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About this book

The Yearbook on Space Policy, edited by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), is the reference publication analysing space policy developments. Each year it presents issues and trends in space policy and the space sector as a whole. Its scope is global and its perspective is European. The Yearbook also links space policy with other policy areas. It highlights specific events and issues, and provides useful insights, data and information on space activities. The first part of the Yearbook sets out a comprehensive overview of the economic, political, technological and institutional trends that have affected space activities. The second part of the Yearbook offers a more analytical perspective on the yearly ESPI theme and consists of external contributions written by professionals with diverse backgrounds and areas of expertise. The third part of the Yearbook carries forward the character of the Yearbook as an archive of space activities. The Yearbook is designed for government decision-makers and agencies, industry professionals, as well as the service sectors, researchers and scientists and the interested public.

Table of Contents

Frontmatter

The Year in Space 2016

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. European Space Activities in the Global Context

The “World Economic Situation and Prospects” report is the United Nation’s lead publication in the annual discussion of current economic trends and prospects. In 2016, the global economy appeared stuck in a prolonged period of slow economic growth and dwindling international trade growth, with both rates at their lowest since the 2009 recession that followed the financial crisis. World gross product (WGP) had dropped to 2.2% in 2016, below the average rate of 2.5% since 2012, and well below the 3.4% growth rate observed in the decade before the crisis, with the sluggishness characterised by diminished productivity growth, increased levels of debt, low commodity prices, and continued conflict and geopolitical tensions.

Cenan Al-Ekabi

Chapter 2. Developments in Space Policies, Programmes and Technologies Throughout the World and in Europe

The major space policy developments worldwide were presented in Chap'. 1, above, to identify the principal space faring nations’ strategies in 2016. In the section below, there will be a brief discussion of developments in technology-related areas, including policies and access to space technologies. The aim of this section is to clarify how these strategies interact with and influence specific space programmes and related research and development projects.

Cenan Al-Ekabi

Views and Insights

Frontmatter

Chapter 3. Space for Sustainable Development

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were approved by the United Nations (UN) in 2015 as a response to the current and anticipated challenges facing the global community until 2030. In contrast with their predecessors, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – which were geared primarily towards developing countries – the SDGs present a holistic and global perspective which calls upon all relevant actors, both at national and regional levels, in the public and private sectors, to unite to come up with solutions to the 17 identified challenges, thus improving life across the world. According to Prof. Sachs, these challenges arise from current developments in technology, particularly the digital revolution, which have pushed the boundaries of planetary resource utilisation, such as fossil fuels, land and water, to unsustainable levels. Diminishing poverty rates have been fuelled by practices that can no longer be maintained due to rising populations, coupled with the finite resources that our planet offers. Agenda 2030 thus calls for a new development model, based on the principles of environmental sustainability coupled with social inclusion. The 17 goals comprise different but related objectives, from decarbonisation to improvements in agriculture and from healthcare to transportation and urban environments, and request all levels of society and all global regions to contribute towards this new paradigm.

Stefano Ferretti

Chapter 4. Challenges of Development and the Role of Space

What is the status of global development? What role can space community stakeholders play in contributing to poverty alleviation efforts? This essay describes progress achieved to date by the international development community and challenges ahead, suggesting a complementary framework and two specific contribution opportunities for the space community’s consideration.

Justin Loiseau

Chapter 5. Reflecting on a Decade of Collaboration Between NASA and USAID: Deriving Value from Space for International Development

The US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are US government agencies that have a lot in common despite their very different purposes. Among NASA’s goals is improving life on Earth. It advances this goal through a constellation of satellites that generate Earth observation data, by making that data available for free to the public, as well as through an extensive applied research portfolio aimed at discovering and demonstrating innovative and practical uses of Earth science data and knowledge. NASA funds researchers at US institutions conducting activities all around the world but has a limited ability to fund international partners to advance the application of data in their countries. Within USAID’s mission is the objective of ending extreme poverty and promoting resilience in developing countries, which it does through an extensive network of in-country assistance programmes and local staff and offices that work with local partners. USAID partners with local authorities and communities to address issues such as food security, natural resources management, health, and humanitarian assistance that require good data in places that are often very data-limited.

