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Enacting Globalization consists of a rich set of papers with a variety of disciplinary perspectives, focusing on Globalization and its portrayal through International Integration as manifested by its myriad flows such as people, trade, capital and knowledge flows.





1. Low Corporate Tax Rates and Economic Development

Low corporate tax rates, low regulation and limited disclosure are a common ‘development’ model, but may give unfair competitive advantage and facilitate tax avoidance and criminal activity. Low tax centres are seen as a tool of regional economic development, but tax concessions contradict the principle of tax neutrality. Some argue that competition between tax systems leads to the best outcomes, yet competition can cause a ‘race to the bottom’ in terms of tax rates. Corporate taxes as a percentage of total taxation have generally fallen. Policy based on tax incentives encourages the growth of the tax avoidance industry. The chapter argues that tax incentives erode the tax base, and a tax-based industrial policy leads to an emphasis on tax reduction, not to long-run economic success.
Jim Stewart

2. The Indian State, the Diasporic Hindu Right and the ‘Desire Named Development’

This chapter focuses on contemporary development thinking in India, and the place it has accorded to the figure of the Non-Resident Indian since the neoliberal economic reforms of 1991 opened the door to unfettered globalization. The diasporic investor has often been a hoped-for fantasy creature sought by the policy establishment over this period, and arguably has garnered a disproportionate degree of notice in national economic and social arrangements. Following the cultural politics of the diasporic Hindu Right into the contested realm of Indian development thought, I will consider how diasporic organizations have engaged with these emerging ideas and consequent political opportunities. The processes of globalization make for a class system that exceeds national boundaries -I will examine India’s development paradigm in this context.
Chandana Mathur

3. A Conceptual Framework for Financial Inclusion and Recent Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa

Access to formal financial services has the potential to help transform the lives of low-income households through three channels: the smoothing of consumption, investment in human or productive capital and the management of vulnerabilities. However, approximately 80% of the population of 11 sub-Saharan African countries do not have a formal bank account, and as a result are deemed financially excluded. This chapter uses consumer choice theory to develop a conceptual framework to help identify constraints to financial inclusion, and presents recent empirical evidence from the FinScope surveys to comparatively assess financial inclusion in sub-Saharan Africa.
Michael King

4. From Theory to Practice: Potentials and Pitfalls of a Rights-Based Approach to Discrimination in the Kaffa Society of Ethiopia

This chapter explores the adequacy of a rights-based approach applied by an international NGO to foster integration into mainstream society of a discriminated group living in the Kaffa zone of Ethiopia. After providing a definition of rights-based approach, the chapter briefly explores the inter ethnic relations in the area and the suitability of the approach to the specific case study. Finally, recommendations are put forward to make the approach more viable and better able to strengthen the collective ability of the community to organize itself and accomplish social change.
Federica De Sisto

5. Research Capacity Building in Africa: Perceived Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats Impacting on the Doctoral Training for Development Programme in Africa

This is a study of three models of partnership between Trinity College Dublin and higher education institutes in six African countries. The goal is to deliver collaborative doctoral training programmes in global health, natural sciences and economics, to train researchers and build research and teaching capacity in African institutions, which is increasingly seen as a key influence on economic development. The purpose of this study was to assess the three models employed in order to understand their strengths and weaknesses, capture lessons from our partnerships and make recommendations to others establishing North-South doctoral training programmes. Findings from qualitative interviews revealed strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for each model, and the specific strengths, challenges, recommendations and implications for future programme improvements are highlighted and discussed.
Ogenna Uduma, Sarah Glavey, Sarah O’Reilly Doyle, Martina Hennessy, Frank Barry, Mike Jones, Malcolm MacLachlan

Migrant Activism


6. Human Waste? Reading Bauman’s Wasted Lives in the Context of Ireland’s Globalization

In Wasted Lives, Zygmunt Bauman suggested that the border politics of globalization categorizes many people as human waste — dumped into the refuse heaps of asylum systems, refugee camps or urban ghettoes. As this chapter shows, with reference to Europe and particularly Ireland, proof of the wisdom of Bauman’s analysis is not hard to find. This is a world of exclusionary migratory practices, legitimating discourses of migration as threat’ and ‘dumping grounds’. Yet, Bauman’s argument is determinist and debilitating, squeezing out human agency by exclusionary globalization. By paying attention to how people strategize their migration in response to migration barriers and refuse to be silenced, even when consigned to the dumping grounds, this chapter argues that human beings should never be categorized as human waste.
Gillian Wylie

