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2021 | Buch

Energy and Environmental Security in Developing Countries


Über dieses Buch

This book presents a comprehensive account of the energy and environmental security perspectives of the developing countries. To address the subject comprehensively, it covers four geographically diverse clusters of developing countries from across the world. The regions particularly focused on are: South Asia, South East Asia, Sub Sahara Africa, and Latin America. It is a valuable contribution to the debate, and policy and research activities around the subjects of energy and environmental security in the developing countries and beyond.

The book covers the interwoven subjects of energy security and environmental security in the context of developing countries for the first time. It discusses the latest dimensions, challenges, and solutions around taking into account technical, economic, social, and policy perspectives. It incorporates up-to-date data, case studies, and comparative assessment.

This edited book has contributions from established as well as emerging scholars from around the world. It benefits a wide range of stakeholders from the fields of energy, environment, and sustainable development. It is of help to academics, researchers, and analysts in these fields besides having appeal for policymakers, and national and international developmental organizations. It also helps developing countries to learn from each other’s experiences.


Human civilization has evolved throughout the course of history. The advancements societies have experienced since the industrial revolution are unprecedented in human history. This progression is manifested by indicators like technological advancements, economic prosperity, improved social services, increased mobility, comfortable lifestyle, communication and information revolution, and broader resourcefulness.
Muhammad Asif
Correction to: Energy and Environmental Security in Developing Countries
Muhammad Asif

Regional and Country Analysis

Energy and Environmental Security in Developing Countries Case Studies of Countries in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia (SEA) is composed of Brunei, Myanmar, Cambodia, Timor-Leste, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. The population is forecasted to expand by 20% with the urban population alone growing by over 150 million people which is the driving force behind the region’s growing energy demand. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and six other countries in the Asia–Pacific region comprising of: Australia, the People’s Republic of China, India, Japan, Korea and New Zealand forming the ASEAN + 6 group, whose share of global energy demand is expected to reach 40% by 2040 making this region the world’s most dynamic economically. Southeast Asia’s supply of energy comes from more than 50% of fossil fuels (led by oil, coal and natural gas) and 17% from renewables but the supply is now depleting fast as these countries have become net importers of oil rather than exporters since 2018. The region is also relatively well endowed with renewable energy sources particularly in hydro and solar and other types of renewable energy (such as geothermal found mainly in the Philippines and Indonesia). Although this region has set out a target to contribute 23% of its primary energy supply from renewables by 2025, conventional fossil energy still dominates the regional energy mix. Energy security has now become an issue as it affects Southeast Asia’s efforts to secure their energy requirements in a sustainable manner environmentally and economically. Continuous reliance on energy imports, especially of oil and gas, to sustain economic growth serves as an example of Asia’s energy insecurity. Natural gas security has also become a concern in the region, as it is expected to account for 85% of the growth in global gas trade between now and 2040. The energy impacts on environmental systems and climate change have strong links to energy security. More than 60% of global carbon dioxide emissions are produced from energy supply and transport. Continuing to subsidise the cost of energy to citizens over the course of the next ten years will not be sustainable. It becomes necessary to reform some present policies and formulate new policies to ensure the energy security of these countries. Governments in the region also need to employ alternative energy sources and collaborate to maintain energy security not only for their own countries, but for the rest of the region as well. Recent reports by the World Economic Forum (WEF) have favorably focused on ASEAN countries based on their current energy systems and readiness to adapt to future needs. This chapter therefore, discusses on the current scenario of energy in the light of climate change, sustainability in environment, energy security issues and economy in ASEAN + 6, barriers, possible solutions, and case studies of mitigation efforts as well as policies laid out and implemented with specific examples from Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, Vietnam and the Philippines.
Azni Zain Ahmed, Abdul Rahim Ridzuan, Azlin Mohd Azmi, Baljit Singh A/L Bathal Singh, Ramlan Zailani
Energy Security: A Case Study of Indonesia
Indonesia as the largest country and the highest population in the Southeast Asia region results in the greatest value of energy consumption, therefore, being a huge energy-consuming country may represent the situation in that region. Various kinds of energy policies have been carried out by the Government of Indonesia, resulting in a situation, where energy production, energy exports, energy access, are increased, while energy imports, energy reserves, and emission intensities are decreased. However, these situations have never been well concluded. The energy security index provides information that can summarize all of the energy situations. The aim of this paper is to conduct an assessment of Indonesia’s energy security index within the period of 2000–2018. The energy security index consists of dimensions, namely availability, affordability, accessibility, and acceptability. Each dimension consists of indicators, in which there are twelve indicators used in the assessment. All indicators and dimensions subject to the same weight, so that the selection of indicators is important to represent the energy situation in accordance with Indonesia’s perspective on energy security. The indicator normalization uses the min–max method, in which the maximum indicator obtained based on the highest value owned by countries in the Southeast Asia Region, therefore the indicator value will be relative to it. The results show an increase for almost all dimensions except the affordability dimension. In general, Indonesia’s energy security index has increased by 29.9%, which is 0.330 and 0.428 in the year of 2000 and 2018, respectively. The Indonesia’s energy security index showing a value below 0.5 indicates that Indonesia is in an unfavorable situation of energy security. Furthermore, the improvement of energy security should be focused on the dimension that has the lowest value.
