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2023 | Book

XV International Scientific Conference “INTERAGROMASH 2022”

Global Precision Ag Innovation 2022, Volume 1


About this book

The book contains proceedings of the XV International Scientific Conference INTERAGROMASH 2022, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

The agro-industrial complex is the most extensive and vital industry. It is rapidly developing by introducing the latest technologies and automating various processes necessary for the functioning of this area.

The book is dedicated to engineering technologies of precision farming and agricultural robotics. It includes studies on natural resources variability, sustainable soil management, Agro Big Data, Internet of Things, software and mobile apps for precision agriculture, smart weather for precision agriculture, simulations models and decision support systems, expert systems, DGPS, soil physical and chemical characteristic sensors, machinery, etc.

Different types of agricultural robots are presented in the book: autonomous fruit picking robots, farming bots that can seed and water plants, test the soil and remove weeds, completely autonomous robot for ecological and economical ultra-high precision spraying and weeding, harvesting robots with the special vision systems that can “see” fruits and understand whether they're ripe and ready to pick, and others.

Also, the book covers advances in agricultural biotechnology in such areas of research as crop production improvement practices, genetic modification, as well as microbial biotechnology in agriculture, etc.

The book is aimed for scientists, researchers, and graduate students. It is also useful for representatives of regional authorities, as it gives an idea of existing high-tech solutions for agriculture.

The book is written and edited by international researchers, academics, and experts in the corresponding research areas.

Table of Contents

Development of Soybean Hybrids and Their Selective and Genetic Evaluation

The experimental work was carried out in the southern (forest-steppe) zone of the Amur region in 2016–2020 in the experimental field of the FSBEI HE “Far Eastern State Agrarian University”. The selection of the original forms, crossing by natural pollination, selective and genetic evaluation of the obtained hybrids of the first, second and third generations were carried out. As a result of the crossing by intraspecific natural pollination, the following percentage of cross-pollination was obtained: in Yubileinaya × Gratsiya combination – 6.26%, in Bonus × Gratsiya combination – 4.25% and in Heihe 1476 × Gratsiya combination – 1.97%. With a low yield of hybrid seeds, in hybrids of Heihe 1476 × Gratsiya combination the nature of inheritance of the main productivity elements (the number of beans, the number of seeds, the mass of 1000 seeds) according to the overdominance type was noted; the degree of heterosis was 44, 57.8 and 0.84%, respectively. The inheritance nature and variability nature of the main productivity elements of hybrids in Yubileinaya × Gratsiya, Bonus × Gratsiya, Heihe 1476 × Gratsiya combinations were determined. The transgressions were identified by the number of beans, the number of seeds and the mass of seeds per plant.

Tatyana Minkach, Olga Selikhova
Formation of a Microclimate in a Room for Keeping Cattle

The purpose of our research is to study the peculiarities of the formation of a microclimate in a room for keeping red-mottled cows in JSC “Luch” of the Amur region. The air temperature was determined using a mercury thermometer at three points: at the level of 50, 100 and 160 cm, the cooling capacity was determined by a ball cathothermometer. The concentration of ammonia in the room was determined using a gas analyzer UG-2. The studied indicators were measured 3 times a day: in the morning - 6.00, in the afternoon - 12.00, in the evening – 19.00 h for two adjacent days once a month. During the study, the general physiological condition of all cows was monitored, for which the rectal body temperature, pulse, respiratory rate were determined in the morning and evening before feeding. Milk productivity was determined by the method of control milking once a month with the determination of the mass fraction of fat and protein in milk on the milk quality analyzer Clover - 1 M.As a result of research conducted on the basis of JSC “Luch” of the Ivanovo district of the Amur region in a typical cowshed for 600 heads of loose maintenance, we confirmed that the microclimate indicators in the center of the building were less optimal than in the northern and southern parts of the building. So, the temperature indicators here were higher than in the northern and southern parts of the building. The highest concentration of ammonia was observed in the central part of the building. The most optimal microclimate is maintained in the northern zone of the room, while in the central part of the building the temperature and gas regime to a lesser extent corresponds to zoohygienic standards.

Natalia Litvinenko, Sergey Sogorin
Improving the Efficiency of Using Tractors

There are a large number of tractor parameters that require proper adjustment before leaving the field. Equally important is correct ballasting. Ballasting is necessary to improve the traction and coupling properties of the tractor, as well as for stability, controllability and driving comfort. With low traction and adhesion properties, the speed of the machine is limited due to slipping of the driving wheels, the working width of the unit decreases and, as a result, productivity decreases. Thanks to ballasting, traction and coupling properties are achieved and the tractor can operate at maximum performance. Incorrectly calculated ballast weight leads to wasted fuel and time. The wheel slip indicator is responsible for correct ballasting. Too light ballast results in reduced tractive effort, excessive slipping of the drive wheels and significant fuel consumption. Optimum wheel slip on dry, solid soil is from 6 to 12%, and on treated, wet soil, values of 10–15% are allowed. The aim of the research is to find and explain the ways to improve the traction-coupling properties of the tractor, which affect the performance of the machine-tractor unit.

Irina Lontseva, Vyacheslav Sennikov
Increasing the Efficiency of the Technological Process of the Seeding Unit of Seeding Machines

Currently, agricultural producers in Russia, including the Far East region, have found themselves and are in a very difficult situation due to the emerging price disparity between the cost of agricultural products and the cost of energy resources, chemicals, machinery and equipment. The way out of this situation is a sharp decrease in the cost of agricultural products due to an increase in labor productivity with the involvement of scientific achievements and advanced experience. With the current state of agricultural production, the main goal of science is not only to expand the scope of research, but also to comprehend the previously accumulated knowledge, as well as to generalize it into one scientifically grounded system to obtain the maximum possible yield, in specific climatic conditions for a given region, with a constantly increasing soil cultivation. Sowing crops is a critical operation in agricultural production. In a short period of time, determined by weather conditions and biological characteristics of cultivated plants, it is necessary to perform a large and complex work on placing seeds in the soil and creating the most favorable conditions for them. The quality of the sowing equipment used largely determines the yield of agricultural crops. The most important requirement is imposed on sowing cereal crops and leguminous crops, such as uniform distribution of seeds over the area of the field. To improve the sowing qualities of grain seeders, we propose to improve their design by installing additional loaders on the support-drive wheels.

Vyacheslav Sennikov, Natalia Sennikova, Andrey Sennikov
Ways of Increasing Data Reliability Assessment in the Tribal Value of Animals

The article is devoted to the breeding value assessment of animals consisting of phenotypic and genotypic traits, on its base calculation of the indices of breeding value can be made. The share of the influence of genetic factors influencing, for example, milk production is 25–30%. The difficulty in using genomic selection is in the fact that milk production itself mainly depends on environmental factors. To automate and speed up work with the herd, as well as to obtain reliable parameters of milk production, there are various mechanisms, one of which is selection control of milk quality. The form of a laboratory selection control of milk quality allows you to use information not only at the level of the Regional Information and Breeding Center, as an integrator of data in the region, but also on breeds, associations, unions, laboratories, as well as transfer ready-made data to associations, unions and government agencies. The dependence of the variability of quantitative traits on the genetic characteristics of breeds, the effects of environmental factors and interactions between them indicates the limited potential efficiency of genomic selection in order to increase the efficiency of animal husbandry. Therefore, without the possibility of obtaining phenotypic data and data on productivity indicators, it is not possible to develop our own Russian index of the breeding value of animals and it is also impossible to develop the system for assessing the breeding value in general.

Alfiya Khamidullina, Mikhail Gubanov, Inna Ivanova, Olga Kovaleva, Yulia Rogozinnikova, Marina Chasovshchikova
The Effectiveness of the Use of Bio-ferments During Haylage on the Dairy Productivity of Cows

The basis for the development of animal husbandry is the creation of a solid fodder base. High rates of feed production can be achieved not only by increasing the yield of feed crops, but also by a complex of measures to improve the quality, reduce the loss of nutrients of feed during their harvesting, processing and long-term storage. In the Amur region, the main feed for cattle is silage or haylage of low quality. A promising feed in our conditions is haylage harvested with preserving agents. Success depends on choosing the most effective way of preserving green plants. One of the most common, affordable and reliable methods of canning is silage or haylage, which allows you to save feed with minimal losses and properties close to the original raw materials. Among the most effective ways to preserve the nutrients of the feedstock during haylage include the use of various chemical and biological preserving agents, the trench method and the method of harvesting and storage in polymer bags (sleeves), with which you can significantly reduce the inevitable losses. The purpose of the research was to study the use of Biotal AcidepHast HC Gold and Probactyl bio-ferments on the quality and nutritional value of alfalfa haylage, as well as the effect of the use of this haylage on the quantity and quality of milk. In the work, studies were conducted on changes in milk productivity. Haylage made from alfalfa with a preserving agent had a positive effect on the dairy productivity of cows.

Evgeniya Tuaeva, Alexander Gerasimovich, Nikolay Pasechnik, Oleg Rozhnov
Productivity of Corn on the Background of Various Doses of Mineral Fertilizers in the South of the Amur Region

In conditions of field experience in 2014–2017, 2019, 2020 studies carried out to study the effect of mineral fertilizers on agrochemical and biochemical parameters of the soil, as well as their effect on the yield of green mass and corn grain in the south of the Amur region. The use of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers not only provides the culture with nutrients throughout the growing season, but also contributes to an increase in the content of mineral nitrogen and mobile phosphorus in the 0–20 cm layer of meadow chernozem-like soil. The accumulation of nitrogen in the soil after cultivation corn, depending on the dose, was 2.1–14.0 mg/kg of soil, to a higher extent in the variant N120P60. Doses of mineral fertilizers N60P60 and N120P60 increased the content of mobile phosphorus in the soil by 18.8–93.5%. The application of low (N30P30) and high (N120P60) doses of mineral fertilizers increased the activity of soil urease during the entire growing season of corn. Nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers, especially at a dose of N120P60, increased the phosphatase activity in the soil under corn crops. The corn yield depended on weather conditions and the dose of mineral fertilizers. On average, over the years of research, the highest yield of green mass (62.1 t/ha) was observed at N30P30 + N20, grain yield (8.20 t/ha) – at N60P30.

Rostislav Kalashnikov, Elena Semenova, Olga Piletskaya
Influence of Zeolites of Different Deposits on Egg Production of Chickens

In domestic and foreign literature, many works indicate the feasibility of using zeolites in feeding animals and birds. The optimal doses of their inclu-sion in the diet have been established. In each region and in each specific deposit, zeolite rocks have a different geological origin, therefore, a different element con-tents and physicochemical properties. The aim of the researsh was to study the ef-fect of optimal doses of zeolites from different deposits on the live weight and productivity of laying hens, a comparative assessment of their influence on the studied parameters. The experiment was carried out in the conditions of the No-voivanovskaya poultry farm of the Svobodnensky district, which is part of Krasnaya Zvezda LLC. The objects of study were zeolites, which are industrially mined in the Amur Region, the Republic of Sakha Yakutia and the Khabarovsk Territory. The additive used in the form of 5% zeolite from the dry matter of the diet had a positive effect on the egg production and egg mass of laying hens. Due to the increase in productivity indicators, economic indicators have also im-proved, for example, feed consumption per unit of production has decreased. In a comparative analysis of the degree of influence of zeolites of different deposits on the development of chickens and their productivity, we have not proved a sig-nificant difference.

Roini Sharvadze, Svetlana Sukhanova, Ketevan Babukhadia
Influence of Vitamin Supplements on Indicators of Dairy Productivity and Blood Morphological Composition of Cattle

Vitamins are very different substances in their chemical structure. Each of them has its own specific role in regulating chemical processes in the organism. Usually vitamins are needed only in case of exceptionally poor-quality feed or very poor rations, as supplements in stressful situations and for increase animal productivity. The use of vitamin supplements is an important link in the nutrition of productive animals. The experiment involved dairy cattle of the black-motley breed. For carrying out the experiment on the principle of selection of pairs of analogues, 25 cattle of red and spotted breed, 5 heads in each group were selected. According to generally accepted doses recommended for cattle of dairy breed were formed groups of animals: control group (nutrition adopted in the farm), the first experimental group (niacin), the second experimental group (riboflavin), the third experimental group (niacin + riboflavin), the fourth experimental group (thiamine + pantothenic acid + pyridoxine + biotin + folic acid). Dry matter intake, milk yield, changes in the morphological composition of blood and organoleptic properties of milk were recorded at different periods of the experiment and after the study. The study showed that the introduce of niacin and riboflavin separately did not produce significant changes in dry matter intake, milk productivity, blood cell count and organoleptic properties of milk. However, the introduce of the vitamin pair “niacin + riboflavin”, as well as multivitamin complex, has a positive effect on all the indicators studied in the experiment, compared with the control group of animals.

Nikita Maksimov, Anton Lashin
Estimation by Volt-Ampere Method of Fuel Battery Efficiency Based on Proton-Exchange Membrane

It is expedient to associate the reliability and uninterrupted performance of transport operations in agriculture in the near future with the promising transition to energy systems based on fuel cells. The increase in energy efficiency is associated with the improvement of the characteristics of fuel cells and power plants based on them. One of the most significant limiting factors is the need to take into account the diverse processes arising in the study of fuel cells based on a proton-exchange membrane in the entire operating range, which leads to cumbersome theoretical calculations. In this regard, the problem of predicting the average value of the energy efficiency of fuel cells at a given load is urgent. The proposed method for evaluating the study of changes in the average energy efficiency of fuel cells from a given load based on the construction of current-voltage characteristics makes it possible to estimate with sufficient reliability the instantaneous and average efficiency as a function of the state of the output signal in a given load mode. On the basis of the conducted experimental studies, it was found that with an increase in the load, the average efficiency of the fuel cell decreases. The main ways to increase the efficiency of a fuel cell is to use a combined compound of fuel cells, and to ensure the supply of the necessary reagents.

Zoya Krivutsa, Sergey Shchitov, Evgeny Kuznetsov, Svetlana Abramova, Natalia Dvoinova, Natalya Kidyaeva
Expanding the Technological Capabilities of Energy Facilities in the Zones of “Risk Farming”

When cultivating agricultural crops in the so-called zones of “risky farming”, regional specificity is manifested, which consists in the fact that it is impossible to establish clear terms for the completion of work in advance, and therefore the stage-by-stage planning of the course of cultivation and harvesting is carried out in accordance with the weather and climatic conditions prevailing in the period of production of crop products. Such zones include the Amur Region, where the climatic conditions, due to the prevailing natural features, namely: soil freezing to a depth of more than 2.5 m, the main amount of precipitation during the main agricultural work, high solar activity during the period of seed germination with a low bearing capacity of the soil due to surface waterlogging, the beginning of sowing operations in the presence of a solid underlying layer in the form of permafrost and minimal thawing of the fertile layer, significantly affect the progress of agricultural work. In particular, this applies to wheeled energy vehicles (MEV), provide transport and technological support for the agricultural production process. Industrial observations have established that one of the most effective solutions is the adaptation of energy resources to the conditions of regional use. This article presents the data of theoretical and experimental studies obtained in the course of introducing new technical solutions to stabilize the longitudinal and lateral stability of MEV, which help to reduce the normal pressure of the propellers on the soil and expand the use of semitrailers in crop production technology.

Alexandr Vtornikov, Sergey Markov, Nikolay Ponomaryov, Evgeny Kuznetsov, Sergey Shchitov, Semyon Us
Soil Cultivation in Biologized Soybean Growing Technology, New Techniques and Devices for Its Implementation

Traditional technologies of soybean cultivation are based on deep (18–20 cm) moldboard and non-moldboard soil cultivation, multiple passes of heavy implements, which leads to overcompaction of the arable soil layer, the formation of a plow bottom and waterlogging of fields. (The purpose of the research) was to assess the impact of new methods of soil cultivation on the fertility of arable land in a promising biologized technology of soybean cultivation on medium and heavy loamy soils prone to overconsolidation (for example, the Amur region of Russia). (Materials and methods) The influence of soil deepening on the elimination of the consequences of the plow sole and the development of the soybean yield has been investigated. The effect of incorporation of green manure on soil fertility was studied: the content of mobile phosphorus increased by 12%, exchangeable potassium by 18%, nitrogen nitrates by 1.48 times. The use of a new weeding harrow with adjustment of the teeth in depth and angle of attack leads to an increase in the biological yield of soybeans, depending on the processing method, by 1.8–2.3 times. (Results and discussion) Presented the results of field experiments on the compacting effect of wheeled tractors and the increase in resistance to tillage. It was found that a new combined method of soil cultivation with active discs together with strip soil deepening allows avoiding the formation of a plow bottom and overconsolidation of loamy soils, and the incorporation of the organic mass of green manure into the top soil layer contributes to the vigorous activity of soil biota.

Alexander Panasyuk, Victor Epifantsev
Efficiency of Treatment of Tubers Against Pests and Diseases of Potatoes in the Amur Region

The need for research is due to the high demand for potato products among the population of the region and its significant losses during cultivation. The experiment was carried out in 2018–2019 at the experimental site of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise (FSUE) «Sadovoye» of the Amur Region. The soil is meadow chernozem-like soil. In 2018, the summer was warm and humid; in 2019, it was cold and excessively humid. Studied options for experience are given 2–5 in the tables. The degree of damage leaves, eaten by pests or covered with the disease, was determined. The degree of prevalence was determined by inspection on 10 plants. Damage to plants by the 28-spotted ladybug was lower than in the control variant by 11.6% in the second variant, 71.8% in the third variant, 45.3% in the fourth variant, 84.5% in the fifth variant, and 81.2% in the sixth variant. The degree of disease damage, respectively options, decreases by 25.4, 50.4, 34.2, 51.8, 52.1%, and their prevalence by 6.8, 21, 13.3, 26.2, and 25.5% compared with the control. The greatest increase in the yield of potato tubers is provided by preparations Prestizh, KS – 11.3 t/ha, Kruyzer, KS – 12.5 and Maksim, KS + Kruyzer, KS – 14.9 t/ha. The economic efficiency of these preparations reached 50.4, 57.6, and 74.6%. Preparations Prestizh, KS, and Kruyzer, KS can be recommended for the integrated protection of potato plants during the growing season from diseases and pests in the Amur region.

David Akhalbedashvili
Dairy Productivity of Holstein Cows Different Exterior-Constitutional Types

Agro-Soyuz LLC, located in the foothill zone of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, breeds Holstein black-and-white cattle, imported from the USA in 2011. All cows of the dairy herd of this farm are representatives of the lines Vis Bek Ideal 933122 and Reflection Sovering 198998 and are obtained from the bulls-producers Ray-Mar Legend 139164598, Pilot 63811814, Sharkey 131184495. In the Amur region, domestic and foreign breeding cattle are used, which is an improver for the Holstein breed. All cows were representatives of the Vis Back Ideal 1013415 and Reflection Sovering 198998 lines and were obtained from Jordo-M 464467, Rhythm 417329 and Don 52415 bulls. The purpose of the research was to study the influence of the exterior-constitutional type of cows on the indicators of their milk productivity (milk yield for lactation, fat content, amount of milk fat, milk protein content, amount of milk protein), live weight and milk index. Depending on the value of the eyrisomy index, three exterior-constitutional types were distinguished: leptosomal (27.2% or less), mesosomal (27.3–36.6%), eyrisomal (36.7% or more). The experimental groups were formed according to the principle of analog groups, taking into account the age and date of calving of the first-calf cows. Comparing the animals of the experimental groups in terms of milk productivity, we established the superiority of mesosomal type cows over leptosomal and eyrisomal type cows in milk yield, in fat content, in milk protein content, in the amount of fat, in the amount of milk protein, in the index of milk content.

Liana Kogotyzheva, Timur Tarchokov, Madina Tleynsheva, Zaurbek Aisanov, Vyacheslav Gogulov, Stanislav Plavinsky
Introduction of Spring Triticale in the Amur Region

The article presents the results of ecological trials in the conditions of the main agricultural zones of the Amur region of eight varieties of spring triticale: Ukro, Karmen, Grebeshok, Rovnya, Kunak, Yarilo, Lotas and Uzor. Field trials were conducted in 2014–2016 at Tambov GSU (southern zone), Svobodnensky GSU (central zone) and Mazanovsky GSU (northern zone). As a result of the studies it was found that the maximum productivity of the tested varieties was formed in the conditions of the southern zone of the region and amounted to 4.6 t/ha. In the central and northern agrozones, this figure did not exceed 2.5 and 3.2 t/ha, respectively. Realization of the yield potential on average for all varieties was 71.0%. The highest value of this parameter was noted in varieties - Scallop (77.4%), Rovnya (73.7%) and Ukro (71.1%). According to the parameters of ecological plasticity and stability out of the eight varieties studied only three (Kunak, Rovnya and Ukro) can be characterized as plastic. From this we can conclude that the varieties Kunak and Ukro are the most adapted to changes in their growing conditions. Calculation of the correlation coefficients of yield with its structural elements showed that the variability of yield was mainly related to the difference of plant height (r = 0.872), and growing season (r = 0.853) and was almost independent of the weight of 1000 grains.

Alexey Muratov, Julia Oborskaya, Li Hongpeng
Morphological and Biochemical Blood Parameters of Cows While Introducing Micronutrients into the Diet

Mineral nutrition has a great influence on the productivity of animals, as well as their physiological state. Deficiency of minerals leads to various diseases, metabolic decline and, as a result, reduced productivity. In contrast to inorganic forms of micronutrients, micronutrients in the form of chelate compounds have a high bioavailability for the body, so the saturation of the animal body with micronutrients increases and the microflora of the scar is not affected negatively. The aim of the research was the scientific justification and practical introduction of organic mineral supplements in the diets of lactating cows in Tyumen region. Scientific and economic experiments on the use of organic selenium, organic and mineral forms of zinc and copper and the use of a complex supplements containing organic forms of zinc, copper, manganese and selenium in the diet of cows were carried out according to generally accepted methods. The aim of the research is to study the effectiveness of the use of micronutrients in diets and their effect on morphological and biochemical parameters of blood. The feasibility and high efficiency of the use of organic forms of micronutrients in forage mixtures for highly productive cows that provide good nutrition and more complete realization of the genetic potential of cows are proved in the research. The use of organic forms of micronutrients contributes to the normalization of clinical blood parameters. The increase in hemoglobin and globular value indicates the superiority of the animals of the experimental groups in the intensity of tissue respiration.

Georgy Yarmots, Lyudmila Yarmots, Angelika Belenkaya
The Effectiveness of Unconventional Feed Additives at Feeding Cattle in Conditions Yakutia

The article is devoted to the question of the possibility of using non-traditional feed additives in feeding young cattle in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). In conditions of macro- and microelements deficiency in feed in the permafrost zone, the use of sapropel, zeolite and mineral salt is relevant. In this regard, studies have been organized to determine the optimal norms for the inclusion of feed additives in the rations of cattle. In accordance with the main goal of the research, we studied the indices of the digestibility of nutrients rations and the dynamics of the live weight of experimental animals when fed with non-traditional feed additives. The inclusion of feed additives in the ration of cattle made it possible to improve the digestibility of nutrients for protein by 0.95 and 2.22%, fat by 3.29 and 3.7%, fiber by 0.61 and 0.73%, nitrogen-free extractive substances by 0.98 and 1.46%. Analysis of the live weight data showed that the experimental groups were superior to the control group in all periods of rearing. At the end of the experiment, these groups were heavier than their peers by 3.30 and 5.47%. The inclusion of non-traditional feed additives contributed to an increase in the average daily milk yield of first-calf heifers by 9.07 and 7.58% and an increase in the content of fat and protein in milk. Therefore, the inclusion of non-traditional feed additives in the ration of cattle improves metabolism and productivity.

Mikhail Grigorev, Aleksandra Grigoreva, Roini Sharvadze, Natalia Chernogradskaya, Svetlana Stepanova
Application of the BP-25/31 Grain Cart During the Transportation of Soybeans in Waterlogged Conditions

This article analyzes the transportation of soybeans during harvesting in the natural and climatic conditions of the Amur region. The main advantages and disadvantages of the applied methods of delivery of the soybean crop from the combine harvesters to the grain processing stations are noted. The chronometric materials of overloading, the results of laboratory analyze of soybean grain obtained in the course of researching the technologies of transport operations in the field conditions of farms in the region are presented. The results and analysis of the complex monitoring are presented, as well as comparative quantitative estimates based on the ratio of the performance indicators of transport machines and complexes are made. The methods and problems of transportation of soybeans during the period of waterlogging are considered. A technology for the transportation of soybeans in the period of waterlogging and a method for determining the number of vehicles (cars), grain carts, depending on the performance of combine harvesters and the carrying capacity of vehicles, have been developed.

Alexey Kislov, Vladimir Mungalov
Scientific Support of Breeding and Seed Breeding of Vegetable Crops

Increasing the output of agricultural products and improving their quality is one of the most important tasks of ensuring the food security of the Russian Federation. The government has set the task of reducing import dependence on seeds and planting material, which is possible when organizing a control and a management system for primary seed farming, production and sale of seeds based on domestic genetic material, i.e. a competitive system of breeding and seed production. The developed subprogram titled “Development of breeding and seed production of vegetable crops” should reduce import dependence on seeds and planting material. The objective of the research was organizations engaged in research and development in the field of breeding and seed production of vegetable crops, their introduction into production. A general scientific methodology was used. The purpose of the study is to analyze the scientific potential of scientific organizations from the standpoint of its sufficiency for solving the tasks set by the government. An analysis of the activities of existing organizations showed a great scientific and technical potential and their sufficiency to solve the tasks set by the government in the field of breeding and seed production of vegetable crops. These organizations need to be integrated into the system of breeding and seed production in order to maximize the involvement of their potential in solving the task of reducing import dependence on seeds and planting material.

Tatiana Marinchenko, Antonina Korolkova
Ways to Increase the Efficiency of Grain and Soybean Harvesting in the Amur Region

The article presents the results of the dynamics of harvesting grain and soybeans in the agro-industrial complex of the Amur Region in 2020. The study of indicators of the harvesting process of early grain crops in the Central agricultural zone of the Amur region, consisting of 7 agricultural territories. An assessment of the efficiency of the harvesting process of grain crops in 2021 is given in one of the largest agricultural territories of the Central agricultural zone of the agro-industrial complex of the Amur Region, as well as the largest peasant farm in this territory, KFH Romanov S.N. On the example of this farm, an analysis of the productivity (threshing) of early grain crops with various brands of combine harvesters was carried out. It was found that the most highly productive combines of the CASEIH and TUCANO families with an engine power of more than 220 kW and working in a unit with a header with a working width of 9 m. The threshing capacity of these combines amounted to 733.365 tons and 595.083 tons, respectively, which is almost 2 times more than the productivity of the TORUM and VECTOR 410 combines. The evaluation of the threshing quality with grain combines of the VECTOR 410 family was carried out: undershooting exceeded 7%, crushing corresponded to agricultural requirements and did not exceed 1%, grain purity in the bunker ranged from 90.6 to 95.3%.

Alexey Popov, Ivan Bumbar
Bioconversion of Nutrients in Diets Containing Flattened Grain Mixture and Natural Mineral Additive – Zeolite

Modern feed production provides for the processing of plant raw materials into biologically complete feed, their rational storage and use, taking into account the needs and bioconversion. Grain flattening in the early phases of the growing season with further conservation increases the transformation of nutrients from raw materials into milk constituents. Studies were carried out on the basis of the experimental training farm of the Agricultural University, which are aimed at studying the possibility of increasing the biotransformation of nutrients and minerals in diets based on traditional fodder resources and flattened grain in combination with zeolite. The effect of diets on the physiological state of highly productive black-and-white cows during the stall keeping period for 120 days was studied. It has been established that the technology of feed grain flattening contributes to the preservation of nutrients. Three months after harvesting, the yield of dry matter in the flattened grain mixture increased by 9.28% compared to the initial weight. When analyzing the nutritional value of the diets, it was found that the complete or partial replacement of concentrates with flattened grain and zeolite contributes to a better supply of dairy cows in terms of nutrients, minerals and energy. The increasing of milk yield, fat content and milk protein was observed. When fat content in the milk of cows in the control group was 3.82%, the protein was 2.79%, and those in the milk of cows in the 1st and 2nd experimental groups were 3.88% and 2.94%, 3.97% and 2.90%, respectively.

Marina Zharkova, Anna Ivanova, Inna Ivanova, Olga Kovaleva, Alfiya Khamidullina
Tendency, Evolution of the Institutional Structure of Potato Production, Prospects for Innovative Development of the Potato Industry in the Amur Region

The main task of the socio-economic development of Russia is aimed at meeting the needs of the population with food, increasing the competitiveness of agricultural products. Self-sufficiency in basic agricultural products in the Far Eastern Federal District is 25–90%, including potatoes in this rating is a relative leader. The Amur Region is one of the three main potato producers in the Far Eastern Federal District. However, in recent years there has been a significant reduction in the gross production of tubers. The region, which provides the region with potatoes in some periods of more than half of the demand, is now sharply losing its positions, and local residents are experiencing a shortage of Amur potatoes. The article examines the trends, the evolution of the institutional structure of the industry, the reasons for the decline in potato production at the present time, outlines the prospects for the innovative development of potato growing in the Amur Region.

Olga Shchegorets, Albina Medvedeva
The Efficiency of Herbicide Use Patterns in Soybean Crops in the Amur Region of Russia

In the Amur Region, soybeans are cultivated in specialized crop rotations; its share in the structure of sown areas is more than 70%. This leads to repeated crops and deterioration of the phytosanitary state. Soil cultivation is minimized, weed control is carried out mainly by a chemical method. A wide range of herbicides is offered to agricultural enterprises, making it difficult to choose. Therefore, the scientific substantiation of the most effective agricultural chemicals is relevant. The experiment revealed a strong correlation dependence of the yield on the biological efficiency of the application of pre-emergence herbicides (r = 0.877) and the share of the weed component of agrophytocenosis represented by dicotyledonous weeds 25 days after herbicide application (by the number r = −0.936; by mass r = −0.825). The most effective herbicide use pattern has been established: pre-emergence application of tank mixture of 0.5 l/g of the herbicide containing Clomazone 480 g/l; 0.1 l/g of the herbicide containing Flumioxazin 480 g/l with post-emergence application of tank mixture of 0.6 l/ha of the herbicide containing Imazamox 40 g/l; 0.006 kg/ha of the herbicide containing Thifensulfuron-methyl 750 g/kg; 1.0 l/ha of the preparation containing Haloxyfop-R-methyl 104 g/l. Biological efficiency reaches 90% with pre-emergence herbicide application against dicotyledonous weeds and with post-emergence herbicide application against Equisetum arvense L. Applying of this herbicide use pattern contributes to the high productivity of soybean, allows increasing the yield by 1.4 times and reaching the level of 3.3 t/ha.

Elena Zakharova, Aleksej Nemykin
Development of Varietal Technology Elements for Cultivation of Buckwheat Variety Devyatka in the Zone of the Middle Priamurye

The article presents the results of studying some elements of the varietal technology for cultivation of buckwheat variety Devyatka. Among the studied forecrops, complete fallow and soybean have the greatest positive effect, as the yield is higher by 2–5 centners per hectare, in comparison with repeated crops and after cereals. When studying the sowing dates, it was found that for buckwheat variety Devyatka in the conditions of the Middle Priamurye, the most optimal sowing date was the third decade of May. At the specified sowing date, the highest grain yield was noted, on average over the research years, it amounted to 13.5 c/ha. While research on identifying the optimal plant density, it was figured out that the wide-row sowing method with a seeding rate of 3.0 million viable seeds per 1 ha was the most productive for buckwheat variety Devyatka, when cultivated in the conditions of the Middle Priamurye. In the variants noted above, a higher quality grain was also obtained, larger by the indicator of thousand grain weight, with a higher kernel yield and low filminess, in comparison with other variants.

Elvira Timoshenko
Productivity and Quality of Mid-Early Varieties Potato Tubers in the Northern Forest-Steppe of the Tyumen Region

Potato is one of the most important agricultural crops, it is rightly called the second bread. In world crop production, it occupies one of the first places along with rice, wheat and corn. In 2019, Tyumen agricultural producers planted potatoes on an area of about 35.5 thousand hectares. The main growing areas: Armizonsky, Nizhne-Tavdinsky, Tyumensky, Uporovsky, Yurginsky, Yalutorovsky, Yarkovsky, as well as Golyshmanovsky and Zavodoukovsky urban districts. The resulting crop is sold on the territory of the region (130–135 thousand tons are needed for intraregional consumption), and is also supplied to neighbors (in the Khanty-Mansiysk, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk regions). Export deliveries are also carried out to Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan. The purpose of the research is to study the yield and quality of tubers of medium-early potato varieties, to identify the best of them for further use in the potato farms of the region. In 2019–2020 a comparative study of mid-early potato varieties was carried out on the experimental field of the Northern Trans-Urals GAU. It was established that Sarma, Svitanok Kievsky, Valentina stood out in terms of profitability. For the marked varieties, it is necessary to increase the production of super-elite and elite for farms and the private sector.

Yury Loqinov, Anastasia Kazak, Andrey Gaizatulin, Anastasia Sozonova
Digitalization Trends in the Financial Accounting Sphere: Experience of Russia and Foreign Countries

The purpose of the study was to conduct a comparative analysis of modern development trends and experience in the use of digital technologies in the financial and accounting sphere of Russia and foreign countries. The research methodology is based on the methods of analysis and comparison, as well as on the method of literary generalization and logical inference. The study identified key trends in the use of digital solutions in the financial and accounting practice of different countries of the world. A comparative analysis of the implementation of digital innovations in the context of the types of accounting: financial, management, tax, as well as audit in Russia and foreign countries. The types of software for accounting in the Russian Federation, which are developed on the basis of cloud technologies, are considered and their key differences are indicated. Based on the results of the study, the author comes to the conclusion about the low level of development of digital technologies in the financial and accounting sphere of Russia, in comparison with other countries. The results obtained are of significant theoretical and practical importance and can be useful to both business entities and regulatory bodies to ensure the sustainable development of digital technologies in the financial and accounting sector.

Natalia Zemlyakova, Elena Zaporozceva, Julia Denisenko
The Economic Efficiency of the Production of Grafted Planting Material of Grapes, Depending on the Level of Compatibility of Varietal Combinations

The article evaluates the economic efficiency of the production of grape planting material depending on the compatibility of Variety-Rootstock combinations. It is established that in the existing price field with the generally accepted technology, it is economically feasible to choose such Variety-Rootstock combinations that provide an output of standard seedlings from the number of planted grafted cuttings equal to 59.7%. Thus, the calculation of the economic efficiency of the production of planting material can act as an element of determining the level of compatibility of Variety-Rootstock combinations. The change in the production of standard planting material leads to a change in the cost structure – with a decrease in the production of standard seedlings, the proportion of grafted stratified cuttings increases. A decrease in the production of standard seedlings not only leads to a change in the cost structure, but also to a significant increase in the need for areas for a grape nursery and production costs in an exponential progression - from a larger production of standard seedlings to a smaller one.

Margarita Ivanova, Vyacheslav Ivanchenko, Oleg Zameta, Dmitry Potanin
Legal Status of Eco-Products

Every year, people all over the world show an increasing interest in safe and healthy food products (eco-products). Therefore, in many developed and developing countries, the demand for “natural”, “organic” agricultural products is growing. Organic agriculture, in accordance with Federal Law No. 280-FZ of 03.08.2018 “On organic Products and on Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation”, recognizes a set of economic activities in which methods, methods and technologies are used to maintain a favorable state of the environment, preserve and restore soil fertility, strengthen human health through the use of environmentally friendly products. The paper substantiates the relevance and defines the prospects for the development of organic agricultural production in the Russian Federation. The advantage of using organic production technologies is the ability to ensure the rational use and renewability of the main agricultural resources. Also, organic agriculture gives a wider opportunity to develop small and medium-sized enterprises of the industry, which in modern conditions are not able to compete with large agricultural producers at a price. Based on the analysis of international experience in the development of organic farming and the experience of Russian agricultural producers, taking into account separate legislative regulation arising in connection with the specifics of relations in the process of allocating organic agriculture as a special direction of agricultural production, the possibilities and prospects for the development of organic agriculture are investigated in the article.

Yuliya Norbekova
Digital Pedagogy: Opportunities and Challenges of Learning in the Information Environment

Digitalization of society and all spheres of social production is rapidly changing the whole landscape of education. The time of learning generation Z, known as the network generation (zoomers), formed in the digitally oriented era, is coming. However, there are many challenges for learning in the digital environment. All these tasks for digital pedagogics, methodological possibilities of which are still in their infancy, require justification of their sufficiency and efficiency. This article shows the problems and new directions of pedagogical science and student teaching methodology development under the conditions of changes in the information educational space. It is noted that digital and information and communication technologies stimulate the development of digital didactics, opening up a lot of new principles and approaches to teaching and assessment of achievements, but, at the same time, bring many problems and risks. At the same time, didactic principles of digital pedagogy dictate significant changes in the role of the teacher, increasing the share of his/her work as a designer of a new form of educational process, taking into account electronic resources and big databases. The solution of these and other problems requires scientific approach and experimental testing.

Nadezhda Efremova, Anastasia Huseynova
The Influence of Fatness of Cows Before Calving on the Growth and Development of Offspring

The purpose of this work was to establish the degree of influence of fatness of cows before calving on the quality of colostrum, the formation of colostral immunity in newborn calves, their further growth and development in postnatal ontogenesis. The research material was cows and newborn heifers of Black-and-White, Bestuzhev, Holstein and Ayrshire breeds. It was established that the highest content of immunoglobulins, regardless of breed, was in the colostrum of cows with a fatness of 3.6–4.0 points. At the same time, the number of calves, in which, 6 h after drinking the first portion of colostrum, the content of immunoglobulins in the blood serum was 10.1 mg/ml or more, it was 43.3% for the Black-and-White breed, 33 for the Holstein breed, 4% with mothers’ fatness of 3.0–3.5 points, in Bestuzhevskaya – 83.3%, Ayrshire – 73.3% with mothers’ fatness of 3.6–4.0 points. Studies have shown that physiological changes in the body of newborns, due to the fatness of mothers, the quality of colostrum and morbidity, were reflected in their further growth and development. In this regard, for the entire period of growing up to 18 months of age, the live weight of heifers increased with the fatness of mothers below 3.0 points, respectively, by 12.15; 13.42; 11.36; 12.42 times, with a fatness of 3.0–3.5 points – 12.45; 13.13; 11.33; 12.80 times, with a fatness of 3.6–4.0 points – 12.

Sergey Karamaev, Anna Karamaeva, Khaidar Valitov, Larisa Bakaeva
Legal Protection of Relations in the Field of Agricultural Development

The article is made on the topic «Legal protection of relations in the field of agricultural development». The author analyzes the views of lawyers on the need for state regulation of agriculture, various definitions, offers his own refined definition of this category, which is understood as a set of organizational, legal and other influences of the state on agrarian relations through methods of state regulation in order to implement the state agrarian and economic policy, thereby considering this category as legal. At the same time, the author understands the method of state regulation of agrarian relations as a set of legal techniques through which the state influences the subjects of agriculture. The author identifies two most important tasks of legal support of state regulation: firstly, «further legal consolidation of state regulation»; secondly, «strengthening of legal protection of agricultural producers». This article examines the issues of legal regulation of relations in the field of agricultural development, identifies the problems of regulatory support for agriculture, identifies the directions for optimizing the legislative regulation of the use of natural resources for agricultural activities.

Liana Barashyan
Financial and Economic Support of the New Model of Sustainable Development of Rural Areas of the Russian Federation Based on Inclusive Growth

The purpose of this work is to clarify and supplement the theoretical provisions that reveal the content and features of financial and economic support for a new model of rural development of the Russian Federation based on inclusive growth. The author’s scheme of the existing model of financial and economic support for rural development is presented, indicating the basic principles, sources of financing and tools. It is established that, despite the fact that the state has formed an institutional framework for managing the development of rural territories, the existing model of financial and economic support still does not solve the social problems of the village. The theoretical foundations of the formation of a new model of financial and economic support for sustainable inclusive development of rural areas based on the principles of fiscal decentralization and tax self-sufficiency, financial inclusion, public financial management are investigated.

Svetlana Podgorskaya, Tatyana Miroshnichenko
The Current State of Carp Breeds Bred in Western Siberia

On the territory of Western Siberia, two officially registered carp breeds are currently being bred in Russia: the Altai mirror carp and the Sarboyan carp. These two breeds are different in origin. Altai mirror carp is a descendant of Galician carp imported in 1936 to ponds in the Altai Territory, and then for eight breeding generations, selection was carried out to increase body height, girth, high fertility and growth rate. The Sarboyan carp was obtained by crossing the Ropshinsky carp and the Amur carp. The crossing was carried out to increase winter hardiness and adaptability to low values of oxygen dissolved in water. Currently, breeding of breeds takes place at different intensity of selection. Breeding work with the Altai carp is carried out constantly and is aimed at maintaining its breed characteristics. Unfortunately, the Sarboyan carp bred in three breed types has lost its herds and currently there is one of its types, the northern type. But due to the fact that breeding work with him has not been carried out for 20 years, the degree of selection was low, individuals by physique deviated to the carp type. Their b body became shorter, and their absolute body length increased. The fish do not have a characteristic carp hump behind the head and belong to the 2nd breeding class. Class 1 fish make up only 1.9% of the herd.

Elena Pishchenko, Irina Moruzi, Elena Yadrenkina, Vladimir Gart, Pavel Belousov
Economic Policy and Trends in the Development of Legislation in the Agro-Industrial Sector of the Russian Economy

The systemic and structural changes taking place in modern Russian legislation reflect those large-scale changes that primarily manifest internal and external aspects of the integration of the state into international integration associations, which significantly expands the sphere of legal regulation not only in the economic segment of public relations, but also makes it possible to optimize legislative regulation in certain areas of economic and economic activity. The purpose of this study is a special area of public relations, which is objectively included in the current mechanism of management, but does not have its own independent legislative consolidation. We are talking about the so-called “economic legislation”, a concept that is conditional in Russian jurisprudence, since it is still not accepted to single out a separate subject of legal regulation in this area of relations in the legal and legislative doctrine. Nevertheless, in recent years, the opinion has been increasingly expressed in Russian legal science about the need for an integrated approach to this problem, which is justified by objective processes of integration of the Russian economy into the global economic space and, accordingly, unification of Russian legislation, in particular agricultural legislation, into the global regulatory system.

Irina Krygina, Svetlana Rybak
Legal and Individual Regulation of Agribusiness: Concept, Correlation, Meaning

The relevance of the research topic is due to the fact that agribusiness is the most important segment of the economy of modern states, within which the production and processing of agricultural products, as well as the manufacture of commodities from agricultural raw materials, designed to satisfy the diverse needs of subjects of law. The importance of c is determined by its role in ensuring the country’s food security and improving the quality of life and health of citizens. The purpose of the scientific research is to highlight the features of legal and individual regulation of agribusiness, to reveal the essence and significance of the agribusiness policy of the state. The methodological basis of the study was the concept of scientifically based integrative legal understanding. It is concluded that the regulation of agribusiness is impossible without the interaction of legal and individual regulators. Legal regulation of agribusiness is provided by the principles and norms of law contained in a single, developing and multi-level system of forms of national and international law. A special role in the legal support of agribusiness is played by the principles of law as theoretical generalizations that reflect the patterns of development of law. Legal regulation of agribusiness is impossible without individual regulation, during which specific, unique features of the subject of regulation are taken into account. The essence of the legal and individual regulation of agribusiness is determined by the agribusiness policy of the state, which is based on the systemic development of all areas of agribusiness. The forms of its expression are law-making and law-realization, reflecting the pairing of categories of legal and individual regulation of social relations.

Svetlana Miroshnik, Tatyana Vlasova, Vera Duel, Svetlana Zgorgelskaya, Tatyana Lesovaya
Reaching Career Readiness of Engineering Students Through Identification of Employability Skills and Universal Competences

The transition to Industry 5 puts particularly high demands on the engineers’ general competencies, which are usually called “universal” or “key” ones. In this regard, the technical universities are faced with the task of integrating formation of technical skills and knowledge with employability skills that are required by certain industry. However, as the analysis of an extensive list of scientific papers shows, international pedagogical research lacks a systematic and consistent definition of employability skills that ensure university graduates’ career readiness. The relevance of this study lies in the systematic theoretical study of a number of pedagogical concepts used to assess the career readiness of young engineers. Focusing on the corporate competency models of large companies in the agro-industrial complex and railway transport, the authors present several ratings and survey results of the employers and university professors in order to determine the most significant key competencies of young engineers. Based on the priority of universal competencies over professional ones, the authors consider the most effective interactive methods and forms of education at the university, mainly through integrated programs additional to the curriculum, during which students get the opportunity to develop their social, communicative and mental competencies.

Tatiana Isaeva, Oleg Grigorash
Creation of Agro-Industrial Associations in the USSR in the 1930s: Results and Significance for Agro-Industrial Production in Modern Russia

In the article on the materials of the Don, Kuban and Stavropol regions as important agrarian regions of Russia the attempts of creating agroindustrial combines (AIC) in the USSR during the total collectivization, which were one of the early forms of agro-industrial cooperation, are highlighted. On the basis of a wide source base the central parts of which are archive documents and Soviet periodicals of the 1930s the questions of establishing and functioning of agroindustrial complexes, the dynamics of the attitude of authorities to them, the fate of these enterprises in conditions of total collectivization were studied. The author’s statement that ideological motives of agroindustrial combines creation in the early 1930s were dominating: combines were perceived by radical theoreticians of the Communist Party as a form of agricultural production organization the closest to the socialistic ideal. A thorough analysis of peculiarities of internal organization of agro-industrial combines, their production possibilities and economic-organizational drawbacks has been carried out. The reasons for the USSR government’s refusal to create agroindustrial combines have been revealed. It is proved that the leading reason for such a decision was organizational and economic weakness of agroindustrial combines and their extremely unsatisfactory functioning.

