Unternehmen als auch für Kunden. Während Unternehmen diese Informationen dazu nutzen, ihre Produkte zu verbessern, benötigen Kunden sie als Unterstützung für die Entscheidungsfindung. Mit Bewertungen, Kommentaren und zusätzlichen Informationen versuchen viele Onlineshops potenzielle Kunden dazu zu animieren, auf ihrer Seite einzukaufen. Allerdings mangelt es aktuellen Online-Bewertungen an einer Kurzzusammenfassung, inwieweit bestimmte Produktbestandteile den Kundenwünschen entsprechen, wodurch der Produktvergleich erschwert wird. Daher haben wir ein Produktinformationswerkzeug entwickelt, dass gängige Technologien in einer Engine maschineller Sprachverarbeitung vereint. Die Engine ist in der Lage produktbezogene Online-Daten zu sammeln und zu sichern, Metadaten auszulesen und Meinungen. Die Engine wird auf technische Online-Produktbewertungen zur Stimmungsanalyse auf Bestandteilsebene angewendet. Der vollautomatisierte Prozess durchsucht das Internet nach Expertenbewertungen, die sich auf Produktbestandteile beziehen, und aggregiert die Stimmungswerte der Bewertungen.

Cornelia Ferner, Werner Pomwenger, Stefan Wegenkittl, Martin Schnöll, Veronika Haaf, Arnold Keller

How can Tourist Attractions Profit from Augmented Reality?

The benefits, value and potential of Augmented Reality (AR) are widely researched. However, the value of AR is most commonly discussed in relation to enhancing the tourist experience, rather than generating revenue or economic returns. Although AR promises to add value to the visitor experience and generate associated benefits, the financial implications and revenue model for AR implementation remain uncertain and therefore too much of a financial risk for most tourist organisations, typically Small to Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) characterised by limited funding. Thus, using the case of UNESCO recognised Geevor Tin Mine Museum, in Cornwall, UK, this study identifies ways in which tourism organisations can profit from AR implementation. Fifty semi-structured interviews with Geevor stakeholders, analysed using content analysis reveal a number of ways AR can be introduced to increase revenue generation and profits, therefore filling a gap in research and minimising the risk for managers and practitioners considering AR implementation.

Eleanor E. Cranmer, M. Claudia tom Dieck, Timothy Jung

Innovative Women Entrepreneurs in the Green Economy: Two Case Studies from Mauritius

Women make up 51% of the population of Mauritius, but only a very small percentage manages to emerge as entrepreneurs. Contextual inquiry was conducted with two women, both green entrepreneurs, to understand their motivations, business model and the socio-economic impacts of their enterprises. These two women are from completely different social backgrounds, have different levels of formal education, which makes their cases and their business approaches all the more unique and interesting. Both women have lifted other women—the nurturers of future generations—out of deprivation and poverty enabling their families to live with dignity and enhanced financial security. This paper is a narrative of how two women, having espoused sustainable business practices, have successfully grown businesses that are capable of exporting duly certified green products to the most demanding and highly competitive global markets. The concept of sustainability (people, planet, profit) underpinned the key aspects of their business, which proves that sustainability can be a positive driver of innovation and socio-economic change.

Satyadev Rosunee, Adeela Peer

Chapter 20. Darulaman Realty Sdn Bhd

Darulaman Realty Sdn Bhd (DRSB) has eminently carved a prominent image as a township developer in Kedah. It is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bina Darulaman Berhad, an investment holding company of Kedah State Development Corporation (PKNK). The most iconic project by DRSB is Bandar Darulaman, located in Jitra, and is regarded as one of the most established townships in Kedah. Interviewing the general manager, Mr. Zainudin Zainul discloses that ample land bank is the principal element to survive in real estate since DRSB involves in township development. The appointed managers to lead the parastatal organisation should be business-minded as their actions can affect the company performance. Industry knowledge is indispensable to be measured because intelligence in developing the housing projects is required in every stage of business. Housing developers should know how to solve problems, and they ought to understand that there is usually more than one solution to a problem. The dialogue also reveals that the success of housing developers relies on many factors such as strategic location, competitive price and quality assurance. In addition, staying vigilant towards environmental changes, controlling the finance and reviewing the viability of project at regular intervals are the main highlights by the respondent. Again, customers’ preferences and welfare must be frequently observed as the concept of houses is currently the trend among millennials. In that sense, defining a set of specific marketing goals based on the business objectives will be a perennial step to prosper in this competitive industry.

Mastura Jaafar, Azlan Raofuddin Nuruddin, Syed Putra Syed Abu Bakar

Chapter 11. Fairview Development Sdn Bhd

Fairview Development Sdn Bhd was founded in 1985 by Datuk Muztaza Mohamad and his former business partner. As a qualified accountant, he currently holds an important post in CIMA and REHDA, respectively. In relation to his opinion, a testament that tenacity, determination and being true to one’s calling in life can reap manifold benefits. He is of the view that the Malay entrepreneurs should embrace the mentality of refugees in seeking and grabbing whatever opportunities in front of them. He also believes that goal setting for small business is an essential tool for business success. Defining the company’s vision and mission not only allows the housing developers to take control of the business direction as it can also provide them with a benchmark for determining whether they are actually succeeding or not. Therefore, perseverance and resilience in acquiring the best resources for business are commanded. Besides that, he observes that land banks, funding capital and human resources are among the required ingredients for business excellence of housing developers. Creating an environment of transparency, where the employees speak openly about business performance, can do wonders for the collective motivation of the workplace. It also opens interdepartmental channels, giving subordinates and employers greater clarity and more opportunities to overtly communicate.

Mastura Jaafar, Azlan Raofuddin Nuruddin, Syed Putra Syed Abu Bakar

Using Social Media for Word-of-Mouth Marketing

Nowadays online social networks are used extensively for personal and commercial purposes. This widespread popularity makes them an ideal platform for advertisements. Social media can be used for both direct and word-of-mouth (WoM) marketing. Although WoM marketing is considered more effective and it requires less advertisement cost, it is currently being under-utilized. To do WoM marketing, we need to identify a set of people who can use their authoritative position in social network to promote a given product. In this paper, we show how to do WoM marketing in Facebook group, which is a question answer type of social network. We also present concept of reinforced WoM marketing, where multiple authorities can together promote a product to increase the effectiveness of marketing. We perform our experiments on Facebook group dataset consisting of 0.3 million messages and 10 million user reactions.