Qodri Febrilian Erahman, Widodo Wahyu Purwanto
Energy and Environmental Scenario of South Asia
South Asia is one of the most important regions in the world for its large population base, vast natural resources, significant geographic positioning, vibrant culture and rich history. Made up of eight countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka—South Asia is home to almost a quarter of the world population. South Asian countries are facing severe energy and environmental challenges that are affecting their broader socio-economic developments, technological advancements, and national security. The chapter discusses the energy and environmental scenario of South Asia. Details of each country in terms of energy resources, supply mix, access to electricity, and cooking fuels have been discussed. Emerging trends and renewable energy developments are also reflected. The environmental scenario of the region has also been presented taking into account the implications of climate change. The perspective of the region in terms of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has also been discussed.
Vikrant P. Katekar, Muhammad Asif, Sandip S. Deshmukh
Energy and Environmental Scenario of India
As one of the fastest developing countries, India’s energy demand is continuously growing to compete in the globalization of industries. This competition overstrains the conventional energy sources of the country like coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Due to high output and limited stock of such energy sources, their market prices are increasing day by day. Besides, the carbon emission after the combustion of such fuels is high, which adversely affects the environment. Therefore, the balance between energy and environmental safety receives prime importance. The proposed chapter emphasizes the status of the energy utility, energy sources, ecological impacts, Government role, and techniques to reduce pollution based on recent researches and reports available publically. The industrial revolution of India had started very late as compared to developed countries; therefore, the environmental condition is quite better as compared to developed nations. But population and energy demands are rising tremendously, which creates severe crises for natural assets of the country. The chapter also highlights the way-out ideologies to tackle energy scarcity and environmental security.
Sainath A. Waghmare, Bhalchandra P. Puranik
Energy and Environmental Security Nexus in Pakistan
Energy security has evinced a prime role in shaping prospects of economic and social development with its intrinsic relationship with environmental security due to convergence of energy generation and distribution with so many factors like global governance, economic development, affordability, equitable and sustainable energy transitions, environmental protection, environmental politics, water security, air pollution, climate change, conflicts, and environment-induced migrations. Pakistan has energy requirements of more than 75 million tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) in 2019 which is experiencing exponential increase due to growing population and changing lifestyle. The country is currently relying on thermal energy and imported fossil fuels to meet energy requirements. The share of coal in primary energy has been increased in recent years. The construction and operational phase of energy projects have significant threats to environmental security due to soil erosion and compaction, chemical spills and debris disposal, air emissions, noise and wildfire. It also shapes the terrain by damaging vegetation cover, terrestrial ecosystems and wetlands. The impacts further include dislocation of species, disturbance in migratory corridors and changes in breeding areas of wildlife. These projects also affect the water quality and modify drainage patterns causing aesthetic disruption and changes. Archeologically and culturally important sites are also being disturbed on the pretext of improving socio-economic conditions. Furthermore, climate change is reshaping the nexus of energy with environmental security in Pakistan. Resultantly, there may be a paradigm shift due to energy insecurity, geopolitical conflicts in the region, consumer’s access to affordable energy, environmental injustice and insecurity. Pakistan already lacks renewable energy but inefficient use, line losses, energy-inefficient infrastructure and technologies challenge the government to meet the targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 7), pillar 4 (Water, energy and food security) of the Pakistan Vision 2025. Hence, Pakistan has to establish a good framework of governance for thermal power sector, upgrade its existing energy infrastructure, diversify energy recourses, introduce energy-efficient technologies, develop minimum standards for power generation, explore renewable and competitive energy market, identify low carbon power generation methods, subsidize alternative and renewable energy (ARE) technologies, balance energy mix, improve fuel efficiency, manage energy demand, invest on research and development, aware the people and regulate consumer’s behavior and practices to achieve optimum energy security and environmental security.