7. Negotiating Power: Social Movement Theory and Migrant Groups in Ireland

This chapter discusses how migrant groups in Ireland can he viewed as a social movement, developing ideas raised hy the recently published ‘Migrant Activism and Integration from Below in Ireland’. This approach allows us to address questions of power and contention which theories ofmulticulturalism largely bypass. By viewing migrant groups in terms of their ‘cognitive praxis’, we can investigate how they negotiate with power, in particular state power. The chapter focuses on migrant group responses to the Immigration, Residence and Protection Bill to examine their contention within the ambient migrant field, and also how these groups’ praxis has been channelled and constrained within this field.
David Landy

8. Migrant-Led Activism and Integration from Below in Recession Ireland

In view of changing migration patterns and the Irish state’s immigration and integration policies, this chapter focuses on migrants’ responses to settlement in Ireland. In particular, it focuses on the creation of migrant-led associations, the subject of the Trinity Immigration Initiative’s Migrant Networks Project, evidencing migrants’ creative response to migration and resettlement. The chapter begins by discussing the implications of Irish interculturalism for migrant-led activism. It then outlines three migrant-led campaigns, the campaign against the ban on the Sikh turban in police service, the Irish Hijab Campaign, and Anti Deportation Ireland. The argument is that migrant activism is bounded by the narrow space accorded to it in an inhospitable socio-political climate. This is compounded by reduced finding since the recession, the subject of the conclusion.
Ronit Lentin

Rules and Law


9. A Running Repair for the World Trade Organization

Rich country governments aid poor ones financially, but at the same time restrict their ability to copy technical advances, by measures such as the Trade-Related Intellectual Property (TRIPs) annex to the World Trade Organization Agreement. Yet it was through copying one another in this way that the donor countries themselves became rich. Since the ineffectiveness of government-to-government foreign aid is becoming increasingly evident, it would be better to divert a portion of such expenditure to buying out Western-owned patents and trademarks in poorer countries, obviously with safeguards against exports that could have the effect of undermining their value in advanced ones.
William Kingston

10. Globalizing Legal Process in the Struggle to Counter Impunity Efficiently

Globalization often serves as a perfunctory point of reference for positioning the development of international courts and tribunals (ICTs). The dominant scholarship in international law engages almost exclusively with formal law. This chapter argues that globalization-focused research can provide critical insights into how international justice can be delivered more efficiently. Empirical data illustrate the implications of the roles adopted by professionals in the courtroom and suggest how they can be adapted in future reforms to enhance trial efficiency. The conclusion argues that the observation of trial practice through the lens of international integration can oil the slow wheels of justice.
Rosemary Byrne

11. Attitudes to a Relaxation of the EU Border Regime: Economically Beneficial but Politically Unrealistic?

Viewed from an economic perspective, the EU border regime is something of an anomaly in that it impedes the satisfaction of labour market demand by restricting the movement of people. This contrasts with the much freer movement of capital and goods across EU borders. Despite this contrast, my interviewees consistently regarded the concept of open borders as naïve and politically impossible, even though they recognized both the economic benefits that have accrued in Ireland from inward migration, and various ethical arguments for more relaxed migration regimes. I argue that this is an indication of the symbolic power over the imagination of the ideal of state territorial borders as constitutive of national (and personal) identity.
Damian Jackson

Perspectives on Immigration and Emigration


12. Migration and Clustering of Creative Workers: Historical Case Studies of Visual Artists and Composers

This chapter is about the migration and subsequent clustering of two groups of creative workers in a historical context, namely, composers and visual artists. The chapter will start by outlining why clustering of creative or any activity is of interest, covering the main potential benefits that might arise. Section 2 will outline our main empirical findings with regard to the migration and clustering of visual artists and composers. Section 3 will summarize the work that followed this, testing various hypotheses with regard to the effects of clustering and other factors on the creative output of visual artists and composers. Section 4 concludes the chapter.
John O’Hagan

13. Policy Shifts and the Depoliticization of Immigration

While clear evidence indicates that restrictive immigration policies are motivated by fears of potential support for anti-immigration movements, there is also evidence from Austria and Switzerland showing that such policies fail to diminish opposition to immigration. This chapter analyses the seemingly inconsistent relationship between changes in immigration policy and the level of politicization of immigration. Using political claims data from seven Western European countries between 199 S and 2010, the chapter concludes that, whereas the politicization of immigration policies is somewhat responsive to changes in immigration policy, the politicization of integration policies is significantly more responsive to changes in integration policy. The chapter also indicates that these effects are conditional on the perceived position of the party implementing the policy change.
Kevin Cunningham