Nagendra Kumar, Yash Chandarana, Konjengbam Anand, Manish Singh

Kapitel 3. Marketing-Prozess

Grundlage für ein erfolgreiches Marketing ist ein konzeptioneller Ansatz, in dem auf Basis einer Analyse der Ausgangssituation Ziele formuliert und grundlegende Strategien sowie die notwendigen operativen Handlungen und Instrumente darauf abgestimmt werden. Dieser Marketing-Prozess bildet das Gliederungsgerüst für das dritte Kapitel. Zunächst werden die Instrumente der Situationsanalyse vorgestellt. Dabei werden auch die zentralen Herausforderungen, vor denen der öffentliche Sektor steht (Bsp. demografischer Wandel), aufgegriffen. Es folgt die Darstellung des Zielbildungsprozesses von der Formulierung eines Leitbildes über die Herausbildung einer Corporate Identity bis hin zu konkreten Marketingzielen wie Kundenzufriedenheit und Imageverbesserung. Voraussetzung für die Situationsanalyse und den Zielbildungsprozess ist die Gewinnung entscheidungsrelevanter Informationen durch Marktforschungsmethoden, die in Grundzügen vorgestellt werden. Mithilfe der vorgestellten Marketing-Strategien werden die abstrakten Ziele in handlungsrelevante Maßnahmen „übersetzt“. Markenmanagement wird in seiner Bedeutung für den öffentlichen Sektor behandelt. Es folgt die Darstellung der vier operativen Marketinginstrumente mit einem Schwerpunkt auf den Instrumenten Produkt- und Kommunikationspolitik und einer ergänzenden Betrachtung der Instrumente Distributions- und Preispolitik im Kontext des Public Marketing. Eine mithilfe des Design Thinking konzipierte Case Study zum Aufbau einer Stadtmarke zeigt die praktische Umsetzung.

Stefanie Wesselmann, Bettina Hohn

Chapter 1. The Basics of Having Fun and Building Skills

This chapter covers the basics of social media. With any luck, you’ll have fun along the way as well!

Todd Kelsey

Modeling Social Influence in Social Networks with SOIL, a Python Agent-Based Social Simulator

The application of Agent-based Social Simulation (ABSS) for modeling social networks requires specific facilities for modeling, simulation and visualization of network structures. Moreover, ABSS can benefit from interactive shell facilities that can assist the model development process. We have addressed these problems through the development of a tool called SOIL, which provides a Python ABSS specifically designed for social networks. In this paper we present how this tool is applied to simulate viral marketing processes in a social network, and to evaluate the model with real data.

Eduardo Merino, Jesús M. Sánchez, David García, J. Fernando Sánchez-Rada, Carlos A. Iglesias

Detection of Opinion Leaders in Social Networks: A Survey

With the development of new media such as social networking sites, content sharing sites, blogs and micro blogs a profound transformation in terms of communication between consumers and companies has been created. In fact, this great revolution of the web has allowed different users to interact, express their opinion on a product or a service and post comments. Then, internet users have gone from passive to active actors who are able to produce information and make data available on the web as a rich opinions source. Therefore companies must deal with this reality, to know what others may say about their products of competing brands because the only and the best way to sell their products in good condition is to produce what consumers want. Along with this phenomenon, recent years have seen the birth of a generation of Internet users elected by the company to help it to manage its on-line reputation. Those users are called opinion leaders or influencers; they have a high capacity to influence those around them because they are considered to be more experienced, objective and able of provoking the emotions of someone else. Therefore the necessity of identifying opinion leaders has been proved more and more crucial. The goal of this paper is to present different research works that aimed to detect opinions leaders in social network.

Seifallah Arrami, Wided Oueslati, Jalel Akaichi

Teaching Note: Case 7: Managing Social Media Communications at Garanti Bank

The case study starts with a conversation involving the Executive Vice President of Garanti Bank and the head of Social Platforms Management Unit providing the plot for the rest of the case study. The background section follows the introduction section, where background information regarding Garanti Bank in general and the social media landscape in Turkey in banking industry in particular is provided. Overall brand positioning strategy of Garanti Bank, along with the existing social media communication strategy that aims to support the overall brand positioning strategy is explained in detail. Detailed information regarding the key performance indicators (KPIs), how Garanti Bank monitors these KPIs and the competition in the local banking industry in social media are provided. Examples of content shared by Garanti Bank in social media and the interaction rates belonging to these contents are provided. Finally, the case concludes with providing a detailed conversion rates for each of the products that the bank is trying to generate leads on social media for the years 2014–2015. What is expected from the students is to both develop suggestions on how the brand may increase its interaction rate in line with its strategic targets and decide on the optimum portfolio of banking products that is most suitable for lead generation on social media. In doing so, students are expected to analyse and evaluate the effectiveness of Garanti Bank’s approach in social media management in conveying brands’ core values and generating leads on social media.

Kaan Varnali, Evrim Ersoy, Sezin Gul Tanriverdi, Elif Terzi

Potentials of Digitization in the Tourism Industry – Empirical Results from German Experts

The paper deals with the topic digitization in the tourism industry. An empirical study was conducted in Germany based on a theoretical foundation. The aim of this study is to find out how far the digitization has already changed the tourism industry and what is still going to change in order to find potential benefits of digitization in the tourism industry. The results of the structural equation model approach show six main driver (sales increase, classic booking, sharing economy, personalized offers, social media and customer reviews) that have a significant impact on the potential of digitization in the tourism industry.

Ralf-Christian Härting, Christopher Reichstein, Nina Härtle, Jürgen Stiefl

Chapter 17. The Potential of Big Data in Banking

The emergence of the notion of Big Data has created substantial value expectations for organizations with huge collections of data. Banks, as all the other organizations, recognize the value potential contained in big data. For financial services companies with mostly information circulating in their value chain, data—the source of information—is one of arguably their most important assets. The current issue is to which extent these data assets may be leveraged to produce value and gain competitive advantage. The goal of this chapter is to discuss issues, challenges and important dimensions in the activities of banks and other financial institutions that need to be understood to produce a framework for efficient utilization of the potential of Big Data approaches. The authors argue that, although the banks have much in common with other businesses regarding customer and operations management, a priority feature of analytics in banking is risk management. No less important than technology issues are managerial implications, concentrating on issues like acceptance of Big Data approaches and intelligence culture.