Mabroor Hassan, Muhammad Irfan Khan, Muhammad Waseem Mumtaz, Hamid Mukhtar
Sustainable Energy Infrastructure Planning Framework: Transition to a Sustainable Electricity Generation System in Bangladesh
Globally, governments are planning for a sustainable energy infrastructure to deal with negative climate change and to ensure a low-carbon future. In the developed world, energy generation expansion plans are designed so that the infrastructure can be adaptable to new technologies, reliable, affordable, and sustainable. In contrast, the developing world is trying to keep up with their anticipated levels of GDP growth, and to accommodate these needs energy has the utmost priority. Consequently, these nations are planning for long- and short-term energy generation infrastructures. Most often, these future generation expansion plans are not effective from a sustainable point of view, as they do not explicitly consider the existing resources. This is due to the absence of an appropriate sustainable energy infrastructure planning framework (SEIPF). There are thus two objectives of this chapter: first, to propose an SEIPF and second, to apply this SEIPF to an assessment of the future power generation expansion plan of Bangladesh as a case study. This proposed framework would be suitable to (i) assess and minimize the overall costs along with cascading impact mitigation, (ii) identify environmentally sound technologies, (iii) explore resource options to ensure sustainable development, (iv) warrant reliable and affordable electricity generation, and (v) identify an optimized sustainable electricity generation system. The proposed framework would be helpful for developing countries, in particular, in designing a sustainable electricity generation system, where plans are at the initial stage or under development.
Imran Khan
Sustainable Energy Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa
There are little or no records of regions in Sub-Saharan Africa involved in key energy transition programs. Nearly all the countries in the sub-Saharan African region and developing countries rely on fossil fuels and low-efficiency hydro systems for energy generation. With a global shift towards more sustainable, cleaner, and renewable forms of energy generation, these countries must seek new ways to transition from their reliance on old methods to more modern and efficient means of energy generation. In addition, there is a severely negative impact from the generation of energy using these inefficient and environmentally harmful methods. The consequences are far-reaching as the health and economic life of the inhabitants of the region are negatively affected. Furthermore, the theft and vandalism of energy generation and transmission infrastructure and social insecurity in the region has led to very low efficiencies in capacity leading to huge wastes of natural and human resources. This chapter explores the feasibility and necessity of energy transition in the Sub-Saharan African region. It also analysis both the prospects and challenges that are faced by the people and the governments in the region while proffering solutions. Analysis of the situation is made through empirical evidence from studies and previous research works. The findings indicate that sustainable energy transition in Sub-Saharan Africa is achievable but is intricately woven with several pertinent environmental factors and that the general progress and development of nearly all facets of the environment relies heavily on the energy transition of the region which must be made timely.
Charles Adulugba
Energy and Environmental Security in Nigeria: The Latest Dimensions
The quest for achieving energy security has dominated the agenda for growth, supremacy and sovereignty of most developed and developing countries. The developed countries fall back to many of the developing countries for sourcing of energy supplies. The extraction of the materials, refinement, transportation and recycling or end-life deposition of the used materials constitute a complex chain of processes. This study emphasized the state of energy and environmental security in Nigeria. The findings showed that, with about 5% growth rate in Nigeria, the rise in population demands higher energy consumption. Aggressive action towards achieving energy security has a severe consequence on the environment, which is moderated by economic, social and political influence. Regional and national frameworks and strategies have been designed to manage the nexus between energy and environmental issues. The study recommended the establishment of a unitary and robust body for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), with adequately trained indigenous staff to tackle the reckless and unethical use of the environment from the project conception stage. A special marine guard as a mitigating measure to energy infrastructure vandalism is necessary. However, to achieve success, collaboration with the leadership of the oil-producing communities through participatory governance is inevitable.