Vitaly Bondarev, Ruslan Tikijian
Afforestation as a Means of Increasing Crop Yields in the USSR of the 1930s: Methods, Scales and Lessons for the Agriculture of the Russian Federation

The article examines the practice of forest plantations in the arid steppe territories of the agrarian South Russian regions - Don, Kuban and Stavropol in the 1930s. The reasons for afforestation in the South of Russia are indicated, among which the need to overcome negative natural and climatic conditions was paramount. The arrangement of forest strips along the perimeter of field arrays was considered by specialists and representatives of the Soviet government as a powerful means of protecting fields from wind erosion, as important conditions for snow retention, increasing crop yields and the overall efficiency of agricultural production. The opinion is substantiated that the leading factor of afforestation in the 1930s was the creation of a collective farm system capable of mobilizing large human and material resources to cover significant areas with forest strips. The scale of afforestation in the South of Russia has been established, the results and the degree of effectiveness of these measures have been noted. Through the analysis of regional materials, the useful experience of afforestation in the USSR of the 1930s was revealed, which can be in demand at the present time.

Vitaly Bondarev, Olga Rudaya
Mathematical Modeling of Interaction of the Harvester Conveyer Pick-Up with Windrow in the Pick-Up Area

The paper investigates the technological process of picking up the windrow of grain crops by the moving pick-up with belt conveyor. Mathematical modeling of the windrow shape, which it acquires during its pick-up by a mounted pick-up, is presented. Equations of the windrow motion are obtained in a moving coordinate system associated with the pick-up, which moves in a straight line at a constant speed. By integrating these equations, a new mathematical model of grain windrow during its pick-up by a mounted pick-up is presented. The shape of the windrow, when it is picked up, was theoretically substantiated. The interval of variation of the speed of the windrow pick-up movement has been specified, which makes it possible to ensure the optimal implementation of the technological process of picking up the windrow. The influence of the following parameters on the loss of wheat grain was analyzed: crop moisture content and the windrow pick-up speed mode. The specific values of the moisture content of the harvested crop and the speed of the pick-up movement are determined, at which the maximum and minimum grain losses occur.

Olga Lesnyak, Vladimir Kotov, Andrey Matrosov, Irina Vislousova
Methodological Approaches to the Information and Communication Competence Formation of Educational Institutions Students in Agro-Industrial Profile

The research purpose is to study the problem of the information and communication competence formation of future employees in the agro-industrial complex using a competence-based approach against the system-technological one. The methodological features of each approach in the formation of competencies are considered as well as the study of the interaction possibility of the competence approach against the background of system-technological one, the definition of internal methodological links between them. The question of the importance of the information and communication competence formation of educational institutions students in agro-industrial profile is investigated, since the agro-industrial complex as the main addressee of the development of agricultural education has a powerful economic basis and the potential for development. Information and communication competence, which provides the ability not only to receive, interpret, process information, but also to transmit it with full preservation of content and meaning, is currently becoming the most important factor in the effectiveness of professional activity. The formation of information and communication competence in the learning process will make it possible to prepare a competitive graduate who is able to orientate himself in an environment aimed at the qualified use of information and communication technologies in their practical professional activities.

Anastasia Melnik, Кristina Dubikova
Development of Strategic Directions for Optimization of Management Systems in Agriculture in Russia

The work is devoted to the problems of development of strategic directions of optimization of management systems in agriculture of geostrategic territories of Russia. Scientific approaches to building effective management of agricultural development in these territories of Russia are determined. The directions of optimization of management systems for the development of agriculture in geostrategic territories are identified, taking into account the peculiarities of macroregional development and interaction between the federal districts of Russia. It is proposed to reorient the signs, principles and indicators of assessing the development of geostrategic territories, from which there will be envy the forms and methods of building effective management systems, as well as to optimize the directions of state support for agriculture and rural territories. In the work, a grouping of geostrategic territories by federal districts of Russia was carried out with simultaneous assessment of their socio-economic development, as well as an assessment of the development of agriculture in the context of federal districts. An analysis of the state of agriculture in the geostrategic territories of Russia was made. The main strategic directions of optimization of management systems in agriculture in Russia are determined.

Alexander Semkin, Anatoly Altukhov, Lydia Silaeva, Anton Alpatov, Evgenia Zadvorneva
Directions for the Development of Technical Progress in Animal Husbandry

The state of technical equipment of livestock facilities is outlined, Russia’s dependence on imported equipment is shown, the volumes of milk production, livestock and poultry weight gain, the scale of their decline in comparison with the pre-reform period are shown. The cost of technical means and consumed resources of compound feed, electricity and fuel are the main reasons for the low profitability of milk production, unprofitability of beef and sheep products. The article considers the directions of development of technical progress in the mechanization and automation of the execution of processes at facilities for the production of milk, beef, pork, sheep products, animal feed, evacuation of excrement and the preparation of organic fertilizers, which form the basis for the development of a system of machines for the period up to 2030. The new system of machines, prepared by the leading scientific and educational institutions of the country under the leadership of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM”, should become the scientific and methodological basis for conducting research and development work to create innovative technology, and organize the production of technical means. The directions of development of technical progress outlined in the system of machines must be used in the training programs for engineering personnel and zoospecialists.

Nicholay Morozov
Plough Hull for Precision Tillage

It is possible to improve the technological reliability of the plow body by additional placement on the wing guide board, the operation of which will contribute to the creation of an additional twisting effect. (The purpose of the study) Substantiation of the length of the wing of the plow hull and its angle of installation to the bottom of the furrow. (Materials and methods) Based on the laws of theoretical mechanics, a differential equation of rotation of the segment of the soil formation is compiled, where the soil, as the object of treatment, is expressed through the value of the coefficient of dynamic viscosity and sliding friction, density. (Results and discussion) The value of the dynamic viscosity coefficient and sliding friction depend on the absolute humidity of the treated formation. The main criteria affecting the turnover of the formation include absolute soil moisture, the speed of movement of the plow body, the length of the dump wing, the angle of installation of the wing, and the thickness of the interacting boundary layer of the deformable section. (Leads) The angle of rotation of the soil formation segment 90 is achievable with a dump wing installation angle of 23° and a length of 0.1 m.

Sergey Starovoitov, Alexander Grin
The Use of Digital Technologies in the Educational Space to Improve the Effectiveness of Communication in the “Student-Teacher” Model

Currently, the use of digital technologies in the educational process is an urgent direction in the professional training of specialists of the higher professional education institutions. The use of digital technologies in the educational process allows to improve the quality of training, significantly increase the level of competitiveness of future specialists in the labor market, in many ways helps to create interactive conditions in the classroom. Digital technologies started to be used in the educational process during the pandemic of 2020–21, when distance learning was used as the main way of obtaining education. The article substantiates the necessity of the digital technologies’ application in organizations of the higher professional education system, considers four levels of changes in teaching practices using the technologies and suggests the use of “Virtual Reality (VR)” technology and concludes about the essence of digital transformation of education.

Evgenia Krasnova
Opportunities and Barriers to Digital Marketing Use by the Russian Small Business

The paper presents the results of the study conducted with the participation of representatives of small firms operating in the Southern Federal District of the Russian Federation. The research problem includes the identification of opportunities and limitations of the use of digital marketing tools in Russian small firms. The study made it possible to define the key barriers and difficulties related to the marketing activity of small firms on the web, as well as to find out the benefits and prospects for digital marketing use in the Russian small business sector. The data on the digital marketing tools and online marketing research tools used in the companies under study are provided and analyzed in the article. The assessment of the frequency of using specific digital marketing tools in the companies under study was also conducted. The conclusions determine the positive and negative trends regarding digital marketing activities of Russian small business and can be used to conduct further research in this area.

Valery Lisitsin, Julia Denisenko
On Some Issues of Alienation of the Right to Lease Land

The article gives a legal description of the grounds for the alienation of the right to lease land on the basis of civil and land legislation. The authors analyze the legal basis for the transfer of lease rights and obligations under lease agreements to third parties as an independent property right, substantiate the criteria for evaluating lease rights in contracts for the alienation of these rights. The article notes the exceptional importance of special rules in regulating the turnover of property rights as an independent object of civil law transactions. It was revealed that the specifics of the legal regulation of land lease is that the main source of regulation is not the law, but the contract. The lease agreement must contain data that make it possible to definitely establish the property to be transferred to the tenant as an object of lease. In the absence of these data, the contract is considered not agreed by the parties and not concluded. The topic under study emphasizes that in complex legal situations it is necessary to rely on the fundamental provision that property relations, possession, use and disposal of land, as well as transactions with land use objects, are regulated by civil law, and special rules provided for by land legislation should not contrary to civil law. The authors note that the peculiarity of the legal regulation of the lease agreement is that the general provisions governing lease relations are enshrined in civil law, and the features of the lease of land are regulated by land law. As a result, due to dual legislation, contradictions arise between the norms of the Land Code and the Civil Code.

Nataliya Antonova, Elena Lunyova
Communicative Space of Didactics in the Context of the Implementation of Information and Communication Technologies

Communicative space is a set of various types of communication (external, internal) and interhuman relations (trusting, negative), which are established between the subjects of the communicative space in the process of their interaction. The communicative space of didactics is understood as a set of conditions and mean of professional training of a communicative personality in the process of communication. Communicative space is considered as a system of interrelated educational and educational situations aimed at the formation of communicative competence, including speech activity and speech behavior. Pedagogical (teaching) communication involves the establishment of interpersonal contact, in which a dialogue arises. Various forms of dialogue communication are used as a means of teaching a person, an active participant in joint activities, as well as a means of enhancing the activities of students in the process of mastering certain educational content. The dialogical approach in the communicative space is the basis for the teacher’s preparation for competent interaction in the educational environment. Modern teaching tools are based not only on interaction, but also on the active use of various forms of e-learning, including information and communication technologies (ICT). Particular attention is paid to the characteristics of information and communication technologies in the areas of methodological, educational purpose. The use of new technical means in the educational process adjusts the goals and form of vocational training.

Tatiana Mikheeva
Features of Rural Youth Leisure as One of the Factors of the Prospective Development in Agro-Industrial Complex

A significant role is assigned to young people in the development of the agro-industrial complex. The increasing need for new, young specialists is a priority task, the solution of which sometimes seems impossible. Youth is a dynamically developing socio-demographic group that occupies an important place in the social structure of society, inherits and multiplies the experience of previous generations at every stage of its development. The study of rural youth leisure is primarily due to the fact that it is an integral part of modern life, assumes the possibility of socialization, self-improvement, cultural and intellectual development. The process of leisure activity is important for the spiritual, harmonious enrichment of the personality, its self-organization. The existing diversity of cultures has complicated the structure of leisure and created many forms and types of leisure activities. Modern forms of leisure reflect not only the age characteristics of young people, but also social differentiation, the specifics of the socio-cultural environment, the standard of living of young people. Therefore, one of the essential issues of life in rural areas, especially for young people, is the opportunities and means of organizing leisure activities. The solution of such problems seems to be important, requiring the most careful attention from the leaders of the agro-industrial complex.

Anna Kaneeva, Tatyana Bagdasaryan
Feasibility of Using the Genomic Approach to Create Elements of Biotechnology for the Formation of Highly Productive Brood Stocks of Sturgeon Species

On the basis of the genomic approach, the scientific platform has been developed and proved for the biotechnology of the formation of highly productive herds, including: – theoretical foundations of the genetic approach to the formation of sturgeon reproductive stocks for natural reproduction and commercial fish rearing; – DNA marking of economically useful traits and the formation of highly productive herds on their basis (for commercial caviar) using the example of a sterlet × beluga hybrid; – technology of selection, formation and exploitation of highly productive females.

Elena Ponomareva, Igor Kornienko, Peter Geraskin, Vadim Grigoriev, Marina Sorokina
Sectoral Features and Problems of Agricultural Development in African Countries

Agriculture in Africa has a low level of development and characterized by some negative features. Gross harvest of the main food crops in agriculture in Africa is low. Agricultural production does not meet the needs of the population of African states and does not correspond to the existing potential for the development of the industry. The reasons for this are the technical backwardness of agriculture. At the same time, agriculture continues to be important for African countries and remains the dominant sector in their economies. The products of tropical agriculture are of great export importance and provide a significant part of financial revenues to African countries that supply them to foreign markets. A significant disadvantage of the development of agriculture in the countries of the continent is the preservation of their monoculture specialization. This article examines the general features of the development of agriculture in Africa and analyzes the features of their manifestation in individual countries of the continent.

Svetlana Belikova, Oksana Ivanova, Sergey Sukhinin
The Role and Importance of Environmental Management in the Development of Tourism in Rural Areas of the Rostov Region

The article discusses the role and importance of environmental management in the development of tourism in rural areas of the Rostov region. The works of the authors are studied in the direction of the research, indicating key studies. The concept of environmental management is given, its specificity in relation to specially protected natural areas is considered. The rural territories of the Rostov region are analyzed from the standpoint of the prospects for the organization of tourism and the features of their natural resources are revealed. It is also proposed to create a network of local park areas to stimulate the development of tourism in rural areas and a mechanism for managing such areas. The specifics of the selected park areas and the main types of tourism that can be realized in them are analyzed. At the same time, the emphasis is on natural types of tourism, the most promising for specific territories. The designated structure of park areas includes a system of elements that are interconnected and at the same time determine the development of the territory. The proposed management mechanism is based on the fundamentals of environmental management and can be implemented in similar areas in other regions. The article also calculates the economic efficiency of the functioning of a typical park area.

Lyudmila Kazmina, Vadim Makarenko, Valeria Provotorina, Elena Shevchenko
The Russian Market of Mineral Fertilizers in Terms of the Pandemic

The purpose of this research is to study the problems and prospects for the development of the Russian market of mineral fertilizers in terms of the pandemic, along with their impact on the dynamics of agricultural development. The article explores the consequences of the pandemic, their impact on the development of the world market of mineral fertilizers and provides forecasts for the development of this sector in the current context. The focus is made on studying the characteristics of the world agrochemicals market, identifying the major global players in this market, along with defining Russia’s place in it. The world trade structure of such countries as China, the USA and Russia is studied. The influence of internal problems and institutional transformations of states in the era of coronavirus and their impact on price and structural fluctuations in the agricultural fertilizer market is substantiated. The main emphasis is laid on the study of the factors that allow the Russian producers of agricultural fertilizers to provide full coverage of the needs of domestic farmers. The dynamics of exports and imports of agrochemicals in Russia in terms of the pandemic indicates a decline in foreign trade due to the reorientation to the domestic market. The article specifies the prospects for development of the Russian market of mineral fertilizers in the current economic conditions by increasing the volume of investment activity in the sector, despite the difficult circumstances of the pandemic.

Lyudmila Orekhova
Monitoring of Large-Grained Rice Agrophytocenoses in Connection with Their State

High quality rice grain can be obtained using the appropriate strategy in field cultivation technology. This requires, first of all, monitoring the state of rice crops so that rice growers can make a decision on the correct regime of nitrogen nutrition during the period of crop formation. The task of our research was to study the formation of crops of large-grain rice varieties and conduct their geoinformation monitoring of their condition. Studies of the productivity of rice crops using a UAV with a multispectral camera to check their optical and biological characteristics were carried out at the production site “FSC Rice”. At the same time, small varietal differences in the formation of the aboveground mass of plants and different reduction of shoots were found, which influenced the density of the stem. When checking the relationship of the optical characteristics of rice cultivars with the morphophysiological characteristics of plants and their productivity, a positive relationship was established between the vegetation index (NDVI) and the readings of photosynthetic activity and nitrogen content. The dependence of the yield of rice crops on the vegetation index is confirmed by the linear regression equation. This makes it possible to reliably make predictions about the productivity of rice crops based on their physiological state, using remote sensing data.

Michael Skazhennik, Victor Kovalyov, Lyubov Esaulova, Vitaly Chizhikov, Andrey Ogly, Tatyana Pshenitsyna
Legal Aspects of Agrotourism Development in the Russian Federation

Tourism is a promising field of activity that requires state control. The study examines the legal regulation of agricultural tourism. The subject of the study is the legislation regulating the activities of agrotourism. Nowadays, tourist travel is of great importance. From the legal side, tourist trips realize the rights of citizens to rest, leisure and freedom of movement. The tourism industry is certainly part of the economic sphere and closely interacts with it. Rural tourism can be considered as a source of income for rural residents. Such income can catalyze the development of various areas of the agro-industrial complex. The methods may be different, for example, attracting residents, investors, as well as replacing them with high-quality infrastructure. Rural tourism is based on small-scale enterprises, and as a result does not require large investments. But its development as a separate industry has social significance for stimulating rural areas. Currently, agrotourism in the Russian Federation occupies no more than 2% among all other types of tourism.

Tatiana Agafonova, Ludmila Spektor
Analysis of Yield and Quality of Various Japonica Rice Varieties in the Russian Federation

Rice is one of the most widespread grain crops in the world. In recent years, the Russian rice industry has been developing dynamically, however, rice imports are still quite large, and in particular, this applies to the supply of long-grain and large-grain rice. The relevance of breeding such rice varieties is determined by the consumer’s desire to determine the parameters of a healthy diet, including the functional direction, and to exclude the toxicity of consumed products. The article presents data on yield and quality of new japonica rice varieties developed by Russian breeders. It was established that all the varieties have exceeded the standard variety Favorit in terms of yield by 0.5–0.9 t/ha. More over new rice varieties are distinguished by high milled rice quality: milling yield in the range of 70–72%, head rice content - 93–98%.

Victor Kovalev, Lyubov Esaulova, Mikhail Skazhennik, Andrey Ogly
Increasing the Efficiency of Training Organizational and Managerial Personnel for Agricultural Production

The article considers the system of training organizational and managerial personnel for agricultural production, which will increase labor productivity through the introduction of new and “breakthrough” technologies and the use of innovative methods of organizing production. A methodology for the learning process has been developed with the definition of blocks: technological, organizational and managerial, and a block of new technologies and methodologies for their implementation in agricultural production. Mandatory disciplines for each block are determined. It is noted that the existing training system is weakly connected with real production activities and is not linked to the process of introducing new and “breakthrough” technologies. It is proposed to divide the learning process into three phases. The first phase consists in the fact that admission to an organizational and managerial specialty in agricultural universities is carried out on the basis of competitive selection after the first year of study with an assessment of the ability for managerial and creative activities. The second phase of training covers the second and third courses of study using the project and Singaporean teaching methods with the parallel development of the disciplines of the three blocks. The third phase is aimed at the narrow specialization of the graduate with the introduction of new and “breakthrough” technologies in order to develop a real project to improve the enterprise, where he should be sent after graduation.

Igor Ivanov, Galina Persiyanova
Determination of the Traction Resistance of the Loosening Share of the Combined Working Body for Non-moldboard Tillage

The article proposes a refined method for calculating the traction resistance of a loosening share of a universal combined working body for non-moldboard tillage. The basis for calculating the traction resistance of the paw is the calculation of the resistance to the advancement of a straight wedge in an elastic deformable medium. As a soil model for the southern regions of Russia, a two-component system is adopted, representing a solid and gaseous phase, the solid component has rigid bonds. The movement of the lower element is assumed in an elastic deformable medium, which closely reflects the field conditions of the lower paw. The process of processing the soil layer involves a cyclic process, accompanied by the separation of part of the soil volume during the movement of the deformer of the working body. When moving the wedge deformer of the working body in the adopted soil model, local deformation of the soil is allowed due to the destruction of mechanical bonds between large loose particles with smaller, cohesive ones, while filling the gaseous phase adjacent to the surface of the wedge deformer. As stress builds up in the deformable formation, a wedge element crack is formed that reaches the surface. Energy consumption during the processing of the soil layer with a combined working body can be calculated taking into account the theoretical analysis carried out.

Sergey Solovyov, Vladimir Zhigulsky, Inna Sulak
Legal Regulation of the Production of Meat and Dairy Products as the Main Food Products of the Consumer Basket

The article is devoted to the study of the regulation of the production of meat and dairy products, storage, transportation and sale of meat and dairy products in the Russian Federation produced by an agricultural enterprise. The study concluded that meat and dairy products are included in the consumer basket along with products such as meat and bread, and therefore need special legal regulation and quality control. Being strategically important from the point of view of food security, the industry is under the influence of sustainable growth barriers, one of which is an unbalanced system of state regulation. The need to eliminate contradictions in the regulatory system of the industry, the development of a system of partnerships between the state and processing companies, as well as the insufficient degree of elaboration of the problem - became decisive when choosing the topic of scientific research.

Oksana Grechenkova
Innovation as a Strategic Direction for Increasing the Economic Efficiency of the Agro-Industrial Complex

The main goal of the article is to study the state of the agro-industrial complex and the level of its economic efficiency in order to identify the main directions of its work as conditions for realizing the economic potential of Russia. The study used methodological analysis tools, systematization of theoretical concepts and open sources of data from Rosstat. Analyzed the statistical data of the development of the Russian agro-industrial complex: profitability of production, production volumes of the main types of crop and livestock products. The problems of development in agriculture in Russia are highlighted: weak efficiency of activities in the field of research and development, development is largely based on extensive technologies, mechanisms that contribute to the intellectual and sustainable development of the complex have not been developed. The aforementioned theoretical concepts and statistical data made it possible to draw conclusions about the need to modernize the agro-industrial complex, enhance innovative activity in the agricultural sector in all areas of activity. In order to increase the economic potential of the agro-industrial complex, it is advisable to concentrate on building mechanisms for the rational management of the identified determinants of ensuring efficiency. The systematization of agricultural innovations is proposed with examples of their application in agricultural enterprises, which are divided into categories such as: economic, social, organizational, technological. Key measures to improve the efficiency of the agro-industrial complex are presented, in which preference is given to innovative measures.

Lyubov Pudeyan, Elena Zaporozceva, Tatiana Medvedskaya, Oksana Yuryeva
Agro-Industrial Complex of the National Economy as an Object of State Policy

The article discusses political science approaches to the study of the Russian agro-industrial complex, identifies the features of the implementation of agrarian policy in the Russian Federation and defines its goals. The purpose of the study was to conduct a political analysis of the state agrarian policy pursued in the Russian Federation, identify problems in the functioning of the agro-industrial complex of the national economy and develop recommendations for improving the agrarian policy of modern Russia. Various methodology was used during the study. The research was carried out based on objective facts and logical and analytical tools of scientific knowledge, which contributed to obtaining new scientific ideas about the development of the agricultural sector. The applied methodology determined the main directions of the research, ensured the comprehensiveness of obtaining information, and made it possible to systematize the acquired knowledge. The research is based on the methods of analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, structural-functional, comparative and logical-legal methods. The article presents the results of a study that reveals the provisions and mechanisms of state policy to support the development of infrastructure in the agro-industrial complex. In the course of the study, priority areas of state support for the agro-industrial complex were identified. The author proposes directions for improving the state policy for the development of the agro-industrial complex of the Rostov region, and also proposes political mechanisms and tools that can be used by public authorities of the Russian Federation in order to develop entrepreneurship in the agricultural sector of the Russian economy and support economic entities in the field of agriculture.

Oleg Artyukhin, Ashkhen Gevorgyan, Anna Kritskaya, Irina Abramova, Alexander Bobrovnich
An Integrated Approach to the Implementation of Resource-Saving Technologies in Dryland Farming

An effective area in the production of agricultural output is to provide stabilizing conditions for the competitive operation of enterprises. The need to perform the main field works in certain periods causes an uneven loading of equipment and machine operators. This increases the need for resourcing of enterprises. These negative phenomena can be smoothed out by an alternate concentration of resources on the main operations of cultivating crops for the two-shift operation of the available equipment and the alternate-cyclic performance of production processes during each period of field works. This allows one and provides for the need to increase successive cycles due to the effective crop succession and the number of cultivated crops in the crop rotation. The system of production processes in crop growing is planned taking into account the specific conditions of enterprises. The natural and climatic conditions of the Southern Urals differ significantly. This determines the specialization of production in the cultivation of certain crops.

Gennady Okunev, Sergey Shepelev, Nikolay Kuznetsov, Sanzhar Kanaptaev
Veterinary-Sanitary Inspection of Carcasses of Animals with Scrapie of Sheep and Goats

In this article, the veterinary-sanitary examination of animal carcasses with such a disease as scrapie is considered. For our country, this disease is quite exotic, and at the same time topical. The exoticism is due to the fact that scrapie is not so widespread. The actuality lies in the fact that this disease does not manifest itself immediately and there are no clear clinical manifestations, this disease cannot be diagnosed for a long time. These factors introduce significant doubts into the quality of livestock products received from the manufacturer, which must be taken into account during veterinary-sanitary examination in laboratories. To estimate the state of health and predict the quality of sheep slaughter products, great importance should be given to the study of changes in patterns in clinical, anamnestic, morphological, metric and anatomical indicators of the animal organism. The use of these indicators will reveal certain patterns that will form the basis of a number of rules for modern veterinary-sanitary assessment of animal slaughter products. Identification of infected animals for scraping occurs in the last stages. This can be related to the fact that the course of the disease passes covertly for a long time and there are no obvious clinical, anamnestic, morphological, metric and anatomical changes. That creates certain threats not only for livestock population, since the disease is transmitted from animals to each other, but also for people, because the transmission of pathogens from the animal to human is possible.

Nadezhda Taranukha, Natalia Fedota, Yuliya Dyachenko, Eduard Gorchakov, Bagama Bagamaev
Evaluation of the Influence of the Discrete Elements’ Shape on the Results of Soil Modelling

Computer modelling of soil media based on the discrete elements’ method for studying their interaction with working tools and travel systems of agricultural machinery is the modern way for optimizing the parameters of agricultural machinery. The research aims to assess the effect of particle size and shape on the results of the contact model’s physical and mechanical calibration parameters during soil modelling based on the discrete elements’ method. The paper presents the results of the basic physical and mechanical parameters calibration of the soil pattern modelled by discrete elements in the form of polyhedra. The parameters of the simulated particles such as surface energy, equivalent diameter and the number of discrete particles’ faces have been taken as the studied factors. Calibration was performed according to the natural slope angle. Comparison of the modelling results and experimental soil studies allowed assessing the significance of the selected factors and their impact on the draught resistance of tillage working tools.

Zakhid Godzhaev, Salavat Mudarisov, Ildar Farkhutdinov
Word-Formation Guesswork and Its Potential in Teaching Scientific Style of Speech to Foreign Students

The article reveals the necessity of teaching word formation in the context of other aspects and phenomena of the language in lessons of Russian as a foreign language. It also shows the ways of contributing to educational process-intensification in general. The relevance of the topic is represented by the communicative approach of teaching Russian as a foreign language, given that studying the linguistic section “Word-formation” contributes to communication skills development. The authors prove the importance of the correct order and amount of information when explaining word-building patterns, their functional characteristics, using context to ascertain meaning among students. When a teacher comments on the semantic meaning of the words, their combinability, and word-building capabilities are to be explained to the students. In doing so, the authors offer two tools: 1) Exercises aimed at reinforcing knowledge of derivational patterns in all types of speech and styles with a special emphasis on the scientific kins. Such exercises enhance the connection between all subsystems of the language and develop a student’s language association; 2) Exercises aimed at preventing derivation errors by integrating general linguistic knowledge. Thus the professor can explain the suffix derivation simultaneously, paying attention to categories of gender, noun declension, verb transitivity and reflexivity, and so on.

Olga Nikolenko, Elena Shapovalova, Irina Savchenkova
Style Correlation in Teaching Russian as a Foreign Language

The article describes the linguistic phenomena of stylistic differentiation and correlation (taking into account structural and semantic variants corresponding to a particular style) and substantiates the need for their presentation to a foreign audience in classes in Russian as a foreign language. In the process of methodical analysis, the authors prove that the functional correlation of educational material helps foreign students to understand the lexical and grammatical interdependence of Russian oral and written speech, to master the nuances of the functioning of language units in different styles, taking into account situational communicative attitudes and pragmatic deployment of a phrase. To solve methodological issues, the paper proposes a number of exercises that present language material, taking into account its division into lexical and grammatical groups with prepositional-case distributors and their variants in the scientific style of speech and aimed at developing in students the skills and abilities of automatic speech production of thought as a household, as well as scientific.

Olga Nikolenko, Elena Shapovalova, Victoria Pankova
Features of Bankruptcy of Agricultural Organizations

The article characterizes the features of insolvency (bankruptcy) of agricultural organizations. The factors of the internal and external environment leading to the bankruptcy of agricultural organizations are considered. Methods for assessing the probability of bankruptcy of an agricultural organization are analyzed. Signs of assessing the probability of bankruptcy are revealed, such as a decrease in liquidity, investment profit, profitability; profit instability; low cost of securities; an increase in the company’s debt. The current bankruptcy procedures for agricultural organizations are disclosed, such as supervision; financial recovery; external management of the agricultural organization. The problems of legal regulation of bankruptcy of agricultural organizations in Russia are revealed. The importance of state support in preventing the insolvency of agricultural organizations is determined. Three directions are proposed for stimulating the process of attracting investments in the sphere of agro-industrial production on the part of the state. It is concluded that the mechanism of state regulation of bankruptcy of agricultural organizations has certain disadvantages. Possible ways of solving the problems posed are proposed.

Ekaterina Trunova
Analysis of Changes in the Tax Legislation of the Russian Federation: Issues of Eliminating the Shortcomings of the Organizational and Legal Aspect of the Tax System

The article is devoted to the topic «Analysis of changes in the tax legislation of the Russian Federation: issues of eliminating the shortcomings of the organizational and legal aspect of the tax system». The relevance of the questions posed, the author determined the need to study and analyze the problems in the modern tax system that arises in the field of tax legislation, taxation procedure, tax administration and control. The author analyzes changes in the tax legislation of the Russian Federation, studies the views of lawyers on the need for state regulation of the tax system, offers his own understanding of further improvement of legislation that will eliminate the shortcomings of the existing organizational and legal aspect of the tax system to create an effective legal field in the field of tax relations in order to maintain the state of law and order in the tax sphere and increase the level of tax security. The analysis of the current level of taxation of the domestic agro-industrial complex is carried out; the mechanism of tax incentives for the development of the agro-industrial complex of Russia is investigated. The main tax benefits provided to agribusiness organizations are considered.

Liana Barashyan
Applying the Pedagogical Workshops Technology in the Framework of Continuing Education

The article describes the experience of using the pedagogical workshop technology in the framework of continuing education implemented at the Don State Technical University. The author substantiates the need to use this technology as one of the active teaching methods in the system of pre-university, university and postgraduate education, including in the continuous process of professional development of scientific and pedagogical workers. The theoretical foundations of the personality-oriented approach are revealed, the theory of the development of the pedagogical workshops technology is analyzed, criteria and indicators of its effectiveness are highlighted, a technological map of the lesson based on the described technology is proposed. The choice of principles (the principle of anthropocentrism, the principle of axiological orientation, the principle of intersubject communication, the principle of communication) is justified. Summarizing the experience of work at the stage of pre-university, university and postgraduate education, the author comes to the conclusion that the implementation of the pedagogical workshops technology within the framework of educational projects of DSTU contributes to the implementation of personality-oriented and subject-subject approaches in the educational space of the university; the development and formation of emotional, spiritual, creative and other types of intellects among the participants of the workshop (students and participants); improves the communicative, cognitive and professional competencies of the students of advanced training courses. This work may be of interest to subjects’ teachers of the humanities cycle, teachers of additional education, advanced training courses organizations.

Anna Belozerova
The Signification of General Problematics and Budgeting Development Options in the Integrated Systems of Corporate Type in the Agro-industrial Complex

The present article presents the issues related to the possibilities of budgeting processes optimization in large integrated structures of agro-industrial complex. The article considers the common problems of budgeting processes in the integrated structures operating in the agro-industrial complex, and describes possible ways of their solution. We propose the coordinated approach for the budgeting process optimization in the integrated structures of agro-industrial complex. Possible budget scenarios are described, which are formed as a result of a coordinating approach to the budgeting process. The author’s vision of the factors that determine the effectiveness of the budgeting process in large integrated structures in the agro-industrial complex is proposed. The proposed system of strategic parameters and objectives makes it possible to ensure close linkage of the budgeting process with the overall operating strategy of integrated structures functioning in the agro-industrial complex, will allow integrating operational and strategic planning, increasing management flexibility and data transparency, choosing the most optimal development options based on an analysis of deviations in budget parameters.

Irina Bogdanova, Mikhail Posolin
The Specific of Using Media Technologies in Learning Foreign Language

The article examines the effect of information and communicative technologies in high education in Russia in the requirement of the European integration. The authors analyse the changes in methods of teaching foreign languages in a higher education institute finding out positive and negative tendencies. Researching the main media technologies which should be used and improve the process of teaching students. Analysing the role and the place of a teacher in the process of teaching foreign languages in the circumstances of using media widely. New forms of communication of a teacher and students are also specified. In the article advantages and disadvantages of using computer technologies are studied, too. And it is explained why it is important to use modern technologies in studying foreign language and how it can help in working with students, what main features should be taken in consideration and what programs are better to use in working with students.

Anzhelika Gadakchyan, Nina Kapitonova, Natalia Treboukhina, Natalia Ustinova
The Specifics of the Manifestation of Psychological Mechanisms of Self-regulation in the Leaders of the Agro-industrial Complex

The modern economic environment as a whole and the conditions for managing any agro-industrial sector impose a number of requirements on the personality of the manager as a professional in his field. This manifests itself in the need to acquire professional knowledge and skills in the face of constantly changing requirements, plan your activities for a short and / or long-term period, as well as multiple behavioral flexibility. The object of the research was 40 heads of various experimental production enterprises of the Rostov region. We hypothesized that there may be differences in the functioning of self-regulation mechanisms among managers of the agro-industrial complex. In the course of the empirical study, the following diagnostic methods were used: “USK” by J. Rotter, V. I. Morosanova), “Research of volitional self-regulation” (A.V. Zverkova, E. V. Eidman). The results obtained in the course of the study can be used in the work of practicing psychologists, in the recruitment system in the field of industry and the agricultural sector, as well as for any manager.

Anastasya Kolenova, Anna Kukulyar, Evgenia Pokul, Oksana Saakyan
Development of the Bachelor’s Major “Applied Mechanics” at T-University

In order to further develop and improve the university program for the training of mechanical engineers, the paper considers the fundamental changes in the curriculum for the training of bachelors in the program “Applied Mechanics”, profile “Software Systems of Computer Engineering”. For the training of specialists in the environment of the T-university, a new major developed for this educational program is described.

Andrey Matrosov, Irina Serebryanaya, Arkady Soloviev, Daria Nizhnik, Irina Vislousova, Vladimir Kotov, Olga Lesnyak
Formation of Communication Skills in Toddlers with Speech Delay Using a Sensory Room

The article presents the necessity of the formation of communication skills in toddlers with speech delay using a sensory room. Particular attention is paid to the consideration of the speech therapy program for remedial work of communication skills in toddlers with speech delay, and the peculiarity of the tasks at each stage of the research. During the research, the content of the speech therapy was developed, the results obtained during the diagnostics were taken into account. The program of the sensor room was taken as a basis. The purpose of the program: the development of communication skills in toddlers with speech delay using the environment of the sensory room. The program included the developed perspective plan with the inclusion of a dark and light environment of the sensory room. Speech therapy is presented in two blocks: the dark environment of the sensory room, the light environment of the sensory room. Each unit included relaxation and activating equipment. The possibilities of using a sensory room as an effective resource for the formation of communication skills with adults and peers in toddlers with speech delay are shown.

Elena Klimkina, Ekaterina Bocharova
The Paradigm of Internet News Headlines: A Transformational Approach

The purpose of this work is to consider Internet news headlines from the point of view of a transformational approach; 2) when disclosing this issue, pay special attention to the formation of correlative paradigms of Internet headlines united by a common denotative meaning; 3) describe ways of semantic interaction of Internet headline paradigms based on different types of thematic deployment. Methodology. Paradigms of headlines, complementing each other in informational and pragmatic aspects, form the discourse of Internet headlines. The research is also based on the method of continuous sampling in the selection of practical material, the method of quantitative and qualitative analysis. The article analyzes the frequency methods of lexical and syntactic transformations of the original headings, on the basis of which the constituents of paradigms are formed. Conclusions/recommendations. When processing the data obtained in the course of this study, it turned out that correlative paradigms referring to the same news event organize the discourse of Internet headlines, as a result of acquaintance with which the addressee forms a multi-aspect representation of the news event at the stage of acquaintance with the headlines. This specificity of the functioning of Internet news headlines makes it possible to consider the headlines as mintexts.

Yana Kosyakova
The Land Issue in the Post-Soviet Space

The main idea of the study is to identify the patterns of development of capitalist relations in the post-Soviet space based on the characteristics of the current state of agriculture in the scientific works of sociologists, economists and lawyers. As a result of the analysis of the legal regime of agricultural land in the Russian Federation and the states of the post-Soviet space that have genetically common Soviet roots (the Republics of Belarus, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, the Republic of Lithuania and Azerbaijan), a team of authors classified the features of regulation, using as a criterion the ratio of two forms property (public and private), a combination of management methods in the field of agriculture (centralized and decentralized), and described the existing models of legal regulation of the agricultural sphere of relations. The article names the problematic trends in the transformation of the Soviet system of land relations into the post-Soviet one, such as the concentration of land ownership in agricultural holdings, the formal prevalence of private property in the form of shares, without real allocation of land plots in kind, the enlargement of cities at the expense of agricultural land, costly bureaucratic requirements for monitoring, cadastral registration of land plots and the practically free transfer of agricultural land to another type of permitted use, including construction and trade, which requires the state to abandon the formal approach to regulating land relations and move from form to content.

Viktor Linkin, Zinaida Lusegenova, Tatyana Pasikova, Olesya Ryabus, Evgeniya Tutinas
Orthodox Clergy of the South of Russia in the Conditions of Socio-political Upheavals in 1917 (Spiritual and Moral Aspects and Lessons of the Past for Students of the Agribusiness and Mechanical Engineering Faculties)

Appeal to the designated topic is associated with a significant interest in the history of the Russian Church and Orthodox thought and creates the prerequisites for a deeper study of the history of the Civil War. The reaction of the clergy of the South of Russia to the revolutionary upheavals and military conflicts of the early 20th century, their attitude to politics and views on reforms in the Church have largely remained a blank spot in historiography. The South of Russia (in the context of the subject under consideration) is of particular interest as a complex multi-confessional region with a broad representation of the Cossacks, which became one of the centers of the white movement during the Civil War. The methodological basis of the work was formed at the intersection of such sciences as theology, history and philosophy, as well as at the intersection of research principles and methods of the classical model of scientific historical research and modern methodology, which are based on the principles of historicism and consistency. Consideration of the problem is carried out on a universal source base, including church records management, reports of the White Guard Osvag and regional periodicals, with the involvement of the main historiography on the problem. The authors show that various political forces during the Civil War recognized the socio-political potential of Russian Orthodoxy. Complex in political structure, the White movement sought to support this traditional institution in their own interests, pinning their hopes on the unifying, moral and patriotic role of the Church. This article has been prepared on the basis of the lessons “Fundamentals of Morality” and “Fundamentals of Orthodox Culture” for students of the agro-industrial and mechanical engineering departments in order to familiarize themselves with the lessons of the Russian past, with topics of spiritual and moral orientation”.

Julia Biryukova, Tamara Olenich, Natalia Shakhbanova
Language Corpora: Obtaining Data for Modern Linguistic Research and Solving Translation Problems

Language corpora are seen by the authors as contemporary tools of linguistic and translation studies which are in urgent modern need. This work examines the typology of methods of using factual material presented in language corpora in modern linguistic research, as a guarantee of obtaining objective linguistic data, for e.g. compiling dictionaries and reference books, testing automatic text processing systems and checking the consistency of the proposed linguistic theories. It also describes the ways of optimizing the use of the language corpus functionality while solving problems of translation such as searching for the desired word form both in various contexts and in the contexts set in within certain parameters. The linguistic corpus can also provide special assistance to translators who work in a specific thematic area. The use of linguistic corpora allows translators to carry out such translation tasks as creation and replenishment of dictionaries functioning as part of machine translation systems, elimination of polysemy of lexical units as a result of computer use of a context, automatic check of the correctness of the translation, selection of possible translation equivalents, more accurate translation of phraseological units and terms, etc.

Anush Melikyan, Elena Nikolaeva, Nika Plotnikova, Ani Babloyan
Project Activity Usage in the Remote Learning Course in Institutions

The paper analyses methods and techniques, and principles of distance learning. The remote learning organization is based on modern information and telecommunication technologies usage, which allows carrying out learning not in an audience, and on distance without direct contact between the teachers and trained. The paper considers advantages of the learning remote form in comparison with traditional learning are its personification, modularity. The purpose of distance learning is not only training to facts of common knowledge and actions, but it’s also principles of free orientation in a material, first of all, using electronic sources. Basis of remote formation is independent work of the trainee purposeful both supervised and intensive, that helps trained to receive the necessary educational information in a place convenient for them, under the individual schedule, having at itself the complete set of special tutorials and the subsequent possibility of internal contact to the teacher. The authors carried out effective research on the teaching methods and technologies among the learners who are majoring in project activities. More often, the teacher to apply a flexible, individual technique of training, offers students the additional blocks of teaching materials focused on certain subjects, various exercises and, references to information resources.

Svetlana Savela, Elena Bogatskaia
Legal Regulation of Taxation of Agricultural Activities in the Russian Federation and Foreign Countries

The article outlines the basic principles of taxation of agriculture in Russia and in foreign countries, discusses the theoretical foundations for building a tax system in foreign countries, the transformation of tax policy in the field of agriculture. An analysis of the incentive function of taxation in agriculture in various countries has been carried out: some common features of these systems of agricultural taxation have been identified. The purpose of the article is to analyze the current situation by considering the existing norms of taxation of agriculture both in the Russian Federation and in some foreign countries. It is concluded that the tax policy pursued in Europe, the United States and other countries in relation to agriculture makes the most of the tax incentives principle. The existing tax policy makes it possible to tax agricultural income without restricting the development of agricultural enterprises, and often stimulating their functioning.

Ekaterina Sapozhnikova, Aleksandr Maksimenko
Simulation of Media Technology Products Functioning in the Communication Space

The development of media communication was the reason for the emergence and development of a single communication space, as a result of which such concepts as “electronic government”, “digital economy” appeared. In the case of our study, the object will be a statement mediated by one or another speech intention and designed according to the laws of natural language. We will resort to modeling the information product of interest to us. Recognizing the variety of ways of modeling, we consider it appropriate to dwell on a model based on the dichotomy of spheres within which the communicative act functions. The object of media communication is the information itself, which is evaluated by the individual in terms of its sufficiency for solving the task or for making a decision that has personal significance for him. Receiving information from any source indicates the realization of the communicant’s goals and, consequently, the success of the communicative act. In the case of our study, the object will be a statement mediated by one or another speech intention and designed according to the laws of natural language.

Rafail Tazapchiyan, Elena Shapovalova, Victoria Pankova
Assessment of the Food Embargo Impact on the Trajectory of Foreign Trade Development in Agricultural Products

The food embargo imposed by the Russian Federation reduced foreign trade operations with a large group of countries that should have led to a change in the geographical structure of Russia’s foreign trade. Based on the statistical database of International trade centre and customs RF, the export-import operations of the Russian Federation with counterparty countries are analyzed and the main changes in the geographical structure of foreign trade are revealed. The conducted research partially refutes the existence of only a negative effect from the introduction of the food embargo. Undoubtedly, Russia, like the EU countries, suffers significant losses from sanctions, but due to the introduction of the embargo the country was able to significantly increase exports of its agricultural products, including to countries on the sanction list. The result of the sanctions war is a reduction in foreign trade cooperation with EU countries not only in agriculture, but also in other areas. Despite the bellicose rhetoric, the United States has increased its share in the foreign trade turnover of the Russian Federation. The search for new significant foreign trade partners in Latin America and Africa has not yielded any qualitative results. Cooperation with these countries continues to be random and not on an ongoing basis.

Tatiana Tukhkanen, Svetlana Bludova, Alexandra Voronina, Olga Elchaninova
Rural Tourism as the Basis for the Development of Territories - “Ecosystem Living Villages of the Don”

The purpose of this article is to consider the problem of rural tourism development on the example of modeling the creation processes and the prospects for the implementation of the project “Ecosystem Living Villages of the Don”. Based on the analysis of studies carried out in the field of rural development based on rural tourism resources, as well as the implementation of specific projects in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the authors of this article found a number of problems. One of the options for solving the identified problems is to develop the potential of rural tourism as an effective and powerful tool for the “revitalization” of rural areas, in order to attract young people to living in rural areas. Thus, support and development of the potential of rural tourism will allow solving important strategic tasks of the region, including its further prospective development. As the main methodological approach in the implementation of the goal of the study are the methods of swot analysis, structural-functional analysis, and modeling. Together, the synergistic effect of the methods used made it possible to form a model for the implementation of the new regional project “Ecosystem Living Villages of the Don”.

Margarita Finko, Mariya Kicha
The Possibilities of Simulation-Based Training in Medicine and Other Fields

Simulation-based training is considered as a type of modern technology for training highly qualified specialists aimed at developing professional competence in specialists of the medical sphere. Simulation-based training is aimed at developing and improving hands-on practical skills. Simulation-based training allows developing practical skills, communication skills, principles and teamwork skills. Implementing the system for specialists accreditation; the foundation of national scientific and practical centres and scientific and educational medical clusters; providing high-technology medical care - several directions the innovative development of medicine. The main advantages of the simulation approach in training are highlighted: stress reduction during the first independent manipulations; the possibility of gaining experience without risk to the patient; unlimited number of repetitions when practicing practical skills, the use of high-tech equipment. The use of elements for simulating practical skills, phantoms, mannequins and equipment analogues allows improving the quality of mastering theoretical material and mastering practical skills that are necessary for a university graduate, both a young specialist and a working specialist.

Lyubov Khoronko, Ekaterina Bondarenko
Improving Lexical Skills as an Important Part of Teaching English

This article discusses the formation of lexical skills in teaching English, the peculiarities of speaking and the identification of difficulties. Lexis in the system of language means is the most important component of speech activity. This determines its crucial role in teaching foreign language, since the formation and improvement of lexical skills is constantly in the field of view of the teacher. Lexical lingual units, alongside with grammatical ones, are the initial and necessary material units which help to carry out speech activity, and, therefore, constitute one of the main content components of teaching any foreign language. Lexical competence is the ability of students to determine the contextual meaning of a word, to distinguish its national characteristic features. Performing a nominative function and providing speech with semantic material, lexis appears to be a unique phenomenon which performs vital functions. Acquiring new vocabulary contributes to the development of the linguistic world outlook, as students get additional knowledge about the culture, the history and realities of the country of studied language.