Rimvydas Skyrius, Gintarė Giriūnienė, Igor Katin, Michail Kazimianec, Raimundas Žilinskas

Chapter 1. Strategic Applications of Big Data

Although big data is often associated with retail marketing analytics, it is broadly relevant to today’s corporate strategies. Big data can be exploited in support of four “digital disciplines:” information excellence, i.e., better processes and asset utilization through data-based information technologies; solution leadership, i.e., better products and services through data enrichment of formerly standalone elements to cloud-connected, smart, digital things; collective intimacy, i.e., sophisticated algorithms processing billions or trillions of data points on attitudes, behaviors, contexts, and external data in addition to demographics to develop personalized, contextualized recommendations and services; and accelerated innovation, enabling ad hoc solvers across the world—and eventually machines—to process data sets to develop new insights. These digital disciplines can create unparalleled customer value, galvanize corporate strategy, and link information technologies to the ultimate success of any business in any vertical.

Joe Weinman

Chapter 3. First Insight, Then Action

One afternoon in late 2015 I was visiting with some executives from a large consumer packaged goods (CPG) company at their office about 20 minutes down the road from Walmart’s corporate headquarters in Bentonville, Arkansas. This company had become one of our early brand clients in the spring of that year, using our product to help reduce their out-of-stock rates on

David Feinleib

9. New Ways to Make Money

“Thanks for coming by, Bill,” said Meena as she offered him a chair in the NaviMark boardroom. “We’ve got an important board meeting this week and I’d like to run through some of the board package with you.”

Dave Power

Chapter 12. Formulating Communications Strategies

Marketing is a philosophy, a process, and a set of strategies and tactics for influencing behavior—either changing behavior (e.g., encouraging attendance at certain performances) or preventing it from changing (e.g., encouraging patrons to renew their subscriptions). In previous chapters, we considered the offer, price, and place components of the marketing mix and saw how these components influence behaviors directly by providing incentives for action or for reducing disincentives. Everything about an arts organization—its programs, packages, employees, facilities, and actions—communicates something. But influencing behavior is largely a matter of communication.

Joanne Scheff Bernstein

Chapter 4. The Need for Self-Expression

“Nice to see you back, Mr. Howard,” the hostess says, leading the party to a table beside the window. Darryl Howard smiles as he invites his clients to take their seats, welcoming them to his home turf. It is, after all, his table, the table where deals are made, where relationships deepen.

Mark Ingwer

Integrating Simplification Theory for Navigating the VUCA: The Case of Buurtzorg Nederland

This chapter presents a field study using the Grounded Theory Methodology for organizational innovation. The field study has been chosen to build a theoretical framework to show how organizations can navigate the VUCA worldVUCA world. VUCA is a concept that captures the perception of a dynamic world we live in today and which has consequences for how organizations build their organizational architecture to serve their customers. The field study shows the determinants of a holisticholistic approach that suits the needs of the customer while putting the customer at the center of the business processes. The chosen field study hails from the community care industry and has received enormous attention as a best practice for organizational innovation as it elicits high customer satisfaction, high employee satisfactionemployee satisfaction while meeting the financial bottom line of the organization too. VUCA can be perceived from different perspectives and purposes and is therefore a holistic phenomenon for which a holistic approach is preferable. While in the past two decades scholars, studying organizational, ethical and economic turbulence, have stressed holistic approaches by introducing the field of spiritualityspirituality in management, incorporating different disciplines for understanding human aspirations, ancient wisdomancient wisdom, spiritual teachings and processes of consciousnessconsciousness development, there are rarely empirical evidence based studies in the context of management. As this management field is relatively new, qualitative inductive approaches could be helpful in building the field of studying spirituality and business further. This chapter induces the Integrating Simplification Theory (ISTIST) and demonstrates three action principles, five core organizational concepts and a holistic leadership competence. These are expressed in 17 properties. Each property navigates an aspect of the VUCA concept.

Sharda S. Nandram

7. Social Commerce: Foundations, Social Marketing, and Advertising

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Define social commerce and describe its roots and evolution.2.Describe the scope, drivers, and content of the social commerce field.3.Summarize the benefits and limitations of social commerce.4.Describe the major models of social shopping.5.Explain how advertising and promotions are conducted in social networking environments.6.Describe how social networking can facilitate customer service, customer support, and CRM.

Efraim Turban, Judy Whiteside, David King, Jon Outland

Post-Socialist Informality Rural Style: Impressions from Bulgaria

The informality phenomenon is widespread in both rural and urban areas of transitional economies, but most of the current empirical research on informality targets the urban context. The pulse of the rural economy is known to be a slower one. Remoteness, dependency on agriculture, high unemployment, lower purchasing power, deteriorating infrastructure and depopulation pose great challenges for rural development. Post-socialist rural places desperately need jobs. Job creation was left to private initiative and became closely linked to the wider practice of informality. This contribution seeks to better understand the rural manifestations of informal business activities and provide guidance for future scholars of rural informal economic activities in the post-socialist context.

Diana Traikova

Chapter 8. Tourism as a Business Strategy for Growth in Oregon and Washington Craft Breweries

This chapter presents a case of Seattle and Portland craft brewers’ use of tourism practices to support their pursuit of market penetration. Little research has been conducted in this area, so this study aimed to explore how and why craft brewers encourage visitors to their breweries. Barriers to enter the tightly controlled US beer market encouraged brewers to find alternative methods of delivering their beer to consumers such as brewery tasting rooms, craft beer events and developing a craft beer culture supported by social media. All the interviewees adopted these tactics, but they did not track their visitors or collaborate with tourism organizations. The chapter adds to our understanding of how tourism practices have helped craft brewers build brand awareness and distribution channels but finds that brewers must address visitor needs to ensure a sustained tourism partnership.