Tijjani Abdullahi, Hamzat Abubakar, Zainab Tijjani
The Evolution of Electrification in South Africa and Its Energy-Environmental Impact
South Africa is amongst the largest economies in Africa and is considered the most industrialised country in Africa. One of the primary reasons for industrialisation has been affordable electricity that was made available for manufacturing. South Africa accounted for 32% of the electricity generated in Africa in 2015, of which 92% was generated from coal. However electricity access and penetration within the local population was still lagging (at 86% in 2018) in spite of relatively large volumes of generation. In order to address the lopsided nature of electricity access, national policy prioritised access to electricity, which meant diversifying the nature of electricity from primarily thermal generation to include renewable sources. As part of the diversification, South Africa embarked on an ambitious renewable energy programme that involves private participation. As of 2017, South Africa generated 41% of wind energy, 56% of solar PV and 62% of solar thermal energy, for electricity generation on the African continent. The penetration and prevalence of renewable electricity generation is bound to increase considering the abundance of resource in the region. While renewable energy plants are environmentally less harmful due to limited emissions, limited information is available about the effects of utility scale renewable power plants in developing countries. This chapter aims to provide an investigation into the potential external (or unaccounted) effects of utility scale renewable plants particularly from a developing country perspective, where utility scale adoption is relatively new and where plant data is not readily available. The chapter aims to provide a comparison of external effects and external costs of renewable technologies with external effects and external costs of conventional thermal electricity generation within South Africa. Based on data considerations, a life-cycle based approach is employed, where possible. The investigation compares three power plants employing different technologies, namely coal power, on shore wind power and concentrated solar power (CSP). The results of the analysis indicate that environmental costs (USD 2.76 c/kWh) from coal fired electricity are significantly high by more than an order, whereas non-environmental impacts that include human health, have lesser variation depending on the technology. Wind power was observed to have the least impact and cost across totalled environmental and non-environmental impacts (USD 0.08 c/kWh). While investigation of the coal plant was limited to the generation stage, a full life cycle analysis was considered for other technologies. It was seen that the extraction and manufacturing stages of renewable technologies have a higher share of impacts whereas operations and maintenance had the least, which was prominent for the CSP plant, that had a total impact cost of USD 0.23 c/kWh. It is expected that, with more developing countries adopting utility scale renewable plants, such energy-environmental impact assessments within a developing country context will be useful in understanding localised impacts on the environment related to energy generation activities.
George Alex Thopil
The Politics of Electricity Access and Environmental Security in Mozambique
Electricity access is a key aspect of achieving Sustainable Development Goal 7. Alleviating poverty by increasing the availability of grid connections, system reliability and generation capacity is a key driver of economic growth. However, 2.7 billion people still rely upon unsustainable wood fuels (such as charcoal) for heating, lighting and cooking. A sustainable transition to low carbon energy has positive health and social benefits (e.g. reductions in air pollution, deforestation and carbon dioxide emissions); and secondary economic benefits from energy supply service jobs (such as installation and maintenance jobs), market disruption and innovation (from community decentralised systems, for example), and reduced labour and time costs (such as reducing costs associated with mobile phone-charging). However, representing electricity access in terms of numbers of grid connections over-simplifies the energy access challenge—hiding unreliability, community exclusion from planning processes, and potential socio-environmental damage from energy sources (e.g. from coal-use), and complex political-institutional and socio-technical system relationships. This two-part chapter examines first the benefits of electricity access provision for developing countries, and second focuses on resolving these challenges through examination of the case of Mozambique—a low income, high resource abundance nation that is undergoing rapid electrification. The chapter explores the colonial history of Mozambique and its influence upon energy technology socio-technical system development across the diverse physical and cultural geography of the country; the effects of internal political conflict and contestation; and the impact of large-scale foreign investments, especially in extractive resources. We conclude by discussing how the changing political economy of Mozambican energy production, distribution and use at the national and regional level has yet to significantly transform everyday energy practices in rural and urban areas. The majority of the Mozambican population remains dependent on environmentally insecure fuelwood (in rural areas) and charcoal (in urban areas), especially for cooking. The consumption of biomass is of concern to authorities because of rapid deforestation, particularly within the hinterland of major cities. Moreover, fuel supply chains remain disconnected from the electricity generation and distribution systems and the extraction of resources such as coal or natural gas. Recommendations for policy, technology implementation and development practice are discussed throughout.
Matthew Cotton, Joshua Kirshner, Daniela Salite
Energy and Environmental Security—Latin America’s Balancing Challenge
Energy is imperative for accelerating economic development and improving lives by raising living standards. However, accelerating fossil fuel extraction or increasing imports to boost rapid industrial activities or accelerate economic development do not provide the desired socioeconomic benefits. On the contrary, some of the economic gains are offset by environmental damage. The counterbalancing concepts of energy security and environmental security have relative meanings that vary based on the national resource- and economic-context in which it is discussed. The countries in Latin American have distinct advancements and advantages which vary across the region, including almost universal access to electricity, a high proportion of which is generated renewably. On the other hand, extensive inequality, marginalization, corruption, and regional conflict are limiting the extent to which living standards are raised for the burgeoning population. The drive to generate public revenues by participating in international energy markets may be causing Latin American countries to deplete their hydrocarbon reserves too rapidly, which threatens both environmental and energy security. Indeed, even if a complete shift to renewable energy were possible in the near future, though it would improve environmental security, it would not guarantee energy security, which is a significant concern to Latin American governments. There are several possible risk mitigation strategies through which a country (either importing or exporting) can secure energy supply and promote measures to protect the local environment. However, there are many risks opposing effective implementation in Latin America. Heavy fuel subsidies tend to increase domestic demand, increase consumption of local fuel, more rapidly deplete domestic reserves, and ultimately reduce fuel export revenues. Failing the balancing act of resource nationalism vs. energy security, this is the paradox in which Latin America finds itself. Latin American countries face several particular challenges in driving sustainable economic development. This chapter documents the energy and environmental security challenges faced by Latin America.