Lidianna Chunakhova, Natalya Gerasimova, Anna Podkovalnikova, Anastasiya Kravtsova
New Functions of Leisure and Students’ Satisfaction with Its Organization

The authors studied the expectations of the modern learning young people in the field of organization of the educational and leisure activities and their assessment of its current state. The sphere of leisure time is considered as a substantial framing of learning activity, that creates conditions for independent value-based and cultural self-determination of the developing personality. A randomized questionnaire survey of the students in grades 7–10 of the secondary schools in Rostov region, Russia (N = 4037, 59.3% of girls) on the issues of organization of youth leisure time and learning activities carried out by educational and cultural institutions was conducted. An empirical study was carried out in 2019. By processing the sociological information, the results of a qualimetric study, analysis and explication of the ratio of learning and leisure activities of the schoolchildren by the levels of satisfaction with their organization were represented. Modern social and pedagogical approaches were proposed to take into account the dynamics of youth expectations in the field of leisure time, as well as to the organization of learning and leisure time in the modern conditions of the educational institutions.

Natalia Basina, Yuliya Rybalka, Alexey Guz
Spanglish Code-Switching in Social Media

Spanglish is a new idiom based on transcultural flows principle. The extensive use of such phenomena is promoted by a wide range of social media. The objective of this article is to enlist and discuss the main types of code-switching morphological and syntactical patterns in Spanglish applying the methods of linguistic, componential, distribution and statistical analysis. The paper focuses on the New-York dialect of Spanglish as used in Twitter messages posted by Miguel Bloombito, an American satirist of Puerto Rican origin. As seen from the corpus obtained, Spanglish translingual idiom dwells mainly on code-swiching at the grammatical level where the largest number of contaminated elements is revealed. The proposed classification of Spanglish elements at this level gives evidence that this idiom demostrates a tendency towards standardization. The article sums up that Spanglish translingual idiom, which resulted from the contact of linguistic cultures in a multi-ethnic state, demonstrates a high degree of grammatical convergence of prototype languages, expressed through switching and mixing codes. Ultimately, the variety of Spanglish used in social media represents a new means of social transcultural interaction which serves to overcome existing discriminatory barriers in the modern US society.

Marina Semenova
The Features of the Formation of Communication as Interaction in Primary School Children with Mental Delay

The article considers the characteristic features of the speech and socio-psychological development of primary school children with mental delay. One of the types of communicative universal educational actions - communication as interaction is analyzed. There are two types of skills of communication as interaction: speech skills as a basis and socio-psychological skills that make up the psycho-emotional basis of communication as an interaction. Speech skills include the ability to make understandable phrases, in accordance with the norms of the grammar of the native language; ask questions; to keep oral and written dialogue. Socio-psychological ones include the ability to formulate one’s own position and opinion, as well as the ability to understand and take into account the positions and points of view of others that differ from one’s own point of view. The criteria for assessing the level of development of communication as interaction in primary school children with mental delay are highlighted. The results of studying the features of the development of communication as interaction and the main directions of remedial and developmental work to overcome the identified difficulties are presented.

Marina Skuratovskaya, Elena Romanova, Larisa Kobrina
Assessment of Supranational Regulation and Economic Instruments Impact of on the Country’s Food Security

Integration processes in the EAEU are currently developing against the background of new global geo-economic, scientific, technological, socio-economic challenges, there is a constant active comprehensive development of cooperation with external partners, which is one of the important components of the successful functioning of the EAEU. An urgent task is to develop theoretical and methodological provisions for managing the processes of transnationalization and integration of the agricultural sector of the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union. To this end, a system of indicators was formed to assess the effectiveness of measures to manage the processes of transnationalization in agriculture, the dependence of the development of the industry on an effective program of adaptation of organizations to new economic conditions was established, which should take into account the complex of processes in the market, political, economic and other factors affecting the effectiveness of activities and make provisions for managing the processes of transnationalization in agriculture within the prospects of deepening the integration of agricultural markets of the EAEU countries, as well as their inclusion in the global agri-food system. The use of indices and indicators of transnationalization and integration will make it possible to monitor and exert managerial influence on the processes of integration and interpenetration of economic complexes of the Union countries in the conditions of inclusion in global economic systems.

Sergei Schitov, Nadezhda Likholetova
The Challenges of Language Learning in a New Reality: Reflecting Practices of Using Online Tools

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to dramatic changes in education triggering a sharp increase in the adoption of e-learning, whereby teaching is carried out remotely via digital platforms. Computer-based learning systems offer benefits by increased flexibility about place, time and learning pace. In addition, these platforms tend to be far more interactive with respect to language instruction compared to traditional learning settings. Still, there is an evident lack of empirical research on the various challenges and learning metrics e-learning methodologies exposes. While approaches exist to measure the learning progress of students in e-learning environments, practical comparisons and analysis of different learning scenarios and its obstacles are still rare. This paper explicitly addresses this gap by surveying the practices and challenges involved in using selected synchronous online tools and discussing the feedback of students and teaching staff during the prolonged periods of online-teaching. The results presented here, albeit limited, strongly suggest that language students tend to regard online-teaching very positively. While the possibility of staying at home and the increased schedule flexibility were clearly seen by a majority of our participants as an advantage, the lack of in-person contacts and recurring technical problems, were often cited drawbacks. Instructors, on the other hand, consistently mentioned the lack of student discipline and insufficient IT knowledge as their major challenges in using synchronous online-teaching. While, we do not claim that the results are applicable to other learning fields, we point out which factors influenced the learning experience most and suggest possible ways for successful e-learning.

Natalia Treboukhina, Yulia Goncharova, Nils Bickenbach, Anush Melikyan, Olga Moysova
Socio-cultural Dynamics of the Media Content of Art Education in the Higher School of the Future

Today, discussions are actively underway about the education of the future, about what it will be based on, what needs of society to respond to, what to fill, in what direction to develop. Visualization is becoming one of the main modern features, moreover, at almost all stages of the educational process. Media and digital technologies have been actively introduced into almost all spheres of society, and, of course, into the educational environment. Solving some of the tasks and goals of education with the use of digital technologies becomes more effective and efficient for both sides of the learning process: both the teacher and the student. The definition of the socio-cultural role of educational media content, the training of teachers professionally proficient in digital technologies, the creation of an information-filled pedagogical effective resource is one of the main tasks of the education of the future. The teacher of the future is a universal professional who possesses digital competencies on a par with students who are representatives of the digital environment and the Internet generation. The modern educational space cannot be successful without the introduction of digital technologies, without the creation of media content. One of the comfortable educational areas where digitalization is successfully included can be called art education, where the aspect of visualization is the main and leading one.

Anna Mokina, Lubov Khoronko
The Ambivalence of the Russian National Character as a Factor in the Instability of Russian Statehood in the XX Century

The historical digression of the authors of the article into the turbulent events of the 20th century leads us to the idea that one of the main reasons for the collapse of the twice Russian statehood in the 20th century is the duality (ambivalence) of the Russian national character, in which two mutually exclusive psychological complexes coexist surprisingly: the complex of sociocultural inferiority - the disease of “Europeanism” and the complex of social exclusivity – “Moscow is the Third Rome”, creating antinomic tension inside the Russian spirit, restless at the “abyss on the edge”, bifurcating and tearing its integrity. Analyzing the genesis and chronology of the historical events of the twentieth century in Russia, the authors of the article rely on the philosophical and literary works of F.M. Dostoevsky, I.P. Pavlova, K.N. Leontiev, offer the Russian society a strategy for the revival and development of Russia in the 21st century. People are united in an ethnos not so much by the realization of a common interest, but mainly by the subconscious attraction of people to each other, based on the commonality of special stereotypes of behavior. Recall that the mentality (from the Latin “mentalis” mental) is the stereotypes of attitude and behavior characteristic of a given group (ethnic, social, etc.), the mindset and way of thinking that determine the life position, as well as the features of its manifestation.

Nikolay Lubetskiy, Tatiana Verina, Ludmila Demyanova, Ol’ga Mavropulo, Irina Usova
Features of Conspiratorial Mentality and Critical Thinking of Managers

The aim of the study was to discover the relationship between critical thinking, personality traits and belief in conspiracies of middle managers. The author’s view on the system of mentality, where conspiratorial attitudes are a substantial part, is presented. The sample is presented by 60 managers aged between 29 and 45 years with work experience from 15 to 25 years. We used the author’s method “Conspirativistic mentality”; multifactorial personality questionnaire FPI; Starkey Critical Thinking Test. We used the Mann-Whitney difference criterion and correlation analysis. The presence of interest and belief in conspiracies in a group of managers has been empirically confirmed. The most pronounced of them are the belief in conspiracies of pharmaceutical companies, a political conspiracy, the end of the world, a grocery conspiracy. They are associated with high indicators of critical thinking and certain personality traits (spontaneous aggressiveness, irritability, reactive aggressiveness, openness, emotional lability). Despite the fact that today in a difficult, crisis economic situation, managers have to make difficult managerial decisions, they adhere to the belief in conspiracies. It is concluded that conspirativistic attitudes play a protective function of reducing aggression and there is the need for further study of the conspirativistic mentality.

Vlada Pishchik
Personnel Aspects of the Development of Event Tourism in Rural Areas of the Rostov Region

This article discusses the problems of personnel training for event tourism, including for the development of event tourism in the Rostov region. The main areas of activity that require development for a deeper study of the presented problem are identified. Higher educational institutions today do not provide students with the necessary minimum of practically applicable knowledge, in order to after graduation from the university, graduates become valuable practices in event tourism. As shown in the article, the development of event tourism is a significant factor in the promotion of the territory. It is emphasized that in the Rostov region, the share of event tourism is 40% in the structure of the tourism industry. At the same time, the lack of qualified specialists in this area of the economy, as well as the formed methodological base, do not allow the event market to adequately influence tourist flows and the economy of the region. A special role in this research is given to innovations in the field of tourism education. The main problem of the quality of personnel training in this area is indicated - the distancing of business and territorial authorities from the education system. Possible ways of solving the problem are noted.

Olga Dudkina, Lyudmila Kazmina, Elena Shevchenko
Countermeasures Against Suicidal Behavior Among Young People in Conditions of Increased Anxiety and Depression Levels

The modern youth cultural identity is undergoing changes due to the rapid changes in the socio-cultural environment, in which a young person has no time to realize his place. Suicide is one of the most tragic ways out of a situation associated with the loss of the purpose of life, and with the inability of finding oneself in a changing world. The suicide of young people is the most tragic one. Young people belong to a risk group in this matter. To prevent the suicidal intention of a young person is possible when the signs of impending danger are recognized and by providing effective countering against it. The research purpose is to analyze the traditional countermeasures against suicidal behavior among young people in conditions of increased anxiety and depression levels and to propose the new effective developments in this field. The research methodology includes a philosophical analysis and the use of a specialized, professional psychodiagnostic technique aimed at the point study of “problem areas”: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale developed in 1983. This study is relevant for the adaptation of first-year students, including students of agro-industrial profile.

Tamara Olenich, Anastasia Melnik, Diana Ovcharenko, Vladimir Ataian
Collaborative Writing as an Effective Tool in Teaching Foreign Language Oriented to the Vocational Education of Engineering Students

Education for sustainable development requires the search for advanced teaching and learning methods that motivate and empower students to acquire the knowledge and skills to shape their future. Cooperative learning is one of the most effective methods in terms of involving learners working together on diverse activities. Teaching professionally-oriented foreign languages at engineering universities makes students move toward better writing by putting higher requirements on the writing skills needed for their future employment and career advancement. Thus, the presented paper is aimed at analyzing the theoretical aspects and practical applications of collaborative writing as a powerful tool for creating a more effective learning environment. The paper defines the concept, key principles, stages of implementation, as well as advantages and potential of collaborative writing. Besides, it highlights the opportunities and challenges of digital platforms in providing the technology of collaborative writing. It also contains the results of a survey that confirmed the effectiveness of collaborative writing in teaching a professionally-oriented foreign language. The findings of our study might be useful for both education theorists and practitioners. To further our research, we are planning to analyze the use of collaborative writing technology, expand its possibilities, and enhance the efficiency of its application.

Irina Odaryuk, Valentina Kolmakova, Vera Petrova
Addresser-Addressee Interaction Strategies in Non-fictional Discourse

The paper explores a repertoire of interaction strategies and tactics employed to actively engage the addressee in non-fictional discourse with particular emphasis on self-help books. We see the text as a communicative phenomenon which is shaped to have a particular impact upon the addressee. By impacting addressee’s responses to the text the addresser pursues particular communication goals: to communicate his worldview and to change the addressee’s worldview, gaining empathy from the addressee as a side line; moving towards these goals the addresser uses different strategies and tactics. We hold the view that speech strategy can be regarded as a program designed to produce and perceive speech, which means that text-producing and interpreting strategies show reversibility characteristics. In line with this view, we have extracted interactive blocks from the source text using explicit and implicit engagement markers and clustered them into subsets representing the respective strategies and tactics. The results of the study show that the addresser employs overall communication strategies (strategy of self-presentation and persuasion strategy) and specific discursive strategies (fine-tuning strategy, strategy of dialogization, strategy of theatricalization) to effectively interact with addressees.

Elena Rudenko, Svetlana Marchenko
Project-Oriented Foreign Language Training of Technical Students

The article presents the experience of using a project-oriented teaching a foreign language model in professionally aimed training of technical students. The analysis of the theorists’ research studying the project method and applying it in practice helped to justify the need to use the project method in foreign language classes at the Don State Technical University, to prove its effectiveness in the formation of students’ cognitive independence. The authors conducted an experiment, for the implementation of which special modified Ch. D. Spielberger’s questionnaires were compiled. During the experiment, the method of a professionally oriented project was introduced into the educational module of the discipline “Foreign Language”. The stages of work on the project are described, the roles of participants are indicated. The results obtained are analyzed; the strengths and weaknesses of the creative product are determined; at the stage of reflection, an emotional and psychological state was revealed. Conclusions are drawn that teaching in the format of project activity affects the cognitive interest in the field of foreign language learning; information obtained during the preparation of the project is easier to digest, acquires significance, and emotional involvement contributes to improving the level of language proficiency. The article will be useful for teachers of a foreign language of higher education and teachers of additional education.

Anastasia Evsenkova, Anna Belozerova
Medical Tourism as a Subject of Interest in Foreign Sociology

The development of inbound medical tourism in the Russian Federation requires an analysis of the experience of foreign countries that have succeeded in this process in a relatively short period of time. The article examines the current state of affairs in Russia, highlights the specifics of the strategy for the export of medical services, which are aimed at uniting participants in the medical tourism market at three levels: 1) at the federal level; 2) at the level of Ministries of Health and tourism departments of the regions; 3) at the level of medical organizations. Particular importance is attached to strengthening the best practices of regional health systems. The problematic issues related to the factors of the development of medical tourism, motivations in deciding whether to use medical tourism services, as well as possible risks of medical tourism are also identified. All this is analyzed on the basis of content analysis among large number of foreign sources.

Victor Bakhtin, Larisa Minasyan, Natalia Sedova
Wellness Discourse in the Era of Modern Media Technologies in Communication

The wellness discourse formed on the Internet is considered as a discursive platform for implementing communicative interactions of Internet users aimed at getting or providing wellness services. Analysis of modern media technologies shows that in the conditions of the coronavirus situation in the world, which has changed the degree of human involvement in interactive processes of personal interaction on the Internet, the nature of the promotion of wellness services has changed markedly - the demand for blogging on Instagram or other social media has increased. The boundaries of wellness discourse are also changing, as the communicative activity of participants is constantly growing, thereby changing the value component of the communication vector. Since the terminological base for a clear division of its boundaries is not sufficiently formed in the scientific consciousness, and the mechanisms through which this media practice is formed are not described, the authors attempt to describe this phenomenon from the perspective of modern media technologies that contribute to the formation of wellness hyper discourse.

Irina Sidorova, Mariya Nevzorova, Yelena Vasilyeva, Yekaterina Shishkina
Ethnocultural Discourse in Social and Cultural Activities as a Motivational Factor in Tourism

We wonted to show that the abundance of ethnocultural discourses in the region and the fact that consumers are interested in them is an insufficient incentive for the development of tourism. Materials: 1) data from cultural institutions of the Rostov region and public organizations on leisure activities containing ethnocultural discourses; 2) survey data (N = 91). Sociodemographic characteristics, interest in ethnocultural discourses, willingness to spend resources on attending relevant events were revealed. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to evaluate correlations. Results: 1) dozens of ethnocultural events are held in the region. Many of them are free. 2) Most respondents are ready to spend minimal amounts on ethnocultural events and visit them only in their city, spending one day. Many respondents have never attended thematic events, although they said they would like to and the ethnocultural discourse is interesting to them. Conclusion: the presence in the region of ethnocultural discourses in the social-cultural sphere and the interest of respondents in them is not enough to transform the desire to attend thematic events into real actions. Ethnocultural discourses in the social-cultural sphere by themselves do not have sufficient motivational potential to stimulate the tourist activity of consumers.

Ekaterina Davydova
Prerequisites for the Formation of a Tourist and Excursion Cluster of Industrial Tourism in the Rostov Region

The subject of our paper considers the prerequisites and features of the formation of the excursion cluster of industrial tourism, as this type of exploration is becoming more and more popular in excursion services. In the Rostov region, the trend of industrial production growth continues. According to the Government, the Rostov Region is among the fifteen constituent entities of the Russian Federation, whose industry has been growing annually for the last 10 years. It is also noted the increased attention of tourists to the Rostov region in comparison with previous seasons. Don Krai, also noted by experts on the promotion of new projects of the ASI “Agency of Strategic Initiatives” for the development of industrial tourism. The potential of the Rostov region is such that it allows you to become a member of the All-Russian accelerator for industrial tourism Experts included the city-forming regional enterprises and unique industrial facilities - the Rostselmash and Lemax, Bio-Khutor Petrovsky, the winery of the protected geographical region Don Valley and others. The mechanisms of production, as well as the stories of the companies themselves, are very interesting and are able to open the Don region from a completely new perspective. These are exactly the impressions that a modern tourist sometimes underestimates.

Irina Kedrova, Tatiana Zainullina, Liliya Karich
Online Resources in Distance Learning Russian as a Foreign Language

The article describes the features of distance learning for foreign citizens based on methodological tactics for submitting language material, implemented in online courses for the initial stage. Taking into account the fact that in conditions of non-contact learning and outside the linguistic environment it is much more difficult to transfer to students new linguistic knowledge associated with the cultural characteristics of native speakers, their value orientations and world-view, the authors aim to find such methods that will satisfy the needs of a modern educational institution, in which foreign citizens are also trained. To implement the goal set in the work, a range of issues is designated, focusing on the methodological features of the introduction of linguistic material at all language levels. In the course of the study, it is concluded that the filling of each lesson should correspond to the principle of authenticity and be structured: have a direction of assimilation from phoneme to syntaxes. This implies the creation of such teaching aids in the software system, which will include minimized material, organized according to the principle of complexity and eccentricity, sustained in lexical and grammatical dosage (for example, the introduction of exercises aimed not only at observing and fixing linguistic phenomena, but also to create conditions for their communicative implementation).

Olga Nikolenko, Larisa Babakova, Boris Morenko
Critical Analysis of Language Deviations in Modern Mass Media Metaphorology

It is generally accepted knowledge that mass media is an omnipresent and omnipotent tool for drawing the public’s attention to a particular home or foreign affairs. However, few researchers have addressed the issue of linguistic deviations in the metaphorical coding of information contained in media texts. The present paper aims to validate that the creative ability of the linguistic personality as the discourse recipient is manifested in decoding the communicative process, based on their personal traits, experience, social and cultural background. The theoretical framework is tested on the corpus of more than 100 metaphorological expressions found in the political discourse of contemporary Russian media. The application of the cognitive-semantic approach made it possible to classify metaphors into several thematic groups of linguistic deviations. They are metaphors promoting certain political ideas, encouraging participation in political actions, shaping public opinion, describing political realities, etc. We have obtained comprehensive results proving that coding/decoding metaphorical phrases much depends on a complex set of cultural, linguistic, historical, and social factors that should be taken into account when creating media texts. Our findings will add to a body of literature on metaphors and linguistic deviation in political discourse.

Valentina Kolmakova, Oksana Marunevich, Yulia Karagodskaya
Legal Regulation of Activities in the Tourism Industry

Tourism is a promising field of activity that requires state control. The article discusses the regulations governing the tourism industry. The authorities involved in the regulation of tourism in the Russian Federation are listed. Tourism is an integral part in the life of a modern person. He restores physical strength and satisfies spiritual needs. At the same time, combining active recreation and travel with the provision of services, a fairly profitable sphere in entrepreneurial activity is being formed. The main purpose of the study is to study the ways of legal regulation in the field of tourism industry, as well as the guarantee of consumer rights in the field of tourist services. The subject of the study is the legislation regulating tourism activities. When writing a research paper, regulatory legal acts and draft laws regulating tourism activities are analyzed. And we also noticed a decrease in the number of working travel agencies that are directly engaged in the sale of a tourist product.

Tatiana Agafonova, Ludmila Spektor
The Features of the Formation of the Functional Basis of Reading for Children with Speech Disorders Using Information Technology

The article discusses the theoretical and methodological aspect of correctional and developmental work aimed at the formation of a functional basis for reading in children with speech disorders. The content of the comprehensive developmental program for the formation of the functional basis of reading in children with general underdevelopment of speech “I want to read” is presented, effective information technologies used in the process of working with children with speech disorders are described. The purpose of the work program: the creation of effective psychological and pedagogical conditions aimed at the formation of a functional basis for reading in children with general underdevelopment of speech. During the implementation of the program, tasks related to the activation of the dictionary, the formation of a general culture of speech in the process of acquaintance with literary works, the development of sound and analytical skills, the development of attention, perception, memory, thinking, and the education of positive motivation for reading in children were solved.

Natalia Berdnikova, Natalia Abashina, Nadezhda Manokhina
Ensuring the Economic Security of the Activities of Companies

The purpose of this scientific research is to develop mechanisms for ensuring the economic security of the activities of enterprises of the agro-industrial complex through the application of insurance tools. It should be mentioned that in the conditions of economic uncertainty, improvement and adjustment to the sectoral specificities of the activities of enterprises, insurance tools can act as a certain guarantor of stable operation of a business entity. However, the currently applied insurance mechanisms require the development of certain improvement activities, for instance, considering the economic environment, in which enterprises operate. The structure of the study includes several stages: exploring and summarizing international experience in the field of insurance of transactions for the export of agricultural products (insurance systems in the USA, Norway and China are studied), developing an optimal insurance model in the system of economic security for enterprises operating in the territory of the Russian Federation, identifying insurance conditions, and obtaining final conclusions. The results of the study have a certain value for company executives and can also be used by insurance agencies to expand the range of services. It is important to note that in the current economic conditions, the application of mechanisms that ensure the security of transactions contributes to improving the efficiency of enterprises as a whole.

Lyudmila Medvedeva, Lyudmila Orekhova
Assessment of Strategic Opportunities for State Support of the Enterprises

The goal set for this study is based on the need to develop methodological framework for the processes of assessment and allocation of state support funds to the companies of the agro-industrial complex. The article contains the results of conducted survey, which makes it possible to highlight the problematic aspects identified in the process of allocating funds of government support that are necessary for business entities. Based on the data obtained, the strategic program for the development of companies is elaborated, including the process of identifying milestones and the sources of financing for project areas of the enterprise's functioning. The need to define the key risks and opportunities for the company's activities is highlighted concerning the areas, which are determined as priorities, contributing to the business development. The results of the study can be used both by public authorities in the process of defining priority areas for the development of companies in a particular industry, and by the management of business entities, which are engaged in working out the strategic development programs and are ready to appeal for state support. Such a mechanism will make it possible to effectively evaluate the strategic opportunities of state support in the short and long terms and develop measures and practice-oriented areas for the industry development.

Lyudmila Medvedeva, Elena Ivanova
The Phenomenon of “Medialization of Science” (Modern Media Technologies in the Interaction of Science and Society)

The problem of forming society’s trust in scientific achievements and innovative technologies is urgent for modern scientific communications. In the modern world, anti-scientific views have been taking root in society, casting doubt on the use of the achievements of science and technology in everyday life. Under these conditions, modern mass media play a significant role, on the one hand, influencing the area of scientific research, and on the other hand, forming the image of science in society and the attitude of various social groups towards it. The objective of the article is to study the phenomenon of medialization of science as the most important factor influencing the relationship between scientists and society in the modern world. The author comes to the conclusion that the media environment can both positively and negatively influence modern science. Modern life forces the scientists to master communicative media technologies to promote science and technology to the mass audience, which is far from scientific activity.

Mikhail Pokotylo
Gender and Age Features of Lexico-semantic Fields of Discontent in Different Types of Media Texts

The purpose of the study Wa is to identify gender and age characteristics of the expression of discontent in media texts. The object of the study was journalistic texts written by journalists of different sexes, and comments of young male and female people in social networks. The methodological task was to clarify the possibilities of the linguostatic approach when operating with Big Data. One of the largest databases containing arrays of texts of written and oral speech of various styles was used – the National Corpus of the Russian Language (, hereinafter referred to as NKRYA or Corpus), as well as text messages from users of different genders and ages contained in the social network VKontakte. It was revealed that in journalistic texts written by men and women, the lexeme “protest” is most often found when discussing topics of politics and history, both world and Russian. In the texts of young people in the social network VKontakte, regardless of gender and age, the lexeme of protest, like others semantically associated with discontent, is much less common. At the same time, the sphere of manifestation of discontent is expanding - discussions of real and virtual interpersonal relationships are added. Modification of the list of lexemes with the identification of markers of negative emotions made it possible to identify gender and age characteristics of the manifestation of discontent in the online comments of young people in texts with political themes. Boys aged 21–23 discuss politics more often than girls, while in older age groups the differences between women and men in the frequency of discussing politics are insignificant.

Leonid Kulikov, Dmitry Totskiy, Arina Malyonova, Yulia Potapova
State of Phyto and Zooplankton of Lake Gorkoye, Specially Protected Natural Territory of the Chelyabinsk Region

The paper presents the results of the water analysis of Lake Gorkoye, which is a natural monument of the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia. According to the chemical composition, the water of Lake Gorkoye is highly mineralized, has a slightly alkaline and alkaline reaction of the medium, and is enriched with oxygen. It is shown that the species composition of the phytoplankton of Lake Gorkoye is extremely poor, which is due to the salinity of the water in this reservoir, as well as the presence of a large thickness of specific silt at the bottom. The species composition of the algae of Lake Gorkoye is composed of eury- and stenohaline species, which are widespread in the salt and brackish lakes of the Southern Urals and Western Siberia. The basis of the algal flora of Lake Gorkoye is composed of widespread species of blue-green and green algae, with a very small variety, which is typical for saline and brackish water bodies of the temperate zone. By its composition, the zooplankton of Lake Gorkoye is typical of the salt and brackish-water lakes of the Southern Urals and consists of the eurythermal species and some species of the southern heat-water complex.

Alfira Sibirkina, Sergey Likhachev, Dmitry Dvinin, Georgiy Voitovich, Lyubov Trofimova, Lada Markova, Oksana Mulyukova
Current State of Flora and Vegetation of Overflow Dumps of the Mined Coal Pit Korkinsky

The materials of the study of the complex of plant communities on the territory of the overburden dumps of the Korkinsky coal mine (Korkinsky district, Chelyabinsk region) are analyzed. The analysis includes the results of the performed altitude profiles reflecting the nature of the plant communities of this territory. A taxonomic analysis was carried out and the typological (geographical and biomorphological) structure of the flora was revealed. The number of species and genera in the leading families of the identified flora is given. A high capacity for self-healing in the process of natural successions was revealed in the anthropogenically disturbed territory. The orientation of the processes of transformation of flora and vegetation towards the formation of zonal vegetation types, which are the most stable for any territory and are formed as a result of a complex interaction of zonal-climatic and specific environmental conditions, is shown.

Vera Merker, Vyacheslav Musatov, Andrey Kocherov, Julia Morozyuk, Daria Burundukova
Assessment of the State of Coenopopulation of Stipa Pennata L. in the Forest-Steppe Zone of the Chelyabinsk Region (Etkul and Korkinsky Districts)

This article provides an analysis and desk processing of the results obtained during field studies in 2020 in the forest-steppe zone of the Chelyabinsk region (in the Etkul and Korkinsky districts). As a result of the research, ecological and phytocenotic features of Stipa pennata L. growth were revealed in this territory. The spatial and ontogenetic structures of the studied coenopopulation Stipa pennata L. are evaluated. According to the results of morphometric measurements (the key features studied: the number of generative shoots, the length of the generative shoot and inflorescence, the diameter of the turf), the structure of the viability of generative Stipa pennata L. individuals was determined. All the obtained research results indicate that the studied cenopopulation of the protected species Stipa pennata L. it is stable, and has the possibility of self-maintenance in conditions of anthropogenic impact on the natural environment.

Vera Merker, Julia Morozyuk, Daria Burundukova
Production of Fuel from Agricultural Waste as a Tool for a Regional Environmental and Industrial Policy of Resource-Saving

The article deals with the problems of ecology and resource conservation in the context of the transition to an intensive resource-saving type of economic growth. The relevance is determined by the lack, at the moment, of a systematic assessment that takes into account not only the economic efficiency of resource-saving strategies but also their role in reducing the anthropogenic and agrogenic impact of production on the environment. The paper aims to analyze the basic approaches to resource conservation, identify the distinctive features of modern agricultural technologies, and propose a promising way to process agricultural waste. Particular attention is paid to implementing the resource potential of the agricultural sector of the economy of a localized industrial region to reduce the level of environmental risks through the processing of hazardous biological waste. As a result, a promising method of processing bird droppings for the agricultural complex of the Chelyabinsk region is proposed. It will significantly increase the environmental friendliness of poultry farming, eliminating its main drawback—waste in the form of highly active bird droppings, and provide the enterprise with non-expensive biofuels.

Pavel Drachuk, Ivan Dobrovolsky, Uner Kapkaev, Dmitry Sorokin
Finding a Rare Adventive Species Scirpus Orientalis Ohwi in the Urals and Its Relationship with Historical Trading Roads of Eurasian Transport Integration

Since ancient times, oriental reed has been used in China as an industrial crop. The main use of reeds was found in the manufacture of packages (baskets, boxes, cibicus) for bulk products, primarily tea. During the 18th-19th centuries and at the beginning of the 20th century, when the Trans-Siberian Railway began to work, large consignments of tea were imported to Russia under the terms of Russian-Chinese trade. The regions of Central Asia were served by a caravan route that followed the route of the Great Silk Road. For almost 200 years of caravan trade, many thousands of tons of tea packed in reed cibiki were brought to Russia. The first locality of a rare adventive plant species in the Urals—Scirpus orientalis Ohwi, in Chelyabinsk pine forest is reported. The find is associated with historical trade routes on the Eurasian continent. There is general information about the given plant species’ distribution within the Russian Federation and in the east-Asian region in this article. The historical information about the participation of Chelyabinsk in transport integration over one hundred years ago also can be founded in the article.

Vera V. Merker, Vyachaslav A. Musatov
Water Resources a Factor of the Geopolitical Integration of Russia and the Countries of Central Asia

In the post-Soviet space, mutual interests of the spatial and resource integration of Russia, Kazakhstan and the former Soviet republics of Central Asia remain. The main factors of integration are compact location, mutual interests in economic development, transport integration. The uneven distribution of water resources plays a huge role in the development of the economies of the Central Asian countries. The main water resources of Central Asia are formed in the Pamir mountain system; Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan have 80% of the water resources of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. In Russia, the main water resources of the Ob-Irtysh system are formed in the lower reaches of the Ob (up to 70% of the water flow). At present, the transfer of a part of the flow from the Irtysh River (from Russia to Central Asia) is impossible: the water content of the Irtysh River has significantly decreased. Not only Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan are experiencing water shortages, but also the southern regions of Western Siberia (Russia). The theoretical possibility of transferring part of the water flow of the rivers of the Ob-Irtysh system to the southern regions of Western Siberia and Northern Kazakhstan, where the need for water resources also increases, is considered. The problem can only be solved by a coordinated international water policy and the introduction of effective hydrotechnical technologies (with the participation of Russia).

Sergey G. Zakharov
Construction of Power Facilities: Legal Regulation Issues

Development of energy industry testifies that the key tasks of energetics involve the construction and modernization of its basic production assets. Working on this task is a necessary condition for achieving strategic goals of energetics development. The present work investigates the problem of a possibility to adopt international agreement that would designate the common conceptual framework and requirements for technical regulation and standardization in the field of construction and modernization of power facilities. The paper takes into account the technological purpose of power facilities as well as the fact that ensuring energy security cannot be of just local, regional, or industry-specific interest. Specifics of works aimed at modernization and their performance on hazardous industrial facilities dictate the need to examine if it is advisable to extend requirements of the existing legislation in construction of hazardous industrial facilities to activities aimed at modernization of power facilities. The study reveals the absence of complex legal research on problems of construction and modernization of power facilities, which should consider specifics of legal regulation of business activities in this field, cover the problems that arise in agreement-based regulation, address modern trends of state regulation and specifics of self-regulation in this area of entrepreneurship.

Elena Voskresenskaya, Nikolay Zhilskiy
Research of Working Bodies for Uncomplacing the Underground Layer of Soil

The article provides research of working bodies for decomposition of the subsoil. Significant disadvantages affecting the formation of the plow sole of the subsoil. A diagram of the method for decomposition of the subsurface horizon of the soil is given. Theoretical and experimental studies are presented that allow to establish rational parameters of the subsoiler, providing continuous loosening of the subsoil layer with minimal energy consumption. Substantiated parameters for a subsoiler, which, as you know, is used with a separate method of tillage from plowing. The method for determining the parameters of the longitudinal distance between the bodies of a two-tier plow is presented.

Shukhrat Muradov
Influence of Connection Configuration on the Thermal Flow of Hot Water Heating Systems’ Sectional Radiators

“Bottom-down” connection configurations for sectional radiators of water heating systems are widely used in design. In this work, a study of the connection configuration “bottom-down” with the inner spring valve installation has been carried out, which allows organizing the movement of the heat-storage medium in the heating device “vertical down”. The study of a five-section bimetallic radiator model “Base 500” by “Rifar” company in the hydrodynamic software complex STAR CCM+. The distribution fields of temperatures and velocities of the heat-storage medium through the channels of the heater at a heat-storage medium flow rate of 0.1 kg/s have been obtained and presented in the work. The dependence of the thermal flow of one section of the radiator on the temperature head is determined for connection configurations “vertical down”, “bottom-down” and “bottom-down” with the installation of an inner spring valve. It has been established that the use of an inner spring valve at the bottom connection of the heater allows a decrease in the thermal flow by no more than 5%, compared with the connection configuration “vertical down”.

Viktor Pukhkal, Suren Markaryan
Gamification of Environmental Monitoring. Technical and Informational Means of Supporting the Formation of Civil Society Institutions

A set of information and technical means is proposed to stimulate the formation of civil society institutions in countries such as Kazakhstan, where, for historical reasons, they remain relatively weak. One of the main tools of this set is a mobile application that measures an indicator reflecting the degree of negative impact of an unfavorable environmental situation on a specific user. The operation of this application is based on correlating the user's route, determined by geolocation data, with a map of the city's pollution and its dependence on time. It is shown that the introduction of such tools is a prerequisite for the introduction of developmental and educational games into mass use, ensuring monitoring by the efforts of schoolchildren-volunteers. Methods for verifying the set of measurements obtained by volunteers using neural networks are discussed. The possibility of pairing the means providing measurements of the above indicator with the methods, correction of the psychophysiological and psycho-emotional state is considered. It is shown that the introduction of such methods, focused on group use, is also an important step towards the establishment of civil society institutions that solve environmental problems.

Inabat Moldakhan, Akhat S. Bakirov, Yelizaveta S. Vitulyova, Ainur T. Saidakhmet, Sherniyaz B. Kabdushev, Mariya V. Kostcova, Anastasiya V. Grishina, Ibragim E. Sileimenov
Principles and Technical Means of Implementing the Methods of Group Correction of the Psychoemotional State in the Online Format

It is shown that in the current conditions, a very urgent task is the implementation of methods for correcting the psychoemotional state of the population in an online format. It is shown that the solution of this problem requires the development of technical means that ensure the exchange of information reflecting the emotional state of users between group members. The principle of operation of specific devices, which can be called an encoder and decoder of emotions, is proposed. Such devices are designed to create the same effects that occur during direct communication between group members, but in an online format. The nature of the emergence of collective effects in groups focused on solving a common problem (“brainstorm”, etc.) is discussed. It is shown that it is closely related to the emergence of the transpersonal level of information processing, the manifestation of which is the collective unconscious. It is shown that in order to stimulate the effects associated with the transpersonal level of information processing during using of methods of group work in an online format it is advisable to use an artificial neural network which is connecting users through encoders and decoders of emotions.

Ainur T. Saidakhmet, Yelizaveta S. Vitulyova, Akhat S. Bakirov, Sherniyaz B. Kabdushev, Saltanat T. Baipakbayeva, Mariya V. Kostcova, Anastasiya V. Grishina, Ibragim E. Sileimenov
Performance of Machine Learning Algorithms in Predicting Dissolved Oxygen Concentration

Dissolved oxygen is one of the most important environmental factors in water ecosystems, due to its impact into structure and biomass of marine organisms. Predicting dissolved oxygen concentration is one of the most important and actual problems. In this research we used environmental dataset, provided by CMEMS for the Black Sea area from 1992 to 2019. Also, we used 6 different machine learning algorithms to find the best accurate. Based on our simulations, the best accuracy in dissolved oxygen prediction has Random Forest model with AUC—0.996. Feature importance analysis showed that the most important variables, affected AUC are sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity in phosphates concentration.

Denis Krivoguz, Anna Semenova, Sergei Malko
Aromatherapeutic Correction of Psychoemotional State as a Means of Promoting an Ecological Worldview

New approaches to the implementation of technical means of aromatherapy correction of psychoemotional state, based on the direct production of aromatic components from salted plant materials, have been proposed. The basis of the proposed method is the sublimation of the components containing essential oils by the method of high-frequency heating of the composition, which also includes metal inclusions. This approach allows the use of replaceable cartridges, which are a composition enclosed in a polymer shell, and the metal component can be obtained directly from secondary raw materials (beverage cans, for example). It is shown that the proposed approach makes it possible to implement systems providing the generation of a “symphony of aromas”, i.e., creation of controlled combinations of aromatic components in the air. The creation of a symphony of aromas according to the proposed scheme is ensured by creating two air flows, mutually opposite in the content of aromatic components, which eliminates the need to regulate the rate of sublimation of liquids containing from the original composition. The purpose of the proposed devices is to implement systems of “aroma music” (the term is formed by analogy with the term “color music”), as well as to provide psychoemotional correction in the course of training sessions using methods that provide for the creation of a special emotional background in order to increase the effectiveness of learning. It is shown that the implementation of such techniques is an essential step towards the further advancement of the ecological worldview into the mass consciousness.

Yelizaveta S. Vitulyova, Kaisarali N. Kadyrzhan, Sherniyaz B. Kabdushev, Akhat S. Bakirov, Mariya V. Kostsova, Anastasiya V. Grishina, Ibragim E. Sileimenov
Directions for Improving the Environmental Project Efficiency Assessment Methodology

Improving the methodology for evaluating real investment projects in the field of environmental protection is possible in two classical scientific directions. The first is related to the theory and methodology of cognition using a rational methodological approach, as well as on the basis of identifying the genesis and evolutionary development of the theory and methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of green investment projects. The second determines the empirical path of specific mathematical calculations by projecting the classical methodology of financial mathematics and mathematical logic on the methodology for evaluating the economic efficiency of real investment projects in the field of environmental protection. It is proposed to use the main rational and empirical methodological approaches to improve the methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of real investment projects. Mathematical errors in the application of existing methodologies developed by UNIDO and the World Bank determine the cost-effective investment project in the category of unprofitable or inappropriate investments. The errors in the calculations for strategic capital-intensive projects amount to millions, and in some cases even billions of rubles. The author's concept will increase the mathematical accuracy and efficiency of the management of the national innovation economy.

Nikolay Shevkunov
Investment Possibilities of Development of the Real Sector of the Regional Economy and Their Environmental Impact

The article is relevant due to the need to indicate the possibilities for investments in the sectoral level in the real sector of economy of Russia’s regions. The purpose of the paper is to elaborate the model of predicting the amounts of capital investments in the sectoral level, in case of non-stationary character of the processes of investing, taking into account compensation for the negative impact on the environment. Materials and Methods. The data from the regional department of the Federal Service of Statistics of Russia about the region with target conditions (the Republic of Crimea) are used. The concepts and approaches of creating an adaptive auto regression model of Bayes type, financial planning and comparing the alternative possibilities of investing, marginal and project analysis have been reflected in the elaborated forecasting model. Results. On the basis of the analysis of the data, the model of indicating the possibilities for investments in the sectoral level in a region with non-stationary character of the processes of investing is elaborated, taking into account environmental issues. Discussion and Conclusion. The elaborated model can increase the level of accuracy of predicting the amounts of investments in the sectoral level of a region.

Alexander Vanyushkin, Ruslan Druzin, Mickle Kuznetsov
Sociological Assessment and Modeling of Socio-economic Problems of the Agrarian Sector in Drylands

The study used the mathematical apparatus of factor analysis of the database of an expert survey of managers and chief specialists of agricultural enterprises, heads of farms to determine the vectors of development of agricultural production in the southern arid regions of Russia. The article provides a brief overview of modern publications, which shows the problems of the agricultural sector in drylands. Based on a theoretical analysis of articulated scientific problems, a list of them has been compiled, in general, representing the problem field of this area. We applied a research strategy to determine the structural characteristics of the problem field: an expert assessment of the significance level of each problem for the organization and development of agricultural production in drylands (a 5-point significance scale was used in the questionnaire), a statistical analysis of the data obtained by identifying the main components in the SPSS program (version 21). Empirical data were obtained based on a questionnaire survey of 87 experts—managers and chief specialists of agricultural enterprises, heads of farms, whose agricultural production is carried out in the arid territories of southern Russia. Conclusions are made showing the structural model of the problematic field of the agrarian sphere in drylands.

Valentine Ivashova, Valentina Rodionova, Yevgeniy Tufanov, Lyudmila Shvachkina, Lyudmila Zvereva
Principles Influencing of Pedestrian Spaces Formation in Coastal Areas of Large Cities

Every year in historical cities, there is a need to renovate a large number of pedestrian spaces of coastal zones (embankments, sidewalks, roads, etc.). The relationship of pedestrian spaces and the planning structure of the city, as a whole, determines the basic principles of the inner-city road network with all its pros and cons. Buildings and structures surrounding pedestrian spaces, changes in regulatory documentation and the urban planning code, as well as the approval of new master plans for urban development, require the attraction of funds, the payback, which depends on the quality of the developed project documentation, the development of architectural and planning and conceptual design solutions, as well as the placement and distribution of functional zones of the projected coastal territories, taking into account all segments of the population, including people with disabilities. The principles and factors of the pedestrian spaces formation are characterized by the principle: from the “paper” architecture to elaborate working projects (taking into account the balance of territories). This is the only right decision aimed at the sustainable development of pedestrian areas along the coastal zones, as well as the development of proposals for the renovation and “re-functionalization” of nearby design objects, with the aim of their further integrated development, taking into account their features and strengths and limitations.

Nadezhda Burilo
Evaluation of the Geoecological Factors Influence on the Foundations’ Precipitation, Located on Anisotropic Soil Bases

Recently, the development problems of the loess subsidence soils as foundations of buildings and structures arise due to climate change on the planet in the consequence to the expansion of human economic activity and other unfavorable factors. For foundations composed of loess subsidence soils, the properties’ prediction is of great importance, taking into account the risks of flooding of territories, modern technologies for setting up foundations in already built-up and newly developed territories. Errors in design can contribute to a significant decrease in the values of strength and deformation characteristics. Also, they can cause subsidence of the soil base, which leads to negative consequences. Therefore it is important to know the features of the loess subsidence soils formation, their properties, composition, in order to reliably predict their activity under the load during the operational period. This requires modern methods for calculating foundations, taking into account their real properties, such as deformation anisotropy, which is especially important for loess subsidence soils with strongly pronounced anisotropic properties.

Olga Korobova, Ljubov Maksimenko
Russian Agribusiness and Digital Ecosystems: Ways of Interaction

The purpose of the article is to develop ways of interaction between Russian agribusiness entities and digital ecosystems. We offer two options for including agribusiness entities in digital ecosystems. The first, likely scenario is the parallel existence of BigTech platforms, private IT companies, banks and the state digital platform of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia. The second, preferred scenario is the formation of a single industry ecosystem based on the integrator and core of the industry platform—Rosselkhozbank, with the release of private companies, development institutions and government services serving agribusiness based on the Open API. The effects of the implementation of scenarios for agribusiness will be a reduction in the regulatory burden, simplification of obtaining state support measures, an increase in the speed of information transfer, an increase in transparency, and minimization of intermediary links. For the state, the expected effects can be manifested in the optimization of information exchange with the subjects of the agro-industrial complex, improving the quality of control, strengthening the targeting of state support measures, and increasing the speed of interaction with the subjects of the agro-industrial complex.