Alison Dunn, Gerry Kregor

Chapter 1. Chancen von Kundenkommunikation für das Marketing

Seit Beginn des neuen Jahrtausends sind mit den rasanten Entwicklungen des Internets auch viele neue Möglichkeiten entstanden, die eigenen Meinungen und Gefühle gegenüber anderen Menschen darzustellen (Tsimonis/Dimitriadis 2014, S. 328; Gallaugher/Ransbotham 2010, S.198). Williams et al. (2012, S. 127) stellen in diesem Zusammenhang fest: „The 21st century is experiencing a communication explosion, sparked by social media” – und präsentieren damit den aus ihrer Sicht maßgeblichen Treiber dieser Entwicklungen: soziale Medien.

Tobias Wolf

Chapter 2. Grundlagen des Einbezugs sozialer Medien in das Marketing

Die Weiterentwicklungen des Internets haben in den vergangenen beiden Jahrzehnten eine große Anzahl neuer Anwendungen und Plattformen entstehen lassen, welche die Rolle und das Selbstverständnis der Nutzer, aber auch deren Interaktionsmuster verändert haben (Pires/Stanton/Rita 2006, S. 937; Pindur 2013, S. 3). Durch den ermöglichten asynchronen, aber doch zeitnahen Informationsaustausch ist ein flexibler und wirkungsvoller Kommunikationsraum entstanden (Sun et al. 2006, S.1106; Feenberg/Bakardjieva 2004, S. 39).

Tobias Wolf

Chapter 3. Modell der Informationsverteilung in sozialen Medien

Im vorherigen Abschnitt wurden die Grundlagen der Social Media-Nutzung betrachtet und insbesondere auch Besonderheiten der WoM-Kommunikation herausgearbeitet. Dabei ist festzuhalten, dass das innere Engagement der Beteiligten eine zentrale Determinante aufseiten der Nutzer darstellt und dementsprechend auch geeignet ist, die Kommunikationsbereitschaft zu verstärken.

Tobias Wolf

Chapter 10. Experiment: Word-of-Mouth von Markennarrativen

In den vorangegangen theoretischen wie empirischen Abhandlungen wurden bereits einige spezifische Aspekte und Zusammenhänge von Markennarrativen erwähnt. Während die vorhergehenden Kapitel vornehmlich auf die Verarbeitung von Narrativen fokussierten, richtet die vorliegende Studie ihr Augenmerk auf das Erzählen von Narrativen. Dieser Studie liegt die Forschungsfrage zugrunde, inwiefern der Grad der Außergewöhnlichkeit eines Markennarrativs die Wahrscheinlichkeit beeinflusst, mit der Konsumenten bereit sind, dieses Markennarrativ weiterzuerzählen.

Pablo Neder

Chapter 3. When Business Model Meets Open Innovation

This chapter will first examine why open innovation is increasingly common. Rather than a mere spread of management know-how across the field, I argue that it is the increasing connectivity that results in plummeting transaction cost, which in turn, has driven the widespread adoption. I will then examine what principles an organization must adhere when building the collaboration platform for open innovation before reaping maximum payoff. The analysis leads to testable propositions for future researches.

Howard H. Yu

Chapter 3. Unlocking Corporate Social Responsibility Through Integrated Marketing Communication

The stakeholder awareness of the CSR policiesSocial Responsibility and practices could result in strategic and financial benefits for the businesses themselves. Therefore, companies’ marketers need to possess a thorough understanding on their stakeholders as this will impact on the effectiveness of their CSR communicationsCSR Communication. The value of their communications platform lies in their ability to open up lines of dialogue with varied stakeholders through stories and ideas that will reflect their interests. Hence, CSR communicationsCSR Communication could enrich how stakeholders interact with the business and its offerings. This engagement helps the business to improve its customer relationships, by lowering acquisition costs whilst improving on their consumers’ trust and loyalty among other benefits. Notwithstanding, a genuine commitment to ongoing CSR communicationsCSR Communication may also result in stronger employee engagement. Therefore, the corporate communications on environmentalEnvironment and social matters could create a win-win situation for the business and its stakeholders.

Mark Anthony Camilleri

Kapitel 2. Entrepreneurial Marketing

Der Begriff EM findet sowohl in der Forschung als auch in der Praxis zunehmend Beachtung. Was verbirgt sich jedoch hinter diesem Begriff? Dieses Kapitel greift die Frage auf. Zusätzlich wird EM mit KMU verknüpft.

Judith Schmid

Chapter 11. Customer Reviews: The Importance of Personal Factors That Influence the Consumer Reaction Within Webshops

On the one hand the rapid spread of the internet makes it possible for consumers to compare offers on the market (Park & Lee, 2009; Henning-Thurau & Walsh, 2003), on the other they can express their experience and opinions in the form of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) and interact with each other (King, Racherla, & Bush, 2014). The generic term eWOM includes different types and technologies such as blogs, tweets, forum, chats etc. (Cheung, Luo, Sia, & Chen, 2009; Dhar & Chang, 2009; Kozinets, De Valck, Wojnicki, & Wilner, 2010).

M.A. Michaela Gahbauer

Research on the Marketing Strategy of the New Media Age Based on AISAS Model: A Case Study of Micro Channel Marketing

With the arrival of the new media era, the way to the marketing of a enterprise products and brand is being not only more and more innovative, but also more and more depends on the media Compared with the traditional marketing and publicity, the new media marketing contains many outstanding characteristics. Such as the wide audience, the interactive and the entertaining. This paper analyzed the users’ behavior on the micro channel based on the micro channel marketing, and according to the AISAS model more further explores the optimization of enterprise marketing strategy to be a further study to the marketing transformation of a enterprise in the era of new media, We put forward some specific measures such as the strategy of customer positioning and share marketing, which includes the realization of precision marketing, aggregate user, strengthen interaction, rational integration of marketing channels and the specific measures, in order to improve under the new media era of enterprise marketing level and improve the overall efficiency of enterprises.