Kankana Dubey, J. Andrew Howe
Use of Solid Recovered Fuels to Address Energy and Environmental Problems in Argentina
In most megacities of Latin America and the Caribbean, the population and economic growth, the inefficient use of resources and energy, and the high levels of carbon dioxide emissions have led to due to unsustainable solid waste management and inequities in the access to sanitation services and energy access, and thus to several negative consequences like air and water pollution. One of these megacities is the Metropolitan Region of Buenos Aires (RMBA), Argentina, where the main treatment of solid waste is its final disposal in landfills. Thus, its recycling rates are low and its energy use is even lower. In industrialized countries, the production of Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) is a common practice. In contrast, in Argentina, SRF is produced by only one commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) treatment center for the cement industry. This chapter describes the production and quality of this SRF and the characteristics of the waste streams that are currently sent to landfill that could be incorporated into that production. In addition, the potential uses of SRF in the RMBA to replace natural gas are analyzed in three possible scenarios. The results for scenario 1 showed a current production of 32 t per month of Class II SRF, which allows a monthly replacement of 33,722 m3 of natural gas in the cement industry. The results for scenario 2 showed that 177.4 t per month of Class III SRF could be added and generate 210.97 MWh per month of electricity, replacing 86920.5 m3 per month of natural gas. Finally, the results of scenario 3 showed that the incorporation of the co-generation of electricity and heat for industrial use could replace 172379.23 m3 per month of natural gas with SRF.
L. V. Sosa, S. L. Galván, S. M. Lusich, R. O. Bielsa

Broader Dimensions of Energy and Environmental Security

Energy and Environment: Sustainable Development Goals and Global Policy Landscape
The global challenges faced by the humankind encompass access to clean and affordable energy for all, shifting to the green development path and tackling the consequences of climate change. Success in addressing the related goals relies on the concerted efforts of society at large, whereby researchers may offer new solutions and media could raise awareness and organize public discussions. This chapter examines the policy landscape created for addressing the global energy and environment goals, as defined in the international documents. Moreover, the chapter analyses attention given to these goals by researchers, business and media. More specifically, the chapter focuses on goals set in the legally binding universal agreements and conventions formulated and adopted by the United Nations: “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” (SDGs or SG), the Paris Agreement (PA), the “Future We Want” Resolution (FWW), and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPI). Research methods include policy analysis and the smart big data analysis of thousands of publications on the topic. The authors highlight controversial policy issues, as well as relatively low attention to global energy challenges on behalf of mass media. Researchers address these challenges much more often, however, focus primarily on a few SDGs. The outcomes underline further steps to be taken by global and national policymakers.
Liliana N. Proskuryakova, Irina Loginova
Energy and Sustainable Development from Perspective of Energy Poverty
End of poverty, the number one Sustainable Development Goal, focuses on ending all kinds of poverty all over the world. The elimination of all forms of poverty continues to be the biggest problem facing humanity today. The most important problems that have been encountered since the beginning of the energy use are the increasing risk of deterioration of energy supply, energy production and energy poverty. The problem of energy poverty among them is widely mentioned in the literature. In general, the studies on the subject focus on how the problem is defined worldwide, its size, its consequences, the obstacles to the elimination of the problem and some solution opportunities. The term “energy poverty” can refer to two different socio-economic issues, depending on the geographical scope of its application: energy affordability in higher income and developed states; inadequate access to “modern” energy services in most low income or developing countries”. Poor people pay a high price for the energy they use, either in cash or by labor. In addition, poor households spend more on energy than wealthy people, not only because their income is much smaller, but also because the fuels and equipment they use are much less efficient than modern fuels and equipment. No country has been able to diminish energy poverty to a great extent without increasing energy use. Decreasing the global inequality in energy is key to reducing income, gender and an inequality in other dimensions such as rural/urban income gaps. From this perspective, the importance of the relationship between energy poverty and sustainable development will be discussed by making comparisons by taking the country cases into consideration in the context of energy efficiency and renewable energy. The regional understanding of these concepts will also be discussed in this context.