Olga Korobeynikova, Dmitry Korobeynikov, Larisa Popova, Tatiana Chekrygina, Victor Melikhov
The Efficiency Evaluation of Providing Excursion Services in the Tourist Activity of Ukraine

It has been proved the significance of excursion services in the system of tourist activity of Ukraine. It has been proposed to conduct research based on the impact on the environment of the excursion services provision of three indicators: effective one—income from excursion activities and two factor ones—the cost of excursion services and the cost of tour buses. It has been substantiated the necessity of using the method analysis of the operating, which allowed to build a line of technical efficiency, to identify areas of technically efficient and technically inefficient for the implementation of excursion activities. It has been proved that now in most regions of Ukraine, as a result of providing excursion services, the income is not enough to cover the costs of excursion services and/or excursion buses. As a result of graphic design to improve the conditions for the operating environment, it has been proposed to assess the effectiveness in three areas: possibility of achieving efficiency, prospects of increasing efficiency and inefficiency. It has been also proved now the inability of the state to improve providing excursion services system; however, the areas in which excursion activity development testifies to prospects in the future are revealed.

Andrii Sakhno, Iryna Salkova, Nina Petruk, Yaroslava Popovych, Pavlo Vychivskyi, Andrii Zarichniak, George Abuselidze
Threats and Challenges to Sustainable Development in the Digital Society

The article explores threats and challenges to sustainable development in the context of digitalization of various spheres of social life. The authors look at such intertwined phenomena of the current stage of human civilization as “digitalization”, “digital inequality” and “digital poverty”, analyze their essence in the context of Sustainable Development Goals and their joint influence on the spheres of economy, education, delivery of services, etc. The study reveals a negative effect of digitalization on communication processes, especially in social networks. In particular, it is emphasized that the use of computer technology in communication brings about impoverishment and simplification of speech, and deterioration of speech culture. The article discusses the negative influence of modern mass media on people’s mental health, especially that of adolescents and young people, as well as mass media manipulations of people’s consciousness.

Nataliia Ladohubets, Liubov Drotianko, Sergiy Sydorenko, Serhii Ordenov, Ivan Skyba
The Effect of Uranium’s Economic Integration on Foreign Policy: The Case of Kazakhstan

Governments focused on nuclear power and uranium after Second World War in the international system. Furthermore, the international system witnessed the danger of nuclear weapons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki or the Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine. Hiroshima and Nagasaki lived negative affect of the nuclear bombs because of WWII, Ukraine lived Chernobyl atomic power plant accident, after facing these examples, many governments increased their uranium capacity enrichment for nuclear power; in this situation threat for other non-nuclear power countries. Many governments do not want nuclear disarmament in the international system, due to this issue; global peace still can face a nuclear war. Kazakhstan is an example country of nuclear disarmament; in addition, Kazakhstan learned how to integrate uranium in their economic system while following nuclear disarmament path. By this way, Kazakhstan is bringing the uranium bank on the agenda of international relations, and it is an important issue because international community will discuss nuclear non-armament and uranium bank for global peace.

Andaç Karabulut, Elnur Mikail, Hakan Çora, Savaş Durmuş
Assessment of the Efficiency of the Use of Activating Turbulent Jets to Eliminate the Risk of the Formation of Unventilated Zones in Large Premises

Strict requirements for microclimate parameters are imposed on food storage premises, which are equipped with artificial cooling systems. The experience of operating the refrigerated premises revealed the following disadvantages: uneven distribution and significant fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity; periodic precipitation of condensate in low-temperature sections. Elimination of the noted disadvantages is effectively achieved by using axial fans that form a swirling air stream that induces the ambient air. Swirling jets used to intensify the process of air circulation in a room in order to eliminate unventilated zones will be called activating jets. To assess the efficiency of the application of activating turbulent jets, an integral method based on the energy balance was used. Using the example of a representative object, it is shown that the distance of the effective application of an activating turbulent jet should be calculated taking into account the influence of environmental turbulence, which is determined by the amount of energy introduced and dissipated in the room.

Alexander Grimitlin, Andrey Strongin
Analysis of Socio-economic Indicators of the Regions of the Krasnodar Territory in Terms of Quality of Life

The relevance of the issue is based on the necessity of identification of the key parameters influencing the quality of life of the region. Identification of “bottleneck” and the current trends of development will help in solving such important management tasks as smoothing the crisis in the economy. The purpose of the research is the clustering regional population in terms of “quality of life”, as well as sensitivity analysis of this indicator by individual factors and cross-sections of the population. The object of the research is the demographic and socio-economic system of the Russian region. To divide the population of the region into groups, the authors proposed a cluster analysis using the analytic hierarchy process, correlation and regression analysis of variables were performed and was provided a sensitivity analysis based on the elasticity coefficients of particular factors. During the research, the following tasks were solved: the analysis of statistical information was carried out; an indicator of the quality of life of various municipalities of the Krasnodar territory was calculated; the sensitivity analysis of the integral indicator of the quality of life for particular factors in the context of various social clusters was carried out.

Andrey Kopyrin
The Results of Development and Appliance of an Expert System for Public Catering Businesses’ Competitive Index Assessment

The aim of this research was development of methods and tools for catering businesses’ competitive index assessment. Our proprietary methodology of assessing the competitive index of a catering business is framed by three groups of indicators—required indicators, additional indicators and economic indicators. Required indicators are taken from the National State Standard and the Sanitary regulations and Standards of Russia. They set the mandatory requirements for all public catering enterprises. Economic indicators include net profit, earnings and return of sales. All of them are defined by experts. The list of additional indicators is made by experts, chosen from the candidates proposed, after calculating the consistency of their opinion. Additional indicators and factors include quality of cuisine, quality of interior design, quality-to-price ratio of services provided, location of a unit, variety of assortment etc. The methodology uses 25 required, 10 additional and 3 economic indicators. If the competitive index of several public catering enterprises is evaluated simultaneously, then the task may become excessively laborious. This is the reason why an automated decision support system, implementing the proprietary methodology, has been developed. Automated system has two main functional modules—the module of building and maintaining a database and module of building and updating both a rule base and algorithms of generating solutions. At all stages of the automated decision support system appliance, consistency of conclusions, made within the scope of the experts’ knowledge, is ensured through calculating the concordance coefficient and conducting Pearson’s chi-squared test.

Andrey Ivanov, Galina Korableva
On Normalization of Quadratic Hamiltonian

In this paper we consider the normalization of quadratic Hamiltonian. We get the new method to find the generating function of the canonical transformation. We obtain the solution of the system of matrix equations to find this transformation. The corresponding Hamiltonian matrix has multiply nonzero and zero eigenvalues. An illustrative example for the proposed method is given. With this method we can investigate the stability of the solution of Hamiltonian systems.

Tatiana Titova
Economic Efficiency of the Introduction of Innovative Technology in the Forest Industry

Today, one of the leading branches of the Russian economy is the timber industry (LPC). Russia accounts for more than 38.5% of the total reserves of forest resources of the entire planet, including more than half of the world's reserves of the most valuable conifers. However, most of them are used inefficiently. Therefore, the innovative development of the Russian timber industry is considered as one of the priority directions for ensuring the effective functioning of its branches and increasing the competitiveness of manufactured products. This article presents the project of innovative development of JSC “Ilim Group” in Ust-Ilimsky district. The considered innovative project for the processing of bark-wood waste allows them to be effectively disposed of, formed during the bucking and storage of wood raw materials. When using this technology, the removal of waste to the quarry for burial is reduced. The priority focus of the project is budget savings.

Svetlana Zhelaeva, Tatiana Khamaganova, Elvira Garmaeva, Anastasia Malanova, Anastasia Leber, Sergei Mikheev
Treatment Features of the Highly Productive Cows with Ketosis in a Natural-Technogenic Province

The article presents data on the features of the treatment of cows, clinically sick with ketosis, in a natural-technogenic province. When analyzing the anamnesis data, we established that concentrated type of feeding of animals, an imbalance of the main nutrients (protein, simple sugars, fiber), a deficiency of essential trace elements (copper, cobalt, zinc, manganese), an excess of iron and the presence of heavy metals (nickel, lead, cadmium) caused the development of ketosis in cows. On the farm, the disease was recorded in 13.6% of the number of calves. Ketosis is characterized by certain clinical and hematological signs, confirmed by the presence of ketone bodies in urine and milk of cows. The complex treatment of cows in the experimental group included a long diet, pathogenetic, substitute, detoxifying therapies and physiotherapy. In the control group of animals, there was no detoxifying therapy in the treatment regimen. Treatment of cows with ketosis was carried out for 20 days, and diet and physiotherapy continued for 45 days. On the 20th day, the level of essential trace elements in the blood of the experimental cows increased, and the level of iron and toxic elements decreased in comparison with the background and values of the control group. The concentration of glucose in the blood increased, while the concentration of ketone bodies, on the contrary, decreased, not reaching the norm. An increased concentration of serum lactate, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin on the 20th day of treatment indicates incomplete recovery of the liver. The therapy carried out in the experimental groups has a positive effect, but does not lead to a complete recovery of the cows. In the experimental group, the clinical and hematological results have an advantage in comparison with the data of the control animals at the time of the end of therapy.

Alexander Gertman, Tatiana Samsonova, Alexey Yakovlev, Sergey Smolentsev
Reproductive Functions of Sows When Using a Probiotic in the Diet

This paper presents data on the use of the Bifidum Bag probiotic in the diets of pregnant sows and piglets of the preweaning period. The highest average daily gain in live weight during the pregnancy period and loss of live weight over the lactation period are observed in sows of the II experimental group, which received the Bifidum Bag probiotic feed additive. Consequently, the Bifidum Bag feed additive in the diets of pregnant sows, against the background of a balanced feeding, has a positive effect on the average daily gain in live weight of pregnant sows. A positive effect can also be traced in the survivability of piglets. The survivability of piglets of the II experimental group was higher by 5.7%, the average daily gain of piglets of the II experimental group at the time of weaning exceeded the piglets of the I control group by 300 g. As a result, the studied Bifidum Bag probiotic feed additive has a positive effect on the reproductive functions of sows, the growth and development of piglets of the preweaning period.

Alexander Murashov, Evgenia Ermolova, Sergei Ermolov
Practical Application of Agricultural Machinery and Psychology of Their Sales in Russia

Modern agriculture is radically different from the land use system that was used 15–20 years ago. Now, to launch large or even medium-sized agricultural production, it is not enough “the Far Eastern hectare”. Without the use of innovative land cultivation processes, labor efficiency will be low. It is necessary to focus on modern agricultural technologies. The article examines the practical aspects of application of agricultural machinery in Russia and the psychological aspects of the purchase of the agricultural machines for private use.

Viktoriya Pshenichnaya, Svetlana Esina, Marina Danilina, Elena Sokor, Lada Voloshina, Nadezhda Rybakova
Influence of COVID-19 on the Environment and Ecology

The article examines the positive and negative influence of the pandemic on the ecology. The analysis has shown a number of new problems. In fact, environmental problems have not disappeared: while a third of the world's population is in quarantine, plastic with a vengeance enters the oceans. The pandemic has shifted the vector in consumer policy. If before quarantine in developed countries there was a tendency to reduce waste and plastic, now personal safety is at the forefront. A global problem of disposing of medical protective equipment has appeared: masks, suits, shoe covers, gloves, which we lacked so much at the peak of the pandemic, are turning into waste that needs to be collected and recycled. As a result, plastic saves lives, but against the background of its growing consumption due to the pandemic, environmentalists fear negative consequences for wildlife. Masks and wet wipes are often thrown out on the streets, and rains wash them into sewage, after which they enter the oceans and become a threat to marine life.

Marina Danilina, Natalia Alexandrova, Yulia Alexandrova, Olga Chubarova, Fedor Buraev, Victor Grigorenko, Orville Huntington
Particularities of Management in the Sphere of Ecology in Russia and Alaska, USA

In the conditions of the growth of ecological problems the management in the sphere of the ecology at the enterprise has a significant meaning. The authors show that the environmental orientation of the corporate culture in 2021 is the main prerequisite for a relevant business concept. This means that for a company to effectively protect the environment, the real features of the corporate concept of environmental protection must be consistent with the corporate culture. This is supported by the fact that the management of the company, as a result of internal efforts, puts environmental contractual labels to its employees: the management forces also perform the functions of exemplary learning in the company and must respect them themselves.

Yury Kosenok, Marina Danilina, Victor Grigorenko, Nathalia Alexandrova, Yulia Alexandrova, Orville Huntington
Analysis of the Ecological Situation in Moscow

The content analysis of the districts of Moscow shows that the ecological situation in Moscow is rather complicated. The capital continues to grow rapidly, going beyond the ring road and merging with adjacent cities. A huge amount of harmful and toxic substances are emitted into the air from various sources, and partial purification has been introduced only at 60% of enterprises. To conclude, the ecological situation in Mocow is unfavourable. It is possible to improve the ecosystem of Moscow by preserving and developing squares, parks and trees in courtyard territories, which have been significantly damaged as a result of infill urban development. The Moscow urban cycle has a significant impact on the entire surrounding area.

Lyudmila Donskova, Marina Danilina, Alexander Barannikov, Yury Kosenok, Orville Huntington
Digital Transformation of the Agricultural Industry: Tasks and Prospects of Digitalization of Russian Organizations

The paper considers external and internal growth factors of the agricultural industry within the framework of the Russian Federation. The evolution of digitalization and its stages are considered in detail. Digital technologies in crop production, agricultural machinery, and animal husbandry are also considered. Examples of successful implementation of Russian digital platforms and services in the field of agriculture at enterprises are shown. The necessity of digitalization of the Russian economy is substantiated, given that not only European countries have entered the era of digital globalization. The tasks and prospects of digitalization of agriculture are considered. It is concluded that by developing robotics and production automation systems, the digital transformation of the agro-industrial complex should contribute to the development of all areas of activity of agribusiness enterprises, and all this together will significantly increase the productivity of specialists and the quality of the decision made, and this leads to a significant increase in the efficiency of the regional economy.

Petr Ogorodnikov, Elena Guseva, Sergej Trubin, Marina Hludeeva, Maria Kolovertnova
The Influence of the Characteristics of Forestry Settlements on Their Planning

At the enterprises of the domestic timber industry, only 20% of the harvested wood is processed, and the rest is exported in unprocessed form. The Arkhangelsk region is one of the largest forest regions with the most modern timber processing complex and a unique position for the export of target products. Despite the existing potential, production and forest resources in this region, as in other regions of Russia, are used irrationally. The irrational use of industrial and forest resources is associated with the discrepancy of new facts and data on the territorial organization of settlements in connection with the processes of harvesting, complex processing of wood, as well as reproduction of forest resources. In modern socio-economic conditions, there is a need for a professional activity management system that makes possible the development of the timber industry complex (hereinafter—TIC), which ensures the relationship of these technological processes with the territorial organization of forest settlements. In this article, a system of characteristics of forest settlements and interrelated components of the natural complex is proposed, which makes it possible to identify existing inconsistencies and justify measures to change the territorial organization of these settlements.

Marina Perekopskaya, Yuri Alekseev
Atomic Emission Spectrometer “Grand” for Studying the Features of Accumulation and Distribution of Chemical Elements in Objects of Animal Origin

In this paper, the possibilities of using the arc atomic emission spectrometer “Grand” with multichannel emission spectrum analyzers (MAES) in terms of elemental analysis of objects of animal origin are expanded. Metrologically certified methods that have passed preliminary metrological examination were used for research. Of particular interest is the construction of periodic dependences of changes in certain parameters of the objects under study with an increase in the ordinal number of the element determining their structure and organization, as well as the construction on this foundation of predictions about the properties and behavior of living objects when interacting with each other. The features of the distribution of chemical elements as the charge of the atomic nucleus increases are reflected in the internal structure of the periodic system. In this regard, it is established in this work that the dependences of the accumulation and distribution of chemical elements in the studied living organisms with increasing ordinal number of the element in the periodic table of D. I. Mendeleev are also periodic.

Vladimir Otmakhov, Yuriy Sarkisov, Anastasiy Obukhova, Elena Petrova, Nikolay Gorlenko
Problematic of Nation-State and Natural Resources Management (NRM): An Analysis of Hydropolitics in Kyrgyzstan

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, different approaches to state authority and liberal society began to appear once Soviet countries proclaimed their political independence. Since 1991, the Kyrgyz Republic has provided a relatively free environment for the operation of natural source management and its organizations. Then, among the independent Central Asian countries, new problems arose in the management and sharing of national natural resources. The hydrocarbon-rich resources of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan are used to use water for irrigation, and downstream countries such as the economy make large profits, while upstream countries use water as a source of power. As for the fact that the water issue is already politicized in the Central Asian region, Kyrgyzstan state management sees it as a cure for its national security and deeply interested in national socio-economical, progresses. This article focuses on national natural management and political decisions regarding limited natural resources and use for national interest in Kyrgyzstan and also regional solutions in Central Asia. Nation-State policies can lead to conflict between Central Asian countries. It includes extensive research on corporate governance on hydropolitics with political management practices for the future of the community and the stability of national development.

Elif Kilicbeyli
Investigation of the Process for Impurities Magnetic Extracting from Liquid Food Medium

Possible for metal objects to get into semi-finished products and finished products from raw materials, technological equipment, as well as directly during the production process. An urgent task is to ensure the extraction of metallic impurities throughout the entire technological process. The article presents studies of the process for impurities magnetic extracting which have the correct (spherical) and irregular shape from food additives that are used during the preparation of canned fish and meat and vegetables. A mathematical model of separation has been developed, experimental studies have been carried out, and the statistical patterns of separation processes have been studied. The study of the magnetic separation of impurities showed that the analysis of the statistics for the amount of extracted impurities makes it possible to study the processes occurring in complex multicomponent medium, which include, in particular, the products used during the manufacturing of canned fish. It has been proven that the use of a magnetic system consisting of stationary magnets that create a periodic gradient magnetic field leads to the destruction of complexes around magnetic impurities, and the use of the proposed magnetic system at fish processing enterprises will eliminate the ingress of metal particles into the finished product.

Innesa Deyneka, Alexandr Yashonkov, Sergey Sokolov, Sabrie Zinabadinova
Economic and Ecological Aspects of the Application of Digitalization of Agriculture

The article examines the advantages and disadvantages of the use of digital technologies by agricultural enterprises in agriculture. The authors emphasized that such solutions as the introduction of precision farming systems, aerial photography to control the quality of crops, maintaining the history of fields to select the optimal crop, laboratory soil studies to obtain information about the biochemical composition are now popular in the agricultural market in Ukraine. It is proved that these technologies make it possible to increase productivity and reduce the cost of production by reducing the cost of fuel, seeds and fertilizers. The authors focused on the fact that the introduction of resource saving and minimal tillage technologies, regardless of their process characteristics, have similar problems in adapting to economic conditions. It is proved that such technologies include: weak state support, significant financial costs, the need to replace the machine-tractor fleet and the use of modern space information systems. The authors have identified two main directions in which digitalization is moving in the LLC IMC under consideration, namely, increasing productivity and creating an absolutely digitized enterprise in the future.

George Abuselidze, Vasil Gorovij, Dmytro Mishchenko, Yuliia Bilyak, Yuliia Nehoda
Digital Learning Tools and Devices for the Implementation of an Electronic Educational Resource

The combination of digital tools and services considered in this article, as a means for the implementation of an electronic educational resource, provides the educational process with a variety of unique methods that affect the motivation and cognitive interest of students. We presented a classification of digital services with an indication of a brief characteristic of the direct purpose of the tool. The material of the article is based on the experience of teachers of Mathematics and Informatics Department of Naberezhnye Chelny State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation). The example of the Zoom service, designed for video conferencing, is used to examine the technology of organizing a training lesson for students on a specific topic of a geometry lesson. On the basis of the digital tool LearningApps and other similar services there are demonstrated methods of organizing didactic material within the framework of a training session. The practical part of the article gives some recommendations for working in virtual environments when developing interactive tasks. Recommendations for the organization of e-learning and application of distance learning technologies are focused on a user who implements an e-learning course in accordance with the academic subject. The use of various digital services and tools allows us to minimize the labor costs of educational organizations and provides a sufficient range of new opportunities to increase the level of information competence of a teacher.

Zulfiya Filatova, Elmira Galyamova, Yuliya Burkhanova
On the Issue of the Marketing Model of the University Ecosystem as the Dominant of Higher Education in Targeting Activities

The purpose of the article is to review the current changes in domestic higher education against the background of trends in global educational markets and to develop a marketing model of the university ecosystem as a dominant one that defines modern economic relations of market entities involved in the educational process with a clear focus on target audiences. The comparative contexts of global trends in higher education are based on the intersection point of several models of countries such as France, Spain, Germany, Canada and the USA, which allowed us to prioritize the development of the author's model. Monitoring and author's survey of representatives of the university conglomerate were chosen as the research tools, which allowed us to conclude that it is advisable to introduce new constructs into the practice of universities, from the transformation of university marketing to the formation of stable public relations focused on the targeted development of higher education and Russian higher education institutions. The results of the marketing analysis were the basis for the development of the ecosystem of regional universities, which contributed to increasing competitiveness and customer orientation, was reflected in the educational process and the overall marketing activities of universities.

Narine Khachaturyan, Anna Bezpalova, Olga Mirgorodskaya
Mechanism for the Innovation and Investment Project Implementation in the Context of Society Informatization and Responsible Consumption

The innovation and investment project implementation requires the formation of the mechanism that ensures control over the passage of life cycle periods. The article reveals the methodology for assessing the organizations (entrepreneurs) readiness for agricultural production in agricultural areas in the context of technological transformations. The IIP foresight analysis document pattern is being developed in the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the methodological mechanism for the agricultural organization innovation and investment policy implementation in the pre-investment phase; the document scaling the results of foresight analysis also proposed to conclude the possibility of implementing the next investment period. Particular attention is paid to the innovation and investment policy coordinated regulation and responsible resource consumption in the context of society informatization and responsible consumption.

Anna Shokhnekh, Inna Zamyatina, Alexander Nemchenko, Elena Radionova
The Use of Reed Biosorbent in the Elimination of Pollution Zones

The aim of the research is to increase the efficiency of mobile filtration plants through the use of common reed (latin Phragmítes austrális) biosorbent with its subsequent disposal due to green technology. Analysis of its absorption capacity in crushed form showed that after 3–4 h of operation of the filter unit, the filler should be replaced. To increase the cleaning efficiency, it is advisable to fill the cartridges with crushed biomass, starting with large fragments and completing with the finishing laying of small parts. The final layer can be composed of reed fragments with an additionally processed structure of increased microporosity. To determine the depth of the effective sorbent layer, which takes the main load to reduce the concentration of harmful substances, the differential equation of the mass balance is solved. The obtained distribution of concentrations on the example of blue-green algae showed that the bulk of phytoplankton is retained in the structure of the first half of the cartridge. Therefore, in order to avoid material overspending, the thickness of the filter layer should be formed in replaceable cartridges within 250 mm.

Tatiana Shchukina, Anastasia Milyaeva, Vladimir Shcherbakov, Konstantin Chizhik, Victor Bazhenov
Resource-Efficient Use of Hydrocarbon Raw Materials as a Factor in the Transition to a “Green” Economy

The relevance of the study is determined by the fact that the current environmental situation necessitates the transition of sectors of the national economy from technogenic to sustainable environmentally balanced development. These processes will be facilitated by the greening of the economy through the modernization of processing industries based on the introduction of innovative technological processes that increase the depth and complexity of processing, which will significantly increase the resource efficiency of the use of hydrocarbon raw materials, as well as reduce environmental risks. In the context of a growing shortage of non-renewable resources, exacerbation of environmental problems, the introduction of resource-saving and resource-saving innovative “green” is a necessary condition for the successful development of the economy and the preservation of the environment. In this regard, it is necessary to achieve a “decoupling” effect, which implies an increase in the resource efficiency of the use of raw materials (i.e., the use of fewer resources to produce the same volume of products) while reducing environmental risks. The novelty of the study is determined by the factor of reducing the burden on the environment, innovative transformations based on the integrated use of environmentally friendly low-waste technologies.

Oleg Andreev
Hygienic Assessment of Nutrition of the Population of the Voronezh Region

The medico-social significance of overweight/obesity requires constant and dynamic assessment of the nutritional status of different age groups. The paper assesses the quality of nutrition both for the entire population of the Voronezh region and among a probabilistic sample consisting of two study groups of respondents aged 17–22 and 40–65 years (total—120 people) in order to establish the factors of overweight/obesity. When studying the consumption of the main groups of products, it was found that the consumption of carbohydrate-containing products in the Voronezh region exceeds the established norms by an average of 7.9%—bread and bakery products; by 29.1%—sugar. In addition, the actual content of proteins, fats and carbohydrates differs from the established norms and is 1:1.43:4.26, which also led to an increase in total energy consumption by 17.6% of the recommended daily calorie intake. Among young people, in one third of cases, there is a daily use of fast-food products against the background of a decrease in the consumption of vegetables, fruits, milk and dairy products.

Natalya Dzen, Natalia Gabbasova
Morphogenesis and Seasonal Developmental Rhythm Under the Conditions of Introduction of Curcuma Longa L.

This paper presents experimental results on the morphogenesis and seasonal developmental rhythm under the conditions of introduction of Curcuma longa L. The experiments of the dissertation research were conducted in Tashkent (Uzbekistan) for 2018–2020. The seedling of C. longa, which is the object of study, was brought from Indonesia in December 2017 in the form of a rhizome. Planted in different variants under field conditions when new growth buds began to appear on the rhizomes. The morphobiological properties of plants were studied in morphogenesis in 17 plants. At the end of the growing season, the plant's height increased to 55–120 cm. The bushes with a height of 111–120 cm accounted for 40%, the bushes for 100–110 cm for 40%, the bushes for 100–70 cm for 10%, and the bushes for 70–50 cm for 10%. C. longa L. was found to form secondary stems. Secondary stems were observed to form in mid-June. The height of secondary stems was 28–74 cm, and the number of assimilated leaves was 1–6 in different tufts. The vegetation duration of C. longa L. was 248 days in 2018, 250 days in 2019, and 235 days in 2020.

Trobjon Makhkamov, Dilnoza Sotiboldiyeva, Oybek Mamarakhimov, Yakubjon Yuldashov, Laziza Botirova
Methods of Neologisms Formation in Military-Political Discourse

Objective of the study was to consider English military-political discourses and describe the ways of forming neologisms as well as various reasons for function in the language. Methods: the paper involves general and specific theoretical and empirical methods of the study. The proposed system includes a comparison of neologisms and professionalisms by means of works on general issues of linguists’ neology. The theoretical significance of the study is to determine the ways of forming neologisms in the sphere of military-political communication. The practical significance is a possibility of using the results of the work in solving linguo-didactic problems, in lecture courses on the theoretical aspects of English language. Results of the study. The article presented a comprehensive analysis the speech uzus units (speech norms) of English military-political discourses and describes the ways of forming neologisms. Since military science and technology are changing rapidly, it is necessary to be in the course of all the latest changes while translating military-political texts. New objects of modern reality are being formed with a certain name presented in the texts. Neologisms as part of the language of military-political discourse were formed as a result of terminology changes. The causes of new terms forming are determined: lexical, morphological and semantic. It is concluded that the terminological base enhancement requires the terminology unification; however, the work with changes codification in the terminological pattern of military-political discourses lags behind practice and requires military translators’ experience.

Alla Mikhaylova, Tatiana Kokodey, Olga Shutova
Environmental Aspects of Assessing the Radiation State of Building Materials

The paper discusses the issues of environmental safety of building materials and products, which are an important characteristic and can serve as indicators of quality, along with such construction and technical properties as strength, water resistance, frost resistance and much more. Requirements for increased reliability, comfort and environmental friendliness are imposed on modern buildings. Meeting of these requirements cannot be achieved without the use of high-quality and safe building materials and products. Nowadays, the market is represented by a wide range of building materials and products, but they are not always safe for health. Radiation safety is one of the most important hygienic criteria for the environmental safety of a material. Accordingly, for building materials, it is necessary to take into account the content of radionuclides in the raw materials. Radiation monitoring of building materials and products is of a multi-level nature. It is carried out both at the places of extraction of mineral raw materials and at enterprises engaged in the manufacture of building materials. In accordance with federal legislation in this area of activity, the administration of enterprises—manufacturers of building materials must ensure complete control of incoming raw materials and selective control for finished products.

Svetlana Ovchinnikova, Alla Lyamina, Aleksandr Borovkov, Irina Gadzhialieva
Market Capitalization Research of Companies

Accelerating growth of online-services expanding into the post-COVID world has strengthened competing for leadership in the key areas and changed the infrastructure of global economy’s capitalization. A study of system of economic relations enables better and more comprehensive understanding of the MNC’s place and role in the modern global economy. For the third consecutive year technology become a major industry from the point of view of market capitalization. However, from the point of view of an growth in the interest value such areas as healthcare, telecommunications and household services increased by 15% each in comparison with technological industry which growth in 2020 constituted only 6%. The last place among the leading global MNC from the industrial perspective is occupied by the financial area. In the mentioned segment multinational companies have undergone contraction of the market capitalization cost by 3% in total. Nevertheless, MNC among the Top-100 have managed to succeed much more than another companies in the mentioned sector. Changes in the global market in the 21st century have significantly increased the role of MNCs in sustainable infrastructure of the global economy.

Svetlana Kirilchuk, Ekaterina Nalivaychenko, Anna Kaminskaya
The Role of Proper Assessment of Agricultural Land to Improve the Efficiency of Its Use

In the agricultural sector of the economy, agricultural land is the main production resource. The success of the functioning of agriculture largely depends on the efficiency of the use of agricultural land. Small owners of land plots are not able to use them effectively and increase soil fertility. The land market allows you to change the owners of the land on a paid basis. The need to ensure conditions for achieving food security requires State control over the use of agricultural land. The cost of the land plot, as well as the amount of its taxation, must meet the conditions for the most optimal use of the land plot. This will create favorable conditions for the transfer of land plots into the hands of the most effective owners. The state, through the taxation of land plots, can contribute to improving the efficiency of the use of agricultural land.

Ihor Leonidov, Sergey Yekimov, Lyudmila Iushchenko, Ruslan Dmytrenko, Alla Sitkovska
The Use of Migrant Labor in the Agricultural Sector of the Economy

Providing agricultural enterprises with the necessary labor resources is the most important task, the solution of which is a condition for the successful functioning of these enterprises. To attract highly qualified specialists to agriculture, it is necessary to use various forms of encouraging labor activity, improve the standard of living in rural areas, create conditions conducive to professional and career growth. The agricultural sector of the economy needs low-skilled workers to perform seasonal harvest work. These are hard jobs that have a low salary. The involvement of migrant workers in such work allows agricultural enterprises to ensure a low cost of production and ensure its competitiveness in the agricultural market. The degree of efficiency of the functioning of an agricultural enterprise largely depends on its ability to use the resources at its disposal. Labor resources are one of the most important production resources of an agricultural enterprise. For agricultural enterprises, it is of great importance to use effective methods of managing the labor resources of the enterprise in order to activate their labor activity, as well as to increase the level of labor productivity.

Sergey Yekimov, Dmitry Boroukhin, Tatiana Egorushkina, Maxim Кalynychenko, Dmitry Yakushin
The Problem of Financing Agricultural Enterprises in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic

The main obstacle to the implementation of lending to agricultural enterprises is the high cost of credit. In our opinion, an adequate state agrarian policy should increase the interest of commercial banks in providing loans. In our opinion, it should be aimed at increasing the availability of bank loans for agricultural enterprises. For this purpose, it is advisable to partially compensate the payment of bank interest by agricultural enterprises. In the world practice in the banking sector, negative rates of return on deposits have found application. Commercial banks have the opportunity to borrow money at a discount rate. At the moment, there is a practice according to which the Central Bank has only one discount rate. In our opinion, there could be several discount rates at the same time. We adhere to the point of view that depending on the purposes to which a commercial bank directs funds received from the Central Bank, the size of the Central Bank's discount rate may be different and even have a negative value.

Roman Oleksenko, Viktoriia Nianko, Svitlana Plotnichenko, Larysa Andrieieva, Hanna Zavadskykh
Entropic Environmental Efficiency of Green Energy Transition Technologies

The relationship between the promotion of innovative green technologies and the current stage of the Kondratyev’s cycle is considered. On the basis of the thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes, a unified entropy criterion for the ecological efficiency of technologies is proposed, taking into account the total environmental damage. The estimation of the limiting efficiency of technologies according to the Landauer’s entropy principle is given. An approximate assessment of the environmental efficiency of technologies based on profitability, taking into account compensation for environmental damage over the life cycle, has been introduced. Some impact on the ecology of wind energy is discussed. It is proposed to use the entropy indicator in the development of an international standard for assessing the environmental efficiency of technologies.

Pavel Golovinski, Sofia Diakonova, Natalia Medvedeva
New Environmental Challenges of the 21st Century

The article examines some aspects of the crisis in the relation between man and nature in the early twenty-first century, which are associated with the expansion of the technosphere and intensification of human activities in outer space. The authors clarify the meaning of the term “technosphere” from the philosophical perspective. It is shown that the technological development of humankind in the twenty-first century not only impacts on the man-made environment on the planet Earth, but also significantly disrupts the natural state of outer space through launches of artificial satellites, rockets, and other spacecraft, which over time become nonoperational and turn into space debris. Thus, space is getting closer to us not only in terms of our growing knowledge about it, but also due to negative consequences of its technological development by the humanity. In this regard, the article looks at some new challenges and possible environmental risks resulting from the ongoing growth of human technological activity in outer space.

Liubov Drotianko, Serhii Sydorenko, Hanna Кleshnia, Serhii Ordenov, Ivan Skyba
Rationality of Energy Cogeneration for Aeration Blowers at WWTPs

The goal of research is feasibility study of rational use for energy resources of cogeneration plants to compensate for the needs of aeration blower units (ABUs) at municipal WWTPs (100, 300 thousand m3/day) on the basis of operating costs in Russian conditions (techno-economic analysis). One of the technologies, that play a key role in achieving the goals of Russian strategies, is the cogeneration of energy (electric and thermal) from biological and natural gases to ensure uninterrupted power supply and maintain utility tariffs. Observed technical performances of cogeneration plants implemented in the Russia. Justified a gas-piston unit as basic one to compensate the needs of WWTPs. Scenarios for the development of the topic “optimistic/pessimistic” depend on the desire of water utilities to consume thermal energy: treatment cost of 1 m3 of wastewater can be reduced by 0.894/0.440 rubles (RUB) for operating or existing ABUs (with electricity overruns of 28% due to wear); by 0.644/0.317 RUB for the modern (new) ABUs; the indicator “Benefit from the use of cogeneration plants” is quite high 53.3/36.0% for uncontrolled air supply by ABUs. Performed evaluations based on operating costs (conditions for self-sustaining project), without capital costs.

Victor Bazhenov, Konstantin Chizhik, Vladimir Shcherbakov, Tatiana Shchukina, Ekaterina Koroleva
Exploring Consumer Awareness of Health and Environmental Implications of Lead Toxicity in Household Paints

Despite the dangers of lead toxicity to population and environmental health, studies have revealed proliferation of above threshold concentration of lead in household paints in several locations. This paper presents the findings from an exploratory study in Peninsular Malaysia on the level of public awareness of the adverse effects of exposure to lead-based household paints. Primary quantitative data were gathered in a cross-sectional questionnaire survey on a conveniently recruited population residing in 5 Malaysian cities. The survey generated 657 valid responses, which were subjected to statistical analysis. The results show that the survey participants are highly aware of lead usage in household paints. Furthermore, their awareness about the health and environmental implications were also high, and a significant difference was observed in association with specific demographic characteristics such as gender, age and educational level. These findings highlight that majority of the respondents are aware of the health and environmental implications of lead-based household paints. However, this result does not reflect the production quality of the household-based paint in Malaysia, which studies have shown to be above threshold concentrations. This exploratory study creates room for future studies to undertake further investigations among consumers and organizations.

Osaro Aigbogun, Zulkipli Ghazali, Meng Xing, Olawole Fawehinmi, Mohammed Abdullahi, Joy Uwakina
Specificity of the Use of Digital Tools in the Formation of Professional Competencies of Teachers—Defectologists

The article discusses digital tools for the formation of professional competencies of teachers-defectologists in the format of an open educational resource that combines the advantages of a training workshop and practical exercises in the field of training. The digital resource contributes to the formation of future teachers-defectologists as subjects of inclusive activities with a readiness for self-education. The aim of the study is to review and analyze the key characteristics of digital student learning tools and the experience of introducing them into the educational process. The article used the methods of theoretical analysis: the study and analysis of psychological, pedagogical and scientific-methodical literature and Internet resources on the research problem, as well as generalization of the experience of approbation of an open educational resource. The parameters that make it possible to determine the efficiency of the resource use are highlighted: the ability to analyze the anamnestic data of children with disabilities; the ability to diagnose, put a speech therapy conclusion, the amount of rational selection of tools for diagnosis and psychological and pedagogical study of preschoolers with disabilities, taking into account the age and type of impairment; the degree of interaction with other specialists using digital resources, etc. The educational resource “LogopedistPro” was included in the structure of the educational process with the aim of practice-oriented training and the formation of professional competencies of a teacher-defectologist through a system of training tasks. The results of the level of formation of professional competencies of students are analyzed. As a result, 70% of students improved their level using the open educational resource, activated by workshops. It is concluded that the result of using digital tools is to improve the quality of students’ knowledge and develop their ability to study independently.

Ekaterina Gordeeva, Evgenia Dergacheva, Natalia Medova, Anna Sergeeva
Strategies for Improvement and Evaluation of the Quality Management System of Uzbekistan Manufacturers

The purpose of this study is to develop proposals and recommendations for improving quality management in leather and shoe enterprises. The research objectives consist of the following: studying the concept of product quality at leather and shoe enterprises, the importance and the theoretical and methodological aspects of factors affecting quality; developing theoretical foundations for modern approaches and principles of quality management application at leather and shoe enterprises; assessing consumer demand and satisfaction in product quality management at enterprises and proposing an algorithm for managing relationships with consumers; analysing the activities of enterprises in the leather and shoe industry of the republic; analysing the costs of quality management and control methods at leather and shoe enterprises as well as developing proposals and recommendations to eliminate the identified problems; introducing quality management in the shoe industry and improving the methodology of expert assessment based on the author's approach; improving the practice of using quality control methods at enterprises; improving quality management at shoe industry enterprises through the Industry 4.0 program; and developing scientifically sound proposals and recommendations for improving quality management at leather and shoe enterprises. The object of the study is the quality management of leather and shoe enterprises of the Fergana region of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The subject of the study is the socioeconomic relations arising in the process of improving quality management at leather and shoe enterprises. With regard to research methods, the study used a systematic approach, comparative analysis, statistical analysis, expert assessment, factor analysis, economic analysis, general management methods, questionnaires, selective observation and other methods.

Makhammadjon Ashurov, Konstantin Kurpayanidi, Dilmurod Oripov, Yulduz Shakirova, Gulnozakhon Muydinova
Digitalization as Strategies for Public Self-management of the Cultural Environment During the Pandemic

The article is devoted to the actual study of modern socio-cultural communications in the process of public self-government by aspects of modern cultural environment. The authors attempt to analyze the impact of digitalization and mediatization on this process. The conducted studies are presented, in which it is revealed that under the influence of the civilizational factor, the communicative strategies of interpersonal and professional interaction change. It is noted that in recent years there has been a mediatization of strategies and tactics, the widespread use of digital technologies, the actualization of media art as an actor of psychological security of society in the context of the new geopolitical situation in the world. The article provides an understanding of the terminology of modern public self-government of such an important living space as the cultural environment, as well as an understanding of problem areas in the light of the current world situation, taking into account information changes that occurred during the pandemic. It is noted that modern media strategies are an important component of public self-government. The research methodology covers the included observations, media monitoring, content analysis of media resources, interviewing within the survey. The main block of research was conducted at St. Petersburg State University. The methodology is aimed at confirming the research hypothesis: there is a significant influence of media images on the modern lifestyle, which entails a change in communication strategies. They are carried out taking into account the process of digitalization of all spheres of activity of modern society.

Anastasiia Grishanina, Lyudmila Maryna, Roman Liseev, Lingzhi Lai
The Foreign Languages Teaching Transformation in the COVID-19 Pandemic

The pandemic caused by the coronavirus spread has made serious changes in all spheres of human life, including education. The necessity of remote learning has intensified the process to implement a digital educational environment. The presented work aims to analyze the realization of remote foreign language teaching in a higher educational institution in extreme conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the content analysis of pedagogical articles and considering their own teaching experience the authors concluded that intensive use of information and computer technologies is justified by their high efficiency, but their harmful effects on the physiological, mental and social health of educational activity subjects are not taken into account. The paper emphasizes the implicit possibilities of the discipline “Foreign Language” (to develop motivation for a healthy lifestyle), highlights the importance of health-saving components of the modern educational process in higher education. As a result, a number of recommendations were formulated to improve the educational system for the further successful application of remote learning. Examining the emergency remote teaching difficulties (material, technical, educational, organizational, didactic, methodological, socio—psychological, personnel, administrative and managerial, economic) is very important due to pedagogical practice, since it makes it possible to plan effective activities in different educational modes (distance, remote, online, mobile, blending/hybrid learning, exc.) not only in the pandemic period but in the post-pandemic one as well.

Nina Speranskaya, Alyona Pashina, Galya Ostapchenko
The Impact of Green Tourism on the Development of the Regional Economy

The tourism sector of the economy has an impact on the level of development of the regional economy. This happens as a consequence of the multiplier effect. Induced, direct and indirect effects from the impact of the tourism industry can greatly contribute to the growth of related sectors of the economy, as well as the socio-economic development of the region and the preservation of cultural heritage. Tourism allows to reduce the unemployment rate and increase the income level in tourist regions, but at the same time it can have a negative impact on the ecology and anthropogenic situation in the region. In order for tourism to ensure sustainable socio-economic development of the region, it is especially important to ensure state control over the use of natural resources and compliance with environmental legislation. State regulation of the tourism industry should be focused on the formation of ecological thinking among the population, a reasonable culture of consumption. The development of the tourism industry is of great importance not only for tourists, but also for residents living in tourist regions.

Oleksandr Nepomnyashchyy, Sergey Yekimov, Nataliya Rybalchenko, Vita Tebenko, Oksana Lysak
A Method for Application of Remote Sensing Data in Crop Simulation Models

Forecast crop yields using simulation models of agroecosystems is necessary for economic planning and agricultural insurance. A method for integrating remote sensing information from the Sentinel-2 satellite into the crop simulation models AgroTool, Monica and Oryza to improve crop yield forecasting accuracy is proposed. The simulation models’ leaf area index and crop yield forecast were adjusted according actual field observations using NDVI indices from the Sentinel-2 satellite remote sensing data. The results of applying the proposed recalibration method to assess the yield of rice and wheat in the Rabi season 2021 in the Republic of India based on satellite images are presented.

Vladimir Badenko, Danila Eremenko, Alexander Topaj, Mikhail Gasanov
Digitalization in the Global Stock Market in the Post Coronavirus Era

The stock market began to play a significant role in the lives of billions of people over the past decades, including as a result of the arrival of a mass investor. Digitalization and the introduction of new digital technologies into everyday life have played a significant role in this development. Thanks to them, the universal and transparent rules of the game and the openness of most of the national stock markets, international investment and diversification, including by geography, are gaining spread. The coronavirus also had some impact on the global stock market in 2020–2021, but this impact was very limited. The aim of this work is to identify the main factors of digitalization in the global stock market in the post-coronavirus period. As a result of this work, it was concluded that, from a historical point of view, the link between the stock market and the real economy is gradually but steadily weakening. This leads to an increase in the speculative component in the pricing of traded assets, primarily shares. In total, it is precisely this weakening of the connection between the stock market and the activities of the companies behind their own shares, as well as the development of information technologies and the growth in the number of small and private investors, that in the long term are the factors determining the basic trends of digitalization. The paper proposes specific promising directions for the development of digital solutions in the global stock market.

Oksana Pirogova, Michael Loubochkin
Issues of Construction Industry Amidst the Pandemic

Construction industry takes an integral part in the economy of any country. It underwent a plethora of various changes throughout its history: from the improvement of building materials to the upgrading of building regulations. Construction sector of Russian economy is not immune to changes as well. For instance, sanctions imposed on Russia in 2014 caused some complications in the construction sphere. Building companies had to deal with problems occurred in logistics, in particular with the supply of building materials. This situation allowed looking from a different angle at the necessity for constituent entities of Russia and the countries of the Eurasian Customs Union to be replaceable. However, the obstacles entailed by sanctions have not broadly affected the process of construction, which includes acquisition of a land parcel, engineering survey, architectural and engineering design work, expert assessments, procurement of a building license, the process of construction itself, and commissioning. Today’s reality compels us not only to develop the construction industry or keep jobs, but also make the results of construction process as much benefiting for people as possible in the midst of COVID-19 pandemic. The authors attempted to find and disclose some problems of the construction industry of Russia in contemporary reality. The paper indicates the tendency of complex and sustainable development of territories in the Russian Federation.

Emma Shariapova, Andrei Shuvaev
Application of Mathematical Methods to Evaluate Vibration Conveyor

Vibrating conveyors are widely used for the transportation of flour and grain products in food and agricultural production, and of lumpy material in mining industries. The paper reviews the main directions of research conducted by the world's leading scientists in the field of studying, modeling, and improving the designs of vibrating conveyors. Mathematical modeling of the nature of grain material movement along a vibrating conveyor surface has been carried out to further optimize the design parameters of the conveyor. The Runge-Kutta method was used to evaluate the nature of grain material movement. The computer program was written for mathematical modeling and realization of the goal. As a result of modeling spheroid and ellipsoid motions and processing the data obtained, the conclusion was made that when moving along the vibrating surface of a body which shape is close to the spheroid, rolling is possible and is the main component of motion. When moving a body which shape is close to ellipsoidal, motion is performed due to sliding the body along the vibrating surface in the absence of rotation in the direction of longitudinal ellipsoid movement.