Changdong Xu, Quan Hao, Guoyuan Han

2. Fans, Followers and Brand Advocates

The “fan” concept is multifaceted, and there are different ways of approaching the study of fans and fan cultures. There are both similarities and differences in how brand fans and more “traditional” fans behave, but it is also interesting to note how differently these types of fans are approached by brands and media producers. The terminology used in marketing and business literature is often vague and paradoxical, overlooking the aspects of resistance that are often integral to many fandoms. At the same time, businesses in their quest for a larger market share want fans, not customers, and brand advocates, not followers. But, with the popular image of the media geek in mind, why do they want fans? The most straightforward explanation is that their take on the fan concept is very selective, and rather one-dimensional, and very likely shaped by the “Facebook vocabulary.”

Henrik Linden, Sara Linden

Influential Actors Detection Using Attractiveness Model in Social Media Networks

Detection of influential actors in social media such as Twitter or Facebook can play a major role in improving the marketing efficiency, gathering opinions on particular topics, predicting the trends, etc. The current study aspires to extend our formal defined T measure to present a new measure aiming to recognize the actors influence by the strength of attracting new attractors into a networked community. Therefore, we propose a model of an actor influence based on the attractiveness of the actor in relation to the number of other attractors with whom he/she has established connections over time. Using an empirically collected social network for the underlying graph, we have applied the above-mentioned measure of influence in order to determine optimal seeds in a simulation of influence maximization.

Ziyaad Qasem, Marc Jansen, Tobias Hecking, H.Ulrich Hoppe

Chapter 2. Rahmenbedingungen, Meta-Entwicklungen und Geschichte der Werbung

Werbung zu Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts steht in einer engen Wechselwirkung mit verschiedenen Rahmenbedingungen. Sie wird von Politik, Recht, Technologie, Ökonomie und Kultur massgeblich beeinflusst. Vice versa beeinflusst sie ihrerseits diese Rahmenbedingungen – wenn auch ungleich stark.

Gabriele Siegert, Dieter Brecheis

Chapter 8. Conclusion

As Chaps. 6 and 7 show the path followed to identify the predictors of social media acceptance of automotive repair community in Germany, this chapter gathers and consolidates these previous findings. Based on the latter, the conceptual model of social media acceptance is rationalized and justified.

Patric Finkbeiner

Does Storytelling Add Value? The case of Bordeaux Fine Wines

Wine is a product for which producers tell many stories: story of their own family, story of their wine estate, story of their winemaking… as much communication signs. The wine drinker also refers to different stories to make his choice: his own history, his memories, his beliefs, his experience with wine are often requested to buy the ‘right’ wine in the wine shop. Even wine experts, wine journalitsts, wine blogers are charged to tell their story, among other as a justification of their skills or expertise. And wine tasting is often the starting point of many stories. Indeed, wine tasting is a sensorial and highly subjective aesthetic experience. Translating this organoleptic experience in comprehensible and shareable terms implies the abundant use of figurative language (Caballero, 2009): aromas and other characteristics of the wine are evoked by consumers as well as by wine experts, sometimes in a very poetic way, thanks to many metaphors. Indeed, as noted by Lehrer and Lehrer (2008, p. 114), “wines are described as masculine or feminine, muscular or sinewy, for example, in addition to being described as heavy or light, delicate or harsh”. Story ‑ or at least wine talk (Bach, 2008) ‑ itself can be part of the pleasure, when the experience is relived by periodically retelling the story of wine tasting or visit in a winery, when wine talk provides show off and admiration, but also allows learning, understanding, teaching and explaining. In such a context, one can ask what happens in markets driven by evoked images more than objective criteria.

Pierre Mora, Florine Livat

Kapitel 2. Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten von Mediation und Kundenbetreuung aus systemischer Sicht

Was ist Kundenbetreuung und welchen Gesetzmäßigkeiten unterliegt sie? Aus ökonomischer und wirtschaftspsychologischer Sichtweise betrachtet können erste Vergleiche zur Mediation gezogen werden. Organisationssoziologisch werden Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten von Mediation und Kundenbetreuung aus dem Blickwinkel der Systemtheorie herausgearbeitet: Die Organisationssoziologie sozialen Systeme der Mediation und Kundenbetreuung sind die Basis für den Vergleich der Rollen des Mediators und des Kundenberaters sowie ihrer spezifischen Anforderungen. Mit der Dienstleistungstriade nach Nerdinger werden Gemeinsamkeiten der sozialen Systeme deutlich, die gleichzeitig bestehenden Unterschiede schließen eine direkte Adaption des Mediationsverfahrens auf die Kundenbetreuung bereits aus.

Kirsten Rusert

11. Does Being a Member of the Cluster Matter in the Process of Value Creation Through Internationalization?

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) generally face tough competition in the countries where they are based. The ongoing process of globalization exerts further competitive pressure on value creation in these firms (Audretsch 2003). Value creation spreads over different levels (Lepak et al. 2007). Consequently, in a manner similar to large companies, more and more SMEs face the challenge of searching foreign markets for opportunities, which forces firms to change their strategies rapidly. At the same time, competition among knowledge-based SMEs intensifies, as these firms strive to develop capabilities faster than their rivals (Teece and Pisano 1994), to maximize created values (Jensen 2001), make them sustainable (Ciasullo and Troisi 2013), and increase value creation through mission (Andersen 2014) or by project management practices (Laursen and Svejvig 2016). According Bowman and Ambrosini (2000:13) value creation is determined by:

Vesna Sedoglavich, Marina Dabić

Chapter 5. Infrastructure: Orchestrating Action

This chapter continues to develop the concept of calculative participation by developing a detailed account of how the orchestration of consumer action generates value for brands. It advances the literature on branding, brand value creation and audience labour by illustrating how this emerging mode of branding makes the participating audience productive beyond just performing the ‘work of watching’ or making themselves available for surveillance (‘the work of being watched’). The authors introduce the notion of brand machines for capturing a new branding paradigm that rests on the simultaneous performance of cultural and computational work. Brands develop devices that prompt audiences to tune their experience, attention and bodies into the calculative capacities of media infrastructure.

Sven Brodmerkel, Nicholas Carah

Chapter 10. Marketing Your Business Worldwide

The twenty-first century will belong to the Internet consumer. So it follows that if content is the soul of an online enterprise, marketing is the heart. Put the two together and you can assemble the next wave of Internet consumers who have unlimited options and freedom of choice. Our digital experience is now about engaging consumers with information, new products, new brands, new movements, and new individuals that they care about. To that extent, you don’t want to just market a product or service to Internet consumers; you want to own or dominate the space you operate in. You want to become, for lack of a better descriptor, an export rebel with a cause. What is critical is to watch and learn as you go, seize the opportunity when you can, exploit it, and inspire others to get involved.