14. Learning from Poland? What Recent Mass Immigration to Ireland Tells Us about Contemporary Irish Migration

Immigration in Europe is still understood in terms of the ‘Gastarbeiter’ immigration of the post-World War II boom: the permanent movement of unskilled workers from one country to another. A study of young educated Polish migrants in Dublin shows the limited contemporary relevance of this model: this was mobility rather than traditional migration, with journeys understood in terms of autonomy and self-development. Some contemporary Irish emigration is similar. The mass emigration of young people from Poland at the start of this century was prototypical for the individualistic forms of mobility of young Europeans today.
James Wickham, Alicja Bobek, Sally Daly, Torben Krings, Elaine Moriarty, Justyna Salamońska

Industries and Enterprises


15. Varieties of Partisan Capitalism and the Globalization of Service Markets

In this chapter we examine some implications of the expansion of trade in FTC-intensive service sectors for existing socio-economic regimes. We argue that-given variations in their institutional structures — different ‘varieties of capitalism’ may not be equally well equipped to generate the skills required for successful competition in these kinds of sectors, and, as a result, may vary in their capacity to generate employment in high end services. We also argue that this variance stems in part from long-standing political legacies in these regimes. We test our argument using multiple regression analysis of political economic data from a set of OECD countries over the past 30 years.
Anne Wren, Máté Fodor

16. Trade Liberalization and Industry Structure: Evidence from Vietnam

This chapter explores the evolution of industry in Vietnam over the last decade, focusing on the link between economic development and trade liberalization. Competition from imports is associated with a contraction in economic activity in the services sector, while in manufacturing sectors, where exports are expanding, employment, capital and output are also growing. Indirect links between trade and sector growth are also found through supply chain linkages. Further empirical studies into the varied mechanisms through which trade can impact on the structure of industry are needed to enhance our understanding of how globalization, through the channel of trade liberalization, can impact on development in low and low-middle income countries.
Carol Newman

17. Privatized Firms and Their Management Structures: Links with the State?

estern European states privatized throughout the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. Implicit in the literature is the idea that with privatization the ‘state’ was out of the economy. However, emerging literature on the relationship between business and politics has shown the importance of the state in helping firms expand globally. Yet, few studies have examined post-privatization management structures and asked whether the state maintains its link with privatized firms by having board members and managers who have worked for the state. This chapter focuses on different sectors in France, the UK and Germany. Each of these countries represents a different ‘variety of capitalism’. The findings will offer insights into the ongoing relationship (or not) between the state and privatized firms seeking to expand globally.
Raj Chari, Svenja Dahlmann

18. Mapping Family Business Groups from a Cross-Cultural Perspective

Around the world, some of the largest firms in many countries are controlled by family business groups (FBG), such as Fiat in Italy Ford in the US, Hutchison Whampoa in Hong Kong, Samsung in South Korea and many others. Further, many FBGs have a long history. Although FBGs are a significant and long-standing phenom en on, their in tern ationalization has received little a tten tionfrom a cross-cultural perspective. Drawing on our previous work, the study provides some preliminary findings on FBGs’ internationalization strategy from a cross-cultural perspective.
Alessandra Vecchi, Bice Della Piana, Claudia Cacia

19. Globalization and Ireland’s Export Performance

This chapter provides empirical evidence on Ireland’s export performance in the context of increased globalization over the past ten years. Using insights from recent contributions to international trade and economic growth theories, we first examine patterns and changes of revealed comparative advantages for Ireland’s exports of goods and services. We then investigate whether Irish exports have specialized in fast-growing industries and markets in world exports over the period. Third, we analyse determinants of export performance dynamics, focusing on product and market structures and competitiveness effects. Finally, to put Ireland’s export performance into perspective, we compare this evidence with recent developments in other selected European small open economies.
Frances Ruane, Iulia Siedschlag, Gavin Murphy

Globalization Flows


20. Reflections on Capital Flows in the Euro Area

We investigate the behaviour of gross capital flows and net capital flows for Euro area member countries. We highlight the extraordinary boom-bust cycles in both gross flows and net flows since 2003. We emphasize that the reversal in net capital flows during the crisis has been very costly in terms of macroeconomic and financial outcomes for the high-deficit countries. These empirical patterns call for wide-ranging reforms to improve macro-financial stability across the euro area.
Philip R. Lane