Fedor Kipriyanov, Yulia Plotnikova
Extramural Studies: Harvesting and Analysis of Students’ Digital Footprint

The paper emphasizes the necessity of the design and implementation of individual educational trajectories of students and substantiates the need to use the possibilities of the students’ digital footprint in the digital educational environment. The investigations of Russian and foreign scientists on the role of the digital footprint in the design of individual educational trajectories are analyzed. The results of the harvesting and interpretation of digital data of the activities of extramural students in the disciplines Foreign Language and Business Foreign Language in Professional Activities in the Learning Management System Educon of the Industrial University of Tyumen, on the Zoom platform and in the Google Docs cloud service are presented. The involvement of extramural students of the 1st and 2nd study years in activities in the Learning Management System Educon, midpoint assessment tests, as well as students’ preferences in terms of the tasks performance way in practical classes were analyzed. Diagrams of involvement of extramural students in activities in electronic courses by disciplines, preferences by the number of attempts used when performing of midpoint assessment tests, as well as students’ preferences by the tasks performance way in practical classes are constructed. Conclusions are drawn about the possibility of identifying elements of work programs that are difficult to master, their possible adjustment as well as the formation of individual educational routes for students based on digital data, which ultimately will allow adjust the educational process as a whole and improve the quality of education.

Irina Nordman
The Modifications of a Model Material of Billet for the Procedure of Screw Rolling on a Model of Four-roll Mills

The main goal of our research was to develop the composition of the model material of the billet for simulating the procedure of screw piercing of the sleeve on the model of a four-roll mill manufactured using additive technologies. When simulating the helical rolling process on a model of a four-roll rolling mill, the dynamics of the workpiece piercing process was uniformly stable, and lines characteristic of helical piercing were visible on the surface of the billet. The effect of modifications of the model material on the rolling of the billet, the formation of the final geometry, and the deformation of the sleeve has been evaluated. Shear deformation of the billet material occurred in two planes. The result of the work was the improvement of the plasticine blank (Roma Plasticine No. 1). This will contribute to the effective analysis of deformations during piercing of billet on an experimental model of a four-roll mill.

Victoria Titova, Oleg Zhurlov
Development of Safe Breakthrough Management in Entrepreneurship

The article is devoted to safe breakthrough management in modern Russian entrepreneurship, thanks to which an economic breakthrough is achieved, a safe breakthrough economy arises and develops. In the context of the conceptual strategic vision, it is characterized as a combination of relations between employees of an entrepreneurial firm headed by an entrepreneur, ensuring the achievement of specific production goals, during which a certain system of combined resource expenditure is used to solve the set breakthrough tasks. At the same time, the conclusion is substantiated that, firstly, the source of management of an entrepreneurial breakthrough is the national production culture, the values arising from it—mainly the managerial intellectual potential and accumulated knowledge of mankind, which ensure the special activity of entrepreneurs. Secondly, the process of safe breakthrough management within the firm finds its continuation outside of it, i.e. in the external market manifestation. The essence of this phenomenon is expressed in its transformation into a basic tool for the economic development of economic entities, into a unique channel for introducing a combined modernization of intra-company management relations and at the same time the market economy as a whole. Breakthrough management is sensitive to the safe economic policy and actions of state and municipal authorities, as well as the “invisible hand of the market” at the mega-, macro-, meso- and micro levels. Their totality in the main link of the economy covers at least seven components—innovative entrepreneurial combination, business planning, organization, regulation, motivation, control and analysis. They become the driving force of safe economic progress, and the search for solutions to the problems that arise in this case is a key function.

Ivan Matskulyak, Dmitry Matskulyak
Theoretical Foundations and Methods for the Rational Location of Gas Fire Detectors Based on Gas Control Technology. Mathematical Modelling of Gas Fire Detectors Location for Early Fire Detection

This paper proposes a mathematical method for calculating and rationally locating gas detectors for premises of potentially hazardous industries. The development of automatic fire alarm systems around the world is inextricably linked with the provision of early fire detection functions. With the development of microelectronic technology, new methods have appeared for detecting fires by gas emission at the stage of smoldering and pyrolysis. When installing gas control systems in a controlled room, one can detect the gases appearance characteristic of the thermal organic materials decomposition by changing the atmosphere composition in the room. The use of a new gas detectors class allows to create complex gas control systems to ensure the fire safety. Currently, there are almost no standards for the gas detectors installation in the plant premises, but meanwhile it is the rational gas detectors location that determines the effectiveness of their use.

Andrey Petrov, Andrey Fedorov, Magomed Mintsaev, Andrey Ilyukhin, Vadim Marsov
The Impact of Climate on the Environment of Hot Cities in Russia

The rapid economic development of countries, construction and transport, contributing to an increase in the consumption of petroleum products, seriously affects the urban ecological balance. Large cities located in hot regions have the most extreme environmental conditions. The growth of modern high-rise buildings and the use of urban transport significantly pollute the air basin of cities. At high temperatures characteristic of southern cities, the pollution of urban space is the most noticeable. The article analyzes the ecology of hot cities in Russia. The most polluted areas of cities with the concentration of pollutants exceeding the permissible limits due to lack of air exchange have been identified. The role of air flows of thermal origin in the aeration of yard spaces has been determined. Using the example of a nine-story residential building in the city of Volgograd, the formation of air flows of thermal origin was analyzed. The paper presents a graph of field measurements of the speed of convective flows near the facades of the building at different times of the daylight hours, the regulation of which can help improve the ecology of urban areas.

Botir Giyasov
Application of Digital Technologies in the Agricultural Sector

Agricultural production is a fundamental sector of the national economy of many countries. It includes the processes of production and processing of agricultural raw materials and obtaining products from them. The main branches of agricultural production are crop production and animal husbandry, which always need to be studied in conjunction. Connection is based on a common goal—the production of food to meet the needs of people. Also, the connection is to provide animals with feed and plants with organic fertilizers. The purpose of the paper is to study the issues of increasing the efficiency of the crop industry using digital technologies. The structure of the platform for managing business processes in crop production is proposed. The digital platform covers all stages of growing crops. In order to use digital technologies, it is necessary to organize the creation of an electronic field map, which makes it possible to keep records of the implementation of all agricultural activities in the fields and analyze the conditions that affect plant growth in a particular area.

Olga Semicheva, Maxim Kuznetsov, Guzel Gumerova, Nailya Dubkova, Elena Khakimova
Mathematical Modelling of Electrolyte Concentration Field in the Controlled Electrochemical Resistance

The aim of the given research is mathematical modelling of the electrolyte concentration field in a controlled electrochemical resistance. All the processes happening in the object are considered to be isothermal, electric fields in all of the fragments of electrochemical resistance are potential and plane-parallel. All physical and chemical parameters of the object's materials are constant values. Kinetics of all electrode processes in the researched object is controlled by the diffusion stage in the electrolyte. Laplace and Fourier control method is used as a research method, it means expansion aimed at obtaining analytical description of the electrolyte concentration field. In the run of the research, a mathematical model of the electrolyte concentration field was received with a equable distribution of the current density. An analytical expression is obtained that allows to construct the surface of the electrolyte concentration change in the controlled electrochemical resistance. The concentration profiles of the electrolyte have been calculated in the conditions of various temperatures and time characteristic of the change in the electrolyte concentration.

Dmitry Fugarov, Yevgeny Gerasimenko
Grounding and Lightning Protection of a Transformer Substation

The article deals with the issues of protection against lightning, since the discovery of the electricity phenomenon. Every year in Russia, on average, according to statistics, more than five hundred people die from lightning strikes. The lack of protective equipment against lightning strikes and improper grounding contributes to the destruction of the building or part of it; damages to the means of transport and transport enterprises; malfunctions in the electrical network or combustion of electrical wiring and appliances; death or injury to living beings.

Timur Amkhaev, Mayrbek Debiev, Girikhan Aslakhanov, Umar Askhabov, Baron Chakaev
The Challenges in Waste Management During the Pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic, the intense spread of which fell on the first quarter of 2020, caused a global emergency and exacerbated, among other things, the challenges in waste management. The problems associated with increased volume of wastes and the search for possible solutions have come to the fore. Of particular concern is used personal protective equipment (masks, gloves, etc.). The amount of food and plastic waste has also increased during the pandemic, forcing emergency treatment and disposals. This study emphasizes the challenges of increased waste disposal during the pandemic. Failures to observe adequate waste management practices during the COVID-19 pandemic carries potential risks for waste management personnel and increases the risk of virus transmission. Consequently, procedures and instructions on handling of COVID-19 wastes should be carefully followed in order to reduce the risk of the virus spreading through healthcare facilities, communities and public venues.

Alexander Scherbakov, Elena Kuzbagarova, Oksana Karnaukhova
Compliance Control in the Context of Sanctions and Pandemics as a Method of Ensuring the Economic Security of a Transport Enterprise

Currently, sanctions for the Russian Federation have become an expected part of the economic component of the economic security of the enterprise. After the first crisis of 2014, due to the sanctions package, many organizations had to change their directions, established rules for solving production tasks and tools. At the same time, Russian enterprises analyzed and established new market relations. In 2020, the whole world was subjected to the COVID-19 pandemic, as a result, most enterprises from various industries, including the transport sector, have frozen their development and production and a considerable number of them were liquidated. Due to the situation of uncertainty, enterprises need to use modern methods for assessing risks and preventing their impact on the safety of the enterprise. Managers should make timely and clear management decisions on planning, evaluating the effectiveness of logistics systems, modernization of transport infrastructure, effectiveness of internal control and reliability of reporting. The transport sector is more vulnerable to the impact of sanctions and the pandemic than other areas of economic activity. The reason for this is a significant volume of supplies of modern types of machinery and high-tech equipment from other countries, which companies are forced to suspend due to sanctions. The second reason is the impossibility of transferring employees of the transport complex to remote work, even during a pandemic.

Vladislav Uskov, Oleg Kharchenko
Satureja Montana L. Essential Oil Influence on the Blood Component Composition and the Serum Bactericidal Activity

The Satureja Montana L. essential oil (EO) influence on the Wistar line rats’ some blood indicators was studied. The essential oil dosages in the next positions was added. Rats of 2nd group obtained 0.3 mg EO per group daily. The 3rd experimental group obtained 0.6 mg EO per group daily. The total protein increased by 17.9% in 3rd group and by 19.7% in second ones. In 2nd group this increase was due to albumin by 27.6%. A significant decrease in aspartate aminotransferase indicates the hepatoprotective effect to a certain extent. Serum bactericidal activity indicates enhancement of biofilm density in experimental groups of rats.

Tatyana Kuevda, Tatiana Sataieva, Pavel Ostapchuk, Elena Usmanova, Denis Zubochenko, Alla Zubochenko, Anna Pikhtereva, Olga Postnikova, Ludmila Shevkoplyas, Tatyana Logadyr
Investigation of Optimal Approaches to Assessing the Innovative Potential for Regional Transport Improvement—Part II: Choice of Regions and Conclusions

In the study, the researchers set a goal to identify the most accurate and economical methods for assessing the innovative potential of regions for the development of their transport infrastructure in terms of the resources used. There two parts of the work which are published in different issues. To achieve the goal, methods were selected, calculations were carried out for two of them, which are suitable for the goal and described in detail in the methodological literature, and the results of two methods presented in the public domain for comparable periods of time for three selected regions were used. The study used materials from Russian and foreign sources. Based on the results, certain conclusions were made that allow more accurate selection of methods for assessing the innovative potential of regions, taking into account the objectives of such an assessment, as well as the resource availability of a researcher group. However, none of the methods takes into account the development of transport infrastructure as a separate factor. At the same time, the importance of the development of transport infrastructure becomes obvious, which is stimulated by the need of innovative producers and must be provided by the state. A critical view on the further application of all methods is also presented, which requires researchers of the regional innovation potential to have accuracy, objectivity in assessments and independence in their interpretation.

Mariia Koniagina, Anastasiia Hellstrom, Denis Hellstrom
Analysis of Consumer Preferences and Veterinary and Sanitary Evaluation of the Cooked Sausages Quality Produced by Primorsk Manufacturers

Sausage products occupy one of the leading positions in the nutritional structure of the population of our country and other countries of the world. Thousands of new meat processing plants have been commissioned in Russia. According to statistics, the sausage market is one of the fastest growing markets in the Russian food industry. And although the sausage market in Russia has undergone significant qualitative changes over the past few years, this position enables both Russian and Western companies to look at it in the future. The emergence of new players in the sausage market has increased competition and, in turn, is prompting manufacturers to improve the quality of their products and pay more attention to promoting their own products. Most sausage products are positioned in a fairly high price segment, but this cannot protect consumers from purchasing counterfeit products. The issue of food safety and quality control of these types of proucts, remains relevant today. The article analyses the assortment of sausage products sold in Ussuriysk shops, gives the results of organoleptic and physico-chemical indices of the examined samples of cooked sausages, gives the conclusion about the quality of the examined meat product samples and the possibility of their realization in the trade network.

Viktoria Podvalova, Guli Koltun, Margarita Simakova, Svetlana Terebova
Development of a Promising Method of Pre-sowing Grain Processing

Pre-sowing grain treatment is aimed at protecting against diseases and stimulating physiological processes. Analysis of grain treaters made it possible to establish the need to develop equipment for disinfection, grain coating with microelements and biological products, the formation of a protective film on the grain surface. An experimental device for grain treatment with hot mist was developed and included a treatment chamber with inclined shelves and a hot mist generator. To determine the optimal angles of inclined shelves in the treatment chamber, the process of grain movement was investigated. It was established that a decrease in the velocity of grain in the treatment chamber was possible due to a decrease in the angle of shelf inclination along which the grain moves. Studies showed that the most significant factors affecting the velocity of grain movement was the angle of shelf inclination with optimal values ranged 250–350. The efficiency of hot mist treatment depended on exposure time and feed consistency. Pre-sowing grain treatment with hot mist of humates was a promising direction in the development of treaters. Pre-sowing treatment of Bios-1 barley grains with hot humate mist allowed increasing the yield by 13–14% compared with the traditional semi-dry method using PS-10 treater.

Olga Teterina, Mikhail Kostenko, Vladimir Teterin, Sergey Mitrofanov
Effect of Porosity and PCM Content on Heat-Storage Properties of Foam Copper/Paraffin Composite

In this work, we carried out experimental studies of the heat storage properties of composites consisting of copper open cell foam and paraffin. The porosities of copper foam samples were ε = 0.95 and ε = 0.97, the paraffin content was 91% and 96% in copper foam samples with porosity ε = 0.95, and 92% and 98% in samples with porosity ε = 0.97. As a result of experimental studies, we plotted graphs of changes in temperature and heat flux density in the samples during heating, cooling, and phase transition. The research results show that an increased content of paraffin (96%, 98%), as well as a higher porosity of copper foam (ε = 0.97) lead to an increase in the time of heating, cooling and phase transition of the composite sample. So, the paraffin content has a great influence on the heat storage properties of the composite: an increased paraffin content leads to a slower heat accumulation process, however, it allows accumulating more thermal energy. At the same time, the porosity of copper foam is also of great importance: lower porosity makes it possible to accelerate the processes of accumulation and release of heat due to higher effective thermal conductivity compared to samples with higher porosity.

Olga Soloveva, Sergei Solovev, Yuri Vankov, Irina Akhmetova, Rozalina Shakurova
Veterinary and Sanitary Examination and Methods for Determining the Quality and Safety of Sausages

For the first time, in the aspect of a self-control system, a complex of laboratory studies was used, using express methods, which makes it possible to draw an expert opinion on the quality and level of biological safety of finished sausages. This set of studies is proposed as an alternative method for meat processing enterprises. The obtained research results allow to carry out an objective veterinary and sanitary assessment of sausages using express methods for diagnosing food infections and to release a safe and complete product for sale. The results of the work are reflected in the guidelines “Veterinary and sanitary examination and control system for food safety and quality of sausages.” In the context of meat processing, a self-control system based on a risk analysis and critical control points system has been introduced and is being used. To control food safety and ensure public health, an effective complex of laboratory research methods, an express method for detecting pathogenic microorganisms (Salmonella, Listeria), combining organoleptic, physicochemical, microbiological, determination of falsification by polymerase chain reaction, and histological examination are used.

Sergey Smolentsev, Ali Volkov, Ellada Papunidi, Leisyan Yakupova, Galiya Yusupova, Elmira Kosacheva, Albina Potapova, Alsu Gainetdinova
Study of Individual Field Isolates of the Genus Fusarium for the Ability to Synthesize Complex Proteins

Micromycetes play a major role in the symbiotic processes of flora and fauna. Filamentous fungi can be valuable and promising sources of raw materials in the production of lectins, which are used for the manufacture of antiviral drugs, in the treatment of gastrointestinal and heart diseases of various etiologies. Among the many biological objects studied, field isolates, which have the ability to synthesize proteins of plant origin, are of interest. Phytoaglutenins are plant proteins that can recognize and bind carbohydrate groups without chemically binding them, making them a unique and invaluable tool in the field of glycoconjugative, biomedical and therapeutic research. Plant lectins, glycoproteins, play a major role in protecting plants from insects and various phytopathogens. The purpose of our work was to secure soil isolates of fungi of the genus Fusarium, to study morphological properties, and determine their ability to synthesize lectins. Four isolates of F. moniliforme, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum, and F. avenaceum were secured from the soil substrate. The morphological study of the strains and the determination of their ability to synthesize plant proteins were carried out. During the screening, by the agglutination reaction with rabbit erythrocytes, it was found that the secured F. graminearum field isolate is not capable of synthesizing plant proteins. Filamentous fungus F. avenaceum 25 showed an average amount of lectins. The highest activity was found in the F. moniliforme 27 isolate, which, upon further study, is able to become a bioproducer for the production of lectins. The study of lectin activity in field isolates of the genus Fusarium was based on their biological spectrum and the profile of carbohydrate inhibition. The activity of plant proteins in micromycetes directly depended on the time of cultivation. In this study, an attempt was made to study the activity of lectin in fungi of the Fusarium species that have not been previously investigated. Securing the lectins from the constituent of filamentous fungi is relevant today due to its antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activity.

Ramziya Potekhina, Anna Tremasova, Edie Plotnikova, Ilgiz Idiyatov, Artur Erosin, Andrey Onegov, Aleksey Rozhentsov, Farit Kalimullin, Rimma Nefedova, Sultan Yusupov, Aleksey Frolov, Igor Fitsev
Analysis of Preserved Feed from Individual Farms of the Republic of Tatarstan

The criterion of phytopathogenic diseases is the infection of phytocenoses with fungal mycelium, leading to a decrease in the quality of conservation and spoilage of feed. Avoidance of reduction in yields during conservation of herbs is achieved by using various bio—preservatives based on beneficial microorganisms. Currently the use of antibacterials and changes in the environmental situation contribute to the emergence of mutagenic forms of microorganisms with high drug resistance. The analysis across indicators of the nutritional value and the content of organic acids of silage and haylage test samples from stock farms of Tatarstan Republic: agricultural enterprise “Tatarstan” of the Baltasi district, agricultural enterprise “Tukai” of the Atninsk district, agricultural enterprise “Mir” of the Elabuga district, OJSC “Bolshiye Kiari” of the Kamsko—Ust'insk district, was conducted. Above mentioned farms use the biological preservatives for conservation of feed such as “Feedtech Silade F18”, “Bonsenage Plus”, “Biotrof-111” to preserve feed. In the study of corn silage testings from the agricultural enterprise “Mir” of the Yelabuga district, it was found that the amount of acetic acid in them is 12.2%, from the farm “Bolshiye Kiyary” of the Kamsko-Ust'insk district is 18.4%, which indicates the absence of fermentation. The content of lactic acid in corn silage from the agricultural enterprise “Tatarstan” of the Baltasi district was 90.9%, from the farm “Mir” of the Yelabuga district—87.8%, “Bolshiye Kiyari” of the Kamsko-Ust'insk district—81.6%.

Ramziya M. Potekhina, Yuri M. Tremasov, Farit Kh. Kalimullin, Edie M. Plotnikova, Sergey Yu. Smolentsev, Lyudmila V. Holodova, Nailya N. Mishina, Evgenya Yu. Tarasova, Zukhra H. Sagdeeva, Almaz R. Valiev, Rimma V. Nefedova, Fanil R. Vafin
Calculation of Energy-Saving Measures for the Protection of Agricultural Facilities from Pests

Businesses consume energy to produce output. Traditionally, the amount of energy consumed per unit of output is controlled by its energy intensity per year. However, this indicator characterizes only the influence energy consumption to the cost of production. In the article, tentatively as energy efficiency indicator, a differentiated energy intensity of products is adopted, determines the income of the enterprise. A method of representing a consumer production enterprise in the form of a technical structural system is described, which makes it possible to divide the system into transmission and working parts, the energy processes in the technical elements (equipment) of which are accompanied by losses. The division of energy in the working part into calculated consumption and losses is proposed and experimentally verified, with the transfer of this division to the energy consumed and the energy intensity of products. Thus, the use of the method gives a figure of the real value of energy efficiency. This removes the uncertainty of the traditional calculation of the energy intensity of products. It also makes it possible to carry out an energy expertise of design and technological solutions and obtain correct information about energy needs.

Dmitriy O. Surinskiy, Aleksander I. Marandin, Oleg V. Chursin
Physiological Role of Carbohydrate-Vitamin-Mineral Concentrates in Sheep Feeding

To study the effect on the body of the morphological composition of the blood of sheep, we used the UVMC “Vita Balance” of our own production. In order to study the morphological composition of blood in the conditions of the farm of LLC “SHP Lukoz” of the Sernursky district of the RME. In the conditions of this farm, we studied the conditions of keeping animals, the composition of feed and conducted studies of the morphological composition of the blood of experimental animals, which are divided into 2 groups: experimental and control. It was found that the conditions of keeping animals in large parameters correspond to zoohygienic parameters. Studies have found that in the experimental groups of sheep, there was a slight increase in total protein in the blood serum—by 13.4%, calcium—by 30.7%, phosphorus and alkaline reserve by 5.5% and 5.6, respectively, compared with the control. At the same time, the concentration of glucose and albumins increased by 27.5% and 22.4%. Taking into account the average daily increments showed an advantage of 5.6% in favor of the sheep of the experimental group. Studies have found that when using UVMC “Vita Balance” as an additional balancing feed additive in the form of a lizun, it leads to the activation of metabolic processes in the body.

Damir D. Hairullin, Farit F. Zinnatov, Aliya R. Kashaeva, Radii M. Papaev, Alexander P. Ovsyannikov, Farit M. Nurgaliev, Rifat R. Khisamov, Talgat R. Yakupov, Sergey Yu. Smolentsev, Andrey V. Onegov
Application Biologically Active Supplements in the Organic Poultry Farming

One of the most promising and dynamically developing sectors of agriculture is poultry farming. To implement the genetic potential of poultry, the use of biologically active supplements in the composition of animal feed plays an important role. A promising direction in improving their quality characteristics is the use of organic acids and their salts with high biological activity. These include succinic acid, calcium succinic acid and calcium fumaric acid, Extrarafit and Vita-forza. For the experiment, 6 groups of Habbard F15 cross broiler chickens were formed consisiting of 100 birds aged 10 days with an average live weight of 248 g. The first group was control. Succinic acid, calcium succinic acid and calcium fumaric acid were added to the diet of chickens of the second, third and fourth groups at doses of 25 mg/kg of live weight, the fifth and sixth groups were fed with “Extrafit” and “Vita-forza” at a dose of 2%. The duration of the experiment was 30 days. The authors studied the effect of the test drugs and additives on the morphological and biochemical blood parameters of experimental birds. The results of the studies indicate that the supplements do not adversely affect the body systems of birds and increase their productivity.

Ellada K. Papunidi, Ali H. Volkov, Leysan F. Yakupova, Galiya R. Yusupova, Nikita V. Nikolaev, Renat A. Volkov, Sergey Yu. Smolentsev
Use of Adipogenic Stem Cells in Treatment of Oronasal Fistulas in Dogs

Application of stromal cells in dentistry opens wide possibilities for the use of cell technologies in maxillofacial surgery, periodontology, and implantology. Tooth decay, alveolar periodontitis, parodontopathies, fractures of jaw bones and dental crowns are common in dogs and lead to oronasal and oroantral fistulas in neglected cases. Adipose tissue stem cells (ATSCs) have recently been of special interest to biologists and physicians. ATSCs are able to differentiate into bone, cartilaginous, adipose, muscle, nerve tissue cells, and into vessel wall cells (endothelial cells and satellite cells). The study subjects were dogs belonging to Kazan city inhabitants. During the clinical study, oronasal fistulas in the upper alveolar ridge area were diagnosed in all animals. We performed operations on guided tissue regeneration in the oroantral fistula area with the single- step fine tissue sculpting. Allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells in combination with titanium nickelide granules (Nitigran) were used as osteoinductive material. The complex of osteoconductive materials and allogeneic MSCs mesenchymal stem cells, introduced into the fistular canal, not only provides complete elimination of fenestration between the nasal and the oral cavities, but also stimulates full osteanaphysis.

Mikhail A. Sergeev, Dina A. Azizova, Rais G. Hafizov, Aigul R. Hairutdinova, Ilsur G. Galimzyanov, Olga I. Shorkina, Anastasia N. Valeeva, Nazhiya V. Shamsutdinova, Samat R. Yusupov, Zoya G. Churina
Comparative Effectiveness of Probiotics in Store Pigs Raising

Probiotics are live microbial feed additives that have a beneficial effect on the animal's body by improving the intestinal microbial balance. Probiotics are effective against diseases caused by a variety of stresses, resulting in a stable immunity in the animals. According to scientists, the inclusion of probiotics in the raising of young animals reduces the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases, shortens their rearing time, and reduces feed costs and mortality. For the first time, the feasibility of using essential oil of eucalyptus as a source of phytoncides and negative polarity oxygen aeroions to optimize the indoor microclimate when growing store pigs has been scientifically substantiated and experimentally proved. The above-mentioned measures helped to reduce the concentration of water vapor, harmful gases (carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide), dust, and micro-organisms in the pig house air by almost two times. Under production conditions, the possibility of activating the immunobiological status, growth, and development of store pigs with the use of probiotics “Vetom 2” and “Biosporin” was confirmed. The use of these probiotic preparations increased the live weight gain of the store pigs by 7.8–8.9%. The prophylactic efficacy against gastroenteritis in store pigs was 86.6–93.4%. The results of experiments and production experience open up prospects for a wide practical application of the probiotic preparations “Vetom 2” and “Biosporin” in pig farming.

Sergey Yu. Smolentsev, Mariya I. Kruglova, Olesya A. Bogomolova, Yuri N. Fedorov, Igor V. Pavlenko, Svetlana A. Gryn, Alena A. Kazaku, Evgenia V. Markova, Larisa A. Neminuschaya, Tatyana A. Skotnikova, Valentina I. Klyukina, Larisa S. Lyulkova, Irina N. Matveeva
Study of the Effect of an Antioxidant on the Quality of Broiler Meat

High rates of increase in production were noted in the poultry industry according to the national report “On the progress and results of the implementation of the State Program for agriculture development and regulation of markets for agricultural products, raw materials, and food”. It is necessary to continue sub-industry modernization in the entire technological chain in order to continue adhering to a high development level and increasing the competitiveness of Russian agricultural products and products of its processing in the domestic and foreign markets. The feeding of poultry is an important link in this chain, it is worthwhile to search for new feed means in this direction that meet the needs of poultry for complete protein, vitamins, and other nutrients necessary for the full growth and development of poultry. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the slaughter products of broiler chickens when adding to the diet the feed additive Diarin M3. The experiments were carried out on Hubbard broilers (ISA-15 cross) aged thirty days. The poultry of the first group received 4% lactic acid. Broilers of the second group were fed with Diarin M3 (0.25 ml per kilogram of live weight). The third group was the control group. Poultry meat, which was injected with Diarin M3, corresponded to the requirements of GOSTs for fresh, high-quality meat in terms of organoleptic, physicochemical, and bacteriological indicators.

Sergey Yu. Smolentsev, Ivan S. Ivanov, Elena V. Maksimova, Yuriy G. Krysenko, Ekaterina S. Klimova, Nadezhda V. Isupova, Marina S. Gugkaeva, Albina K. Kornaeva
Sanitary Evaluation of RABbit's Slaughter Products When Supplementing Antioxidant in the Diet

By examining the influence of the antioxidant action of emicidin, the optimal schema of its use in rabbits from 45 days of age at a dose of 25 mg per head for 14 days was established. The nutritional value of rabbit meat was studied in terms of chemical and amino acid composition, while a downward trend in the amount of fat, an increase in the quantitative representation of protein in the group with a single administration of the drug at a dose of 25 mg per head was established, starting from 45 days of age. The veterinary and sanitary expertise of rabbit slaughter products with the addition of emicidin to the diet on the basis of sanitary-bacteriological, physicochemical indicators, structural analysis of muscle tissue and liver, safety and biological value of meat is proposed and substantiated. The results confirm the possibility of using the emicidin drug as a stress corrector for leveling the consequences of technological stresses in rabbits under industrial conditions. The proposed integrated method of veterinary and sanitary evaluation of rabbit slaughter products, based on the analysis of clinical, morphological, microbiological, physicochemical parameters and qualitative assessment of products, can be used in the future in the veterinary and sanitary expertise of products of the slaughter of animals grown with the use of drugs having an antioxidant effect.

Sergey Yu. Smolentsev, Marina P. Semenenko, Denis V. Osepchuk, Elena V. Kuzminova, Marina S. Gugkaeva, Zarema R. Tsugkieva, Irina I. Ktsoeva, Tatyana I. Agaeva, Aza A. Urtaeva, Fazil A. Medetkhanov, Marat I. Gilemkhanov
Breeding Store Pigs with Probiotics

Probiotics effectively suppress pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic intestinal microflora in pigs, promotes high growth rate, forms and stabilizes normal healthy digestive tract microflora in pigs and store pigs in meat or bacon fattening or greasy fattening, normalizes metabolism, produces biologically active substances—vitamins, amino acids, and lactic acid, counteracts gastrointestinal diseases in pigs and store pigs without the use of antibiotics, increases the survival rate of any pig breed. For the first time, the expediency of probiotics “Vetom” and “Biosporin” for increasing nonspecific resistance, productivity, and safety of store pigs has been scientifically and experimentally proved as well as an ozone-air mixture for increasing storage period and quality of meat and meat products. Probiotics have been found to activate the body's non-specific resistance, thereby stimulating the functional activity of the immune system organs, the growth, and development of young animals, increasing their survival rate and meat productivity. The safety of the probiotic preparations tested and the good quality of the meat in terms of organic and biochemical parameters have been revealed. Physico-chemical studies have shown that treatment with ozone-air mixture does not have a negative impact on the quality indicators of meat and meat products. After ozonation, their shelf life is doubled while retaining the original freshness.

Olga A. Gracheva, Dina M. Mukhutdinova, Alfiya R. Shageeva, Zulfiyat M. Zukhrabova, Nazhiya V. Shamsutdinova, Aleksandr M. Gertman, Ivan I. Kalyuzhny, Ivan A. Nikulin
Experimental Evaluation of the Protective Activity of Hepavitol on the Model of Acute Fatty Hepatosis in Rats

The article presents the results of an experiment to determine the protective activity of hepavitol on a model of acute fatty liver degeneration in laboratory rats. Acute fatty hepatosis in animals was caused by a single intragastric administration of an aqueous solution of hydrazine at a dose of 200 mg / kg (40–50 mg / animal), and then the animals were injected with hepavitol for 28 days. The total weight gain of the rats by groups relative to the initial indicators by the end of the experiment was: experimental group “ +” 1.6%, control group “−” 3.7%, intact group “ +” 6.1%. There were also significant changes in the level of LPO products between the experimental and control groups. The level of diene conjugates in the blood of control rats exceeded those of experimental animals in 1.88 times, ketodienes exceeded in 1.75 times, malondialdehyde exceeded by 30.2%, respectively. Experimental animals showed stabilization of hepatoindicator enzymes, total protein and bilirubin almost to the level of healthy animals. The liver histostructure of the rats of the control group was distinguished by extensive areas of granular, fatty degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes. On the significant part of the liver tissue of the experimental rats, the integrity of hepatocytes and the beam structure of the organ parenchyma were preserved. Thus, from the results obtained in the model experiment, it can be concluded that hepavitol has a pronounced protective activity.

Marina P. Semenenko, Vladimir A. Grin, Andrey A. Abramov, Ksenia A. Semenenko, Sergey Yu. Smolentsev, Elena V. Kuzminova, Denis V. Osepchuk, Evgeniya V. Rogaleva
Benchmarking Tariff Regulation as a Mechanism for the Digital Transformation of the Activities of Water Supply and Sewerage Enterprises

The study analyzes tariff regulation mechanisms for a water supply and sewerage enterprise: the existing tariff calculation methods used in foreign countries (Great Britain, the Netherlands, Austria, Germany, Finland, Spain) and calculation methods used in the Russian Federation are studied. The processes of digital transformation of tariff regulation based on mathematical methods of analysis are also considered. One of the currently most used methods for calculating tariffs is benchmarking. The essence of the process is to compare the movement of the water supply and sewerage enterprise in terms of tariff regulation with the best European practice and determine ways to improve on that basis. In addition, the paper investigates the features of other methods of tariff setting: econometric, factor analysis, analysis of the functional environment, and others. Considering foreign experience, we can single out the need to change the principles of setting tariffs for the Russian Federation. The characteristics of regulating the activities of natural monopolies abroad are examined, and the specifics of the legal regulation of Russian companies. Improving the methods of tariff setting and tariff regulation will allow enterprises of the water supply and sewerage sector to objectively build their tariff scales and reduce operating costs of the primary and auxiliary activities. All the methods of tariff setting under consideration are easily transferred to the digital environment and allow forecasting and calculating tariffs accurately, taking into account all external and internal factors.

Marina G. Treyman, Anna G. Bezdudnaya, Tatiana Y. Ksenofontova, Aleksandr A. Voronov, Natalia V. Poluyanova, Ruslan T. Miftakhov, Sergey E. Barykin
Evaluation of the Toxic Effects of Smokeless Tobacco Chewing Mixtures Based on Bioluminescence Testing Using the Example of Naswar

The tobacco market includes a wide range of smoking and smokeless products. Previously, cigarettes and other kinds of smoking mixtures mainly comprised tobacco consumption, but with stricter smoking bans in Russia, there has been an expected increase in smokeless tobacco product consumption. The surging use of naswar is of a particular significance. One possible method for rapid toxicity assessment involves bioluminescence analysis using microorganisms that contain different types of sensory cell structures. To conduct bioluminescence analyses, researchers use genetically engineered luminescent microorganisms. For our study, we chose lyophilised, commercially available “Ecolum”, a genetically engineered luminescent strain of Escherichia coli K12 TG1 that constitutively expresses luxCDABE genes from Photobacterium leiongnathi 54D10. We also examined E. coli K12 MG1655 strains with inducible luminescence through plasmids with the gene mergers soxS lux and katG lux. Our results allow one to consider a basic toxic mechanism due to oxidative stress formation: damage to intracellular structures, namely DNA.

Dianna B. Kosyan, Olga V. Kvan, Elena A. Rusakova, Inara E. Larjushina, Elena V. Kiyaeva, Galimzhan K. Duskaev
Multi-agent Algorithm for Orientation and Navigation of Autonomous Robots in Mountainous Areas

In unstructured and dynamic environments, which include mountainous areas, interaction with a robot is not always possible. Due to the variability and unpredictability of the environment, it is also difficult to control robots. Most of the tasks that arise in the conditions of mountainous areas are solved through manual or semi-autonomous control. This approach provides reliability in dealing with unforeseen circumstances by combining human cognitive decision-making processes with the capabilities of a robot. However, its efficiency is low and requires significant human effort to remotely understand the data received from the sensors and control the robot. Therefore, the task of researching and developing intelligent solutions that use various sensor modalities and input data sources to calculate the localization of the robot in mountainous conditions is very relevant. The paper presents the structure of the sensory subsystem of an autonomous robot for working in mountainous areas. An algorithm for the formation of a multi-agent system of locative events and relations between objects for the construction of metric, topological and semantic maps is presented. An algorithm for processing data from the navigation subsystem of a mobile robot for working in mountains based on a multi-agent neurocognitive architecture has been developed. Thanks to the obtained multi-agent space around the robot, a hybrid map of the area and the trajectory of the robot movement are built within the framework of the multi-agent neurocognitive decision-making system used.

Kantemir Bzhikhatlov, Inna Pshenokova, Olga Nagoeva, Idar Mambetov
Histological Assessment of the Internal Organs of Quails When Adding Amaranth Flour to Their Diet

The main preference is given to the use of natural supplements. Vegetable components are introduced to the poultry diet most often. They can enrich the feed not only with vitamins and micronutrients but also with vegetable protein and essential amino acids. We set the task of studying the effect of amaranth flour on the histological picture of the internal organs of Texas quails. To this end, there were formed 4 groups of one-day quails, 50 heads in each, on the basis of Z.I. Alimchueva’s Peasant Farm Household (PFH) of the Mari El Republic. The first group was as a control and was kept on a normal diet accepted in the household. The Quails of the first experimental group received 5% of amaranth flour, the second and the third ones received 10% and 15%, respectively. After 50 days, the birds were slaughtered and pieces of the liver, myocardium, spleen and bursa fabricii were taken for histological studies. The research has shown that quails received 5 and 10% of amaranth flour to the main diet didn’t develop pathological changes in the internal organs. The third group, where the quails received 15% of amaranth in the diet, developed diffuse fatty degeneration of the parenchymal organs.

Irina Strelnikova, Sergey Smolentsev, Eduard Semenov, Nailya Mishina, Evgenya Tarasova, Svetlana Tanaseva, Almaz Valiev
Visualization of Open-Pit Mining in the Arctic Using 3D Models and Virtual Reality Technology

Visualization of complex technological processes and systems is of great application importance in various fields of human activity. Visualizations are often used as a substitute for real processes and systems to better understand their structure and operation. One of the applications of visualization is the development of training simulators. This paper describes the development of the visualization system for the process of open-pit mining using 3D models and virtual reality technology. A distinctive feature of this system is that it is based on the example of a real open-pit located in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, and allows taking into account the natural and climatic conditions of the open-pit mining process. In particular, it is possible to set weather conditions, visibility, type of road surface and other parameters. The visualization system for the open-pit mining process is implemented as a training simulator using virtual reality technology. The visualization system for the open-pit mining process is implemented in the form of a simulator using virtual reality technology. This way of implementing the system significantly reduces development costs and allows for replication. This paper describes the main models developed, such as the digital quarry model, the 3D dump truck model, the 3D excavator model, and their interaction within the developed simulator. The developed simulator is currently being tested. Teachers and students of the Department of Mining, Earth Sciences and Environmental Management, studying Mining Engineering at the Apatity Branch of Murmansk Arctic State University, are taking part in the tests. The results of the tests are briefly described in the conclusion of this paper.

Alexander Vicentiy, Anna Trashkova
Determination of the Complex Environmental and Socio-economic Effect in the Extraction of Rare Earth Metals from Red Mud

The present research concerns a serious problem of red muds utilization. They are formed They are formed during the processing of aluminum. Its world industrial consumption is characterized by extremely high growth rates. Slurry pits are the source of ecological problems connected with soil, underground water and air pollution, which leads to corresponding negative social effect. The research objective is to study problems connected with creating, operating and recultivation of red muds slurry pits, to analyse existing technologies of secondary red muds usage as of raw material, as well as technologies of such precious elements extraction from red muds as scandium, yttrium, zirconium. Positive economic effect of using aluminum-scandium alloys is calculated at the example of small vessels hulls construction. Development of innovational technologies which use elements contained in red muds will increase their consumption. It will provide complex solution of ecological and social problems of regions situated around alumina production.

Leyla Mamedova, Maria Gogolukhina
National Climate Change Adaptation Plan in Russia: Legal Regulation and Prospects for Regional Implementation

The article is devoted to the observation of the National Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change and the practice of its implementation in Russia. International experience has accumulated enough instruments of a political, institutional and legal nature in order to ensure environmental and other forms of security at the global, national, regional and local levels. In Russia, implementing environmental law in adaptation to climate change is not developing fast enough. The hierarchy of sources of law in Russia is strictly vertical, starting from the Constitution, international treaties that do not contradict it (part 6 of Article 125), federal legislation, and ending with local acts of enterprises, as well as established law enforcement and judicial practice, which permeates all sources from top to bottom. At the end of 2021, the progress in the development of regional plans for adaptation to climate change is at the following indicators: (1) development has not started or there is no information (36 regions); (2) preparatory stage (9 regions); (3) development stage (38 regions); (4) coordination (2 regions: Kursk region and Moscow). In the Arctic, at the end of 2021, regional plans for the Republic of Komi and Sakha (Yakutia) were under development. Yamal and the Krasnoyarsk Territory were at the preparatory stage. It related the main reasons for the low rates to the heterogeneity of the social and economic development of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation and the lack of algorithms and mechanisms for developing regional plans for adaptation to climate change.

Maksim Zadorin, Svetlana Kuznecova, Marina Nenasheva, Anton Maksimov
Selection of Software for the Development of a Methodological and Software Package for the Course “Computer Graphics”

This paper is devoted to the analysis of the subject area and the review of tools for 3D modeling and analysis of large amounts of data, as well as the study of technical documentation on relevant topics. The directions of research are defined and the task is set to develop a methodological manual that allows students to perform creative tasks, and a software module for data processing for the course “Computer Graphics” on the platform “Open Education” ( ). To solve this problem, it is necessary to review the existing three-dimensional modeling tools and consider the functionality of the data tracking log and the Python programming language for data analysis.

Anna Lubchenkova, Valeria Rakova
Tax Administration in Transport Sphere in the Digitalization Process

The article examines the current state of tax administration. The authors gave a theoretical assessment of the efficiency of the tax authorities and touched upon some issues of improving the functioning in further development. In particular, the relationship between tax administration and the size of the shadow economy, what actions contribute to the reduction of shadow business, the relevance of digitalization, and the risk management system. The relationship between the concepts of “tax policy” and “tax administration” is analyzed. The introduction of the principle of good faith of the taxpayer creates the protection of the interests of the honest taxpayer as a result of changes in the ideology of the state tax policy. This, in turn, stimulates various sectors of the economy and simplifies administration. Thus, it encourages self–taxation. An effective tool for reducing the share of the shadow economy and a corresponding increase in tax revenues to the budget is end–to–end monitoring of the movement of goods from import or production to their final sale in Kazakhstan. As a result, the following conclusion.

Utegen Sartov, Andrey Brodunov, Natalia Bushueva, Gulmira Nurgazina, Shahida Abdusattarova
Smart Economy and Its Impact on Educational Process of Transport Specialists

In recent years, among the variety of emerging processes and phenomena that attract special attention of modern society, smart technologies stand out far ahead, and it is necessary to perceive the opportunities that they provide. Smart technologies will lead to noticeable changes in the conditions and quality of life a society, which leads us to the concepts of smart economy, smart technology and smart education. The transition of the world’s community to the principles of Smart Economy (“intellectual economy”) poses serious challenges for the education sector, the solution of which requires fundamentally different approaches, both to the content and form of the educational process of future transport industry specialists. There is a need for constant interaction of educational structures with the state and future employers, development institutions and mass media, professional and industry associations and communities. The other important task is the implementation of the concept of LLL (long life learning), and building individual trajectories for the education of transport industry specialists within the framework of existing educational structures and institutions. Of course, these challenges require a reconsideration of currently existing principles and approaches to education, their adaptation and transformation in the new realities of the intellectual economy.

Emma Sharyan, Irina Karimova, Elvina Bagdasarova, Marina Vvedenskaya
The Need to Improve Methodology of Assessing Corporate Entities Activities from Regional Perspective

This article considers the role of large corporations in social and economic development of the region; conditions for successful functioning of corporations in the region based on the example of the Republic of Tatarstan; principles of economic analysis. The study highlights the shortcomings of existing methods used for analyzing the operation of corporate entities. The authors have developed and proposed the mechanism for evaluating economic activities of corporate entities in the region that allows obtaining reliable information, while ensuring their economic security. The study is based on the results of domestic and foreign scientists’ achievements in the field of economic analysis of commercial entities. The research was conducted based on the principles of systematic approach, using a wide variety of scientific methods and techniques, namely: comparison methods; coefficients, factor analysis, expert evaluations and vertical analysis and others. Recommendations for improving the analyzing methods of corporate entities functioning proposed in this article can be used in the system of professional development, as well as in the work of corporation analytical services.

Gulsina Gabdullina, Azat Mustafin, Irina Vyachina, Aisylu Akhmetgareeva, Julia Repina, Lilia Yagudina
Investment Policy in the Transport Sector and Its Impact on the Economic Development of the Region

The scientific paper is devoted to the study of investment processes in the transport sector at the regional level and their impact on the economic development of the region. The scientific work reveals the relevance and importance of attracting investment in the transport sector of the economy and increasing investment attractiveness. An assessment is given to investment processes in the Chechen Republic through an analysis of attracting investments in the fixed capital of the region over the past two years. Based on the analysis, conclusions were drawn and proposals were developed aimed at improving the investment policy of the region.

Movsar Khamuradov
Management of Innovative Organizations in Russia

The urgency of the problem in Russia is only gaining momentum, since such organizational structures are not usual for this country. The article is devoted to innovative organizations, which are called organizations of the future or “turquoise” organizations. Managing innovative organizations; and integrating lean manufacturing into turquoise organizations. The article reveals the concepts of “turquoise organizations”, “lean production”. Considerable attention is paid to the concept of an innovative (“turquoise”) organization. The aim of the study is to study the experience of turquoise organizations on the example of the cases of various innovative organizations existing in Russia, systematize evolutionary patterns and development cycles of organizations with different approaches to management, as well as study possible ways of introducing the “lean manufacturing” methodology into such organizations. The most important part of the study is to study the correlation between the way an organization is managed and its financial success and achievements.

Inna Nazarova
Management Processes Digitalization for Organization’s Economic Security Ensure

In the article, the main trends of enterprises management digitalization in all functional areas are considered. Based on the general survey of publications on this topic, the conclusions are made, that digital transformations conducted are of local, often non-systemic, nature. The need for an integrated approach to implementing digital technologies is grounded. The possibilities of digitalization for the purpose of improving the economic efficiency and security of modern organizations are considered. The digitalization instruments within the strategic projections of the enterprise framework (finance, market, business processes, potential) are proposed. An example of implementing digital technologies in the State Atomic Energy Corporation ROSATOM is provided. The directions for improving the economic security of the enterprise by minimizing the compliance risks based on online services usage are considered.