Laurel J. Delaney

Conceptualizing and Measuring Online Behavior Through Social Media Metrics

The measurement of social media becomes crucial when businesses and organizations rely on them for word-of-mouth marketing. However, few organizations know how to quantify the impact of social media. This chapter reviews the evolution of social media and why the measurements are important. A framework based on multi-dimensional network of actors and memes provides the conceptualization of social media networks. Existing measurement frameworks based on web metrics and business objectives are different representations of this multi-dimensional network. The ultimate goal of measuring economic values needs to rely on the quantification of this network, its evolution and connection with business performance.

Bing Pan, Ya You

Structural Equation Modeling of Purchase Funnel

Nurturing relationships with your customers is a crucial part of developing a sustainable business. This research focuses on how customer satisfaction can be improved in inter-customer relationships. We found that a structural equation analysis of some action data about consumer behaviors with three constituents of products that are supposed to ameliorate consumer gratification gives us deeper and clearer insight into the spreading process of customer satisfaction. And those three components are matching factor, purchasing factor, and customer satisfaction improvement factor. This research contributes to the fields of both consumer behavior and service science by introducing a new scheme that identifies factors in the building process of consumer satisfaction.

Naotada Yamamoto

Kapitel 9. Soziale Umwelt

In diesem Kapitel lernen Sie, wie Bezugsgruppen das Konsumverhalten beeinflussen, wie Menschen in die Rolle des Konsumenten hineinwachsen, wann der Einzelne seine Entscheidungen an andere anpasst, was Meinungsführer auszeichnet und wann Konsumenten nichts tun, weil andere das schon erledigen, indem Sie die soziale Umwelt durch folgende Theorien und Modelle betrachten: Theorie des sozialen Vergleichs, Theorie der sozialen Identität, Rollentheorie, und soziales Dilemma.

Stefan Hoffmann, Payam Akbar

Private-Sector Nudging: The Good, the Bad, and the Uncertain

Government has a valuable role as the “nudger of last resort,” especially when nudges can’t or shouldn’t be limited to self-aware or paying customers or when nudges replace more expensive and/or distortionary subsidies and taxes. This role is not without responsibilities, however, namely, to maintain a fiduciary duty to the consumer’s long-term preferences rather than impart value judgments of what consumers’ long-term preferences should be and to give the market a chance to nudge in a helpful manner before taking over to “fix” the situation.

Jodi N. Beggs

Specifics of Marketing in the Process of Reintegration of Slovak Researchers

The topic of mobility, return, and subsequent reintegration of Slovak researchers is very important and timely. The Ministry of Education is currently preparing new grants for Slovak scientists and experts abroad who are considering return. Reintegration of experienced researchers, however, is a complex process that requires mainly the application of relationship marketing. When establishing relations and cooperation with foreign research organizations, it is necessary to choose the appropriate communication channel and the proper way of addressing these organizations. Based on the detailed analysis of literary sources and conducted research, the aim of this paper is to point out the specifics of marketing in the process of reintegration of Slovak researchers and create successful recommendations for reaching this target group. Different methods were used to solve defined research problems. In particular, these were content analysis (studying of documents), synthesis, comparative analysis, process analysis, statistical analysis, modeling, methods of empirical research, and others. To arouse interest, increase willingness to return and subsequently manage actual return of researchers there was proposed detailed process for successful addressing of Slovak researchers working abroad. To successfully develop the process, it was crucial to map the cooperation of enterprises with foreign research organizations and motivational factors of Slovak researchers to remain in foreign research organization as well as to return to Slovakia. The recommendations for successful marketing activities in the process of reintegration of Slovak researchers were described and areas of potential problems that may arise as a result of specifics of marketing were pointed out.

Viliam Lendel, Anna Závodská, Veronika Šramová

6. Grundlagen und Prozess der Marktforschung

Im vorliegenden Kapitel stellt Abschnitt 6.1 zunächst einige Grundlagen der Marktforschung dar. Insbesondere wird ein idealtypischer Prozess für die Durchführung von Marktforschungsuntersuchungen aufgezeigt (vgl. Abbildung 6-2). Dieser Prozess liefert die Gliederung für die folgenden Abschnitte (vgl. die Abschnitte 6.2 bis 6.7), die sich sukzessiv den einzelnen Prozessphasen widmen.

Christian Homburg

26. Marktorientierung in verschiedenen Unternehmensbereichen

In Kapitel 25 wurden mit der Unternehmenskultur und den Führungssystemen zwei zentrale Ansatzpunkte im Rahmen der marktorientierten Unternehmensführung thematisiert. Diese Ansatzpunkte umfassen prinzipiell das gesamte Unternehmen. Dieses Kapitel nimmt eine andere Perspektive ein. Es geht um die Marktorientierung in verschiedenen Unternehmensbereichen. Wir konzentrieren uns hierbei auf die Unternehmensbereiche, die (im Gegensatz zu Marketing und Vertrieb) eher unternehmensintern agieren.

Christian Homburg

When a Friend Online is More Than a Friend in Life: Intimate Relationship Prediction in Microblogs

Microblogging services such as Twitter and Sina Weibo have been an important, if not indespensible, platform for people around the world to connect to one another. The rich content and user interactions on these platforms reveal insightful information about each user that are valuable for various real-life applications. In particular, user offline relationships, especially those intimate ones such as family members and couples, offer distinctive value for many business and social settings. In this study, we focus on using Sina Weibo to discover intimate offline relationships among users. The problem is uniquely interesting and challenging due to the difficulty in mining such sensitive and implicit knowledge across the online-offline boundary. We introduce deep learning approaches to this relationship identity problem and adopt an integrated model to capture features from both user profile and mention message. Our experiments on real data demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. In addition, we present interesting findings from behavior between intimate users in terms of user features and interaction patterns.