21. Remittance Flows to Developing Countries: Trends, Importance and Impact

Estimates of remittance flows to developing countries reached $406 billion in 2012 and are forecast to grow at a rate of 8% over the next two years. The aim of this chapter is to analyse the impact of remittances on recipient households and countries. We start by surveying the economics literature on the effect of remittances on poverty and consumption of remittance recipients. Next, we explore the recent evidence on whether and how remittances are invested in human capital and entrepreneurial activities. Finally, we discuss the likely impact of more stringent immigration rules and rising unemployment rates in developed countries on future remittance flows.
Catia Batista, Gaia Narciso, Carol Newman

22. Of Cables, Connections and Control: Africa’s Double Dependency in the Information Age

A little over a decade ago Africa was being written off by some observers as a ‘hopeless’ or ‘lost’ continent. While these characterizations were problematic, international business has now ‘discovered’ the African market and the level of communicative connectivity between the continent and the rest of the world has increased substantially as a result of improved infrastructure and associated falling information relay costs. This chapter examines the discourse and development of the ‘Information Age’ in Africa from low connectivity at the beginning of the fibre optic revolution to the current boom in mobile phone and internet usage. While much of the literature to date has been celebratory, this chapter adopts a critical perspecuve to interrogate the dialectical nature of this revolution in Africa; arguing that fibre-optic cables bring new constraints, not only opportunities.
Björn Surborg, Pádraig Carmody

23. The Effects of Aging on US FDI

This chapter empirically documents how population aging affects FDI using data on US inbound and outbound FDI. Notably, the estimates for developed countries conform to the predictions of the theory of Davies and Reed (2008). These predictions anticipate different effects depending on whether one considers the impact of aging on capital versus labour markets and the parent versus the host. In particular, FDI seeks out young workers, locations with higher savings rates, and countries with lower social security taxes.
Ronald B. Davies, Robert R. Reed

24. Intellectual Expatriates and Their Intangible Value in Post-Industrial Globalized Societies

An increasing volume of expatriate populations is developing alongside an increasingly globalized and competitive world. Consequently, such expatriates may have an impact on strategic decision making within Multinational Corporations (MNC). For this reason, we will explore the intangible value of intellectual expatriates, focusing on the capacity of this human resource to generate social capital as mechanisms to achieve new ideas and innovation in MNC. Identifying advantages and possible risk related to the migration of intellectual expatriates’, we will establish the basis for a later debate (is it always possible to find a positive effect from the impact of intellectual expatriate flow as an intangible value in the strategic objectives of MNC in a globalized scenario?). We will conclude with the directions for future research.
Domingo Sánchez-Zarza, José Manuel Saiz-Álvarez

25. Spreading the Benefits of Globalization: How the International Donor Community Assisted Developing Countries to Integrate into the Global Economy

Since colonial times, measures have been put in place to provide market access, build trade capacities and overcome supply-side constraints to trade in the developing world. In the 1960s the focus was on stimulating developing country imports, to help poorer countries move through the stages of development. In the 1970s the focus shifted to promoting exports. Structural adjustment programmes followed in the 1980s. Later, when it was realized that market access was not sufficient for trade expansion, the international community mobilized more and better aid for trade to help developing countries build the necessary capacities to compete in the global marketplace. Such programmes have often failed, yet aid has undoubtedly helped to promote trade, development and a more inclusive world economy.
William Hynes



26. A Tale of Two Trilemmas

EMU is a radical solution to the classic Mundell-Fleming macroeconomic policy txilemma. Unfortunately, it suffers from serious design flaws, and in particular from a lack of fiscal or banking union. This can be understood in terms ofRodrik’s ‘fundamental political txilemma of the world economy’, which can also shed light on such issues as the quality of EU democracy. Hitherto, European governments have been able to navigate ‘within the triangles’ implied by this trilemma, but the current crisis is pushing them towards the edges, forcing them to make hard choices between democracy, the nation-state and deep economic integration. It is not clear what they will eventually decide.
Kevin Hjortshøj O’Rourke

27. Europe’s Response to Non-Traditional Sources of Investment

Traditionally Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has flowed from the developed economies. More recently FDI has started to flow from the fast-growing emerging economies and is assuming a greater proportion of Global Outward FDI. This paper addresses these non-traditional sources of investment and the response from Europe to such investment. The fragmented nature of Europe’s response is explored and the impact of the on-going Eurozone crisis on that response is considered.
Louis Brennan, Tae Hoon Kim


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