Maria Golovko, Anna Antsibor, Zhanna Rogacheva, Sergey Myasoedov, Vladimir Plotnikov
Use of Innovative Technologies in Staff Recruitment

The paper deals with the implementation of innovative and information technologies in the practice of HR-managers. The problems that hinder the implementation of information technologies and the rational use of selected software products are identified. The advantages arising from the implementation of an automated system for the recruitment process are analyzed. Problems of the introduction of an automated system for the recruitment of enterprise personnel are identified. An economic comparison and justification of the choice of an automated system are carried out on the example of a system for personnel recruiting. The advantages and disadvantages of automated systems over traditional methods for personnel are analyzed. Based on the analysis of scientific literature and research carried out at an industrial enterprise, the dynamics of the costs of working time and the cost of recruiting of three employees before and after the introduction of an automated system for recruiting were analyzed. A policy of using a recruiting program to fill a vacancy is implemented. In paper the cost reductions in the implementation of an automated system for the selection of personnel on the example of Nestlé Russia LLC in Samara are analyzed.

Alexander Shtrikov, Darya Shtrikova
Modelling of the Financial Risk Attitude System of Young Russians

The paper presents the author’s approach to the modelling the system of the prospective risk-taking behavior of Russian students’ youth based on their preferences regarding the types of savings. The research is based on empirical data obtained through a survey of students of the largest universities in the south of Russia according to the questionnaire developed by the authors. Young people entering the labor market in the near future will be the most financially active part of the population. The study involves a joint analysis of the features that form different types of students’ financial behavior according to the risk level of investments chosen. We model the risk attitude system using the multinomial logit model, with socio-economic and demographic characteristics of students and their families along with students’ financial literacy as determinants. Our risk attitude system model shows that more likely to demonstrate a higher risk appetite are: students from wealthy families, young men enrolled in humanitarian and public programs, and respondents living with their families. Also we revealed that most students tend to choose low-risk investment options.

Tatiana Sinyavskaya, Aleksandra Tregubova, Elena Kokina, Irina Gerasimova
The Effectiveness of Applying Methods for Determining the Main Parameters of the Business Process of Organizations

There are many unsolved problems related to the analysis of the business processes, including the determination of the most significant parameters for evaluating their effectiveness. The article presents a methodology for determining the main parameters of business processes of a homogeneous flow by organizations. The presented technique can be used for heterogeneous flows consisting of different directions and goals.

Alexander Chupin, Vladimir Starovoitov, Aleksey Bondarenko, Maria Melanina
Last Mile Delivery Transformation as a Method to Improve Customer Experience in Post-COVID-19 Russia and the World

The final leg of the supply chain: the last mile delivery on the one hand is considered the most problematic part of the delivery process, but on the other hand it contributes to customer satisfaction the most. In its turn, customer experience (CX) is now just as important an element of the brand perception as the product offering. Customers are constantly looking for more personalized, convenient, and secure ways of getting the delivery service. Studies show that for many shoppers, efficient and fast deliveries are becoming the top priority coming before the price of goods. An increase in customer demand for service quality and the boom of e-commerce has led to the development of new ways of last-mile delivery solutions, that optimize customer experience and contribute to building strong relationships between the customer and the brand. In this study, we attempt to review the transformations that LMD has gone through in recent years during the COVID-19 pandemic both because of the challenges and new opportunities companies faced as well as the changes in the customer behaviour and customer experience. We will also try to provide some insights on the possible future development of LMD.

Vladimir Bakharev, Anna Karmanova, Zhanna Nikiforova, Lyubov Pokrovskaya, Ekaterina Shevchuk
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Marketing Communications on the Internet Using Mathematical Modeling Methods

The article is devoted to the consideration of the features of the analysis of the effectiveness of marketing communications on the Internet using the mathematical modeling methods. In the course of the research, a comprehensive model has been developed that makes it possible to evaluate the advertising activities of an enterprise on the Internet, as well as to solve the problem of reducing the costs of an advertising campaign and optimizing the size of the advertising budget. Special attention is paid to the possibilities of a promising method of neural network modeling. Its advantages for evaluating Internet advertising are indicated, in addition, an algorithm for its using is also developed.

Kiana Zolala, Olga Kononova, Andrey Firsov
Target Settings and Types of Cultural, Leisure Activities of the Population in Stavropol Krai

The article presents modern approaches to understanding and classifying the target settings of the population regarding the choice of types of cultural, leisure activities. We highlighted the features of the pandemic period that affect this process. We developed research tools, taking into account the conclusions of the theoretical analysis of publications; also we conducted a survey of the population of Stavropol Krai (one of the southern regions of Russia) in October-November 2021 using the GoogleForms. The study was carried out on a regional sample in 9 territories of Stavropol Krai with the representation of the regional capital, MineralnyeVody, central, eastern and northwestern zones. In total, 1020 people from among those living in Stavropol city, Kislovodsk city, Shpakovsky, Petrovsky, Novoaleksandrovsky, Apanasenkovsky, Sovetsky, Georgievsky districts took part in the electronic survey procedure. The sample corresponds to the gender and age structure of the population of Stavropol Krai. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using the SPSS program (version 21). Conclusions are drawn showing the typology of target settings and types of cultural and leisure activities of the population of the south of Russia. The information obtained shows the need for a wider involvement of representatives of older age groups in cultural and leisure practices and the organization of leisure activities, taking into account the needs and goals of this category of consumers.

Valentine Ivashova, Nadezhda Klushina, Evgeny Nesmeyanov, Olga Kamalova, Gennady Lukyanov
Readiness of the University Economic Programs’ Graduates for the First Employment

The article shows an analysis of the readiness of regional universities’ graduates of economic programs for the first employment. An overview of scientific publications on the problems of the first employment has shown the relevance of the issue not only for Russian regions, but also for the economies of other countries. Theoretical approaches to understanding the provision of conditions for the success of the first employment and increasing the readiness of economic programs’ graduates for the transition from educational to work were tested at the empirical level. The survey was conducted among graduates of the Faculty of Economics of Stavropol State Agrarian University. The respondents answered the questions of the questionnaire in electronic format (Google Form). A total of 846 people took part in the survey; they have successfully completed their studies in the last 3 years in the direction of training “Economics”. The survey database was processed in the SPSS Statistics Software (version 23). With a general population of 1487 people, a confidence interval of 95% and a random sample of 846 people, the error in the results of the sampling study is about 2.0%. Conclusions are made showing the possibilities for increasing the readiness of graduates of economic programs of regional universities for the first employment. We proposed the directions of further research of the subject area related to professional socialization and the readiness of university graduates for the first employment.

Sergey Zolotarev, Olga Chudnova, Roza Chvalun, Nadezhda Bulankina, Valentina Ivashova
Application of Game Technologies in a Technical University: Example of a Business Game «Determination of Thermal Resistance of an Enclosing Structure»

A brief review of the development of game technologies in higher education is given. The complexity of development and implementation of game technologies for technical disciplines which have at their core a large volume of calculation methods, clear design, calculation proof base is highlighted. Authors offer an interactive way of learning in the form of business game “Expert” for application in higher education system for technical disciplines. Development of business game “Expert” on example of “Construction physics” discipline is presented, methodology of business game is described, aims of game for students and educational aims of teacher are defined, positive and negative sides of this development are presented. The universality of this method is noted, the possibility to analyze different variants of tasks and study different ways of solution, deep mastering of the material through multiple repetitions of the checking process, and immersion in the structure of the task and calculation methodology. The disadvantages of this method and other game technologies are the significant labor costs for their development, preparation, analysis. The conclusion highlights some points of the planned research on the implementation of this technology. The experience of large-scale studies of the effectiveness of game technologies by other authors reveals a range of problems, the solution of which should be given special attention.

Larisa Belova, Irina Polyanskaya, Lyubov Nikitina
Applying Multimedia Technologies for Implementing Active Methods of Teaching Foreign Languages to Undergraduate Students of Transport Specialties

This article presents the results of research on the impact of multimedia projects on the outcomes of learning a foreign language by the undergraduate students of technical specialties. The main idea of the experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of these projects in the learning process of modern students with cognitive characteristics (the habit of consuming discrete information, clip thinking, etc.). The results of the experiment demonstrated that despite their cognitive peculiarities, students have difficulties in perceiving information presented in hypertext format. It turned out that the non-linearity of information creates additional difficulties in its perception, and the active visual component becomes additional noise. The experiment made it possible to substantiate the importance of studying the influence of non-linear information presented in various communicative modalities on the level of a student’s cognitive workload. The authors believe that further research in this area will improve the efficiency of the process of using multimedia technologies not only in the process of teaching foreign languages, but also in other subject areas, as well as expand the understanding of the basic principles of cognitive multimedia design.

Elmira Shefieva, Olga Bessarabova
Use of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Technologies for Illegal Purposes

The paper deals with the creation and use of artificial intelligence technology and robotics for illegal purposes. The concepts of this technology are given, on the basis of the analysis of which its main essential properties are revealed. By making criminological forecasting, it is possible to identify groups of crimes that are most likely to be committed through the use of artificial intelligence and robotics technologies. The authors believe that there are no sufficient grounds for distancing from the issue of the subject of criminal liability in the event of harm caused by public relations directly to AI. However, there are no circumstances due to which its resolution would not be delayed. The system of criminal law relations must be built based on scientifically developed provisions. The problems of criminal law regulation in terms of the impossibility of criminalizing and penalizing socially dangerous acts committed by artificial intelligence and a robot are identified. The legislator was asked to develop and adopt legal acts regulating the creation, operation and application of artificial intelligence.

Ildar Begishev, Danila Kirpichnikov, Kirill Dolgopolov, Tatyana Zhukova, Rasul Uzdenov, Zurab Mamhyagov, Elena Serdyukova, Anzhelika Chunikha
Constraints of Social Consolidation of Urban Communities

The paper examines probable constraints on the process of urban community’s consolidation. By social consolidation, the authors understand a purposefully organized and regulated process of strengthening interpersonal and intergroup communications, achieving mutual understanding regarding the solution of common urban problems on the basis of dialogue and cooperation. The empirical basis of the paper is the results of two sociological studies: 1) conducted in the Belgorod region in January - April 2021, and included a mass questionnaire survey of the population using the quota sampling method (n = 500) and an expert survey (n = 30); 2) conducted in the Belgorod region under the guidance of prof. Valentin Babintsev in 2014, and included a mass survey of residents of the Belgorod region (n = 1000) using the quota sampling method. Based on the analysis of theoretical and empirical sources. Three groups of constraints on the consolidation process have been identified: due to the peculiarities of the external environment of the life of urban communities; associated with the specifics of their self-organization; due to the peculiarities of the concept of consolidation and the process of its practical implementation.

Valentin Babintsev, Galina Gaidukova, Zhanna Shapoval
Study the Attitude of Teachers and Students Toward Online Classes at Technical University

This study is aimed at studying the attitude of university teachers and students to online classes. The opinion of students about the implementation of online courses, their usefulness and support from teachers in online classes, as well as the opinions of teachers about the usefulness of online courses, about teaching methods and practice, education process were studied. The results showed that students generally felt positive in online classes, received sufficient support from tutors, but they did not believe that online classes would replace traditional face-to-face education. Educators have often experienced difficulty due to a lack of proper training for delivering online classes. Technical issues are a major concern for the effectiveness of online classes. The majority of respondents have a positive attitude towards the digitalization of education, highly appreciate the importance of digital literacy of participants in the educational process. Students associate the advantages and disadvantages of digitalization of education with their own experience of online learning during the pandemic.

Mikhail Leontev
Approaches to the Task of Searching for Anomalies in Textile Texture Using Neural Networks

Tissue defect detection is a quality control process that aims to identify defects and determine their location. This process allows for the precise identification of defective areas and avoidance of them entering the finished product, which is of great importance for textile manufacturers. The ability to accurately pinpoint defect points to support a fabric quality control process is the primary goal of an automated patterned fabric defect detection and classification system. This should be achieved at the expense of good processing speed, less computational complexity, and less computation time. Thus, the designed systems require reliable and efficient algorithms for detecting textile defects. Although various types of fabric defects have been mentioned in the literature, only a few have been mentioned with patterned and colored patterned fabrics. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to present personal experience in the application of various approaches to detecting color defects in patterned fabrics using technical vision and machine learning technologies.

Nikolay Abramov, Georgiy Zagorodny, Tatiana Kareva, Nadezhda Kornilova, Aleksandr Stakhiev, Alina Cherkas
Problems of Implementation and Use of BIM Technology in the Construction of Transport Infrastructure

The paper examines the state of implementation and use of BIM technology in the Russian Federation in comparison with some European countries, as well as possible problems in the transition to this technology. A comparative analysis of the use of BIM technology at each of the stages of implementation of projects for the construction of transport infrastructure facilities, namely, at the design, construction and operation stages, has been carried out. The problems of implementation of software products used to create and work with a BIM-model in construction companies of the Russian Federation are outlined. The role of the construction manager in the process of introducing information technologies into projects for the construction of transport infrastructure is outlined.

Darya Korshunova, Vladimir Sharmanov, Violetta Politi, Vera Pogodina
Data Analysis of the Relationship Between Social Loafing and Team Effectiveness

In a fierce market environment, organizations based on teamwork tend to appear more competitive. Therefore, the social loafing behavior in the team and its impact on team effectiveness have increasingly become the focus of scholars. Based on the team effectiveness model and social exchange theory, our study used IBM SPSS Statistics v23.0, which processed and analyzed the questionnaire data, to construct the research model and examine the internal mechanism of leader-member exchange relationship, job characteristics, social loafing, and team effectiveness, clarifying the influence path of social loafing to team effectiveness. The results show that: (1) Social loafing negatively affects team effectiveness; (2) Job characteristics and leader-member exchange relationship positively affect team effectiveness; (3) Job characteristics have a significant moderating effect between social loafing and team effectiveness (4) The leader-member exchange relationship has no moderating effect between social loafing and team effectiveness. Finally, according to our findings, we provide suggestions for management practices and future research.

Zhengyi Yue, Weina Tang, Xin Yang
Business Reliability of Construction of Nuclear Power Facilities in Global Markets

The problems of ensuring the growth of the competitiveness of Russian corporations in the global markets of nuclear and energy construction by modeling and managing the business reliability of the life cycles of this type of construction are studied. The aim of the study is to develop methodological approaches and practical recommendations for modeling and managing the minimization of the business reliability of industrial construction of nuclear power plants in the global market. The paper presents the following scientific results: a method of formalizing the processes of modeling the business reliability of industrial construction of nuclear power plants at the early stages of the life cycle of the implementation of these types of projects; specifics, patterns and main trends in the development of industrial construction of nuclear power plants in the global market; practical recommendations in the field of implementation of investment projects for industrial nuclear power construction to increase the business reliability of NPP construction based on significant regulatory factors; recommendations for multi-criteria optimization of construction schedules at the operational, tactical and strategic management levels of the corporation.

Sergey Baronin, Kirill Kulakov
Experience of Microprobe Research of Archaeological Items from the Excavations of the Yugorskaya Sopka Settlement (Nenets Autonomous Area)

The paper presents the results of microprobe analysis of metallurgical slags, tools of metallurgy and metal items from the excavations of the Yugorskaya Sopka settlement (Bolshezemelskaya tundra). The settlement by 14C is dated within the fourth quarter of the IV—third quarter of the VII centuries A.D. The composition of the slags includes wustite, fayalite, feldspar, native iron. Bone material was found in the slag. It could be used as a flux. The metal-containing lamellar scraps is almost entirely composed of copper. Some plates was heterogeneous in composition. They are copper-ferruginous in composition. Lead-copper and tin-copper alloys were used for the manufacture of items of worship. It is concluded that the settlement metallurgical production had a small scale, which used simplified technological schemes using both local and imported raw materials. Local iron oxide ores could be used in ferrous metallurgy, and copper oxide ores from the Ural and Timan deposits could be used for casting non - ferrous metal articles.

Alexander Murygin, Irina Astakhova
Artificial Intelligence as a Means of Rosselhoznadzor: Problems and Prospects

Digitalization is actively penetrating into all the spheres of public life, including state governance. New techniques increasingly replace complex, lengthy and expensive product safety evaluation procedures. Artificial intelligence opens up additional opportunities by analysing huge arrays of diverse and unsystematic statistical, scientific, and analytical information. This article consists of five parts. The first part analyses the practice of using based on the artificial intelligence computer models and simulators in regulatory activity in different industries, the second part presents possible directions of the artificial intelligence use to regulate relations in agriculture. The third part demonstrates the advantages and prospects of the computer models and simulators implementation. The fourth part systematizes the main problems arising from the inability to control the process of information analysis with machine-learning tools, uncertainty and inability to ensure the reliability of information sources, reduced transparency and accountability. The fifth part of the article presents the results of the analysis of legal problems connected with the automation of regulatory activity of executive authorities. In the conclusion, the author presents his view according to which in the nearest future the regulatory body will not be able wholly trust the results of computer analysis. The regulatory body and specific officials making managerial decisions are responsible for the validity and legality of the decisions.

Sergey Zyryanov
Prospects for Digitalization of Rural Areas

The spread of digital technologies is changing modern society and production. Workers with special knowledge are becoming in demand, new jobs are emerging, and the production infrastructure is changing. Rural areas, in comparison with urban areas, use IT to a lesser extent. On the one hand, this hinders the spread of innovations, and on the other, it is due to the specifics of the village. There are factors that hold back the spread of digital technologies in rural areas. Such factors include a lack of specialists, a decrease in agricultural production, and so on. About 15% of rural residents do not want to use means of communication, because “there is no need”. Agricultural organizations are very little provided with digital communication facilities. Restrictions due to the COVID virus have shown that it is necessary to diversify production in order to maintain market positions. Digitalization of production allows to reduce risks, as well as production costs. New technologies allow solving issues faster and are limited to the region. Therefore, the expansion of digital technologies contributes to the development of rural areas.

Aleksander Klimenko, Ekaterina Garcheva, Galina Bakhmatova, Artem Grinko, Oksana Tseluyko
Digitalization of Industry as Tool for Increasing Production Efficiency: Best Practices and New Solutions

In this paper, the main stages of the formation of the concept of digitalization and its extension to the industry are considered. A number of important problems hindering the pace of digital transformation of the industrial complex are highlighted, as well as best practices are indicated on the example of leading Russian companies and ways to solve existing problems are proposed, the purpose of which is to increase the level of digitalization. The relevance of the study of this topic determines the level of technology development, as well as the widespread computerization of production processes, for the expansion of which it is important to translate production into “digital”. At the same time, digital transformation is dictated by the need to reduce the consumption of finite resources, thereby eliminating production costs due to implemented digital solutions. The current state of the domestic industry is far from digital production. Most enterprises, despite the use of high-tech equipment that automates the process, use the labor of hired workers, controlled by a person, as their basis. Such a system has a great importance of the human factor, thereby increasing the risk of costs. The new digital paradigm of production optimizes the process of control and accounting of production processes, thereby increasing labor productivity, as well as the manageability of the enterprise, allowing due to operational control to respond in a timely manner to emerging changes.

Gurgen Malkhasyan, Oksana Savelyeva
Digitalization of the Agro-Industrial Complex in an Era of Global Challenges

The article considers the peculiarities of the functioning of the agro-industrial complex in the digitalization. The article considered the largest market participants in the agro-industrial complex who have joined forces for the digitalization of agriculture. The problems and prospects existing today in the agro-industrial complex were investigated. Since 2018, the agro-industrial complex has been included in the categories of industries that are subject to digitalization, a large number of high-quality domestic IT solutions that compete with foreign ones have appeared. Small and medium-sized enterprises face the difficulty of implementing digital technology in agriculture. A number of problems such as: the complexity of digital technology implementation, lack of awareness of farmers, the lack of full-fledged ideas in the market, the huge cost of creating a single digital national space. Innovative processing and logistics technologies will help to save on fuel, storage, packaging and transportation of products. Production efficiency can be 10–40% significantly improved with new farming systems. Regardless of the size of the enterprise, digital technologies help reduce electricity and water consumption by more than 20%. They also increase yields by 10–35%.

Ludmila Spektor, Ekaterina Khomutova
Improving the System of Criterion Indicators for a Comprehensive Assessment of Urbanized Territories

The socio-economic development of cities and territorial formations and the state of the environment in settlements are closely interconnected and interdependent. The definition of an integrated approach in the development of a municipal formation includes the development of a strategy and measures for state impact, taking into account the socio-ecological and economic priorities and goals of the region. Sustainable development of territories directly depends on the sustainability of the ecological subsystem, which is fundamental in relation to the social and economic subsystems. Analysis and assessment of the state of the territories and the conditions for their use makes it possible to develop proposals for the sustainable development of territorial entities and can serve as a basis for assessing the effectiveness of regional development. The primary task of a comprehensive assessment is the formation of its indicators. The paper proposes a system of generalized criterion indicators of a comprehensive assessment, which makes it possible to analyze the current state of urbanized territories, assess the socio-ecological and economic potential, and forecast their development.

Alexey Aksenov, Elena Aksenova
Digital Educational Environment as a Condition for Training Linguists

The article gives a review of an analysis of modern approaches to such a concept as “digital educational (learning) environment”, in which modern students - our future linguists, are striving to develop their digital competence. Much attention is directed to the consideration of the peculiarities of professional training, as well as the needed requirements for future linguists in the context of application of modern digital technologies in their professional activities. We consider that the usage of a great number of forms, different means and methods in the field of digital learning environment notably in the thorough research of information science conduce to personal development of linguists, their motivation to study harder innumerous disciplines increases, and the practical skills of using them are being developed, which are extremely necessary in their future of professional activity. Beyond basic digital skills, certain types of knowledge related to digital technology, instruction, and teaching content are assumed to be necessary for teachers when teaching with technology.

Nina Kapitonova, Julia Karagodskaya, Anzhelika Gadakchyan, Annait Kocharyan
Principles of City’s Architectural and Urban Planning Structure Restoration After the Great Patriotic War and Their Implementation on the Example of Rostov-on-Don

This work highlights the architectural and urban planning structure development of Rostov-on-Don in the first half of the twentieth century. The problem of restoring the architectural appearance of the city after the Great Patriotic War has not been sufficiently studied and requires a more complete study, despite a significant number of historical and regional studies and works on the history of architecture of Rostov-on-Don. The article reflects the main problems identified by architects in the 1920s and 1930s and attempts to solve them in the pre-war and post-war periods. The stages and conditions of restoration of the destruction of the city caused by two occupations during the Great Patriotic War are presented. The restoration concept of 15 RSFSR cities is described. The principles of restoration and their implementation on the example of Rostov-on-Don are considered. The evolution of the city’s architectural appearance is presented. The Triumph of Victory over the Nazi occupiers is shown.

Irina Moskalenko, Svetlana Sheina, Karina Chubarova
Computer-Based and Gamification Learning Systems in the Context of Teaching Foreign Languages

In this article the teaching methods that are relevant in the context of the modern world with advanced digital technologies are considered. We decided to raise this issue in connection with its direct impact on such an important part of human’s development as education. And in order to make education process more intensive, high-quality, and attractive for modern people, and especially for young people, it is necessary to use as many resources as the information technology age provides us with. In nowdays, current knowledge changes unimaginably quickly: within 5 years current knowledge can change several times, and therefore the globalization of education, the process of greater adaptation of the educational system to the needs of the world market economy, is necessary. To do this, the authors of the article decided to give an example of gamification as a method of modern and effective learning, conducted a social experiment and analyzed the results. The rapid growth of the required knowledge creates not only the need for fundamental changes in the principles and methods of modern education, but also the creation and synthesis of global social and cultural values.

Marina Kuznetsova, Larissa Kim, Elena Karpova
Analysis and Evaluation of Innovation Activity of the Russian Economy

The task of transferring the economy to innovative rails is a priority for Russia on the way to creating a powerful competitive country. The article considers the trends of innovative development of Russia and foreign countries. Today, Russia, which has a number of advantages, needs to transform the world economic relations formed under the influence of scientific and technological progress. The study of the innovative processes of the Russian economy in the light of the existing international competition forces the formation of a new paradigm of economic development. Strengthening its position on the world stage through the introduction of new technologies, the creation of the necessary conditions for innovative development was a priority task for Russia, it would change the structure of the economy in the direction of reducing resource dependence, would ensure an increasing rate of qualitative economic growth and living standards of the population, technological safety of the country. The state of the Russian economy in the field of innovation is analyzed on the basis of indicators of innovative development, Russia's place in the international arena is determined on the basis of world ratings. In the article different obstacles on the way to become a powerful innovative state are also highlighted.

Ilona Avlasenko, Lyudmila Avlasenko, Yuri Podkolzin
Venture Investments as a Key Factor of Innovative Development of Economic Systems

Modern development of the global economy depends on the ability of the countries to introduce new technologies, providing themselves with high-quality growth in the long term. One of the main sources of such development is venture capital. The article considers trends in the development of the venture industry. The main events that influenced the formation of the venture capital investment market in Russia were highlighted. The activity of venture funds as an effective form of venture capital investment of startups has been analyzed in this article. The world trends in the development of the venture capital industry are listed; barriers and drivers of the venture capital investment market in Russia are outlined. As for the obstacles to the development of the Russian venture market, such factors as the political situation, the financial and economic crisis, and the lack of positive dynamics in the legislation aimed at creating favorable conditions for the development of the venture industry, the lack of highly qualified personnel in the relevant field and many others can be distinguished. As barriers following factors are mentioned: a drop in the value of companies, a crisis in the banking sector, an increase in the timing of investors’ exits from projects, extremely low demand for innovation from large players, and insufficient funding for R&D.

Ilona Avlasenko, Lyudmila Avlasenko
Problem Aspects of the Implementation of Digital Technologies in the Financial and Accounting Sphere

Digitalization, to a greater or lesser extent, covered almost all sectors of the national economy, which made it necessary to adapt the financial and accounting sphere to the new challenges of the digital economy. The aim of the study was to develop a methodological approach that makes it possible to obtain a comprehensive assessment of the degree of readiness of the financial and accounting sector of the Russian Federation for the implementation of digital innovations. The research methodology is based on the strategic analysis method (PEST analysis) and the taxonomic analysis method. Using the PEST analysis method, key external factors (political, economic, social and technological) were identified that have a negative impact on the development of digitalization in the financial and accounting sphere of the Russian Federation. Based on the method of taxonomic analysis, an integral indicator was developed that allows, in general, to assess the level of readiness of the financial and accounting sector for the implementation of digital technologies. The results obtained in the course of the study indicate the low readiness of the Russian Federation to introduce digital technologies in the financial and accounting sphere, which is due to the presence of a wide range of problems.

Natalia Zemlyakova, Natalya Kovaleva, Antonina Petrenko
Using Information and Communication Technologies to Solve Educational Problems

At the modern period of development and functioning of society, it is impossible not to notice the significant influence of computer technologies penetrating into all areas of human activity, including communication, medicine, science and, of course, education. Information technologies ensure the movement of information flows in people’s lives, constructing a global information space. In this sense, the computerization of education is becoming an integral and important element of the processes of information and technological development of our time. Modern information technologies are considered by us as technical means of training, integrating audio and visual information of various forms (animation, text, graphics, etc.), implementing an interactive user dialogue with the system and a variety of forms of independent activity of students in collecting, analyzing and processing information. At the present stage of education, the teacher has access to a wide range of digital technologies used to ensure highly productive work on mastering a foreign language: computer equipment, Internet, e-mail, cellular communications, wi-fi, software, satellite technologies, multimedia, etc.

Yanina Morozova, Oksana Rozhnenko, Ekaterina Kuleshova, Evgeniya Lyadskaya
Game Applications on Modern Devices as Means of Activating Educational Activities

The rapid development of modern information and communication technologies affects all spheres of human life, including the educational sphere. Moreover, today the objective circumstance of the hard introduction of distance education and online learning technologies into the educational process is the global spread of the “new disaster” of the 21st century – COVID-19. Under completely new conditions, it is necessary to restructure the educational process and, in particular, its methodological component in a short time. But until recently, one could hear about the use of digital technologies, online learning, including distance learning, as an innovative form of the educational process, and now the use of digital distance learning technologies in education does not surprise anyone and does not raise doubts. Internet resources, computer and mobile technologies are widely used by teachers in the educational process, and therefore there is a need to study the possibilities of using modern information and communication technologies in teaching, in particular, in the field of teaching foreign languages.

Yanina Morozova, Nelly Agafonova, Natalia Gerasimova, Angela Sultanova
Developing Communicative Skills of Specialists of the Agro-Industrial Complex by Means of Information Technologies

This paper analyses the effectiveness of modern information technologies application in foreign language teaching for preparation of specialists of the agro-industrial complex. This article shows a great variety of ICT usage in higher education. One of the advantages of their application in language teaching is that these technologies contribute to developing speaking, listening, writing and lexical skills of students. Another benefit of digital resources implementation is that they motivate trainees in learning a foreign language independently. The conducted research gives the detailed analysis of different e-learning tools and proves that information technologies help to form communicative competence of learners. The communicative competence is one of the main as it supposes to use a language correctly in a professional sphere with the purpose of solving special professional tasks including the agro-industrial complex. The analysis of digital means is interesting and relevant for educational system and can be taken into account by teachers of foreign languages.

Alvina Kolesnichenko, Iuliia Kotliarenko, Elena Nikolaeva
Application of a Mind Mapping-Based Contextual Approach into an Individual Education of Engineers

This paper is intended to cover some major issues in the sphere of new educational technology contributing to visual and associative thinking development of students. The last two years of the pandemic have confirmed inevitable changes in educational approaches and teaching methods of engineers’ training. The student’s comprehension due to the big flow of information has changed a lot too. A key strand of this research concerns a mind mapping-based technology that can be efficiently used in the learning-teaching process of engineers at high establishments. The results obtained on the basis of experimental work on testing the mind mapping variable technology identified its competitive advantages for visualizing thinking and memory brainstorming. It reveals perspectives for different forms of intellectual work and focuses on the brain and imagination potential. Based on visual-figurative thinking this approach encourages the image and understanding of information and illustrates relevant perspectives as an effective psycholinguistic method.

Elena Murugova, Yulia Verbovataya
Evaluation of Siliceous Opal-Cristobalite Rocks for the Production of Wall Ceramics

To ensure the development of the industry of wall ceramic materials, it is necessary to expand the raw material base by involving siliceous opal-cristobalite rocks - gaize, diatomites and tripoli, which are an almost ready-made raw mix for the production of ceramic products. To select a production technology and form the structure and quality indicators of finished products, a comprehensive methodology for assessing both the natural properties of these rocks and the technological ones that determine the choice of technology for preparing raw materials and molding products, as well as the properties of future products. This article discusses the main criteria for evaluating siliceous opal-cristobalite rocks as raw materials for the production of various types of building ceramics and presents the dependences of the types of opoka-like rocks, molding methods and the range of wall ceramic products. Ceramic materials obtained on the basis of gaize rocks are presented both in laboratory conditions and in brick factories.

Vladimir Kotlyar, Yuliya Terekhina, Anton Kotlyar, Roman Yashchenko
Problems of Filtration Consolidation of Two-Layer Soils of Different Structural Strength in the Form of a Parallelepiped

The problems of filtration consolidation of two-layer inhomogeneous soil are solved. The obtained results showed that the compaction loads applied to the lower layers of the soil massifs depend on the load applied to the upper layer and on the soil permeability coefficients, as well as on the filtration path.

Shakhmaksut Altynbekov
Investigation of the Operation of Foundations in the Form of Shallow Shells on an Elastic Foundation

The article deals with the foundations of buildings and structures in the form of shallow shells on an elastic foundation. The derivation of equations is given taking into account the geometric nonlinearity of the work of a thin-walled structure. The technique for solving systems of equations using the Bubnov-Galyorkin method is given. The work of the structure with various ways of fixing the edges is simulated. The elastic foundation is represented as a set of layers with different strength and deformation characteristics that change along the bottom of the foundation. The influence of the characteristics of the elastic foundation, the shape and thickness of the foundation structure on the value of stresses and critical load is investigated. The results of the above studies are given in a dimensionless form and illustrated by graphs, which makes it convenient to use them in engineering calculations. Recommendations are given for adjusting the shape and thickness of the foundation structure in the form of shallow shells to increase their bearing capacity or reduce consumption of materials.

Alexander Kolesnikov, Leonid Stupishin
Action of Moving Load on a Two-Layer Shell in Elastic Medium

Based on the stationary solution of the problem of the action of a uniformly moving load on a two-layer cylindrical shell in an unbounded elastic medium (mass), the influence of its outer layer on the values ​​of the critical load velocities and the reaction of an elastic medium rigidly coupled to it is studied. The speed of the load movement is assumed to be subsonic (less than the speed of propagation of shear waves in the elastic medium and the outer layer of the shell). The need for research is due to the fact that the design scheme widely used in the dynamic calculation of a deep tunnel - a homogeneous (single-layer) shell in an elastic space, in some cases is not adequate to the considered underground structure. The inner (bearing) layer of the considered shell is a thin-walled shell, rigidly coupled to its outer (enclosing) layer of arbitrary thickness. To describe the motion of the massif and the outer (enclosing) layer of the shell, the dynamic equations of the theory of elasticity in Lame potentials are used. Oscillations of the inner (bearing) layer of the shell are described by the classical equations of shell theory based on the Kirchhoff-Love hypotheses. The equations are presented in a moving cylindrical coordinate system associated with a moving load. When solving the problem, the integral Fourier transform along the axial coordinate is used, which makes it possible to consider the load distributed along the shell axis according to an arbitrary law. When carrying out numerical experiments, the load moving at a given speed was assumed to be uniformly distributed in a certain area along the lower half of the inner surface of the shell. The outer (enclosing) layer was assumed to have different rigidity in relation to the rigidity of the array. The calculation results presented in the form of tables and graphs are analyzed in detail. From the analysis of the calculation results, it follows that the enclosing layer, as well as its rigidity, to a large extent affects both the critical load speeds and the displacements and stresses in the array.

Svetlana Girnis, Vitaliy Ukrainets, Leonid Bulyga, Viktor Stanevich
Impact of Uneven Base Deformation on the Frame Building Envelope

For modern frame buildings: shopping malls, entertainment complexes, business centers, it is important to address the issue of securing translucent and secondary structures, finished with expensive materials, easily deformed by uneven settlements. For a structure with no significant inherent stiffness, this issue can only be solved by equalizing the settlement of individual supports. For this purpose, it is proposed to use the “engineering” method to minimize the effects of non-uniform base deformation on the envelope structures of frame buildings, i.e. to prevent the development of cracks and defects in them.

Stanislav Kondratev
Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Concrete for Reinforced-Concrete Sheet Piling

The main purpose of sheet piles is to create barriers that exclude soil movement and moisture penetration. Thus, the structural material for their manufacture must be durable, water- and frost-resistant, withstand shock and abrasive loads, as well as the effect of an aggressive environment. The paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the technical and technological advantages of fiber for use in mixtures in the manufacture of fiber-reinforced concrete structures of sheet piles with increased operational reliability. It shows experimentally that by varying the types and sizes of fiber, it is possible to improve its certain priority properties (strength, crack resistance, impact resistance, etc.). We developed options and established regularities for a positive change in the basic properties of fiber-reinforced concrete when using combinations of steel fibers and polypropylene fibers. The possibility of controlling the structure of the porosity of fiber-reinforced concrete using the developed reinforcement options is shown, as a result of which the pore size decreases, the uniformity of their distribution over the concrete volume increases, the permeability decreases, and, consequently, the frost resistance and corrosion resistance of the composite increase.

Yuriy Pukharenko, Valeriy Morozov, Irina Aubakirova
Modeling of the Resistance of a Bored Hanging Pile

It is proposed to test a bored hanging pile with a static constantly increasing load (CRL) with continuous measurement of settlement, with registration of the pressing force and settlement in increments of no more than 0.005 mm of settlement. Tests with CRL were carried out on a working bored pile, in semi-natural experiments with mini piles and on a laboratory stand. In all cases, an abrupt increase in settlement, a cyclical change in the velocity and acceleration of settlement were recorded. This reaction is interpreted by the authors as an alternation of elastic deformation of the pile base and local destruction of soils by shear and separation cracks, causing a jump in the movement of the pile. According to the data of such a test, the deformation parameters of the pile base are divided into elastic and inelastic components. This makes it possible to determine the calculated load on the pile directly from the test data in real construction conditions, to justify the similarity conditions for the distribution of test results to all working piles of this foundation, including those with other dimensions, to justify the forecast of foundation settlement over time based on the test results, to determine the geometry of the boundaries of the pile base and stresses on them for elastic calculations stresses between piles in the foundation of the structure.

Maxim Marinichev, Pavel Lyashenko, Victor Denisenko
Method for Compaction Control of Artificial Foundations with Coarse Clastic Soils

The developed method is intended for operational control of the compaction of artificial foundations built in layers during large volumes of work. The method makes it possible to determine the coefficient of compaction of the base (ky), composed of coarse-grained soils with a fraction that exceeds the limits established by regulatory methods. The compaction factor was determined as a result of special studies, taking into account the corresponding increase in the scale of field and laboratory work. Additionally, the values of the compaction coefficient ky of the base are made dependent on the readings of the dynamic density meter, recorded at the same construction site, which makes it possible to significantly speed up and reduce the laboriousness of the work on monitoring the compaction of the bases. The dependence proposed in the work allows you to quickly control the compaction of an artificial foundation by performing the required number of measurements with a dynamic density meter. The paper also solves the practical problem of determining the relationship between the number of penetrations of a vibratory roller of a given model used on a construction site along the compacted soil layer and the compaction coefficient ky. The resulting dependence allows you to set the time and intensity of the work of equipment in the area of the compacted base in order to increase the effectiveness of the subsequent main control measures.

Aleksandr Bekker, Nikita Tsimbelman, Oleg Gusev
The Research of the Pipe Culvert Influence on Permafrost Base, Depending on the Wind Direction

In the work of a systematic thermophysical study of the temperature regime of a frozen base in the zone of influence of a culvert of rectangular cross-Sect. 1.5 m × 1.7 m, length 20 m, located in the body of a railway embankment, depending on the direction of the wind. Three types of reinforced concrete foundations for culverts are considered: strip, columnar and slab. The route of the railway track is made in the direction of the wind and against. Thermophysical calculations were performed in the FemModels software package for a foundation with various configurations of the foundation part in two variants of the pipe location: the pipe is located perpendicular to the wind, protected from its impact; the pipe is located in the direction of the wind direction, ventilated. The influence of the location of the pipe along the direction of the wind and perpendicular with different configurations of the foundation showed different values of the temperatures of the frozen base.

Sergey Kudryavtsev, Anastasiia Borisova, Tatyana Valtseva, Natalia Sokolova
Interaction of a Long Pile with a Multilayer Soil Mass, Taking into Account Hardening

The article describes the formulation and solution of the problem of the interaction of a long pile with the surrounding multilayer and underlying soils, taking into account the rheological properties of the surrounding soil mass. The creep process is considered taking into account hardening. The problem was considered in a linear setting. The solution is presented using analytical method. To describe the creep process, the rheological hardening parameter was used. An expression was obtained to find the reduced shear modulus for a multilayer soil mass. Analytical solutions in the article are supported by a graphic part. The article presents the graphs of the dependence of the pile settlement and the force on the pile toe cutting through alternating layers on time for various parameters of viscosity with a variable parameter of hardening. The solutions obtained can be used to preliminary determine the movement of a long pile with the surrounding multilayer and underlying soils. The rate of change in stress under the pile toe depends on the viscosity of the soil. The rheological hardening coefficient significantly affects the time of stabilization of the pressure under the pile toe, as well as the time of stabilization of the pile settlement. The dependencies obtained in this article make it possible to predict the development of settlement over time.

Zaven Ter-Martirosyan, Aleksandr Akuletskii
Load-Bearing Capacity and Curvature of Steel-Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Bending Elements

The article considers the calculation of the bearing capacity and the average curvature of steel-fibrous concrete bent elements of rectangular cross-section at the crack step according to the method developed by the authors. The calculation results were compared with the results of tests of personal investigators. The algorithm for determining the strength of steel fiber concrete on growth is presented. According to the results of verification, a coefficient of variation was obtained for steel fiber concrete, showing a deviation of experimental values from theoretical values, equal to 17.0% by the limit moment, which is 6.7% higher than for ordinary concrete; 28.5% - by the average curvature of the section. Moment-curvature curves are built to compare the results in the area of loads from 0.3 to 0.7 relative to the bearing capacity of the element.

Aleksey Pavlov, Aleksey Khegai, Tatiana Khegai
Studies of Clay Soils Under Triaxial Block Cyclic Loading

The main purpose of the research is to study the parameters of strength and deformation of clay soil in triaxial compression conditions, under block cyclic loading. To date, there are no data on the results of studies under the specified loading regime. Experimental studies of the strength and deformability of clay soils of triaxial compression σ1 ≠ σ2 = σ3 under regime block cyclic loadings are carried out. A distinctive feature of the experimental studies is that they were conducted in triaxial compression prismatic devices with an aspect ratio of 100 × 100 × 200 mm. The results obtained consist in the study of vibration creep deformations and changes in the fatigue resistance to the destruction of clay soils under triaxial regime block cyclic loading. It is established that the stress-strain state, deformations, and fatigue strength of soils vary depending on the sequence of alternating blocks with different values of the maximum load of the cycle.

Ilizar Mirsayapov, Hani M. A. Sharaf
Monitoring of Forced Vibrations Parameters of Building During Vibropenetration of Sheet Pilings

The article shows the effectiveness of the analysis of the parameters of forced vibrations that occur during the construction of expansion enclosing structures from a combined rolled sheet in the immediate vicinity of a residential building. Controlling the dominant frequency of the oscillator, as well as several kinematic amplitude parameters at the same time is a process control tool for damping the vibration of various elements of sheet piles. The use of high frequency vibronpenetrators makes it possible to sheet pile deep excavations without causing significant deformation of the building on pile foundations located less than 20 m away, even in the most unfavorable engineering and geological conditions. Such work must be carried out with careful control of the parameters of forced vibrations. The article describes example from the practice of observing the enclosure of pits made of combined sheet piles in the immediate vicinity of surrounding buildings by vibropenetration, demonstrating that with careful monitoring and full analysis of the forced vibrations of protected objects, it is possible to safely carry out such complex and risky geotechnical work.

Maksim A. Shashkin
Termoground® for the Numerical Modelling of Structures on Permafrost Soil in the Russian Federation

The lack of a land transport network in the Arctic region of the Russian Federation has resulted in the construction of modern seaports on permafrost soil. This region is characterized by a seasonal layer of frozen soil (one to five metres in depth) and a layer of permafrost soil (one to five hundred metres in depth) that stretches throughout Siberia and along the Arctic coastline. These conditions require an analysis of the interaction between structure, foundations and soil for the design, construction and maintenance of buildings. In 2015, experts from Emperor Alexander I St. Petersburg State Transport University (PGUPS) were asked to conduct a survey of the construction site for the Sabetta seaport and determine possible soil thawing depths under prospective buildings and structures. They used Termoground®, a software that had been developed at PGUPS in 2006. It provides solutions for thermal-physical problems using calculations of spatial models under stationary and non-stationary conditions. Two computational models were generated in which the lower boundary of the subsoil was set at 50 m and 20 m respectively. The effects of thermal insulation with ventilated and unventilated channels were also calculated. The results were used in the design and construction of all the buildings and structures at the Sabetta seaport, which has been operating successfully since 2017. Termoground® is an effective numerical modelling software for ensuring the safety of buildings and structures as well as an economically effective tool for reducing maintenance and construction costs.

Vladimir Ulitsky, Vladimir Paramonov, Elena Gorodnova
Assessment of the Dynamic Stability of Sandy Soil Based on the Results of Laboratory Studies

Assessment of the dynamic stability of the foundations of buildings under construction in seismically hazardous zones is an urgent geotechnical task. In the Russian practice of geotechnical construction, the most common type of such assessment is the computational and experimental method based on the results of dynamic laboratory tests of soil samples under conditions of tri-axial compression. The study of the behavior of disconnected soils under dynamic loads is chosen as the object of this study since sandy soils are used not only as natural foundations of buildings but also used as part of artificial foundations in complex engineering and geological conditions (sand pillows, sand piles, backfill, etc.). The article contains the results of tests of natural quarry sand of medium size, intended for a cushion at the base of a heavy construction of the nuclear industry. The test results show more than four times the margin of stability under the predicted strong seismic impact (6–7 points on the Richter scale). During the tests, the degradation curves of the shear stiffness and the damping coefficient were obtained in the range of shear deformations from 0.01 to 10%. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for testing and calculations that allows us to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the behavior of the base under dynamic load. It is noted that at the moment there is no such algorithm in the domestic regulatory documents regulating geotechnical surveys and design.

Evgeniy Sobolev, George Angelo, Ilya Ershov
Index of Water Migration in a Closed System as a Parameter for Assessing Frost Susceptibility of Soils

Frost-susceptibility of soils can be defined by the results of laboratory tests of soil samples in terms of freezing rate is close to in-situ and water is freely available to sample, i.e. as in open system. Such tests are time-consuming and require the use of expensive equipment. So it would be usefully to find a simpler way to assess frost-susceptibility of soils, namely, by the parameter associated with the change in water content of soil sample when freezing without water supply, i.e. as in closed system. The article deals with the results of experiments of clay and technogenic (man-made) soils tested in open and closed systems. Test results show the possibility of assessing the frost-susceptibility of soils by a parameter which is related with a change in water content profile during soil freezing in the closed system. A close correlation between this parameter and the frost heave of soils tested in the open system is obtained for typical clays of the Arkhangelsk region and technogenic (man-made) soils.

Aleksei Korshunov, Sergey Churkin, Alexander Nevzorov
Problem of Standardization for Assessing the Operational Reliability of Anti-landslide Structures

The article considers the possibilities of optimizing the regulatory documents of antilandslide and anti-fall protective structures. On the example of the studied object A-149 Adler-Krasnaya Polyana km 0 + 400 – km 43 + 155, the complexity of engineering conditions is clearly visible, which, in turn, requires the construction of retaining walls, as well as, subsequently, proper control over their maintenance during operation. The development of a method-ology for assessing the operational reliability of anti-landslide structures will allow determining the timing of repair work in a timely manner, as well as minimizing the possibility of an emergency situation that can bring the anti-landslide structure out of working condition.