Jennifer Frankel-Reed

Chapter 6. The Sustainable Development Goals: A New Space for Action?

The article trace the history and trajectory of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The guiding questions are whether the SDGs constitute a possible space or agenda for a profound paradigm shift in ‘development’ thinking and practice or, to put it differently, whether the SDGs have the potential to rethink the narrow, economic and outdated ‘western’ concepts of 'development' which are still embedded in the idea of continous growth. For understanding the new agenda a brief debate of the history of 'development' and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is necessary before discussing the weaknesses and strengths of the SDGs and thus the guiding questions.

Petra Dannecker

Chapter 7. Space Applications for Development: The Indian Approach

Since its inception in the mid-1960s, the Indian space programme has aimed at achieving self-reliance in space technology and in demonstrating the applications of space technology for the development and betterment of society.

Bhupendra Singh Bhatia

Chapter 8. Supporting Sustainable Development with Outer Space Activities

As the Director of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA), I am appreciative of the opportunity to contribute to the ESPI Yearbook 2016 on the topic of space and sustainable development. The role that space activities and the international space community can play in support of sustainable development is invaluable. Space activities are responsible for many of the crucial technologies and capabilities that improve everyday life on Earth and society as a whole. Regardless of geographic region and level of development, every nation should be in the position to utilize space for its empowering capacities and ability to drive innovation and address global challenges. Advancements in space benefit all member states of the United Nations in one way or another, and thus these technologies support our common goals and efforts in addressing global challenges and implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Simonetta Di Pippo

Chapter 9. Space Agencies’ Perspective on Space for Sustainable Development

Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Josef Aschbacher, Clio Biondi Santi, Wolfgang Rathgeber

Chapter 10. Earth Observation for Humanitarian Operations

Large-scale population displacements have ever increased the need for more effective humanitarian assistance. Humanitarian organizations require up-to-date reliable information about the situation on-site. Field-based surveys are often limited in crisis situations due to time or accessibility constraints. Geospatial and Earth observation (EO) technologies have increasingly become popular in the humanitarian community. An EO-based information service was set up for Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) which provides dedicated geospatial information products in support of their operations. The core of the service portfolio is population monitoring using dwelling extraction from (multi-temporal) very high-resolution (VHR) satellite imagery. The service is mainly requested for refugee and IDP (internally displaced people) camps. Additional services on environmental resources, including groundwater, are provided on demand. As of mid-2017, over 350 maps at 60 locations in over 20 countries have been produced.

Stefan Lang, Petra Füreder, Edith Rogenhofer

Chapter 11. The Field, Its Needs and New Technologies

There are currently over 65 million forcibly displaced persons worldwide. Over half of refugees are under the age of 18. In crisis situations, children and young people are the most vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. To strengthen our emergency preparedness and response, SOS Children’s Villages is participating in two initiatives relating to new technologies. First, SOS Children’s Villages is partnering with Allianz and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) for a study on how satellite technology and other space infrastructure can support our work. In addition, SOS Children’s Villages is partnering with the Department of Geoinformatics at the University of Salzburg to pilot vulnerability studies, which, in combination with local knowledge of an area, could support SOS Children’s Villages in preparing for crisis situations as well as improving reactiveness. While these partnerships take different approaches, both can be used as a basis for strategies in building NGO programmes.

Andreas Papp, Leonora Barclay

Chapter 12. Financial and Nonfinancial Aspects of Sustainable Development

The Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the adoption of the 2030 Agenda, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the adoption of the Sendai Framework for disaster risk have been important achievements for the global community. The COP 21, held in Paris in 2015, represents the first major step towards the achievement of the targets set by the Sustainable Development Goals agreed by the international community in September 2015. Such goals may be achieved through the involvement of public and private actors, especially investing in school and culture. Space can play an important role through its infrastructure like Earth observation, navigation and connectivity. The SDGs are also in line with the two goals of the World Bank: ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity. The contribution of the World Bank to the Sustainable Development Goals is related to the data revolution proposed by the international leaders during the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Even drones can help the reaching of the SDGs by collecting imagery for disaster risk reduction. The activities of private actors in the space sector increased exponentially in the last years thanks to the proliferation of start-ups like Planet, which provides a complete imagery of the Earth. Finally, it would be useful to set up a public-private partnership (PPP) scheme that will help to move to more sustainable business models.

