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Japan is a country lacking her own energy sources and other natural resource~. Still, over the 4 decades since the end of World War II, she has achieved considerable economic development, a fact which highlights the success of the policies implemented by the government and their acceptance by the well matured Japanese society. At present, the world is confronted with serious environmental problems, for example, the consumption of large amounts of energy that leads to in­ creases in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels anq subsequent global warming. After the oil crisis in the 1970s, Japan strove to reduce energy consumption, and achieved significant improvements in production efficiency in industry and in the air conditioning of homes. Another example of her success is in the automobile industry, where Japanese automobiles enjoy a good reputation for fuel efficiency. Japan has shown that environmental protection and economic development can be accomplished simultaneously, although the problems have not been solved completely. There are many areas that require further study. In this book, Dr. Helmar Krupp describes how society is organized to form a system. Then, in a unique and interesting turn, he tries to analyze the indus­ trial development using Schumpeter's theory. Subsequently, many leaders in the field of energy policy in Japan discuss the issues involved from a variety of viewpoints.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Synopsis

Abstract
Energy is integrated in society. Energy provision and consumption has a history and is subject to change.
Helmar Krupp

1. Introduction

Abstract
Energy is the physical fuel of societal dynamics. Its form and use is an integral part of a society. Therefore, the politics and the economics of energy provision and consumption are too complex to be left to any particular discipline or elite. Also, there is no such discipline as energology. Therefore, an interdisciplinary approach has to be taken which methodologically has to muddle through. It is the target of this book to describe the various facets of energy politics in such a manner that a comprehensive picture is obtained which reflects the kind of society in which we live and which permits projections to be made as to possible or probable futures.
Helmar Krupp

2. Society as a System

Abstract
The differentiation of societies into subsystems such as the economy, politics, and technology, with their different, highly specific communication and their different criteria of performance, results in a societal complexity which cannot be controlled from a single center and which may cause uncontrollable externalities.
Helmar Krupp

3. Schumpeter Dynamics of Innovation

Abstract
Technologically, this century is characterized by an unprecedented rate of innovation triggered by and triggering a fast competitive race of economic and political entities (Nelson and Winter 1982, Dosi et al. 1988, Nelson 1990). This hinges on two interrelated factors. First, the comprehensiveness and great intensity with which technological research is undertaken and utilized, and second, the symbiotic interaction between private enterprises and the public administration which provides an elaborate infrastructure of education, public and semipublic research institutions, grants, tax incentives, etc., as well as public procurement and large publicly funded projects which serve innovation.
Helmar Krupp

4. Historical and Future Paradigms of Economic Development

Abstract
The development of societies, in particular those of the highly industrialized countries, has been driven by Schumpeter Dynamics, embodied in a symbiosis between the economy, politics, and technology. This chapter is devoted to (1) an overview of the principal issues, under which this development took place, and (2) a projection of futures which seem to result from the analysis presented thus far. For reference, see Fig. 3.
Helmar Krupp

5. Systemic Societal Change

Abstract
Essayistically speaking, the picture drawn so far shows a gigantic Schumpeter machine programmed to produce economic growth and profits. It is strongly based on technological innovation, constituting what is called technical progress. This machine consumes energy and materials from the environment and releases pollution which causes immense ecological disruption, including mass extinction of species. Schumpeter Dynamics got fully started in the Industrial Revolution and is still accelerating, consuming more and more energy and materials and releasing increasing amounts of pollution. The economy, politics, and technology are the principal drivers of Schumpeter Dynamics. Its economic and technological success is due to an extreme activism and to flexible innovativeness of all actors in the Schumpeterian game whose individual entrepreneurial transactions and whose consumption are coordinated by its comprehensive programs. Under its influence society may look programmed on a fateful course.
Helmar Krupp

6. Summarizing Outlook

Abstract
Societies have become sectoralized and at the same time, in many countries, the economy, politics, and technology have formed a strong symbiosis which constitutes what, in this book, is called Schumpeter Dynamics. It is powered by technological innovation, utilizes all material as well as ecological and human resources, and produces profits, growth, and wealth, however skewed its distribution may be. In the process, environmental capacity is overloaded with pollution of the ecological media. This leads not only to local and regional damage, but also to global damage, such as global warming, ozone holes, and massive species extinction.
Helmar Krupp

7. Energy in Japan

Abstract
The application of systems theory to a particular country is beset with practical and theoretical problems. In most cases, organizations and even individual players in the field of energy politics cannot be classed unambiguously with the relevant subsystems of economy, politics, or technology, but are part of their interactions. The Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), for example, is an organ of the Japanese public administration, but its activities are at the interface between politics and the economy. It is the central representation of business in the government. At the same time, through its advisory and regulatory powers, it represents the government with respect to industry. In turn, the government is not simply a political organ; the economy is deeply entrenched in it by a variety of mechanisms. A particularly visible example is the great number of councils and committees as well as trade and industrial associations formed and controlled by MITI. The political administration of MITI, the minister’s office in particular, has to translate the reasonings of MITI’s offices, divisions, departments, bureaus, and agencies into political power, in terms appropriate to the political system. The same holds for individuals. The minister of MITI receives prestige and political power from being a major voice of the economy and, at the same time, he represents politics vis-a-vis the economy. Okimoto (1989) gives a perspicacious account of this.
Helmar Krupp

8. Basic Definitions and Facts Related to Energy

Abstract
As an introduction to the subsequent contributions by the coauthors of this book, it might be useful for the reader to recall a few basic definitions and facts.
Helmar Krupp

9. The Case of Japan and a German Reference Scenario

Abstract
With a view to deepening the preceding approach through a Japanese case study, the contributions of 20 Japanese experts, mostly from academia but also from the public administration and industry, are added. In order to structure their contributions, the following argumentation is used:
1
The starting point is the present Japanese energy-policy and its outlook.
 
2
A major determinant of future energy provision is stress on the environment, causing both local and global risks.
 
3
The two single most important steps towards a new energy regime are (1) raising energy efficiency and (2) increasing the use of renewable energy, in particular by photovoltaics.
 
4
Energy politics is deeply embedded in a societal context. Therefore, aspects of change of society and structures of energy supply and consumption are relevant.
 
5
Societies are reflected and shaped by their media.
 
6
Energy provision and use as well as its societal context may aim at different futures or are evolving into one or the other of them.
 
Takashi Mukaibo, Akira Sanada, Tokio Kanoh, Hidetoshi Nakagami, Kokichi Ito, Kazuya Fujime, Hidefumi Imura, Tsuneo Takeuchi, Hiroaki Koide, Issei Furugaki, Yukinori Kuwano, Yoshihiro Hamakawa, Chihiro Watanabe, Takeshi Murota, Harutoshi Funabashi, Takamichi Kajita, Masuro Sugai, Hisao Mitsuyu, Haruki Tsuchiya, Sozaburo Okamatsu, Joachim Nitsch

10. Conclusion

Abstract
Today’s numerous incremental decisions by politicians and businessmen on energy, made wittingly and willingly or not, will accumulate to form fundamental constraints and contingencies shaping the lives of future generations. They determine whether, with all their growing wealth, they might have to cope with unfavorable climatic changes, billions of tons of radioactive materials, millions of square kilometers of genetically manipulated monocultures, including biomass for energy conversion, to name a few examples, or, alternatively, whether early resourceful self-restraint has avoided the related risks without impairment of the quality of future life on earth.
Helmar Krupp

Backmatter

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