Margarita Pshidatok, Vladimir Matsiy, Sergey Matsiy
Investigation of the Work of the Lakhta Center in Weak Soil Foundations of St. Petersburg

During the construction and operation of buildings and structures of increased responsibility in areas with weak soils, it is necessary to use bored piles of great length and diameter. They carry considerable loads—most of which are transferred to the surrounding ground along the lateral surface, and the rest of which is transferred to the underlying relatively dense layer. Consequently, the reserves of the bearing capacity of the underlying soils are not fully utilized. The piling depth of high-rise buildings usually ranges from 20 to 120 m, depending on the depth of the bedrock piles over 30 m are beyond the scope of mass design and require a special approach at all stages of the calculation and design, starting with engineering and geological surveys. This article describes the construction of Europe’s tallest building, the 462 m tall Lakhta center skyscraper.

Rashid Mangushev, Evgeny Rybnov, Askar Zhussupbekov, Abdulla Omarov
Physical Training and Sports in the System of Students’ Professional Training

The article deals with the formation of basic (key) competences of students in the process of physical training and sports. Physical training and sports in the system of professional education of students is carried out within the framework of elective disciplines in accordance with the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard 3++. Training sessions in the discipline “Elective course on physical training and sports” consist of two disciplines “Basic physical training” and “Basic sports”. “Basic physical training” contains the fundamental part which provides the basic level of physical fitness of students. “Basic sports” provides the opportunity to choose a kind of sport or a system of physical exercises from among those offered by the department. In the course of the study, the main factors that are important for students to obtain universal competencies necessary in their further professional activities were studied. The article presents the results of a sociological survey of students, gives a sanitary and hygienic assessment of the timetable, reveals the dynamics of the development of the basic physical qualities of students of the K. A. Timiryazev Moscow State Agricultural Academy (Moscow) during the study period (from the beginning of the academic year to its end).The obtained results show the effectiveness and disadvantages of the methods used in the learning process.

Olga Russu, Tatiana Timofeeva, Tatiana Pinchuk
Comparative Assessment of Potato Varieties in the Conditions of Khabarovsky Krai

One of the main crops of agriculture in the Russian Amur Region is potato. Peculiarities of monsoon climate of Khabarovsk Krai require the selection for cultivation of potato sorts, which are most resistant to local soil and climatic conditions. The aim of the scientific research is a comparative assessment of modern potato varieties in the conditions of IE peasant farm enterprise “Kuzminov V. V.” in the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Khabarovsk Krai. The objectives are to study the main factors influence on the manifestation of economically useful features of potatoes and evaluation of the studied varieties in the conditions of Khabarovsk Krai. The field experiment was carried out on the field plot of IE peasant farm enterprise “Kuzminov V. V.” in 2020 on the area of 40 ha. Setting of experiment, records and observations were carried out according to the Methodology of field experiment. Four potato varieties: Udacha (standard), Gala, Zekura, Red Scarlett were the objects of the research. Cultivation technology of potatoes - generally accepted for the Khabarovsk Krai. As a result of the research, it was found that this variety Udacha proved to be the fastest ripening in the conditions of Khabarovsk Krai. The length of the growing season of this variety was 92 days. A relatively high degree of field resistance to phytophthora of the leaves had varieties Udacha and Gala.

Vladislav Kuzminov, Olga Pavlova, Tatyana Naumova, Lyudmila Mitropolova, Anastasia Avramenko
Study of Phacelia Tanacetifolia Benth as a Green Manure Crop in the Conditions of Primorsky Krai

The study presents three-year data on the Phacelia tanacetifolia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth) cultivation in the monsoon climate of Primorsky Krai as a greenhouse crop; agrochemical characteristics of the brown-soil-podzolized soil are given. The phenological phases’ undergoing is shown; the influence of weather conditions on the interphase periods’ length of the phacelia plants is evaluated; the dynamics of linear growth and accumulation of plant vegetative mass is presented; the yield and receipt of mineral nutrition elements with the aboveground mass and crop-root residues is determined. It has been established that the vegetation period for the green manure of phacelia plants, depending on the climatic conditions, amounts to 45–50 days, which allows its cultivation as a repeated and intermediate crop. The green mass of phacelia had a positive impact on the agrophysical indicators of the meadow-brown ash-soil soil fertility. The conclusions about the necessity of including phacelia as a green manure crop in the links of field crop rotations are formulated.

Ludmila Mitropolova, Eduard Korotkikh, Olga Pavlova, Olga Ivleva
Application of Background Indicators of Agrogenic Soils in Agro-Ecological Assessment

The article presents the results of the study of the relationship between the background indicators of agro-ecological state of soils. When assessing soils, both in terms of agrochemical indicators and in terms of the content of trace elements and heavy metals, it is necessary to take into account the closeness and nature of the correlation between the estimated indicators. The purpose of the research is to establish the possibility of application and the relationship between the background indicators. According to the research results, it is recommended to use calculated indicators for part of the monitoring parameters. These include determination of pH salt combined acidity, the sum of exchangeable bases and the degree of saturation with bases, mobile phosphorus. The study goal is to calculate easily hydrolyzable nitrogen, gross copper, cobalt and mobile copper on the content of humus. Depending on the content of organic matter, mechanical composition, intensity and contrast of redox processes, soils differ in the content of gross phosphorus. A direct relationship has been established between the value of the redox potential and the amount of mobile phosphates. The relationship between the background indicators, studied on the basis of the correlation pleiades method, showed that the closest relationship exists within the block of physicochemical properties and these properties with such indicators as the content of humus and elements nutrition. It is close to functional dependence.

Natalia Mukhina
Application of Agrochemical Fujimin on Korean Pine Seedlings

The results of studies on the use of liquid organic fertilizer based on Fujimin fulvic acids in the technology of growing Korean pine seedlings at the nursery of the forest area of the Primorskaya State Agricultural Academy are presented. It is shown that for the purposes of reforestation, the standard planting material must correspond to certain quantitative indicators. The use of agrochemicals allows managing the growth and development of seedlings, thereby improving the technology of growing seedlings in forestry production. Currently, Fujimin is undergoing state registration and its effectiveness in growing forest tree seedlings has not been studied. The experiment was carried out in 2021, when, according to meteorological conditions, abnormally hot and dry weather was noted. However, according to preliminary results, root feeding of the preparation with a concentration of 100 ml/10 m2 turned out to be the most effective, in comparison with the control (without treatment), the average results of measuring the height of seedlings and the diameter at the root collar are 20% higher.

Olga Prikhodko
The Need for Reforestation in the Territory of the State Forest Fund in Primorsky Krai

The need for reforestation is caused by the significant depletion of forests as a result of their long-term extensive use in the study area. In economically accessible forests, the lack of effective forest regeneration has led to a decrease in their productivity and deterioration of the species composition. However, at the same time, there is an opinion that the forest regeneration forces of Primorsky Krai nature are able to recover on their own and artificial reforestation is not required. An attempt to analyze the need for reforestation work in the territory of the state forest fund of one of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation is made in this work. According to the state forest registry of the Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife Protection of Primorsky Krai, the availability of forest regeneration in the region has been analyzed. The analysis results show the necessity of artificial reforestation on the forest fund territory. The current situation with reforestation work in the region demonstrates a formal approach to the problem.

Olga Prikhodko
Main Types of Water Supply System Renovation

The main capital improvement types for water supply and wastewater disposal systems and facilities are major equipment purchase, addition, major maintenance, and renovation. Overhaul of the network includes: installation of new or reconstruction of expanding wells (chambers); relocation or renovation of sections of pipelines with the replacement of pipes or their sanitation (stocking); repair or replacement of frequently used devices, valves, gates, gates, plungers, other fittings and equipment. Renovation is required when the load on the system grows, new design concepts are introduced, or the system at the site is upgraded. Upgrade of utility systems and facilities stems from the machine and equipment functional obsolescence and physical deterioration. The main reasons for the poor condition and reliability of utility systems are an inadequate selection of the system and facility configuration and parameters, operating practices, and delayed replacement and renovation of piping. Based on the data of external and technical inspections of the network, they draw up defective statements, develop cost estimates and carry out current and major repairs.

Lyubov Svitaylo
Sewage Systems in Small Settlements

The systems of small settlements include networks and facilities designed for drainage and treatment of domestic and close to it industrial wastewater in an amount up to 1400 m3/day. A small settlement is a place with a population of up to 5000 people. At present, attempts are made to stop the process of degradation of sewage treatment plants in small settlements, which have exhausted their resources and require modernization. Sewerage of small settlements is provided for by an incomplete separate system. It is recommended to use a centralized sewerage scheme for one or more settlements, separate groups of buildings and industrial zones. The choice of a method for treating small amounts of wastewater, a complex of treatment facilities, their types and designs largely depends on local conditions: the possibility of allocating land for treatment facilities, the distance of this area from housing, the topography of the area, soil, hydrological and climatic conditions, the nature and the location of the reservoir into which purified water can be discharged.

Lyubov Svitaylo
Volumetric Tables for Quercus Dentata in Primorsky Krai

There is currently no information in the literature about the volumetric characteristics of the trunk wood of Japanese emperor oak. The lack of normative and reference materials causes certain difficulties in calculating the stock per unit area. The aim of the work was to compile standard reference materials for the resource assessment of trunk timber reserves of Japanese emperor oak. The main attention during the research was paid to the issues of forestry and forest taxation nature. At the same time, the methods of route surveys with laying of trial areas were applied. The generalizing curve of the relation between heights and trunk diameters of the whole totality of the measured trees was used as a basis for calculation of the height grading scale. This curve was calculated as the arithmetic average of height measurements for all thickness steps. As a result of processing the model trees, a scale for determining the height grades of forest stands was developed. The proportion of bark as a percentage was determined. It was revealed that there is no significant difference in bark yield between height grades, and they belong to the same general population. Volumetric tables for trunks of Quercus dentata were compiled. It was found that the accuracy of determining the stock is within the acceptable limits of ± 10%. The use of regression equations makes it possible to significantly increase the productivity of calculation work. Volumetric tables for four height grades can be used in forest management works and can be recommended for use by scientific and forestry workers in determining the resource potential and volumetric characteristics of Japanese emperor oak in natural and artificial phytocenoses.

Alexander Gridnev, Natalia Gridneva, Alexei Sabodakh
Experience in Large-Sized Needle Fir (Abies Holophylla) Seedlings Cultivation in the Forest-Steppe Zone of Primorsky Krai

The need of forestry in Primorsky Krai in planting material of the main forest-forming species for forest renewal is increasing from year to year. The issues related to effective use of large-sized planting material of solid fir are considered. The main problem of this valuable species planting material cultivation is connected with high cost of seeds preparation and rare productive years. Therefore, rational use of planting material of needle fir in nursery farms is one of the important tasks of foresters in the region. Based on the long-term research and analysis of literature data, the main methods of effective use of planting material aimed at modern qualitative restoration of degraded fir forests of the region are considered. The work solved both theoretical and practical problems on the chosen research theme.

Alexander Gridnev, Natalia Gridneva
Monitoring the Biological Productivity of Fungi Macromycetes in the Woodland of Southern Primorye

The dynamics of yields of cap mushrooms of the tubular (Boletaceae) and russula (Russulaceae) families under the conditions of southern Primorye has not yet been studied sufficiently. The terms of fruiting bodies’ development and stocks were studied directly in combination with various plant cenoses in which they are formed. The aim of this work is to monitor the biological productivity of fungi-macromycetes in different forest types under the conditions of Southern Primorye. As a result of long-term monitoring of climatic factors, a fairly pronounced relationship between the productivity of mushroom mass and the sum of monthly precipitation has been revealed, which should be taken into account when forecasting the productivity of macromycetes fruiting bodies. Abundant precipitation in late May and early June promotes earlier mass appearance of fungi of families Boletaceae and Russulaceae. The situation is quite different if precipitation is insignificant during this period, in which case the formation of fruit bodies is shifted to later dates, which ultimately leads to a decrease in the biological productivity of fungal mass under the canopy of oak and white birch phytocenoses.

Vladimir Poleshchuk, Tatyana Poleshchuk
Volumetric Characteristics of Padus Asiatica Kom. Trunk Timber in Primorsky Krai

The subject of the study in this work was Asiatic cherry Padus Asiatica Kom. There is no data on volume characteristics of Asiatica cherry stem wood in the reference literature at present time. Lack of normative and reference materials brings certain difficulties in calculation of stock per unit area in natural and cultural phytocenoses. The aim of the study was to develop a scale for determining the height grades of stands and compilation of a volumetric table for resource assessment of Asiatic cherry stem wood reserves. Experimental material is presented in the amount of 74 accounting trees. The generalizing curve of the relationship between heights and trunk diameters of the entire set of measured trees was used as the basis for calculating the scale of height grades. This curve was calculated as the arithmetic average of height measurements for all thickness stages. A scale for determining the height grades of stands was developed. The fraction of bark in percentage was determined. Volumetric tables for trunks of Asiatic cherry were compiled. It is established that accuracy of definition of a stock is in admissible limits ± 15%. Volumetric tables for three height grades can be demanded in forest management works, and also are recommended for application to scientific employees and workers of forestry at definition of resource potential and volumetric characteristics of Asiatic cherry trees in natural and cultural phytocenoses.

Alexander Poleshchuk, Alexander Gridnev, Vladimir Poleshchuk
Morphological Characteristics of Atrioventricular Heart Valves of a Female Amur Leopard Cat (Prionailurus Bengalensis Euptilurus) in Normal Conditions

In the process of work with the corpses of animals, we came to the conclusion that the study of anatomy and morphology of rare protected species is of extreme importance in their identification. This necessity is caused by periodic veterinary and forensic examinations on fragmented or skinned material, when its affiliation is difficult. The research was carried out in the Center for Diagnostics of Animal Diseases of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education Primorskaya State Agricultural Academy. The object of the study for this article was the internal structures of the heart, more precisely, the atrioventricular valves, of female Amur leopard cats. This subspecies of cat is rare and sensitive to the quality of the environment. Four organs were studied. The following structures of tricuspid and mitral valves were studied: papillary muscles, tendinous cords and valve leaflets. The authors of the article measured the diameter and length of the indicated structures and performed statistical processing of the obtained results. The dissections were carried out using generally accepted methods. The form of the heart was cone-shaped (index up to 65%). The number of papillary muscles of the right ventricle was found to be variable, additional ones were included in the process of retention of the main valve cords. There are two papillary muscles in the left ventricle, they are bigger than in the right ventricle.

Ruslan Zhilin, Irina Korotkova, Elena Lyubchenko, Alexander Kozhushko, Dmitriy Kapralov
The Use of Ascorbic Acid as an Improver of Oxidative Action in the Production of Wheat Bread

The analysis of the content and quality of gluten in wheat flour of the highest grade and the effect of the addition of an oxidative action improver on the quality of wheat bread is given. Wheat flour of the highest grade used for baking bread contains 28.32% raw gluten with a stretchability of 14.5%. This meets the regulatory requirements for flour, but it is not enough to obtain a high-quality product. The addition of an oxidative improver – ascorbic acid in an amount of 0.03% of the flour weight, allows you to increase the yield of bread from 131 to 152%, that is, by 21% Organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters are improved. The surface of the bread is smooth without large cracks and explosions, the color is light yellow, glossy, without burnt, the porosity is well developed without voids, the baking is good, the crumb is not sticky, the taste and smell are characteristic of this type of product, without extraneous taste and smell. Porosity increases by 5% and is 75%.

Natalia Kiyashko, Oleg Sideltsev
Effect of Biologically Active Substances on Yield and Protein Content of Soybean Variety Primorskaya 86 Under the Experimental Field Conditions of Primorskaya State Agricultural Academy

The article presents the data on the study of the biological active substances effect on the yield and protein content of soybean variety Primorskaya 86 under the conditions of the experimental field of Primorskaya State Agricultural Academy. The studies were conducted in 2019–2020 on the fields of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education “Primorskaya State Agricultural Academy”. The objects of the study were soybean variety Primorskaya 86 and the following substances: Nodix, Extrasol, potassium lignohumate, ammonium molybdenum. The aim of the studies was to determine the effect of biologically active substances on the yield, nutritive value and protein content of soybean. The results were evaluated according to the yield of green mass and absolutely dry matter, nutrition, protein content. According to these indicators, the following variants Nodix and Molybdenum ammonium were distinguished, which surpassed the control without Primorskaya 86 treatment.

Anastasia Avramenko, Tatyana Naumova, Olga Pavlova
Grain Amaranth: Morphological and Biological Features, Phytoremediation Properties, Methods for the Determination of Heavy Metals in Plant Biomass

This article analyzes the morphological and biological features, phytoremediation properties of grain amaranth, the method for determining heavy metals in plant biomass. The aim of the research is to study the phytoremediation properties of grain amaranth Amaranthus caudatus L. (Kharkovsky-1 and Voronezhsky varieties) when stabilized silt is introduced into the soil as an organo-mineral fertilizer. To study the phytoremediation capacity of amaranth and the effectiveness of the introduction of stabilized silt into the soil as an organo-mineral fertilizer, a microplot experiment was laid in the fields of the Kirovsky agricultural enterprise. To find out the phytoremediation capacity of amaranth, a chemical analysis of green mass was carried out for the content of heavy metals extracted by plants from the soil. Biotesting of stabilized silt showed a low degree of its toxicity to plants. The introduction of stabilized silt enriches the soil with heavy metals. The authors come to the conclusion that amaranth is an accumulator of heavy metals. There is also a clear pattern of accumulation of toxicants depending on the dose of introduced stabilized silt: the larger the dose of introduced silt, the more it accumulates in plants. According to the results of the study, amaranth of the Voronezhsky variety accumulates iron and lead in the biomass, and amaranth of the Kharkovsky-1 variety accumulates zinc, manganese and cadmium.

Svetlana Berseneva, Alexander Belov, Elena Demidenko, Natalia Repsh
Rationale for the Pulsed Operation Mode Use of Ice Water Generator

Cooling tanks and instantaneous in-flow cooling units are used for milk cooling in dairy farming. The first ones are simple and reliable, but cooling time is 2–4 h. Cooling in the flow has an undeniable advantage, the milk quality indicators are not reduced, the process is less energy-consuming, with the possibility of freezing ice in the generator of ice water at night at lower rates. Currently, the industry produces ice water generators with tubular and panel-type evaporators, which use “passive” ice freezing. As the thickness of the ice layer on the evaporator surface increases, the heat transfer from the evaporator to the water decreases sharply. Ice water generator (patent No. 197873) uses pulse ice freezing, which ensures stable heat exchange between evaporator and water, increases ice freezing rate, reducing time of installation operation. The authors have accomplished experiments with ice water generators of standard type and with ice water generator using pulse ice freezing, calculated the amount of heat transferred to water per hour of operation, then analyzed obtained data and pointed out the advantages and disadvantages of these devices.

Andrey Demeshko, Sergey Shishlov, Alexander Shishlov
Peculiarities of Plantation Dynamics in Forest Plots Managed by State Farms in Southern Primorsky Krai (by the Former State Farm “Rassvet” Forests Example)

The article presents the results of studies of forest plantations, formerly part of the so-called rural forests in the south of Primorsky Krai. The analysis of dynamics of the basic taxation characteristics of plantations on the following indicators is made: completeness and stock of a wood stand, growth class of plantations, distribution of forests on categories on materials of forest survey works of 1978 and 2020. According to the research results, it was established that the industrial value of plantations earlier included in the lands of the state farm “Rassvet” is very low. In this regard, forest use in this area should be focused on the development of forests in the interests of agriculture (fodder harvesting, grazing, etc.). Mongolian oak reserves have significantly decreased over the past period. The reason for this is mainly illegal felling. In this connection, the Krai’s forestry authorities are faced with the difficult task of organizing an effective system for the protection and preservation of these plantations in the areas of former rural forests. Illegal felling and low-level forest fires have led to degradation of forest ecosystems formed by Mongolian oak and other tree species. It is concluded that in the southern regions of the Russian Far East, it is necessary to reconstruct low-value stands of coppice origin in order to achieve the goals of sustainable forest management.

Andrey Komin, Vladimir Usov, Alexey Shcherbakov
Electrophysical Properties of Soybean Seeds and Justification of Their Electro Separation Principle in Primorsky Krai Conditions

The article presents the study results of the electrophysical properties of soybean seeds rayed in Primorsky Krai. Based on the results of the studies, the most optimal method of electro separation of soybean in the conditions of Primorsky Krai is proposed.

Mikhail Shapar
The Transformation of the Defense Policy of the British Empire in the First Half of the 19th Century

In the article there is an investigation of the process of developing new principles for ensuring the security of the British Empire, aimed at the division of responsibility in the field of defense between the metropolis and the colonies. The chronological framework of the work is limited to the first half of the 19th century, when the first steps were taken to develop the theoretical foundations for integrating the colonies into the imperial defense and giving it a collective character. Based on the definition of the term “imperial defense”, its three-stage structure is distinguished. Objective (deterioration of the international situation) and subjective (unwillingness of British taxpayers to finance the defense of the colonies) reasons for integration are investigated. The main directions of the inclusion of colonies in the collective defense of the empire are formulated (“Gray’s plan”, “Godley’s plan”). The reaction of the British political elite (imperialists and anti-imperialists) and the colonies themselves to integration plans is traced. By the middle of the XIX century new principles of imperial defense policy were developed, according to which the metropolis shifted the burden of responsibility for ensuring the internal security of the colonies to the local authorities, and retained the obligation to protect them in the event of an external threat. However, due to the resistance of the imperialists and the unwillingness of the colonies, the new principles could not be fully implemented.

Ekaterina Simonenko, Olga Ivus
Methodology of Using Content Analysis Elements in Teaching Foreign Students at Agricultural Universities

A methodology of using content analysis elements in teaching foreign students to read socio-humanitarian texts in order to study the conceptual apparatus of the chosen discipline is considered in this article. Content analysis is used in the study of sources that are invariant in structure or essence of content, but outwardly exist as unsystematized, randomly organized textual material. The philosophical meaning of content analysis as a research method lies in the ascent from the diversity of textual material to an abstract model of text content (conceptual-categorical apparatus, ambiguities, collisions, paradoxes). In this sense, content analysis is one of the nomothetic research procedures used in the field of application of idiographic methods. The conclusion that it is necessary not only to acquaint students with the key concepts of the chosen discipline, but also to teach them to extract definitions from texts of any complexity by the elements of content analysis has been made.

Olesya Obukhova, Natalia Proshko
North American Colonies of the British Empire and the Problem of Ensuring Their Security in the 60s XIX Century

The article investigates the transformation process of the imperial defense principles in the North American colonies of the British Empire. The chronological framework of the work is limited to the 60s. XIX century, when the colonial possessions of Britain in North America received a new political status of dominion, which led to changes in the field of defense. The genesis of the idea of mutual obligations in the field of defense between the metropolis and the North American colonies in the first half of the 19th century is traced. The strategic plans for the defense of Canadian territory, developed by British government and military experts at various levels are investigated in the article. The views of the British Prime Minister Gladstone are formulated, which determined the policy of imperial defense throughout the decade. Particular attention is paid to the transformation of the naval aspect of the imperial defense and its consequences for the North American colonies. 60s XIX century is characterized by a weakening of the Anglocentric model of building relations with the North American colonies, where all the obligations to ensure their security were entrusted to the metropolis. Henceforth, the colonies were to be responsible for the ground defense of their territories. Thus, by the end of the 60s. XIX century the tendency of transition to the principle of mutual control and collective responsibility in the field of imperial defense has finally completed.

Ekaterina Simonenko, Olga Ivus
More on Bones Pathology Caused by Osteoporosis in Wolf (Canis Lupus L., 1758) on the Olkhon Island

These days, a growing number of studies in veterinary science and game management is dedicated to genesis and development of non-infectious diseases. Heavy mortality of wild animals because of these types of diseases started to take critical character. Infectious morbidity of animals is the result of pathogenic microbes and viruses entering their body, which begin to actively function and multiply. Infectious diseases are characterized by well-defined stages of development, transmission from one animal to another, a special reaction of the body in the form of the production of antibodies, and, as a rule, the formation of immunity as the disease is successfully overcome. Most of these diseases are anthropozoonoses and are transmitted to humans. In addition, animals can serve as carriers of human infectious diseases. This article outlines the analysis of osteological material of wolf’s cadaver, which was found on Olkhon Island. Its age, gender, pathologic changes of axial skeleton were defined. Reasons for the animal's death were unravelled.

Svetlana Tsyndyzhapova, Tatyana Desiatova, Irina Korotkova, Elena Liubchenko, Alexander Kozhushko, Dmitriy Kapralov, Natalya Rozlomii
Assessment of the Living Condition of Species of the Genus Pine on the Territory of the Green Zone of Ussuriysk

The article describes the current state of two species of the genus Pine growing in the city of Ussuriysk, Primorsky Territory. As a result of laying test areas and measurements, the growth and development of ordinary pine crops Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus koraiensis Siebold et Zucc. Were estimated. Bonitet, age, diameter and height, completeness and margin were determined using mathematical models to determine the height growth rate of the barrel and the diameter growth rate of the barrel at height 1.3 m. Analysis of the state of plantations of artificial origin of Korean cedar and common pine, laid down on the territory of the green zone of Ussuriysk indicates their low safety, which currently depends on the location of the subject of the study, decreases to 14–25%, which confirms the need to optimize the green zone of Ussurisk. The main reasons for the decrease in the preservation of plantations are forest fires and unauthorized logging.

Natalya Rozlomiy, Alexander Belov
The Effect of the Feed Complex «Lactokormovit» on the Growth Rate of Replacement Heifers

The article presents the results of the using of the feed complex «Lactokormovit» in the diets of Holstein heifers when they grown in the conditions of the Primorsky region. The aim of research work was to study the effect of feeding various doses of the feed complex «Lactokormovit» and their effect on the growth rates of young cattle. The using of this addition in feeding heifers at the end of the experiment showed that the live weight of animals of the 1st and 2nd experimental groups exceeded the control by 22.8 kg and 38.2 kg, respectively. The average daily increase in live weight of reared young animals in the 1st and 2nd experimental groups was respectively higher than the control group by 6.72% and 11.3%. Feed digestibility coefficients indicate their better assimilation compared to animals from the control group. The protein digestibility coefficient was higher by 3.4–4.7%, fat by 2.7–3%, fiber by 1.2–1.8%, the level of nitrogen use from the intake was higher by 3.9–5.7% compared to the control group. In addition, feeding the «Lactokormovit» feed additive (2nd experimental group) demonstrated the best results in increasing the live weight and average daily gains of animals.

Yuri Nikulin, Olga Nikulina, Zoya Tsoy
Investigation of Traction Coefficients of Magnetic Transport Devices Moving on Ferromagnetic Surfaces

The widespread use of magnetic transport devices moving along ferromagnetic surfaces is due to the automation and mechanization of the diagnostics, cleaning, and treatment of surfaces of large technical objects. Such objects include, for example, the walls of tanks, the hulls of sea and river vessels. The most important indicator that ensures the possibility of free slip-free movement of wheelbase transport devices is the traction coefficient. There are no analytical dependences for calculating the traction coefficient in the general case for an arbitrary surface. This research is aimed to obtain empirical dependencies to determine the values of the traction coefficient for various conditions. Experimental methods were used. Various types of ferromagnetic corroded and non-corroded surfaces were studied. A bogie was used, the wheels of which had a rubber skin. The vertical load was created by a system of weights. The tractive force was applied as close as possible to the wheel axis. Values of traction coefficients for various longitudinal and transverse loads, and various types of surfaces are obtained. It is established that the traction coefficient decreases to a certain limit with increasing load for all types of surfaces. On corroded unpainted surfaces, the traction coefficient is greater than on smooth ones. The results of the research can be used in the design of magnetic transport devices moving on ferromagnetic surfaces and in the development of technologies for working with these devices.

Sergey Koryagin, Oleg Sharkov, Nikolay Velikanov
The Relationship of Public Health with Indicators of the Road Transport System

The paper presents a comparative analysis of the transport system of Russia by 12 indicators in accordance with the incidence of respiratory organs according to Rosstat data in 2019 and 2020. Machine learning methods have been applied, namely, data analysis was carried out using 9 available classification methods collected in the Data Master Azforus (DMA) program. In this program “Autoclassing” was carried out, which runs nine available methods on the same training sample. The conducted studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of using machine learning methods to identify patterns linking the health status of the population, including respiratory morbidity, with indicators of the transport system. In the course of the work, a high statistical significance of differences between classes of regions of the Russian Federation, which differ in the dynamics of Covid-19, was obtained by the most important indicators of transport system.

Ludmila Borisova, Galina Zhukova, Anna Kuznetsova, Yuliana Kuznetsova
Biodegradation of Chemical Waste Containing Anthracene by Municipal Solid Waste Composting

In this work, the biodegradation of anthracene (a reagent that has lost commercial properties) using MSW compost has been studied. Data on changes in the content of anthracene (and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonslisted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency) as the process proceeds are given. It is shown that the degradation rate is higher in the mesophilic period than in the thermophilic one. The half-life of the total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of the United States Environmental Protection Agency list in the thermophilic and mesophilic phases of the process was determined.

Grigorii Kozlov, Mikhail Pushkarev
Fluctuating Asymmetry Index for Searching for Locations Suitable for Isolating Microorganisms-Destructors of Naphthalene

The paper presents data on the fluctuating asymmetry of the silver birch in the public parks of the city of Peterhof (St. Petersburg, Russia). It is proposed to use bioindication to substantiate selection points in ecological and chemical studies to identify problematic locations and prevent false positive and false negative results. It is shown that the use of the index of fluctuating asymmetry of silver birch (in contrast to Scots pine) as a marker for the search for microorganisms - naphthalene decomposers is promising.

Grigorii Kozlov, Mikhail Pushkarev, Roman Pau, Petr Reuf
Usage of Controlling Magnetic Fields Effect for Performance Improvement of Electric Arc Welding and Surfacing

Recent and past studies have shown strong indication that increase of efficiency of submerged electric arc welding and surfacing by means of wire can boost index of electrode fusing. In addition, control of depth and area of fusion with respect to base metal can also be improved. Atomization of structural components of weld bead is also considered. Magnetic control was preferred over mechanical approach of control since it does not involve direct contact of controlling devices with zone of welding (surfacing) and does not require making any significant modifications in standard equipment for welding (surfacing) or its technique. Tests were performed within framework of electric arc welding and surfacing with optimal use of alternate controlling magnetic field by taking induction equal to 20…30 mT in front part of weld pool and with frequency equal to 3…6 Hz. Cluster mechanism of solidification was adopted to be focused on properties in case of foundry and metallurgy. It was reasonable to proceed from the cluster mechanism of metal solidification in weld pool when discussion comes to arc welding and surfacing of metals and alloys under effect of controlling magnetic fields.

Mohammad Essa Matarneh, Viktor Artiukh
Influence of Controlling Magnetic Fields on Metal Structure at Electric Arc Welding and Surfacing

This paper presents results of experiments performed to establish effect of controlling magnetic fields on refinement degree of structure of deposited metal and weld. Electric arc surfacing was performed on plates made from steel VMSt3sp without and with action of sign changing longitudinal magnetic field with frequency of 3 Hz. Analysis of microstructures of deposited metal showed that influence of controlling longitudinal magnetic field positively affects its structure. In addition, it also increases toughness of deposited metal. Experiments were carried out on welding butt joint of plates 4 mm thick made of steel 12H18N10T with Sw-06H19N9T wire 3 mm in diameter under influence of sign changing transverse magnetic field with frequency of 5 Hz. Analysis of microstructure of welds showed that effect of controlling transverse magnetic field leads to refinement of weld metal grain by almost twice that should lead to increase of weld metal yield strength and improve service characteristics of weld and welded joint.

Mohammad Essa Matarneh, Viktor Artiukh
Alienation of Students from the Learning Process Due to Their Level of Metacognitive Awareness and Personal Life Position

This article describes the results of empirical research of correlations between academical alienation of students and such phenomena as their metacognintive awareness level and personal life position. The research results showed a significant inverse correlation between the components of metacognitive awareness and fields of manifestation and the degrees of academic alienation in students. The students’ estrangement from education was also inverse correlated with the personal life position components. The authors also found direct correlations between the components of metacognitive awareness and the personal life position components. The authors are also comparing the level of metacognitive awareness, academic alienation, and the personal life position of students of different years of study. The authors found significant differences in the levels of self-attitude, powerlessness, declarative knowledge, active life position, and the general level of alienation of students of different years of study. Using the results of our research can lead the study of academic alienation to the discovery of its new factors and help in the prevention and control of this phenomenon.

Margarita Belikova, Evgeny Pronenko
Personal Predictors of Students’ Normative Informational Behavior

The article is devoted to the study of personal predictors of the normative strategies of students’ informational behavior. The article reveals the relevance of the study, analyzes the concept of “digital environment”, reflects the features of the modern digital environment and the opportunities that it represents. The types of digital behavior are shown – prosocial (normative) and antisocial (risky). The effects of positive informational behavior, the possibility of self-presentation in the Internet environment, the features of self-realization in the informational space are analyzed. In the empirical part of the study, authors studied students’ involvement in the Internet environment, the ability to live without Internet resources and the ability to control their behavior when using the Internet. The repertoire of strategies of informational behavior is studied, their degree of expression is shown. Correlations between normative strategies of informational behavior and personal characteristics have been studied. It has been found that, in general, the normative strategies of information behavior are determined by such personal characteristics as tolerance for uncertainty, openness to new experience and the ability of the individual to psychological intelligence and self-understanding.

Anastasia Grishina, Irina Abakumova, Galina Zvezdina, Evgeny Pronenko
Peculiarities of Experiencing Anxiety and Fears by Children with Musculoskeletal Disorders

The article deals with the features of experiencing anxiety and various types of fears by children with musculoskeletal disorders. In conformity with the principle of continuity of education, the relationships are considered between fears that arise at the stage of primary education and subsequent social and educational problems that such children face at a university especially during the initial period of studying. The necessity of combining psychological knowledge characterizing the psychological characteristics of individuals with disabilities at different stages of education and the relevance of studying various types of fears among children with musculoskeletal disorders, which reduce the adaptive personal potential and prevent successful adaptation to the university studying conditions of the first-year disabled students is substantiated. The results of the study of various types of fears among children with musculoskeletal disorders studying at primary school are presented. A comparative analysis of the anxiety and fears among children with musculoskeletal disorders and children without them is provided. The research revealed differences in the peculiarities of the manifestation of social fears, school anxiety, and mystical fears. The factor of the religious upbringing in the family influences the peculiarities of the manifestation of mystical fears.

Alla A. Osipova, Elena V. Zinchenko, Olga V. Zhinzhilo
The Use of a Competence-Based Approach in the Training of Employees of the Inspection of the State Architectural and Construction Control of Ukraine to Improve the Quality of Public Services Provided by Them

One of the reasons for the insufficient professional training of employees of the inspection of state architectural and construction control is the low level of remuneration of its employees in comparison with commercial enterprises. This reduces the motivation of employees of the inspection of the state architectural and construction control to increase the level of professional competence and self-education. Namely, they are necessary for their professional and career growth. However, society needs standardized, inexpensive and affordable public services, the quality of which does not depend on the place and time of their provision. The competence-based approach in the training of employees of the inspection of the state architectural and construction control will allow them to bring their activities to perfection. To solve complex practical problems arising in the process of rendering services to citizens and enterprises, it is proposed to use specialists of the appropriate profile, for example, experts in the construction industry, lawyers and psychologists.

Sergey Yekimov, Olga Kuhareva, Natalia Chepeleva, Maryna Smulson, Svitlana Rudnytska, Kyrylo Hutsol
Sino-Russian Experience in Smart Grid Development: Issues and Perspectives

The current power grid construction in China has made great progress and is gradually becoming mature. This happens due to the continuous development of the domestic science, technology and the enhancement of national power. The power grid construction has played a great role in people's electricity safety, and has greatly improved the quality of life. Power engineering technology has been successfully integrated with the construction of smart grids. Such changes will improve the environmental protection and intelligence of smart grids, so that the grid construction can meet the current level of people’s actual needs. Therefore, the key technologies of the smart grid construction have become an urgent topic that the power industry attaches great importance to. The relevant study provides the analysis of power engineering technology in China and makes applications to apply these findings to the construction of smart grids in Russia.

Maksim Bikalenko, Valentina Burtseva
The Prospects for the Application of a House with a Positive Energy Balance

Currently, energy is connected with environmental issues and energy conservation, as far as traditional methods of electricity production have a significant impact on the environment in terms of both global population growth and the increasing demand for electricity. Nowadays, there is an acute issue of developing alternative energy via the potential of inexhaustible natural resources. The concept of a house with a positive energy balance is one of the possible directions of industry’s development. It allows a household to manage with the electricity actually produced, spending it efficiently with a use of various energy-saving technologies. The values of carbon footprint indicators can be negative, thereby reducing the impact on the ecology. This concept can act as a positive trend to reduce the Moscow region's dependence on harmful electricity production in the conditions of steady energy shortage and difficult environmental situation. The obtained results indicate the feasibility of self-sufficiency of households with electricity received from inexhaustible sources. The examples of such projects will appear more and more often in the near future, which means it is worth of intense development. Therefore, it will improve the technologies in terms of accessibility.

Irina Kashina, Vladimir Bunin, Danila Pavlov, Alisa Nesterova
Using Digital Technology to Reduce the Carbon Footprint in Livestock Production

At present, it is generally recognized that the livestock industry has a negative impact on the environment, including, first of all, the soil, as well as water and air. This impact increases with the development of industrial production of livestock and poultry products. Environmental pollution risks from livestock production are associated with the disposal of manure and litter, as well as greenhouse gas emissions throughout the production cycle. One of the main objectives of modern livestock production is to reduce emissions. Cattle breeding is one of the most important branches of agriculture, which serves as the basis of food security of the country. Therefore, the aim of the article is to improve production processes in livestock farming using digital technologies in order to reduce harmful effects. In this regard, we propose a model of digital management of livestock production, which is a set of certain digital systems based on geoinformation technologies. Digital systems cover all technological stages of breeding, care and fattening, and production. These systems include: reproduction, animal identification, microclimate, feeding, veterinary, waste, and product control. The use of drones, robotic systems, sensors is beneficial both economically and in terms of reducing the carbon footprint in livestock production. Proper waste management (manure, straw litter) has a positive impact on the state of the surrounding ecosystem. The article proposes to develop a digital system to regulate the processes of production of animal feed, taking into account the requirements of world environmental standards.

Alsou Zakirova, Guzaliya Klychova, Akmaral Bukharbayeva, Alfiya Yusupova, Elmir Gallyamov, Marina Mironova
Economic and Legal Aspects of Accessibility of Housing in the Region

Housing is one of the most basic human necessities, both in terms of material and social aspects. Housing need is a need for housing as an objectively necessary condition for maintaining the life of each person, his work, leisure, family comfort, which has taken a specific form in accordance with the cultural level of the individual and the social status of the individual, supported by a certain purchasing power. As a result, a frequent evaluation of housing affordability using a range of approaches in various parts of the nation is an essential aspect in evaluating the present status of one of the most important components of the population’s quality of life. The main purpose of this study is to use multiple assessment methodologies to look at the affordability of housing in the North Caucasian Federal District of the Russian Federation, which was chosen as a research topic, between 2016 and 2020. In order to achieve the study’s goal, the following tasks were completed: consider methods for assessing housing affordability in the region; assess housing affordability in the Russian Federation’s North Caucasus Federal District, both on the primary and secondary markets, in the regions chosen as research subjects. The study used the UN-Habitat housing affordability index, the modified housing affordability index, and the housing affordability index with credit to assess housing affordability.

Guzaliya Klychova, Alsou Zakirova, Almaz Nigmetzyanov, Regina Nurieva, Zukhra Nazhmutdinova, Ayaz Zakirov
Managemental Aspects of Human Capital Formation in the Russian Federation’s Regions

Human capital against the background of Russia’s rapid transition to the post-industrial phase of society development over the past few decades has become obvious and one of the most important resources of economic development of any territory, including the region. The aim of the study is to develop recommendations on the possibilities and directions of human capital formation in the regions of the Volga Federal District based on the assessment of its development level and analysis of existing problems. The author’s technique created in the context of the study was used to assess the degree of development of human capital in the areas. The management component of human capital production and development in the regions was studied in addition to measuring human capital using qualitative and quantitative indicators. We chose governmental initiatives aiming at the production of human capital in the regions through the health care and education systems, as well as through the domain of culture, for each of the five areas under examination. As a result, recommendations aimed at improving the process of formation and development of human capital of the regions were proposed. These measures are aimed at increasing the birth rate and natural population growth, reducing mortality and morbidity, increasing the effectiveness of pre-school education, general education, secondary vocational education and higher education.

Guzaliya Klychova, Alsou Zakirova, Angelina Dyatlova, Marsel Khismatullin, Ayaz Zakirov, Regina Nurieva
Europeanization of Digitalization of Integration Processes in the Transport Sector of the Arctic Region

As an international platform for cooperation in the development of digitalization, the Arctic serves as a tool for improving the economic and social situation of its stakeholders - states interested in international cooperation in the region. Relationships between these countries can be helped by building trust, regardless of whether the participants in cooperation in the region are Arctic or non-Arctic. This inclusiveness is the basis for considering the Arctic as an international platform in the era of globalization. The article is aimed at identifying integration processes in the European part of the Arctic region and identifying promising areas of cooperation, namely the field of logistics. The use of a regional approach in combination with political, legal and general scientific methods for studying socio-political processes makes it possible to single out two blocks of countries in the European part of the Arctic region: the countries of Northern Europe (Finland) and the Baltic countries (Latvia and Estonia). Finland, an Arctic state, is characterized by the widespread adoption of advanced digital technologies and a high level of social and economic processes, as well as a high level of logistics services. Latvia and Estonia have also chosen the path of improving digital technologies, which allows their “voice” to be heard on the world stage, despite the status of small countries in the European Union. Common borders, regional interests and challenges faced by countries are considered to be a unifying factor in the study. Other significant aspects that are taken into account include the technological, transport, scientific, commercial, economic, geostrategic and diplomatic capabilities of these countries. The importance of the above factors cannot be ignored, since integration processes can be successfully implemented only with close cooperation, broad involvement of all stakeholders and joint projects, in particular, aimed at the development of digitalization in the Arctic region.

Ekaterina Dolzhenkova, Anna Mokhorova, Dmitry Mokhorov, Alexandra Kobicheva
Nonlinear Mathematical Model of an Economic Soliton

In modern conditions of economic transformation, the functioning and development of production systems is characterized by instability, nonlinearity and dynamism of the main indicators and parameters. The financial and production system is affected by a large number of market, inflationary, social and other disturbances, which leads to the losses in financial stability, a decrease in production volumes, a decrease in demand for manufactured products, etc. Therefore, it is necessary to have an effective management system and operational decision-making. The relevant direction for solving this problem is the development of a flexible intelligent control system that makes it possible to diagnose quickly the unfavorable state of the financial and production system and activate promptly the mechanisms that return the system to equilibrium. In this case, information becomes the main resource of management, which performs an integrating role and is a necessary component when using all other resources. All this predetermines the use of information technology management. With a high dynamism and instability of the external environment, it becomes necessary to apply the methods and approaches of the new science of management, concentrating its attention on the theory of complex systems and nonlinear dynamics, with the help of which complex control systems can cope effectively with uncertainty and rapid changes. The development and use of modern information technologies for enterprise management are based on the introduction of integrated information processing technology and the creation of mathematical methods and computer modeling tools. In the work of information technologies, management is implemented by creating an integrated intelligent computerized system based on the use of economic and mathematical methods, computer technology and communication means, i.e. implements a fundamentally new management platform, which is based on the integration of management information through a mechanism for generalizing the information database and knowledge.

Oleg Andreev
The Logic of Graphic Representation and Its Influence on the Methods of Architectural Design

The article is devoted to the analysis of graphic representations that let change the functional distribution of people and transport flows and reflect the process of thinking of architectural project. The hypothesis is put forward that developed by the architect graphic language is a certain way of spatial thinking that is inextricably linked with the choice of actual functional tasks, organization of human and traffic flows and ways of forming a project. The analysis of the examples shows that in many respects the emergence of adequate to the thinking of an architect graphic language is the reason for the crystallization of the individual design method, despite the fact that the emergence of the design method and distribution of functions and human and traffic flows is justified by the philosophy or function. The article identifies three characteristic methods of graphical representation, which represent three different structures of organization of traffic flows. The first graphic language appears as a set of three-dimensional volumes and designations, when functions and traffic flows are reduced to a spatial representation method. The second type arises from the intention to reduce many forming factors to some sensory ways of representation: colors, textures and large masses. The third type is a set of flat geometric shapes that form something like a structure and rules of interaction with each other.

Egor Belash
Formation of a Statistical Sample of Objects of a Stationary Trading Network When Establishing Standards for the Accumulation of Municipal Solid Waste

The modern world is characterized by a steady increase in the amount of production and consumption waste, including municipal solid waste (MSW). A unified approach to determining the standards for the accumulation of MSW for various objects, in particular objects of a stationary trading network, has not yet been developed in our country. The reliability of assessing the amount of accumulated waste in the context of an imperfect scientific and methodological base for standardizing MSW, in the absence of generally accepted methods of calculation, is not high enough. The possibility of using cluster analysis in the formation of a statistical sample of objects of a stationary trade network is shown when setting standards for the accumulation of municipal solid waste. A technique has been developed for forming a representative statistical sample of objects of a stationary trade network when setting standards for the accumulation of municipal solid waste based on cluster analysis.