Alfredo Roma, Alessandra Vernile

Chapter 13. Satellite Connectivity for Development

Today, there is a strong consensus among top policy makers in Europe and Africa about the important role information and communications technology (ICT) plays when tackling development challenges. Digitalisation can provide new cost-effective solutions, drive inclusion by removing physical boundaries, and accelerate sustainable growth by bringing social and economic benefits through a variety of concrete ICT applications. Extending access connectivity in developing countries helps them to improve the social and economic development of their communities, as well as guarantee their access to basic needs.

Christine Leurquin, Alessandra Vernile

Chapter 14. At the Edges: Vulnerability, Prediction, and Resilience

In space, pioneers risk their lives to push the boundaries of what we know and how we understand our place in the Universe. Humans aren’t actually made for space. The Universe is a hostile place; it is almost as though space is literally trying to kill these pioneers at every turn. Further, the supply chain problems are immense. Getting the right tool or solution at the right time can be critical to survival. Currently, astronauts depend on an estimate/prediction of what they’ll need. They do this through tremendous amounts of training, preparation, and redundancy. In order to get these supplies, the support team on Earth packs them into an extremely tiny nose cone on top of what is essentially a massive explosive. Some rockets don’t make it. Meanwhile a never before seen, or experienced, life-threatening event could be occurring up above, and the astronauts don’t have the actual item they need. Time is not on their side. Think Apollo 13. One false move, one bad day, and one leaking gasket can lead to disaster.

Ashley Dara Dotz

Chapter 15. Emerging Approaches in Development Efforts: Chinese Perspective on Space and Sustainable Development

The issue of sustainable development came to the forefront in view of the increasingly serious concerns over space debris. However, this is only the vertical aspect of sustainable development in outer space; space sustainability needs to take into account the horizontal aspect of sustainable development, i.e. all the countries, irrespective of their economic, social and technological development levels, should be able to benefit from outer space and space activities. This paper aims to examine new approaches and perspectives in realizing space sustainability through international cooperation, with China as an example. China’s efforts in promoting space cooperation through overseas assistance program exemplify the importance of financial and non-financial assistance efforts in the realization of the horizontal aspect of space sustainability for both space-faring and non-space-faring nations. Space sustainability cannot be achieved without taking into account the interests of developing countries. The China-Brazil cooperation presents an excellent example that space cooperation can take place between and/or among developing countries. While benefiting one state at one stage, space cooperation will bring benefits to cooperating countries in the long term; such benefits will not simply be restricted to these cooperating countries, with proper arrangement, other states can similarly benefit from such cooperation. The paper concludes that space sustainability, as an issue for both space-faring and non-space-faring nations, can only be achieved through international cooperation among nations, regardless of their level of economic and technological development.

Yun Zhao

Facts and Figures

Frontmatter

Chapter 16. Chronology: 2016

All launch dates are calculated using Greenwich Mean Time (GMT); hence the date at the launch site may differ from the date listed here by 1 day.