Yunshi Lan, Mengqi Zhang, Feida Zhu, Jing Jiang, Ee-Peng Lim

Nachholen, Aufholen, Überholen

Marketing für die Marktforschung der Zukunft

Mobile Marketing, Content Marketing, Touchpoint Marketing – Begriffe, die für zukünftig erfolgreiche Marketingkommunikation weitaus mehr sind als Buzzwords. Technologischer und gesellschaftlicher Wandel beeinflussen und beschleunigen sich gegenseitig und prägen die Erwartungshaltung (potenzieller) Kunden. Hinzu kommen branchenspezifische Veränderungen wie schmalere Budgets, der Fokus auf schnelle und kostengünstige Marktforschung sowie automatisierte Analysen vorhandener Datenmengen und Do-it-yourself-Optionen. Und wissen eigentlich unsere (potenziellen) Kunden, was Marktforschung alles zu leisten vermag? Wer erfolgreiches Marketing für die Markforschung betreiben will, muss nicht nur all diese Herausforderungen verstehen, sondern ihnen auch bestmöglich begegnen. Dieser Abschnitt leistet mit einem Überblick der Trends und konkreten Handlungsempfehlungen einen Beitrag für all jene, die sich dieser Aufgabe gegenüber gestellt sehen.

Stefanie Sonnenschein

Globetrotters and Brands: Cities in an Emerging Communicative Space

This chapter presents and discusses a new communicative space in which contemporary cities exists. The outset of such a space is the result of two interrelated developments. First, international tourism has become a viable source of income for cities causing them to compete with each other for potential visitors. As a result, cities have widely embraced the practice of city branding for promoting themselves as touristic destinations. Second, the rise of social media use in such branding projects brought cities closer to their target audiences—at least in terms of communication. The new communicative space concept, therefore, explains a situation in which target audiences, including residents and potential visitors, interact with each other and contribute to the establishment of the reputation of a city, or its brand.

Efe Sevin A Bottom-up Initiative for Building Free Telecommunication Infrastructure

Building telecommunication network infrastructures is a key issue both, in developing regions and isolated areas in order to facilitate people not only access to information and new technologies, but also to give them the opportunity of self-organize. Nevertheless, despite the huge importance of the network infrastructure for the development of people, building a neutral and open communication system is not a priority for governments, so community networks are a solid and real alternative.In this document we present, a bottom-up community network, born in Spain, having over 30,000 active nodes, totaling more than 55,000 km in network links, and showing a sustained growing is an opportunity to build a distributed telecommunications infrastructure governed by the participants in an indiscriminate way.But a network such as is not only of interest in developing areas. In many countries, internet connections, despite being a basic service, are usually monopolized by a small number of private companies. An open and free network as offers users the opportunity of being participants in the decisions regarding infrastructure and services.

Miguel Pérez, Pablo Boronat, José A. Gil, Ana Pont

Social Customer Relationship Management as Predictor of Customer Relationship Performance: An Empirical Study of B2B and B2C Companies

Using an empirical survey conducted among B2B and B2C companies in India, the paper examines the linkage between social media use, customer relationship management (CRM), social customer relationship management (SCRM) and the customer relationship performance (CRP). A framework was constructed using literature review and validated by the regression analysis. The findings show that the social media use and CRM capabilities interact positively to build SCRM capabilities which then have positive impacts on CRP. The linkages differ slightly for business to business (B2B) and business to consumers (B2C) companies. The paper also shares the challenges faced by the businesses in implementing the SCRM.

Ashish K. Rathore, Sakshi Shioramwar, P. Vigneswara Ilavarasan

Conversations in Search of Audiences: Prospects and Challenges of Marketing UK’s Postgraduate Higher Education Using Social Media

It is no surprise that there are serious disparities between the rhetoric of education and the realities of education. Marketing of university curricula is a challenge that is increasingly becoming a difficult proposition as advances in social media (SM) are enabling prospective students to form opinions and inform their decisions like never before. Whilst the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) plays a central role in matching undergraduate students to courses in universities yet the same does not apply to postgraduate admissions which are sought after by a large number of applicants from overseas as well. This paper looks at some of the areas where SM has been successfully used. The papers then goes onto develop taxonomy of popular SM tools that are being widely used. Using this taxonomy it explores barriers and promoters that exist in the interface between universities and their audiences.

Baomin Qi, Amit Mitra

Chapter 3. What Changes Has the Internet Brought to the Real Estate Brokerage Industry?

In a market where buyers and sellers are both highly decentralized, a market maker acts as a neural center, establishing the rules of the trade and integrating the decentralized information channels. For one thing, it can acquire listing information and control the supply; for another, it can attract buyers and control the demand, providing a highly centralized platform for buyers and sellers to find each other.

Shusong Ba, Xianling Yang

Impact of Integrated Communication on Entrepreneurial Companies’ Financial Performance: A Developing Economy

Entrepreneurial companies as the basis for economic growth should be aware of the factors of influence on their financial success, so they can achieve proper allocation of scarce resources. This chapter presents the state of the art in the communication processes of entrepreneurial companies within an emerging economy and the impact of integrated communications on profitability. The research is a part of a project “Strengthening the business capacity of women entrepreneurs in Republic of Macedonia, as a developing country.” This chapter argues that usage of integrated communication leads to increased profitability. The method of quantitative and qualitative research is used through questionnaires and personal interviews with managers in the food industry. The data are processed with IBM SPSS19. Conclusions are based on descriptive and deductive statistics. The results show that the companies, regardless of the size, give priority to economic propaganda and sales promotion; they mostly use nonpersonal, mass media, mainly television; combination of several elements of the promotional mix, i.e., integrated communications affect profitability; and combination of media for promotion has impact on profitability. The conclusion suggests that implementation of integrated communication results in positive effect on the financial performance and increases the chances of investment in further development.

