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Many countries around the world are investing a great amount of resources in government IT initiatives. However, few of these projects achieve their stated goals and some of them are complete failures. Therefore, understanding e-government success has become very important and urgent in recent years. In order to develop relevant knowledge about this complex phenomenon, researchers and practitioners need to identify and assess what are the main conditions, variables, or factors that have an impact on e-government success. However, before being able to evaluate these impacts, it is necessary to define what e-government success is and what some e-government success measures are. This book presents a review of both e-government success measures and e-government success factors. It also provides empirical evidence from quantitative analysis and two in-depth case studies. Although based on sound theory and rigorous empirical analysis, the book not only significantly contributes to academic knowledge, but also includes some practical recommendations for government officials and public managers.

Theoretically, the book proposes a way to quantitatively operationalize Fountain’s enactment framework. Based on the institutional tradition, the technology enactment framework attempts to explain the effects of organizational forms and institutional arrangements on the information technology used by government agencies. According to Fountain (1995; 2001) the technology enactment framework pays attention to the relationships among information technology, organizations, embeddedness, and institutions. This framework is very well known in the e-government field, but is normally used for qualitative analysis and there is no previous proposal of how to use it with quantitative data. The book proposes variables to measure each of the different constructs in this framework and also tests the relationships hypothesized by Fountain’s theory. Finally, using the advantages of the selected quantitative analysis technique (Partial Least Squares), the study also proposes some adjustments and extensions to the original framework in a theory building effort.

Methodologically, the book reports on one of the first multi-method studies in the field of e-government in general and e-government success in particular. This study uses a nested research design, which combines statistical analysis with two in depth case studies. The study begins with a statistical analysis using organizational, institutional, and contextual factors as the independent variables. An overall score representing e-government success in terms of the functionality of state websites is the dependent variable. Second, based on the statistical results two cases are selected based on their relative fitness to the model (residuals) and their position in the general ranking of website functionality (which includes four different measures). In order to complement the results of the statistical analysis, case studies were developed for the two selected states (New York and Indiana), using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. In terms of the statistical analysis, the book constitutes one of the first applications of Partial Least Squares (PLS) to an e-government success study. PLS is a structural equations modeling (SEM) technique and, therefore, allows estimating the measurement model and the structural model simultaneously. The use of this sophisticated statistical strategy helped to test the relationships between e-government success and different factors influencing it, as well as some of the relationships between several of the factors, thus allowing exploring some indirect effects too.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Electronic Government Success: Definition, Measures, and Factors

Abstract
Practitioners and academics around the world increasingly talk about e-government success and how important it is to understand this concept for better evaluating current government IT efforts. For this book e-government success is represented by the achievement of the initiatives’ stated goals, but not only in terms of activities, but also in terms of processes, outputs, and outcomes, which together represent a much broader set of success measures. Therefore, in order to truly comprehend e-government success, it is necessary first to understand what e-government is and what its success measures and success factors are. This chapter starts with a review of e-government conceptualizations and proposes a comprehensive definition of this phenomenon to be used in theory and practice.
J. Ramon Gil-Garcia

Chapter 2. Electronic Government Success and the Ensemble View of Information Technology

Abstract
This chapter reviews some of the more comprehensive and integrative theoretical traditions from information systems (IS) and e-government research. Orlikowski and Iacono (2001) refer to these approaches as the ensemble view of information technologies and organization. This view argues that in order to understand information technologies, it is necessary to analyze not only the technological artifacts, but also the social and organizational aspects around those artifacts.
J. Ramon Gil-Garcia

Chapter 3. Identifying Electronic Government Success Factors: A Statistical Analysis

Abstract
Based on Fountain’s technology enactment framework, the process model of computing change, and important concepts from environmental approaches to organizations, this chapter develops a sophisticated statistical model of the influence of organizational, institutional, and contextual factors on the functionality of government-wide websites as an instance of e-government success. Therefore, the key argument of this chapter is that organizational structures and processes, institutional arrangements, and environmental conditions have an impact on the selection, design, implementation and use of information technologies in government settings.
J. Ramon Gil-Garcia

Chapter 4. Enacting the Government-Wide New York State Website

Abstract
While the state of New York is one of the largest and most populous in the US, it was the last major state to create a centralized IT agency (around 1997), following decades of almost complete decentralization of IT functions and services. The New York State (NYS) website demonstrates how a large and diverse state government with a long history of decentralized IT management goes about creating a high-quality government-wide website. In addition to other state governments, the lessons from this case are potentially useful for government agencies at all levels (national, regional, and local) in many developed and developing countries around the world.
J. Ramon Gil-Garcia

Chapter 5. Enacting the Government-Wide Indiana Website

Abstract
Indiana was one of the first states in the US to build a government-wide state website. As of 2005, Indiana’s website was the product of a long-term public–private partnership. Its IT functions have strong legislative underpinnings and its central IT agency exercises a relatively high degree of authority over agency-based IT functions.
J. Ramon Gil-Garcia

Chapter 6. Understanding Electronic Government Success: Discussion and Implications

Abstract
As mentioned before, this study focuses on the complex relationships between information technologies and social structures in government settings. It provides a better understanding of e-government success by including multiple factors and theorizing about their interrelationships and their effects on the characteristics of the enacted technology and its organizational outputs. It also explains some of the mechanisms through which these effects take place, leading to important theoretical and practical implications. I want to clarify that the theoretical framework was developed based on a broad conceptualization of the e-government phenomenon and, therefore, could be applied to different e-government initiatives.
J. Ramon Gil-Garcia

Chapter 7. Conclusions

Abstract
E-government is a socio-technical phenomenon whose importance has rapidly increased in recent years. It is a dynamic phenomenon since it refers to government information technologies that are always changing. For instance, in the last few years governments have started to incorporate Web 2.0 tools, social media applications, and open government strategies.
J. Ramon Gil-Garcia

Backmatter

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