Cenan Al-Ekabi

Chapter 17. Bibliography of Space Policy Publications: 2016

Barentine JC (2016) The Lost Constellations. A History of Obsolete, Extinct, or Forgotten Star Lore. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamBarentine JC (2016) Uncharted Constellations. Asterisms, Single-Source and Rebrands. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamBernardi G (2016) The Unforgotten Sisters. Female Astronomers and Scientists before Caroline Herschel. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamBiesbroek R (2016) Lunar and Interplanetary Trajectories. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamBignami G, Sommariva A (2016) The Future of Human Space Exploration. Palgrave Macmillan, United KingdomBurgess C (2016) Aurora 7. The Mercury Space Flight of M. Scott Carpenter. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamBurgess C (2016) Faith 7. L. Gordon Cooper, Jr., and the Final Mercury Mission. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamBurgess C (2016) Sigma 7. The Six Mercury Orbits of Walter M. Schirra, Jr. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamBurgess C, Vis B (2016) Interkosmos. The Eastern Bloc’s Early Space Program. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamCockell CS (ed) (2016) Dissent, Revolution and Liberty Beyond Earth. Springer, New YorkConway E (2016) Exploration and Engineering: The Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Quest for Mars. Johns Hopkins University Press, MarylandDavid L (2016) Mars. Our Future on the Red Planet. National Geographic, Washington D.C.Davies JK (2016) The Life Story of an Infrared Telescope. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamDunn BD (2016) Materials and Processes for Spacecraft and High Reliability Applications. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamDyson MJ (2016) A Passion for Space. Adventures of a Pioneering Female NASA Flight Controller. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamEllery A (2016) Planetary Rovers. Robotic Exploration of the Solar System. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamGuthrie J (2016) How to Make a Spaceship: A Band of Renegades, an Epic Race, and the Birth of Private Spaceflight. Penguin Press, United KingdomHäuplik-Meusburger S, Bannova O (2016) Space Architecture Education for Engineers and Architects. Springer, New YorkKokhanovsky A (2016) Light Scattering Reviews 10. Light Scattering and Radiative Transfer. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamKokhanovsky A (2016) Light Scattering Reviews, Volume 11. Light Scattering and Radiative Transfer. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamMaciel WJ (2016) Introduction to Stellar Structure. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamMassimino M (2016) Spaceman: An Astronaut’s Unlikely Journey to Unlock the Secrets of the Universe. Crown Archetype, MassachusettsMiller B (2016) The Aliens are Coming! The Extraordinary Science Behind Our Search for Life in the Universe. The Experiment Publishing, New YorkMurdin P (2016) Rock Legends. The Asteroids and Their Discoverers. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamOnstott, T (2016) Deep Life: The Hunt for the Hidden Biology of Earth, Mars, and Beyond. Princeton University Press, New JerseyO’Sullivan J (2016) In the Footsteps of Columbus. European Missions to the International Space Station. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamPellegrino M, Stang G (2016) Space security for Europe. Institute for Security Studies, FrancePirard T, Cosyn P (2016) Aspiring Space Nations. Small Programs with Large Goals. Praxis, United KingdomPreston L (2016) Goldilocks and the Water Bears: The Search for Life in the Universe. Bloomsbury Sigma, New YorkRapp D (2016) Human Missions to Mars. Enabling Technologies for Exploring the Red Planet. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamSchwartz JSJ, Milligan T (eds) (2016) The Ethics of Space Exploration. Springer, New YorkSeedhouse E (2016) Mars via the Moon. The Next Giant Leap. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamSeedhouse E (2016) SpaceX’s Dragon: America’s Next Generation Spacecraft. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamSeedhouse E (2016) XCOR, Developing the Next Generation Spaceplane. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamShayler DJ, Harland DM (2016) Enhancing Hubble’s Vision. Service Missions That Expanded Our View of the Universe. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamShayler DJ, Harland DM (2016) The Hubble Space Telescope. From Concept to Success. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamShetterly ML (2016) Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race. Morrow, New YorkSobel D (2016) The Glass Universe. How the Ladies of the Harvard Observatory Took the Measure of the Stars. Viking Press, New YorkSqueri L (2016) Waiting for Contact: The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. University of Florida, FloridaSterns PM, Tennen LI (eds) (2016) Private Law, Public Law, Metalaw and Public Policy in Space. Springer, New YorkThompson M (2016) A Space Traveler’s Guide to the Solar System. Pegasus, United KingdomTyson NdG, Simons J, Liu C (eds) (2016) StarTalk. Everything You Ever Need to Know About Space Travel, Sci-Fi, the Human Race, the Universe, and Beyond. National Geographic, Washington D.C.Tyson NdG, Strauss M, Gott JR (2016) Welcome to the Universe: An Astrophysical Tour. Princeton University Press, New Jerseyvon Ehrenfried D (2016) The Birth of NASA. The Work of the Space Task Group, America’s First True Space Pioneers. Series: Springer Praxis Books. Springer, ChamWillis J (2016) All These Worlds Are Yours: The Scientific Search for Alien Life. Yale University Press, ConnecticutWohlforth C, Hendrix A (2016) Beyond Earth: Our Path to a New Home in the Planets. Pantheon Books, New York

Cenan Al-Ekabi

Backmatter

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