Artyom Azarov, Nadezhda Menzelintseva, Natalya Karapuzova, Ivan Statyuha, Oksana Vlasova
Pricing at Russian Wine Market: Marketing Approach

The Russian wine market and wine industry are in a state of unstable development. Wine consumption, showing a long-term upward trend, in certain periods before it rises, then falls again. However, in spite of this, the vineyard areas in Russia are increasing, the number of wine producers, as well as brands of wines, is growing. At the same time, due to the lack of sufficient experience in running the wine business, Russian producers are faced with numerous difficulties, including in matters of correct marketing pricing. The purpose of this study was to identify the peculiarities of Russian consumers’ perception of wine price as a reliable indicator of its quality. To achieve this goal, the work used the method of correlation-regression analysis in aim to show correspondence between wine quality assessments and price levels. The results of the statistical analysis showed the absence of a statistically significant relationship between these parameters, which indicates a systematic overestimation of their products by winemakers and underestimation by consumers. To correct the above-described situation, the paper presents and considers a conceptual factor model of marketing pricing, which proposes to take into account a number of special coefficients when determining the price.

Roksana Khan, Valerii Surkov
Psycho-Pedagogical Aspects of Forming a Competence Model of an Executive

The current state and problems of development of agrarian industry and education are in the focus of Russian authorities functioning at different administrative levels. The main task of the agricultural education system is to increase the human resources potential of agroindustrial complex, capable of ensuring food security and global competitiveness of Russia in the world agri-food markets. This article is devoted to identifying the specifics of psychological and pedagogical training, raising the level and expanding the range of competencies (both professional and general language) of postgraduate students who receive specialization, the implementation of which is relevant in the agroindustrial sector of the country. Subsequently, the respondents acquire skills, abilities and knowledge for a comprehensive and polyfunctional realization of themselves as specialists of agroindustrial complex. Under the polyfunctionality of respondents we mean their readiness to realize themselves in the form of a triad – I as a solo worker, I as a team member and I as an executive. For effective self-realization in these statuses, postgraduate students are to have a sufficient and functionally necessary set of competencies, among which professional competencies rank first. Among other competencies we see general cultural and linguistic ones accompanying the professional development of future workers in the agroindustrial complex.

Vladimir R. Sarkisyants, Marina Ryabova, Anna Dzyubenko, Natalia Khristianova, Oksana Dyshekova
Legal Forms of the Mechanism of Incentivation of the Personal Management in Modern Social-Economic System at Enterprises and in the Agricultural Organizations

The article addresses some issues of systematization of the most productive methods, means and mechanisms for the motivation of employees of the organization (material and moral), notes their advantages, disadvantages and possibilities of application, from the point of view of a legal approach. Also, the study traces a certain relationship between a properly structured personnel management and an increase in the company's competitiveness, as well as obtaining maximum performance and profitability. The work provides a comprehensive analysis of diagnostic methods for the personnel management system in an agricultural organization, taking into account modern trends in the social systems of the corporate management sphere. The authors have systematized the practical foundations of the legal methodology of the conceptual provisions of the theory of personnel management in an agricultural organization, a complex of studies aimed at identifying the essential legal mechanism for working with personnel in the conditions of functioning of real enterprises has been carried out. In addition, the scientific publication provides the results of the author’s research in relation to assessing the degree of personnel satisfaction with the incentivation system in certain organizations.

Alexander Suhanov
Hungary in the Global Pharmaceutical Market: Cooperation Trends with Russia

The pharmaceutical industry is a strategically important area of the global economy. It is one of the most innovative and dynamically developing sectors. In addition, this industry can be considered highly profitable, its role has especially increased due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The crisis has affected all sectors of the economy, with the pharmaceutical industry being one of the least affected. In 2020, global exports of pharmaceuticals increased by 9.5% compared to 2019, reaching 704 billion USD in 2020. This publication discusses the position of Hungary in the global pharmaceutical market with the focus on the trade relations with Russia. For the Hungarian economy, the pharmaceutical industry is one of the traditional and most innovative sectors. Thus, Hungary is an attractive country for the development and expansion of Russia's trade relations in the global pharmaceutical market.

Ravil Asmyatullin, Irina Aidrous
Energy Policy of Turkey, a Specialized View on Turkish Foreign Politics

The energy is the essential input of the economic and social developments of the countries. The energy and state legislators must provide this most basic necessities of the community in an uninterrupted, reliable, timely, cheap and clean manner. This necessity is much the same for the industrialists and tradesmen as well as the consumers in their home. In the globalizing world, an indispensable prerequisite is to supply the energy for the country’s industry from uninterrupted, reliable sources and low-priced as the most basic and weighted input into the cost of the final product. However, the realities experienced in the energy field of our country, far from being in harmony with these basic requirements, are in stark contrast. The energy policy of Turkey aims at diversifying the source country and route, starting to use nuclear energy while increasing the share of renewable energy in the energy mix, research on increasing energy efficiency and contributing the energy security of Europe. Our country, which is located in a region with approximately seventy percent of proven oil and natural gas reserves, is one of the largest natural gas and electricity markets in its region.

Hakan Çora, Elnur Hasan Mikail, Ümmügülsüm Çakmakci
A Qualitative Research Study on International Migration from the Perspective of International Cultural Communication

“Intercultural Communication” workspace is shaped by two main concepts: “Culture” and “Communication”. Culture is all kinds of material and symbolic productions of a society and the relationships, styles, patterns and practices within these production areas. Culture is above all a way of life and includes practices in everyday life and traditions and habits that make a group of people different from others. As mankind discovered the cultivation of the land, it began to move from nomadic order to settled life. However, throughout history, the movement of people between different districts, regions and countries has continued and continues with different factors. The phenomenon of migration plays an important role in the struggle to lead a better life for people. Migration events caused by economic, social or political reasons occur in a mandatory or voluntary manner, within the country's borders or between different countries. Today, the importance of migration has increased in the globalized world order. The development of transportation and communication technologies allows the circulation of people, institutions, goods, services and capital in a way that exceeds the borders of countries. This situation causes migration not only from underdeveloped countries to developed countries, but also from developed countries to other countries.

Hakan Çora, Elnur Hasan Mikail
Evaluation of Ecotoxicity of New Adipate Plasticizers

Polymeric materials and products made from them are widespread. A large share in the composition of PVC composites is occupied by plasticizers, the characteristics of which determine the properties of the composites. The most commonly used plasticizer, dioctyl phthalate, has a potentially hazardous environmental impact. An alternative to phthalates, should be safe during use, biodegradable upon disposal, and should not disturb the biosphere balance. The paper presents the results of a study of the environmental safety of new plasticizers based on adipic acid and ethoxylated aliphatic alcohol – alkyl butoxyethyl adipates. Evaluation of ecotoxicity by phytotesting showed that the biodegradation of synthesized esters under natural conditions does not lead to toxic substances entering the soil, which does not cause disturbance of the biosphere balance.

Irina Vikhareva, Aliya Mazitova
Mathematical Modeling of Diabetic Retinopathy with Diabetic Macular Edema and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

Two mathematical models that assess the prognosis of the disease development among patients with diabetic retinopathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been developed. The first mathematical model makes it possible to define the disease prognosis among patients with diabetic retinopathy complicated by diabetic macular edema. To implement the proposed model, digital data of ophthalmic equipment- namely an optical coherence tomograph (OCT) and a fundus microperimeter (MAIA)- are required. The patient's biochemical examination data, such as the level of glycated hemoglobin in the blood serum HbA1c and the level of vascular endothelial growth factor in the lacrimal fluid VEGF-A, are also needed. The data of ophthalmic equipment and biochemical laboratory examination are described as four criteria for disease prediction. The values of the criteria are used to predict the progression of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. The second mathematical model makes it possible to determine the disease prognosis in patients with diabetic retinopathy and primary open-angle glaucoma. To implement the proposed model, digital data of ophthalmic equipment, such as integral area of the neuroretinal rim, integral volume of the neuroretinal rim and optic disc excavation area, are required. Computer programs for both mathematical models have been created. The disease prognosis that is set using the computer program and ophthalmologists’ clinical data coincide, which proves the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Irina Vorobyeva, Mikhail Frolov, Philipp Kopylov, Anastasiia Lomonosova
Key Aspects of Accommodation and Restaurant Service in the Development of Regional Tourism

This study is oriented to an analysis of accommodation and restaurant service as a part of the hospitality industry of the Rostov region, identification of key aspects of guest experience in this industry, as well as assessment of its impact on development of regional tourism. The study analyzes the market for hotel and catering services in the context of urban okrugs and districts of the Rostov region and defines service in enterprises in the catering industry and hotel service. The article demonstrates importance and advisability of development of accommodation and food service as a component of rural tourism infrastructure in the Rostov Region based on the fact of direct relationship between expansion of accommodation and food service and improvement in service in remote areas of the region and development of regional tourism, which can act as a modern and effective tool for overall sustainable economic development of territories, enrich the population through generating employment and increasing incomes of the population, especially in depressed areas of the region, ensure the inflow of investments and increase revenues to local budgets, implementation of innovative projects and will be able to contribute to development of the social infrastructure of the region and solution of important social economic problems of the Don region.

Valeria Provotorina, Lyudmila Kazmina, Vadim Makarenko
Physiological and Genetic Evaluation of Sudan Grass Samples for Cold Hardiness

Sorghum is a very heat-loving crop, therefore, at low positive temperatures, its seeds germinate for a long time, the plants grow and develop slowly, which leads to the overgrowth of the field with weeds. Despite the thermophilicity of sorghum, its plants are capable of hardening. Sudan grass is more cold hardy than grain and sugar sorghum. Thus, the search for and identification of cold-resistance genes in Sudan grass samples is an urgent task for the further development of cold-resistant varieties. The aim of the research is to identify the cold tolerance of Sudan grass samples using physiological methods and Fearlygerm-9.3 QTL markers. When studying the samples, the following laboratory methods were used: seed germination at low temperatures, DNA isolation, PCR, and electrophoresis on agarose gels. The cold resistance gene was determined using the Xsbarslbk 9.58 and Xsbarslbk 2.56 markers. All studied genotypes were divided into 5 groups according to cold resistance. As a result of the comprehensive studies, cold-resistant samples of Sudanese grass were identified: Volzhskaya 51, Senokosny, K-315, Gratsiya, Priobskaya, Yubileinaya 20, K-160, K-279. The isolated samples of Sudanese grass can be used in breeding programs aimed at creating cold-resistant varieties and hybrids.

Pavel Kostylev, Natia Kupreyshvili, Natalya Kovtunova, Olga Zhogaleva
Features of Respiratory Pathology of Goats

The article presents data from the analysis of the results of epizootological studies conducted in disadvantaged farms on the respiratory pathology of goats of high-milk breeds imported from different countries of Europe, as well as data from the clinical examination of sick animals revealed during the autopsy of the dead goats, pathoanatomical changes and the results of laboratory studies of pathological material samples selected from the dead animals. The main clinical symptoms in sick goats were: fever, cough and profuse-mucous and serous-mucous discharge from the nasal passages. The death of sick goats was mainly recorded in farms that did not use antibiotic therapy. At autopsy the following changes were revealed: lobular fibrinous bronchopneumonia with areas of coagulative necrosis, fibrinous pleurisy, fibrinous exudate in the alveoli of the lungs and interstitial pulmonary edema, in which the lung tissue on the cut takes a marble appearance. Mannheimia haemolytica was allocated from samples of pathological material taken from the dead goats. This pathogen is a commensal of the nasopharynx and upper respiratory system of ruminants. Antibodies to parainfluenza-3 virus and RSV were found in blood serum of goats.

Alexey Mishchenko, Marina Semenenko, Alexander Shevchenko, Ludmila Shevchenko, Pavel Yakovenko
The Specifics of Taxation of Agricultural Producers

The main purpose of the study presented is to analyze existing approaches to taxation of companies engaged into agricultural production, and to determine the directions of development of the research field in the future. The special tax regimes proposed by the current legislation for agricultural producers do not always provide a minimum tax burden on the organization. In some cases, the application of the general taxation system results in a low tax burden with the possibility of optimizing the tax base for certain taxes. The study includes a comparative analysis of different taxation systems that can be used for the agricultural sector. The choice of the taxation system was considered and justified on the specific example. The research conducted made it possible to define and evaluate the current state of taxation in the Russian agricultural sector, as well as to determine areas for improving the system of the unified agricultural tax.

Tatiana Tukhkanen, Natalya Korenyakina, Lyudmila Ripol-Saragosi, Natalya Andreeva
A New Program for Automation of Shoe Production “Shoecom”

The article presents an overview of the new computer program “Shoe”. The program is designed to automate shoe manufacturing. The program is based on statistical and graphical methods that allow you to assess the state of the production process based on a variety of indicators. Shoe manufacturing is a process with a high degree of automation, modern software and technologies, which requires maximum and modern qualification of personnel and high-tech equipment, progressive methods of managing production processes. And shoes are a high-tech product. In a modern shoe factory, most of the processes are performed by robotic systems, and in the future the trends towards automation will only intensify. The use of new technologies makes it possible to produce a more complex assortment and achieve high quality shoes. However, automation does not mean that the role of personnel will decrease. On the contrary, as production has become more complicated, the requirements for employees have also increased. Factories need both seamstresses, cutters, craftsmen, and new professionals in the industry - engineers and operators of CNC machines. They need not only to know everything thoroughly about shoes, materials and technologies, but also to understand software, to be able to work with complex equipment. When you click on the “Administration” button, a list with several menu items appears: a list of models, a list of orders, analytics, calculator, statistical methods, admin panel.

Olesya Golubeva, Alina Pogorelova, Viktor Ilchenko
The Barrier Role of Wastewater Treatment Plants Against Opportunistic Bacteria

The paper provides the data of municipal wastewater pollution rate before and after treatment in Rostov-on-Don, Azov and Tsimlyansk, Russia. The aim of this paper is to assess the efficiency of inactivation and elimination pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria after treatment and disinfection. It was carried out 2640 sanitary-bacteriological tests of domestic wastewater at different treatment stages. Glucose-positive coliform bacteria (GCB), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella spp. were also identified as an additional indicator. The presence of Salmonella spp. and common coliform bacteria (CCB) was detected during the wastewater treatment. Pathogenic Salmonella spp. was not detected in treated wastewater samples in Rostov-on-Don and Azov. It is claimed that wastewater quality after treatment on properly functioning wastewater treatment facilities is met the country standards according to bacterial indicators (CCB, Salmonella spp.). The rate of contamination with pathogenic (Salmonella), sanitary-indicative (CCB) bacteria of the cities under the study (Rostov-on-Don, Azov, Tsimlyansk) is approximately the same and falls within the limits in accordance with Russian Standard No.–99.

Petr Zhuravlev, Marina Morozova, Darya Sedova, Vsevolod Zubtsov
Molecular DNA-Markers in the Selection of Meadow Clover

The purpose of the research is to form complex hybrid populations of clover, to evaluate collection samples using marker-oriented selection based. For the study, promising plants of meadow clover were studied. According to the results of PCR analysis of meadow clover using SSR primers, it was revealed that the wild sample has a genetic similarity with the varieties Tetraploid VIC and Veteran when using 3 pairs of microsatellite primers (RCS 0017R/F; RCS 1307R/F and RCS 3711R/F). Also, the Tetraploid VIC and Veteran varieties have proven themselves based on the results of long-term observations, as they are characterized by high winter hardiness-up to 90%. The Vladikavkaz variety is similar to the resistant varieties only in 2 pairs of primers (identical fragments of amplified DNA with the Tetraploid VIC and Veteran varieties with the RCS 1640R/F primer, as well as with the Veteran variety with the RCS 1307R/F primer). The obtained information was analyzed by laboratory molecular genetic methods and with the help of computer programs, the connection of the genetic structure of the studied forms with the presence or absence of genes responsible for the manifestation of the study traits was revealed.

Vadim Gasiev, Gerasim Lushchenko, Irina Gazdanova
Regulation of the Microclimate in Greenhouses Using a Mini-computer

Analysis of technological operations of vegetable cultivation in a greenhouse shows that it is possible to reduce labor costs and increase the efficiency of using cultivation facilities when performing work with a special set of technical means. Stationary systems and robotic equipment are needed to fundamentally improve the technology of vegetable production in a greenhouse. The poor quality of regulation of temperature and humidity in greenhouses makes it necessary to control not only the diameter and concentration of aerosol microdrops, but also the pressure in the pressure pipelines of evaporative cooling and waterlogging systems, as well as the amount of solar radiation entering the greenhouse, the level of physiologically active radiation created by additional illumination lamps. To ensure that the current air temperature does not exceed the permissible agrotechnical requirements, winter block greenhouses are equipped with robotic systems for regulating microclimate parameters. The article presents a schematic diagram that supports the microclimate in a greenhouse. The system includes evaporative cooling and de-humidification of the air, ventilation of the tent space, additional illumination lamps, a reflective screen with a drive, a control device.

Varvara Druzyanova, Aleksandr Pekhutov, Galia Kokieva, Yuriy Shaposhnikov
Energy Conversion in Agribusiness

The article shows that natural eco systems are hierarchical and closed. The operation of the subsequent block is based on the previous one, therefore, in such systems, minimal losses of energy and material resources occur. The agro-industrial complex is an open system, such systems can work stably only due to the energy supplied to each unit from the outside. Energy is supplied directly in the form of various energy carriers and indirectly through the expenditure of energy for the creation of material components of the system (machines, buildings, transport devices). The more complex the systems, the more energy they need to function. Energy costs can reach up to 50% of the cost of production. The sources of such energy are analyzed and recommendations are given for saving energy and material resources.

Igor Khozyaev, Maria Balinskaya
Features of the Use of Feedback in the Personnel Management System of a State-Owned Enterprise, Including transport enterprises

The article is dedicated to analysis of problems in applying the feedback method in current practices of human resources (HR) management functions of state-owned majors. The study discusses specific features of talent capacity of a state-owned enterprise. The main feedback paradox is phrased: on the one part, feedback improves stability in process management on account of using the knowledge of process flow in the past, and on the other part adds a certain portion of randomness to the process due to uncertainty in assessing occurred changes. Basic principles of feedback implementation at state-owned enterprises were defined. Mechanisms were discussed, making it possible to increase resilience in state-owned enterprise functioning, providing an extra method of inducing employees to discharge their responsibilities. Goals of introducing feedback mechanisms into the overall human resources management structure were defined. Key requirements to organizing feedback in the enterprise personnel management system were substantiated. Specific features of information received using the feedback were analyzed. Promising approaches towards the practice of feedback mechanisms implementation were outlined and reviewed: knowledge base, rotation, staff audit, enabling improvement of enterprise functioning stability, acceleration of innovative changes implementation in its activity, improvement of efficiency of control over staff activities and increase of staff security level.

Elena Avilova, Alla Vavilina
Legal Basis of Regulation and Prospects for State Support of Tourism Activities in Russia

The article is devoted to the analysis of the modern regulatory framework of regulation and the prospects of state support for tourism activities that contribute to the sustainable development of regional tourism in Russia. Naturally, due to the involvement of a huge amount of both human and industrial resources in the tourism industry, this industry cannot remain without special legal, organizational and economic means of influence, that is, public administration. In this regard, there is a need for coordination and legal regulation of this industry by the state, including in order to limit the negative aspects of competition, as well as to ensure the foundations of social protection of the population. The study identifies the prevailing specialization and identifies the main areas of tourist activity that contribute to both the development of domestic regional tourism and the support of Russian tourists. The paper presents modern statistical data, on the basis of which we can talk about the active and dynamic growth of tour operator enterprises specializing in domestic tourism. Special attention in this study is paid to state support of tourism activities in Russia. As an example, the work of the Federal Agency for Tourism is analyzed and the program of stimulating domestic tourist trips “Tourist Cashback” is considered.

Yulia Osipova, Lyudmila Kazmina
Normative Yield - the Basis of Cadastral Valuation of Land

The income-based valuation method is the main one in the cadastral valuation of agricultural land. The main problem in calculating potential income is determining the yield of crops that are included in a typical crop rotation for a given region. The purpose of the study is to determine the methodology for calculating the yield of agricultural crops for a correct cadastral assessment. Tasks to be solved in the course of the study: - identification of typical factors affecting the yield of crops in a given area; - preparation of data for calculating the normative yield for individual districts of the Samara region; - determination of the normative yield of the main crops for these territories of the Samara region. Determining the potential yield allows you to avoid the influence on the results of the cadastral assessment of agricultural land of random factors characteristic of a particular enterprise, mainly the technologies used, a set of equipment, labor discipline, etc. mainly, the climatic features of the territory, the properties of the soil of the land plot, i.e. we get the opportunity to assess the value of this site as an object of production.

Kirill Zhichkin, Lyudmila Zhichkina, Oleg Mamaev, Olga Grunina, Alexander Tarakanov, Irada Rustamova, Galina Korneva
ICT Competency and Teaching Translation for Professional Purposes Including Ecology and Energy Management

The article is devoted to ICT-competency and mastering such competency among students of economic, environment and ecological specialties doing a “Translation for professional communication” course. To become competitive in a labor market, any prospective specialist in translation needs to obtain skills to deal with the flood of information that nowadays changes too fast, ability to solve professional issues with modern informative-communicative technologies. It results in the necessity for teachers to develop competency in informative-communicative technologies among students specializing in translation. In the article, we share our experience to design and carry out a course: “IT technologies in specialized translation.“ for ecology, economics and technical specialities.

Victoriya Sibul
The Role of Human Resources Management in Technological Enterprises in the Digital Transformation Environment

In the first part of this article will be analyze the impact of new technologies (IT) on human resources in environments of digitalization of the economy, specifically in innovative companies and management and technological research linked to production including ecology and energy sector. A roles of Human Resources (HR) and how the hiring process is managed in these companies are discussed below. Each of these aspects is explained in detail and the use of these new mechanisms in companies in the research and technological development sector is also proposed.

Alexander Chursin, Fedor Demenin, Svetlana Karnaukh, Igor Kiryakov, Alexey Novoselov
Maps of the Distribution of Polylepis Forests in Southern Peru

Polylepis is a unique genus for the South American Andes. Currently it is disappearing due to climate changes and mainly due to anthropogenic activities. There are also challenges such as information gaps for the delimitation of species and distribution for this part of southern Peru. The objective of this research is to clarify the distribution of Polylepis forests in the Tacna region, Peru. The methodology was based on exploring the forests of Polylepis where information relevant to the realization of forest zoning was collected and taken. In the Tacna region, two species were identified: P. Rugulosa and P. Tarapacana; 25 forests were identified, distributed in the four provinces of the Tacna region. P. Rugulosa is located in the provinces of Candarave, Jorge Basadre and Tarata, distributed in 14 forests, with an average altitude of 3919 m.a.s.l.m. P. Tarapacana is located in the provinces of Tacna and Tarata, with an average altitude of 4530 m.a.s.l.m., belonging to the Cold Zone in the region; both species are fragmented. These are important data, as the susceptibility of these forests to further fragmentation and genetic loss has been observed, requiring greater protection and planning.

Luis Morales-Aranibar, Carlos Morales-Aranibar
Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Samples of Materials of Construction Production

One of the important parameters of building materials is thermal conductivity. This paper presents the methodology and results of experimental studies of the thermal conductivity of quartz sand-filled cement composites. In parallel, the influence of the granulometric composition of fillers on the thermal conductivity was studied. The granulometric composition of the filler was varied by mixing three fractions: 0.63–0.315, 0.315–0.16 and less than 0.16 mm. At the stage of preparation for the experiment, the geometric dimensions and mass of the samples were determined. A calibrated copper–constantan thermocouple was fixed in each sample. The measurement results were recorded using an analog-to-digital converter with data recording in a file. A stationary heat flow was passed through the studied material samples in a direc-tion perpendicular to the front (largest) faces of the sample. The heat flux density and temperature of the opposite front faces of the sample were measured using a digital heat flux density meter IPP-2. The measurement error of the heat flux density is (not more than) 5%.

Vladimir Erofeev, Stepan Panfilov, Oleg Kabanov, Valery Kondrashchenko
Environmental Substantiation of the Use of Soil Based on Sewage Sludge from Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants in the Landscaping of Residential Areas

During a field experiment, the influence of various doses of the application of the agrochemical “Green City Soil” [Zeleny Gorod], created on the basis of sewage sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants, on the growth and development of flower and decorative cultures – salvia (Salvia splendens) and marigolds (Tagétes pátula), when grown in the flower beds of residential areas, were studied. Observations were carried out according to morphological indicators: plant height, number of inflorescences and flowers in the inflorescence (for salvia), number and diameter of flowers (for marigolds). The positive effect of the agrochemical “Green City Soil” on the growth and development of these flower and decorative cultures has been established. The best results were obtained in the option with the introduction of an agrochemical at a dose of 3 kg/m2 for marigolds and 4 kg/m2 for salvia. In landscaping urban areas and creating favorable conditions for the growth and development of flower and decorative cultures when grown in flower beds and increasing their stress resistance to abiotic factors, it is recommended to use the agrochemical “Green City Soil” for marigolds – at a dose of 3 kg/m2, for salvia – at a dose of 4 kg/m2.

Andrey Ilinskiy, Vadim Selmen, Ekaterina Selmen, Svetlana Karyakina, Maxim Matyukhin, Victoria Grebennikova
Deformation Properties of Polyethylene Film Under Mechanical Impact

The research results for the mechanical and deformation properties of the film made of low molecular weight polyethylene produced by the Shurtan gas chemical complex (Republic of Uzbekistan) are presented. When used as a printed material, the polyethylene film falls under the influence of small tensile forces in the printing process, as a result, the physical state of the film’s polymer is rearranged, which leads to deformation. To predict the film behaviour during printing, the ultimate tensile strength of the material, the relative elongation at rupture and the initial modulus of elasticity, characterizing the reversibility of the deformations, are determined. The mechanical and deformation properties of the film were determined to reveal the nature of deformation of the film during printing on a tensile machine. Based on the results of static tensile tests, load-relative elongation curves were plotted. The modulus of elasticity, which characterizes the material rigidity degree, was calculated on the basis of Hooke's law. The infrared spectroscopy method was used to identify polymer films and to perform their structural analysis. Infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed that the films under research correspond to low density polyethylene (LDPE) film in terms of its physical structure. Tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of polyethylene film characterize the elastic deformation of a fully oriented sample and the ability to elastic recovery, the knowledge of which helps to predetermine the deformation when printing with the use of graphic arts and packaging equipment.

Khalima Babakhanova, Oydin Khaknazarova, Zulfiya Galimova
Interaction of Weighty Layer of Soil of Limited Thickness with Incompressible Base and Pit Fence When Exposed to Distributed Load Near It

It is known that in applied soil mechanics, one of the critical problems of high-rise construction with the substantial subsurface part is quantitative assessment of stress-strain state (SSS) of the soil massif adjacent to a deep foundation pit with the walls and subsurface structures, factoring in engineering-geological conditions. This article presents a study of the interaction of a weighty layer of soil of limited capacity with an incompressible base and the wall of the pit fence under the influence of a distributed load near the wall. There was proposed the author’s development of the method determining the stressed state components in the reduced engineering problem based on the Ribere-Faylon trigonometric series. The isolines and diagrams of the stress-strain statement components of a layer of limited thickness resting on an incompressible base are given. The obtained solutions enable to assess the stressed state components that accurately corresponds to the actual performance of stresses of soil massif. Theoretical results are followed by numerical experiments to prove their validity.

Zaven Ter-Martirosyan, Armen Ter-Martirosyan, Yuliya Vanina
Making Soil Foundations in Seismic Areas

The article discloses the topic of applying a new technology for making and strengthening the soil foundation in conditions of seismic impacts. A sequence and methodology were developed that allow calculating the number of construction machines for various purposes (dredger – excavator – truck – bulldozer – roller) for use in a single technological chain: excavation of bottom sediments – reclamation of soil into the storehouse – development with loading – transportation – vertical layout – compaction. It has been established that the main parameters for calculations are the operational daily productivity of a unit of equipment and the total duration of work, and the mechanization means themselves are divided into two categories: the primary ones, the total productivity of which determines the total duration of the production of earthworks (critical duration) and auxiliary ones with the regulation of the number of units involved.

Yuri Kazakov, Evgeniy Alekseev
Preliminary Assessment of the Bearing Capacity of Soils Using a Geotechnical Database

Geotechnical survey are an important part in design of building and structures. The geological data from 3500 boreholes and 1927 in-situ testing were collected into a unified Geotechnical database of Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan. The city territory was regrouped into 8 zones, based on the geological origin and stratigraphy interposition of the six main engineering-geological elements (EGE). The developed geotechnical database was improved with the results of previously conducted Static Load Testing (SLT) and Pile Dynamic tests (PDA). A preliminary assessment of the pile length for each zone of the city was determined, corresponding to the geological structure and survey data from the previous and ongoing geological reports. The improved geotechnical database allow a preliminary assessment of the bearing capacity of soils, the optimal parameters of the pile length, labor costs and financial costs for the construction of foundations at the design stage.

Askar Zhussupbekov, Assel Sarsembayeva, Nurgul Alibekova
Features of Chemical and Biochemical Aggressiveness of Underground Water in Relation to Concretes Used in Underground Environment of Saint Petersburg

The article is devoted to the features of waterproofing of buried volumes of buildings, which are manifested in the interaction of building materials with the underground environment. Particular attention is paid to the aspects of chemical and biochemical aggressiveness of groundwater. As an illustrative case from practice, the study of acid-base and redox conditions of groundwater for a reconstruction object in the historical center of St. Petersburg is given. The analysis of the chemical composition of groundwater was carried out and their microbiological contamination was determined. The processes that contribute to a significant decrease in the water resistance of concrete structures of the walls and the bottom of the underground floor of the building are revealed. Methods for preventing the destruction of underground structures under the influence of underground waters with a high chemical and biochemical degree of aggressiveness are proposed.

Alexey Voronov
Investigating the Features of Various Plate Models Under the Thermal Shock in the ANSYS Package

The paper considers the features of the numerical simulation of a thin plate under the thermal shock in the ANSYS package. The temperature fields of one-layer and three-layer plates are investigated. Their comparative analysis is carried out. The features of the results obtained are identified and explained using various models. The presented results can be used to simulate the thermal shock of a thin plate using the ANSYS package.

Denis Orlov, Valeria Serdakova, Maxim Evtushenko, Ekaterina Khnyryova, Alexandra Nikolaeva
Rational Methods for Reinforcing Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Tanks

At present, with the increase in construction volumes, the volumes of repair and restoration work and further strengthening of structures, if necessary, have significantly increased. These solutions are developed on the basis of a technical inspection of defective structures and the results of their verification calculation. This article discusses some of the most rational methods of reinforcing reinforced concrete tanks of rectangular shape on the example of a diving pool in the city of Rostov-on-Don. The design solutions proposed by the authors of the project are based on the technological need to strengthen the pool bowl only on one (lower) side, placing reinforcement structures on the side of the technical basement. This method provides for strengthening the structures of the bottom and walls, changing the design scheme of these structures, which is the basis of the working drawings according to which the pool bowl was built.

Viktor Muradyan, Ekaterina Efimenko, Vadim Mailyan
Modern Methods for Increasing the Seismic Resistance of Stone Buildings

Today, designers are increasingly faced with problems of non-compliance of existing and long-operated capital construction projects with the requirements of the current regulatory documents. The article deals with some modern methods for increasing the seismic resistance of stone buildings. Design decisions should be based on the results of a technical survey and the execution of a verification calculation of the building frame. The design solutions proposed by the authors of the project make it possible to increase the seismic resistance of stone buildings in accordance with the requirements of regulatory documents in force on the territory of the Russian Federation. The proposed design solutions include the following activities: antiseismic belts at the level of all floors without opening the brickwork of the walls, increasing the rigidity of the floors by providing connections between round-hollow reinforced concrete floors, strengthening the ribbon foundation with transverse metal beams with a broadening of the sole.

Viktor Muradyan, Artur Umarov, Vadim Mailyan
Food Security of the Republic of Uzbekistan and Its State After the Pandemic

The intensive globalization of the world community attaches particular importance to the level of food provision of the state. Ensuring and protecting state vital issues in the field of food security is included in the problems of national security, and are especially important problems of today, which require detailed intervention to ensure the security of the state. The article touches upon such concepts as “food security”, “national security”, and many others. Food security is considered within the framework of the global economy, as well as within the framework of the Republic of Uzbekistan. In conclusion, the Authors reveal the main ways to maintain food security, despite the state of the economy after the pandemic.

Bazarbay Berkinov, Ganiboy Dustmurodov, Ulugbek Ahmedov, Shakir Mirzaev, Orifjon Sattorov, Indira Smanova
The Consequences of the Pandemic on the Inflow of Foreign Investment Abroad and in the Republic of Uzbekistan

The study is devoted to foreign investment, ways to attract investment to the Republic of Uzbekistan, the experience of foreign countries is analyzed, proposals are made to improve the country's investment potential, and methods of recovery after the pandemic are also emphasized. The authors tried to capture all the topical issues related to foreign investment, based on current data, using methods of analysis, synthesis, deduction, grouping, theoretical and empirical methods. The article considers the experience of foreign countries, such as Hungary, China, South Korea, and compared with the economy of Uzbekistan. In conclusion, based on the analysis of foreign countries, proposals were made to attract investment to the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Madina Raimjanova, Lola Sabirova, Nodira Khanova, Dildora Shadiyeva, Barna Rakhmankulova
To the Issue of Consideration the Sediment of Foundation Soil as a Multifactorial Anthropogenic Geological Process

The article substantiates the need to consider the soil sediment of the foundation of structure not as a vertical displacement of the structure due to compression, compaction or other changes in the rocks lying at its base, but as a multifactorial integral engineering-geological process associated with vertical subsidence of the soil of the base of buildings and structures, due to a decrease in soil volume due to its deformation under load or deterioration of its strength and deformation properties in the process of natural and technogenic effects. The estimated predicted precipitation of base soils provided by the project for weakly compressible soils, as a rule, is 40–60% higher than actual ones, and for strongly compressible soils, actual precipitation can be several times higher than calculated. The authors see such a discrepancy in the mechanical approach to modeling the process of sedimentation of base soils, while sediment of base soils is a multifactorial engineering and geological process that changes in space and time. A number of examples in various regions of the country show a wide range of different natural geological and technogenic processes that affect the unevenness, size and duration of sedimentation of base soils under various buildings and structures.

Pavel Kashperyuk, Andrei Lavrusevich, Alexey M. Martynov
Allelic Polymorphism of CSN3 and Dgat1 Genes in Herds of Black-and-White and Kholmogorsky Cattle

The purpose of the research was to study polymorphism and determine the frequency of occurrence of allelic variants for the gene of kappa-casein and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase in cows of different ages and breeds. The objects of the study were cows aged after the first and third calving of the black-and-white and Kholmogory breed. The genotyping of cows for CSN3 and DGAT1 genes was carried out using DNA diagnostics. It was defined that there was an advantage among dairy cattle in kappa-casein gene of CSN3 AA genotype, that was 64.3–66.9%, the frequency of allele A was 0.80–0.81 and allele B was 0.19–0.20, at the same time the best occurrence of B allele was found among Kholmogory cows. Between the two herds of cows the advantage of DGAT1 AK genotype was expressed with a frequency of 43.8–51.2%. Allele A dominates over allele K in all breeds. At the same time the highest occurrence of K DGAT1 allele was found in cows of Kholmogory breed (0.27–0.30). However, a significant shift in the gene balance for the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase gene was revealed in the livestock of black-and-white first heifers (χ2 = 8.24; P < 0.01) and full-age cows (χ2 = 6.40; P < 0.05) towards the genotype DGAT1 AK. Consequently, in Kholmogorsky cows, rare and desirable alleles are better represented, to a greater extent by the CSN3 gene.

Radik Shaidullin, Lenar Zagidullin, Tahir Akhmetov, Sergey Tyulkin, Ilnur Kamaldinov, Mohammed Lamara, Anastasia Moskvicheva, Anatoly Trubkin
Milk Productivity of First-Calf Heifers Depending on the Fatness of Mothers Before Calving

The features of the influence of fatness of cows on the immune status of colostrum, its functional properties, the incidence of calves in the first month after birth and, as a result of these changes, on the level of milk productivity of grown first-calf heifers were studied The research results showed that as the fatness of cows increases to optimal levels (3.6–4.0 points), the content of immunoglobulins in colostrum increases, in accordance with the breed, by 14.8; 32.4; 20.0; 29.4%, respectively. Six hours after drinking the first portion of colostrum, the content of immunoglobulins in the blood serum of calves at the level of 10.1 mg/ml or more was noted in all breeds except Holstein. With optimal fatness of mothers, a decrease in the incidence of newborns by 16.7; 23.4; 20.3; 23.3% was noticed. Differences formed in the body of cows born from mothers with different fatness were reflected in their milk productivity. The milk yield of cows from mothers with optimal fatness for 305 days of the first lactation was 19.9–34.6; 18.2–24.0; 31.7–45.9; 25.7–41.4% more, based on 1 day of lactation – by 21.6–37.8; 22.3–29.2; 33.3–45.2; 31.2–45.8%.

Anna Karamaeva, Sergey Karamaev, Nina Chupsheva, Roman Ershov
The Case Study of Electrical Sounding in the Identification of Faults Along the Eastern Siberia – Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline

The possibilities of the electric resistivity method in the detection and tracking of fault zones along the “Eastern Siberia – Pacific Ocean” (ESPO) pipeline are considered. To effectively solve this problem, it was necessary to use the technique of fragmentary interpretation of electric sounding curves. The theoretical justification of this technique is based on the analysis of mathematical modeling of the electric field on the surface of the medium, including inclined and vertical boundaries, with the establishment of the identification features of differently oriented boundaries in the geological section. The interpretation technique provides for the determination of the quantitative parameters of the geoelectric section by fragments, using the established features. The results of the practical application of the technique are shown on three sites of the pipeline route in the Khabarovsk Territory with the allocation of inclined and steeply dipping boundaries that are associated with faults.

Grigory Shkabarnya, Nikolay Shkabarnya, Alexander Zhukovin
The Use of CuMnCo Alloy for the Adhesive Layer in the Restoration of Vehicle Parts by Gas-Thermal Spraying Methods

The article shows the technological sequence of formation of a layered composite coating on the surface of a substrate consisting of an adhesive layer, which is a solder of CuMnCo composition and the main functional layer based on alloys with thermoelastic phase transformations TiNiZr obtained using high-speed flame spraying technology. With subsequent processing of the substrate with a composite coating of a layered type with high frequency currents (HFC), providing heating of the coating and the surface of the part to the melting point of the CuMnCo adhesive layer (Tm = 1030 ℃). The study of the structure and the results of the elemental analysis of a substrate with a layered composite coating in three zones are shown: substrate; adhesive layer; functional layer, after HFC treatment. The boundaries of the interface between the layers and along the adhesion line of the coating/substrate, as well as the line of destruction as a result of residual stresses after HFC treatment, are shown. Recommendations on the selection of the solder composition and the technology of application and HFC treatment for the adhesive layer for various substrate and coating materials and their combinations are presented.

Etibar Balaev, Dmitriy Klepikov, Vladimir Eliseev
Nonlinear Strength Analysis of Intersecting Spherical and Cylindrical Composite Shells

An applied technique for nonlinear analysis of joints of intersecting shells is developed. It is based on the theory of shells, the finite element method and the theory of plastic flow. A rational computational algorithm for solving nonlinear problems of intersecting shells is obtained, taking into account the peculiarities of the stress state of shells in the intersection region. A computational analysis of the joints of intersecting spherical and cylindrical composite shells under the action of internal pressure is carried out. The effect of the anisotropy of the properties of composite fibrous materials on the maximum stresses in intersecting composite shells is shown. The results of linear and nonlinear analysis for intersecting spherical and cylindrical composite shells are presented. Numerical modeling was carried out by the finite element method in an elastic and elastoplastic formulation. The calculation was carried out using the author's program – Stress Analysis in Intersecting Shells (SAIS).

Nikalay Berkov, Alexsndr Arkhangel’skii, Tatyana Gorshunova, Zakir Radjabov
Distance Learning at University: Trends, Problems and Prospects

This article is devoted to current research in the field of the influence of the digital economy on the formation of a set of key competencies and the training of specialists in the modern world. The article discusses a new type of competence in demand in the modern market - “technological”. The authors consider digital competences as a means of effective interaction between the student and the educational environment. To analyze the features of creating a digital educational environment in universities, an assessment of digital literacy was carried out and a mechanism for its formation and maintenance at an acceptable level should be created. The article presents the results of studies of students’ perception of distance learning in a regional university of the Central Federal District of the Russian Federation. This educational institution is an information platform within the framework of the formation of digital competences in demand in Industry 4.0. Many IC and IT developments of the system of higher and additional education are being implemented here.

Olga Aleksyutina, Evgeny Aleshin, Elena Yakubenko
Digital Transformation of the Economy and a New Paradigm of the Labor Market

The transition to the digital economy has a significant impact on the labor market, due to a large-scale transformation of requirements for specialists and improving the efficiency of the labor market. In modern conditions, digital technologies are permeating all spheres of life and activities of our society and have become one of the main trends in the development of all economic and social systems. The article notes that the structure of Russian labor market has been gradually changing in recent years. Today, vacancies that were not relevant a few years ago are becoming popular. Among the main problems of the labor market in Russia, the authors single out unemployment and improper use of labor. Unemployment is characterized by heterogeneity, strong differentiation by industry, employment and territories. Analysis of statistics on changes in the number of unemployed and employed persons aged 15–72 years in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation over the past 10 years (put forward in the study) shows that unemployment is characterized by an uneven distribution of unemployed people across regions. As a result, the conclusion is presented that digital transformation carries not only great opportunities within the framework of the development of the modern labor market, but also entails a number of negative consequences: job cuts, due to the displacement of manual labor by machine labor, in addition, the speed of transformation of the labor market is so high, that it becomes very difficult to plan and predict the need for labor resources for almost all sectors of the economy. The increase in the share of informal (unformed) labor relations in the digital economy, contributing to the growth of social insecurity of workers, is also a rather serious negative consequence of digitalization.

Inna Riazantseva, Galina Parshukova
Use of Innovative Technologies in Staff Recruitment

The paper deals with the implementation of innovative and information technologies in the practice of HR-managers. The problems that hinder the implementation of information technologies and the rational use of selected software products are identified. The advantages arising from the implementation of an automated system for the recruitment process are analyzed. Problems of the introduction of an automated system for the recruitment of enterprise personnel are identified. An economic comparison and justification of the choice of an automated system are carried out on the example of a system for personnel recruiting. The advantages and disadvantages of automated systems over traditional methods for personnel are analyzed. Based on the analysis of scientific literature and research carried out at an industrial enterprise, the dynamics of the costs of working time and the cost of recruiting of three employees before and after the introduction of an automated system for recruiting were analyzed. A policy of using a recruiting program to fill a vacancy is implemented. In paper the cost reductions in the implementation of an automated system for the selection of personnel on the example of Nestlé Russia LLC in Samara are analyzed.

Alexander Shtrikov, Darya Shtrikova
On the Issue of Mathematical Modeling of Salt Transfer Processes in Soils Taking into Account Convectional Transference

The article is devoted to the problems of mathematical modeling of the motion of matter in porous inhomogeneous media in relation to the transference of salt in soils. The need for mathematical modeling of such processes is determined both by the importance of the salt regime of soils for agricultural production, and by the effectiveness of mathematical modeling as a tool for understanding natural phenomena. For comparison as a test example the thermal conductivity equations were chosen and the graphical results were obtained. Important estimates of the behavior of the free boundary for a nonlinear salt transfer equation with account for convective transport are constructed for numerical modeling. Numerical schemes of algorithms for the given problem are developed.

Rano Baltabaeva, Klara Baymuratova, Shiyrin Erejepova
The Importance of Watershed Management in Sustainable Development

Water is vital for living things. Since ancient times, water has played a central role in the development of societies. However, the ecological status of water resources is under threat due to pressures stemming from human activities and poor management. As the effects of global warming and climate change, which have become one of the most discussed issues in the world public opinion in recent years and are among the most important environmental problems, are observed, the interest of human beings is increasing and threatening humanity. For the sustainable use of water resources, watershed management principles should be evaluated and planned at the watershed scale. In this context, various studies are carried out in the world and in the member countries of the European Union (EU). In our country, it has intensified its studies within the scope of the EU Water Framework Directive in recent years. In the study, qualified methods were used for the management of watershed resources and watershed issue.

Elnur Allahverdiyev
Experience of Administration of Antibiotics of Different Groups to Rabbits and Their Impact on Commercial Indicators

This paper presents the scientific experience of comparing the introduction of biovetin, biomycin, penicillin, terramycin into the diet of large white rabbits at a dosage of 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 mg/kg. During the experiment, it was revealed: all drugs had a positive effect on the average daily weight gain and live weight; we indirectly associate the increase in live weight with the introduction of penicillin with the presence in the chemical composition of the thiazole compound that is part of the thiazolidine ring. We assume that thiazole is embedded in thiamine pyrophosphate (or is an auxiliary factor for thiamine), which is a coenzyme of enzymes that catalyze the decarboxylation of keto acids in tissues and the exchange of acetylcholine, thereby the influence of penicillin on the activity of the central nervous system is possible. Its influence also confirms the fact that with a lack of thiamine, loss of appetite occurs, which was not observed in the experimental groups.

Matvey Orlov, Vladimir Zaycev, Vladislav Petryakov, Nikolai Orlov
Research of the Possibility of Improving the Aquatic Environment with Probiotics in the Keeping of Golden Malawi Cichlid (Melanochromis Auratus)

The study researches the possibility of water purification with the help of probiotic formulations for various purposes: biodesinfectant “Enatin”; veterinary drugs “Bacinil” and “Bacinil-K”, “Vetosporin”, “Biovir”, “Emilin”, “Bacto-health”; feed additives “Sporobact”, “Sporobact-K”, “Proxiferon” when the golden Malawi cichlid (Melanochromis auratus) is contained in a closed environment. For Melanochromis aureus, Bacillus subtilis (niger) (B-5250) was found to be the most effective probiotic. An equally important factor in the choice of Bacillus subtilis (niger) was its stability and improved efficiency within the period of 8 day.

Irina Tkacheva, Anna Neidorf, Yuriy Kokhanov, Aleksandr Pavlikov
XV International Scientific Conference “INTERAGROMASH 2022”
Alexey Beskopylny
Mark Shamtsyan
Viktor Artiukh
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