Meltem Ucal
Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Sub-Saharan African Countries
The impact of climate change and global warming is high on agriculture, food security, quality of life, human health, economic growth, and development in sub-Saharan African countries. Thus, there are ongoing global discussions on climate change adaptation and mitigation including the Kyoto Protocol; an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions caused by global warming, the 2012 Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol, United Nations Development Programme climate change portfolio, United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization climate change awareness program, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and other bodies efforts to reduce climate pollutants globally, Africa in particular. However, despite these interventions, there is little scholarly information discussing the extent to which the region’s vulnerability to climate change on its economies and growing populations is addressed. Thus, this review paper examines the impacts of climate change and global warming in sub-Saharan African countries and strategies adopted to mitigate the effects on its environments and economy.
Kayode I. Adenuga, Abubakar Sadiq Mahmoud, Yakubu Aminu Dodo, Moutlen Albert, Said Alkali Kori, Nusa Jibril Danlami
Energy-Drinking Water-Health Nexus in Developing Countries
Energy scarcity, waterborne diseases, and drinking water shortages are the three significant and fundamentally interlinked factors that are strongly influencing the social and economic growth of developing countries. The deficiency of safe drinking water contributes to many waterborne diseases, causing the demise of several people annually and hampering the growth of society. Desalination processes are often energy-intensive and expensive. Several developing countries facing energy deficiency are forced to build desalination plants to fulfill the demand for potable water. The energy required for desalination is fulfilled by importing oil, which is an additional economic burden on countries that are already paying high oil import bills. Burning a massive quantity of oil is the foremost cause of environmental degradation. The objective of this chapter is to explore the nexus among the energy, drinking water and the people's health in developing countries by using the assessment of several worldwide published reports and papers. This study identifies that community facing energy crises usually be deficient in safe drinking water services; consequently, they suffer from infirmity, which increases economic burden through the loss of work productivity. With a deficient cash reserve, the community is incapable of fulfilling the demand for energy and safe drinking water. The chapter concludes that energy, drinking water, and health nexus administration is essential for economic growth, sustainable development and energy security of developing countries.
Vikrant P. Katekar, Sandip S. Deshmukh
Updating Energy Security and Environmental Policy: Energy Security Theories Revisited
National and corporate policymakers view energy security strategies through the lens of mainstream concepts and definitions offered by research and policy discourse. The central elements of the classical energy security concepts are based on the premises of sufficient and reliable supply of fossil fuels at affordable prices in centralized supply systems. However, these approaches offered by neorealism, neoliberalism, constructivism, and international political economy are outdated. They rarely take account of the latest changes in the energy industry and society. The chapter examines the classic energy security concepts and assesses to what extent changes in the energy industry are taken into consideration. This is done through integrative literature review, comparative analysis, identification of ‘international relations’ and ‘energy’ research discourse with the use of big data, and country case studies. The chapter offers suggestions for revision of energy security concepts through integration of future technology considerations, new energy sources, new actors and the interrelation among them, the specific features of the developing and least developed countries and their energy relations with the wealthy states. Moreover, the differences in International Relations and Energy researchers’ discourse of energy security are outlined together with a rationale for the interdisciplinary approach to energy security, combining the natural and social sciences ideas and tools. The findings are illustrated with case studies of energy security policymaking in selected countries.
Liliana N. Proskuryakova
The Role of Social Discount Rate in Energy Modelling
Energy systems modelling aims to introduce a sustainable energy system design with an improved understanding of present and future interactions between demand-supply, environment, and economy. Treating energy systems started in the 1950s and have led to various approaches and models. Amongst common metrics, the discount rate impacts time horizon costs, benefits, demand and supply. This chapter presents an objective overview of energy systems approaches based on their historical evolutions. In order to point out social benefits and costs, the use of social discount rate for the Tunisian power system is argued.
Asma Dhakouani, Essia Znouda, Chiheb Bouden
Effects of Climate Change on Women—Adaptation and Mitigation
Earth is undergoing inevitable changes in its climate due to many natural and man-made activities as the temperatures are rising, freshwater resources are drying up, biodiversity is decreasing and natural disasters are increasing. Women, forming a major portion of the world poor and having less education and resources to manage climate risks, are more vulnerable to adverse effects of climate change as compared to men. Due to many social, cultural and religious norms restricting the mobility of women, women are greatly affected by climate-induced agricultural and biodiversity losses, climate-related wars, natural disasters and migrations. Despite of having close relationship with environment and natural resources, women’s representation in climate decisions is very less and their role is seldom appreciated. The current study sheds light on different scenarios of climate change including agriculture, biodiversity, water, natural disasters, wars, migration, pollution, health and sanitation, education, disempowerment, security, social and psychological effects and human rights in relation to women’s vulnerability to it. It also discusses the mitigation measures to reduce the effects of climate change on women.