Tamara Jovanov Marjanova, Elenica Sofijanova, Ljupco Davcev, Riste Temjanovski

Natural Resources Management in Tourism: Dimensions and Impact of Tourist Offer in the Southeastern Europe National Parks

Sustainable tourism in national parks and other protected areas is among the fastest growing segments of tourism. Two exceptional natural entities in the Southeastern Europe only 40 km away from each other, Una National Park (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Plitvice Lakes National Park (Croatia), have very similar natural features (almost identical flora and fauna, specific travertine–tufa formations, clean water, and preserved natural environment) that create conditions for the development of tourism in this particular region. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate tourist offer in these protected areas and determine the causes of differences among tourism development of these national parks. Biodiversity of these two territories was compared, along with calculation of absolute and relative number of species, and comparative analysis was conducted in terms of tourist offers in order to determine if elements of management and offer creation are more important than the natural resources characteristics in achieving high level of tourist satisfaction. Practical implications of the research highlight the importance of developing nature-based tourist offers in the particular region as well as the significance of consistency in terms of tourist services delivery. Advantages of cooperation between parks and creation of mutual tourist services are also considered and discussed.

Nedim Suta, Anes Hrnjic, Amra Banda

Blick zurück nach vorn – YouTube als integraler Bestandteil der Unternehmenskommunikation

Ab 2017 werden die sogenannten Millennials – also die Generation, welche die im Zeitraum von etwa 1980 bis 1999 geboren wurde – und welche auch als „Generation Y“ bezeichnet wird die Generation mit der größten Kaufkraft sein. Dies macht diese Gruppe zu einer der begehrtesten Zielgruppen für Unternehmen und Marken. Diese Generation gilt als gut ausgebildet und zeichnet sich durch einen technologieaffinen Lebensstil aus, da es sich um die erste Generation handelt, die größtenteils in einem Umfeld von Internet und mobiler Kommunikation aufgewachsen ist. Dies gilt in noch stärkerem Ausmaß auch für die als Generation Z bezeichnete Nachfolge-Generation der Millennials. Ihre Mitglieder kamen von etwa 1995 bis 2010 zur Welt.

Marc Oliver Opresnik, Oguz Yilmaz

2. Characteristics and Analysis of Selected Intangible Organisational Resources Related to the Intellectual Capital

The term “intellectual capital” has existed in economics since the 1960s. It was used for the first time in 1969 by John Kenneth Galbraith in his letter to the Polish economist Michał Kalecki. However, the eighteenth century economist, philosopher, and author of An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith, noted that each person was a kind of capital and the specific skills of different nations constituted the major part of a state’s capital and could be the cause of their wealth. Galbraith defined intellectual capital as a person’s intellectual attributes or properties. As the economy developed, his theory was elaborated on and improved. Currently, the literature is incoherent on this issue, as various authors define this term in different ways. Intellectual capital is sometimes referred to as “human capital” or “knowledge capital,” but these concepts may also be understood to mean something completely different. Other terms that developed in association with the commercialisation of knowledge were “intellectual entrepreneurship,” used for the first time by the British deconstructionist and postmodernist Robert Chia [229, p. 15], and “intellectual profit” (see [412]). Sam Leif Edvinsson, the precursor of the intellectual capital trend, interchangeably uses such terms as “intellectual capital,” “knowledge capital,” “non-financial assets,” “hidden assets,” “invisible assets,” and “means to an end’ [100, p. 18].

Maja Wojciechowska

Chapter 3. Crowdfunding in the African Context: A New Way to Fund Ventures

Attracting funding for developing a venture is a challenge that is often faced by entrepreneurs, especially with the difficulties experienced with traditional forms of financing. An alternative funding form is through the use of crowdfunding which involves the contribution of the public to the venture using a crowdfunding platform to present the call. Despite challenges associated with it, crowdfunding has potential for assisting entrepreneurs within the African context. This chapter outlines how crowdfunding works and provides examples of current African crowdfunding platforms.

Adele Berndt

A Multi-agent Approach for the Newsvendor Problem with Word-of-Mouth Marketing Strategies

Word-of-mouth (WOM) marketing is increasingly playing an important role in consumers’ purchase decision with the development of mobile Internet and various social media APP. We are particularly interested in such a problem as how to make decisions under effects of WOM campaigns? To answer this question, we develop a multi-agent model that emulates WOM or viral marketing process as spread of disease among people. Assume that each “infected” individual will purchase one unit of product. Then, the total “infected” people form the demand of the product, as an input of newsvendor problem. Besides finding the optimal order quantity of newsvendor problem, we also identify the most influential source node for kick off of the WOM marketing. The simulation results reveal that social network and WOM have a great influence on demand and profit of the firm. Even the source node has significant effect on output of WOM marketing. According to our simulation, the closeness centrality in social network analysis is the best measure to recognize the most influential source node, comparing to degree centrality, or betweenness centrality, etc. Finally, parameter analysis infers that profit of the firm will increase with higher the spreading probability or/and lower the resistant probability.

Feng Li, Ning Lin

Chapter 4. Free Enterprise as Unassailable?

This chapter looks at the Tea Party assumption that rejects government oversight and interference. The chapter argues that such an assumption is highly suspect considering the market failure of 2008 and the moral failure of academe to educate, rather than just train, a generation of wannabe investment bankers, hedge fund managers, and corporate executives. The chapter moves on to examine free enterprise in a government context, then offering an illustrative story of free enterprise in a community context, and concluding that, in a democratic society, markets are not an end but only a means.

David Warfield Brown

The Relationship Between Viral Marketing, Purchase Intention, and Brand Visibility: Study with Brazilian Customers

The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of viral marketing such as advertising communication strategy in purchase intent and brand visibility from the perspective of the online consumer. The literature review sought to contextualize the internet marketing; aspects of digital marketing, viral marketing and advertising communication strategy, social media in relationships between organizations and consumers, brand awareness, purchase intent, plus an overview of scientific literature on the viral marketing and constructs: consumer perception on advertising campaigns posted on the network, viral marketing, brand awareness and purchase intent. We sought to examine the positive relationship between consumer perception of advertising campaigns posted on the network, viral marketing, brand awareness, and purchase intent. In a descriptive research with quantitative variables, totaling 321 respondents through an electronic survey with the adoption of a structured questionnaire with responses in a Likert scale. The collected data were analyzed using the Partial Least Squares method, allowing the work with a small sample. We found statistically positive values for the relationship between consumer perception of social media advertising, viral marketing, brand awareness, and purchase intent. Statistical data served as the basis for the validation of the model proposed in this work.

Kleinia Anjos Vianna, José Marcos Carvalho de Mesquita, Mariana Regina Silva Linhares, Patricia de Cássia Gomes Moreira
Image Credits