Zaineb Abid, Muhammad Abid
Carbon Capture for Sustainable Environment in Developing Countries
The most critical energy and environmental challenge that the developing countries are facing today is to minimize the dependence on fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide may prove to be of utmost significance as a solution of this issue through realization of carbon neutral energy cycle. Potentially, this could be achieved through the CO2 capture as the urgent response to ongoing climate change around the globe. Owing to the more than 39% increase in atmospheric CO2, the average global temperature has risen to 0.8 °C during the past century. According to an estimate, CO2 concentration in the atmosphere would reach to 1600 ppm almost, and the green-house gases emissions would also rise from 30 to 90% over the level of 2000 within next 10 years, i.e. by the end of 2030. CO2 is also deemed to intensify the contamination of CO, apart from its importance as GHG while both exist in the same gas. Hence, fears on GHG pollution have given rise to significant interest in developing the area of CO2 capture to tackle environmental and sustainability concerns. Increased CO2 causes stress on the earth's climate system, and carbon capture technology is one of the most viable approaches accepted so far for mitigating this stress. The commercial technologies are also used for carbon capture. Owing to the high production cost and consumption of resources, the regeneration of the different materials used for carbon capture remains a key problem. Used materials is yet to gain widespread use for carbon capture due to the energy penalty associated with regeneration of the adsorbents that is typically achieved via temperature swing adsorption (TSA) and/or pressure swing adsorption (PSA) with an estimated 25–40% energy penalty. In this chapter, critical study of these established techniques regarding significant challenges in terms of energy consumption, regeneration and operating costs will be analyzed. In addition, it includes cost-effective solutions in-situ regeneration of spent materials using electric potential swing desorption compared with the conventional methods of PSA and/or TSA for sustainable environment.
M. Farooq, M. E. M. Soudagar, M. Imran, M. Arslan, M. S. Tariq, A. Pettinau, J. M. Andresen
Promoting Solar Energy in India to Meet the Country’s Commitment to Climate Change and Energy Security
India’s energy demand is rising continuously. Its availability is critical for the country’s development. Most of the current energy requirement is met through conventional fossil fuel-based power generation. India is the third largest emitter of carbon emissions in the world. The energy sector, and within that the power sector, is the major contributor to these emissions. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), enshrined in the Paris Agreement, 2015, India has committed to reduce its carbon intensity by 33–35%. Juxtaposing the current energy generation and carbon emission scenario with its global commitments, policy makers have been compelled to devise policies to promote and mainstream renewable energy. This chapter reviews India’s renewable energy policies, specifically solar energy promoting policies, evaluating their impact on expanding the share of solar energy in the overall energy mix. It highlights fiscal and other benefits of these policies. It includes the institutional framework, key actors and the operational mechanisms for supporting policy implementation. It examines on-the-ground implementation—the challenges in upscaling solar energy and improving its penetration have also been discussed. Now ranked third, India has improved its global position in solar power deployment. More needs to be done to ensure stable and continual growth of the solar power sector to achieve its ambitious targets.
Neeru Bansal
Bioenergy Production from Halophytes Crops for Sustainable Development
The global demand for food, freshwater and fuel is continuously increasing. The cultivation of salt resistant energy plants including halophytes can be an appropriate choice to exploit saline land and water resources which are often regarded as unsuitable for crop cultivation. Utilization of halophytes, conservation of freshwater and agricultural lands can help in improving food and fodder production in the developing countries. These countries can adopt saline agriculture on marginal lands to produce bioenergy for electricity generation. The salt affected soil reclamation by using halophytes can be a good strategy to develop a sustainable soil reclamation strategy. The global availability of one billion hectares of saline soils with vast areas located in the developing countries can be utilized for energy crop cultivation to meet renewable energy demands. This practice could have direct or indirect potential impacts such as mitigating GHG emissions through carbon sequestration, as well as wider positive impact on ecosystem protection and biodiversity enhancement. In order to improve the lignocellulose composition in biomass, introduction of genetic manipulation techniques can be used in stress tolerant energy feedstocks. Similarly, plant metabolism could be optimized by using agronomy and genetic manipulations to develop new crops for saline land. Constructed wetlands can be used to cultivate halophytes thus providing multiple benefits of wastewater treatment and bioenergy production. Currently the major aim is to evaluate the potential of halophytes for wide economic use in arid and semi-arid regions in the light of progressive shortage of freshwater resources and soil salinization. This book chapter covers topics pertinent to water conservation, food security, biofuels/bioenergy production to mitigate climate change impacts for sustainable development and  benefits of cultivating halophytes on marginal land.
Mehmood Ali, Atif Mustafa, Zainul Abideen, Bilquees Gul
Sustainable Energy: Case Study of Cameroon
The chapter discusses the present day energy situation in Cameroon. It focuses the current energy practices, potentials and official government policies. It also dwells at large on the other potentials that are yet to be exploited. About 95% of conventional energy supply in Cameroon is from hydro sources while about 2.7% is obtained from the burning of fossil fuels. The hydro potential (estimated 20 GW) and 115 Terawatt-hours per year is the second largest in sub-Saharan Africa after the Democratic Republic of Congo. Of this potential, only 3% is currently being exploited. Cameroon forest area occupies about 25 million Ha covering almost 50% of the country. The electricity potential from biomass has been estimated at about 1 GWh. The majority of Cameroonians use biomass for cooking and the estimate for national access to clean cooking solutions is at 23%. Biomass constitutes 66.7% of national energy consumption. Wind energy has not been commercially exploited in Cameroon. A few isolated studies of wind potential have been studied and published. Trends indicate favorable wind speeds for commercial exploitation in the northern and coastal areas with an average wind speed of 5–7 m/s at some sites. In most regions, however, the average wind speed is only about 2–4 m/s at a height of 100 m. The solar radiation in the southern part of the country is about 4.5 kWh/day/m2 while the northern region has values around (5.8 kWh/day/m2). Only about 50 decentralized PV systems with backup battery banks have been installed in Cameroon. One of the most untapped potential is that of vegetable oils either as SVO or biodiesel. The country if blessed with so many oleaginous grains that can act as substrates in an elaborate biodiesel production program.
Julius Tangka
Optimizing Energy Use Efficiency for Agricultural Sustainability
Energy is a critical prerequisite of modern society. Access to adequate energy resources shapes the socio-economic status, welfare of individuals and nations alike. However, ensuring efficient utilization of energy and its continued access for everyone is one of the most pressing issues that we face today. The agricultural sector consumes a sizeable portion of energy in terms of fossil fuels, chemical fertilizers, human labour, and electricity, which are used in production. Inefficiencies in production processes lead to over-utilization of these energy resources and generate undesirable outputs, such as agricultural wastes and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). A detailed farm-level energy analysis could provide insights regarding how to optimize energy consumption. The primary goal of the chapter is, therefore, to elaborate the concepts energy analysis and its importance in agriculture to gauge farm efficiency and discuss possible techniques for efficient energy management at the farm-level that will ensure the sustainability of agriculture in the context of developing countries. Lastly, we look at a case of paddy farmers from India and measuring their energy efficiency through the benchmarking approach to identify the best management practices employed by proficient farmers with the help of empirical data collected through field survey. This chapter provides actionable information for lawmakers to help us devise policies that can meet the increasing energy needs of their growing economies while reducing the adverse environmental effects of energy production systems.
Anirban Pal, Anirban Nandy, Shiladitya Dey, Piyush Kumar Singh
Floating Photovoltaic System Technology—Prospects of Its Implementation in Central Asian, South Asian and South East Asian Region
Sustainable supply of energy and access to water are among the major issues facing the Central Asian and South Asian countries due to climate change. There is a need of an environmental friendly and cost-effective energy production technology to achieve reasonable energy production without affecting climate by release of any kind of greenhouse gases. This renewable and sustainable source of energy can be provided by floating photovoltaic systems/technology (FPVS) which also helps in achieving sustainable supply of clean water. This chapter discusses the working of Floating Photovoltaic (FPV) technology and its technical, economic and ecological feasibility over the land-based PV systems. It also discusses the prospects of implementing this technology in Central Asian, South Asian and South East Asian region by providing the case studies of already implemented systems in different parts of the world. The implementation of FPVS in Indus Basin, Kabul River Basin and water resources in Central Asian Countries, South Asian and South East Asian Countries can prove to be greatly effective by controlling huge amount of evaporation and precipitation and can prevent climate change in this region at bigger scale.
Muhammad Abid, Zaineb Abid, Muhammad Umer
Towards a Shared Future
It has been over 50 years now that Marshal McLuhan used the term global village which describes the idea of global coexistence with influences from international communication, culture, travel, and trade and commerce. The COVID-19 pandemic has most recently cemented the planet's status of a global village as the virus originating from the Chinese city of Wuhan has virtually paralyzed the whole world. The global energy and environmental scenario is another befitting indicator to manifest the concept of a global village.
Muhammad Asif
Energy and Environmental Security in Developing Countries
herausgegeben von
Dr. Muhammad Asif
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