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Über dieses Buch

In terms of energy security the Black Sea region is important to Europe. Inevitably and for very good reasons, a lot of attention has been given to the existing and planned pipeline routes going around or across the Black Sea. Much less attention has been given to the development of the Black Sea energy market in its own right and to the potential advantages of coping with some current and future energy issues in a multilateral regional format rather than through individual action at national level. The present book addresses, in a comprehensive manner, the current problematic of energy security and goes beyond pipeline politics, without playing down their continued significance; it addresses some topical questions related to the sustainability and resilience of energy systems as applicable to the Black Sea region.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction

It is already acknowledged that, in terms of energy security the Black Sea region is important to Europe. So far, most of the debates on that subject have been focused on the vital supplies of oil and gas from Russia, the Caspian basin and the northern segment of the Middle East. Repeated disruptions of the transit of Russian gas through Ukraine, whatever the political or/and commercial motivation may have been, revealed some serious system vulnerabilities and highlighted the strategic nature of the pursuit of energy security in Europe today. Inevitably, and for very good reasons, a lot of attention has been given to the existing and planned pipeline routes going around or across the Black Sea. As it is indicated in the present book, much less attention has been given to the development of the Black Sea energy market in its own right and to the potential advantages of coping with some current and future energy issues in a multilateral regional format rather than through individual action at national level.

Adrian Gheorghe, Liviu Muresan

Diversity on Energy Security: An International Perspective

Frontmatter

European Security – A European Perspective

In spite of its critical role, energy security lacks a universally agreed definition, which given its complexity may well just be unrealistic. The concept is still used in a wide range of reports and documents, often without discussion of its dimensions and their significance. As a consequence, the literature is characterized by an almost overwhelming focus on securing supplies of primary energy sources and geopolitics. Clearly, views on energy security also differ widely between nations. The European Union’s approach towards energy security is presented in this paper; it can be derived from several policy legislations and proposals that followed the European Commission’s 2000 Green Paper “Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply”.

Henryk Faas, Francesco Gracceva, Gianluca Fulli, Marcelo Masera

The European Union and the Wider Black Sea Region: Interests, Challenges and Opportunities

The enlargements of NATO and EU, the involvement of the North Atlantic Alliance in Afghanistan, the increasing dependence of EU energy securityon Russia and the focus on Caspian Sea as a potential alternative, have moved thecenter of gravity of European security towards South-Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia – three very sensitive areas in terms of soft and hard security. The paper discusses on the collective and individual security of EU members, which depends on a vast array of new threats and sources of instabilitythat rise from inside and around the Wider Black Sea Area.

Odette Tomescu-Hatto

Issues of Energy Security in the Black Sea Region

In terms of energy security, the Black Sea region is important to Europe. So far, most of the debates on that subject have been focused on the vital supplies of oil and gas from Russia, the Caspian Basin, and the northern segment of the Middle East. Repeated disruptions of the transit of Russian gas through Ukraine, whatever the political or/and commercial motivation may have been, has revealed some serious system vulnerabilities and has highlighted the strategic nature of the pursuit of energy security in Europe today. Inevitably and for very good reasons, a lot of attention has been given to the existing and planned pipeline routes going around or across the Black Sea. Much less attention has been given to the development of the Black Sea energy market in its own right and to the potential advantages of coping with some current and future energy issues in a multilateral regional format rather than through individual action at national level. This paper proposes to go beyond pipeline politics, without down playing their continued significance, and to concentrate instead on some topical questions related to the sustainability and resilience of energy systems as applicable to the Black Sea region.

Sergiu Celac

Considerations on Sustainable Development and Energy Security

The current views and methods associated with sustainability in energy in all steps of the life cycle tend to focus on direct elements and the first tier cascade of related impacts or potential problems. There is little examination into secondary, tertiary, or even higher order terms in the overall sustainability model. As has often been the case in the past in other endeavors, we are often too ready to suggest the higher order terms of an equation are of less impact and can be removed for clarity and handling ease. This paper will discuss the higher order effects of energy security where the KISS principle strips out critical knowledge we must incorporate to have for a more encompassing view of real vulnerability.

John Voeller

Lessons Learned for Regional and Global Energy Security

Energy supply security is analyzed from the perspective of strategic goals that enhance the long-term resilience of the global energy system in terms amenable to energy modeling. Identified indicators, which are argued to measure long-term energy security, are explored in view of the authors’ experience in field of international and regional energy modeling.

Yaroslav Minullin, Leo Schrattenholzer

Theoretical Perspectives to Energy Security

Frontmatter

Enlarging the Perspective: Energy Security Via Equilibrium, Information, and Computation

Despite the unquestionable importance of issues such as increase energy prices, increased world competition for energy, etc. there is however a need to supplement them with a more theoretical perspective, to consider a broader context by going back to the historical development of the energy paradigm and, according to this development, to stress its interaction with the information and the computation paradigms.

Solomon Marcus

Faces of Resilience

A set of physical analogies emphasizing cooperative behaviour in systems are explored and were integrated into so called ?serious energy games’, to contribute in a better understanding, monitoring and good governance of some of the complex security issues confronting the evolvement of contemporary energy systems and, most particularly, Europe’s. It is believed that such mild mind12 retching exercises might be supportive in the necessary attempt, by the many stakeholders and actors involved, to bring balance and harmony to prevailing policies the first commandment of which seems to be “Go change yourself – in a resilient fashion!” An extrapolation of several findings to other than Energy systems tempted to implement drastic changes based on substantial substitutions – hardware, software and mindware – under relatively short time horizons cannot be ruled out.

Adrian V. Gheorghe, Dan V. Vamanu

Stochastic Simulation of Critical Infrastructures for Electric Power Transmission

Critical infrastructures of electric power transmission are considered. Their distributed dynamic characteristics, common to other critical infrastructures e.g. of transportation and communication, demand innovative approaches of analysis in order to identify vulnerabilities, for effective protection against extensive failures. The uncertainties associated to the system behavior which emerges from initially local failures call for appropriate models and methods of stochastic simulation.

Enrico Zio

Conversion of Renewable Kinetic Energy of Water: Synthesis, Theoretical Modeling, and Experimental Evaluation

The current paper deals with concepts for conversion of the kinetic energy of fluent water into mechanical and finally electrical energy. A distinct objective is the study of the energetic potential of the Republic of Moldova’s rivers – the Nistru, Prut, and Raut, in view of assuring energy security for limited kind of applications. The study of the energetic potential of the Prut River – an affluent of the Danube, that flows through the Republic of Moldova’s territory has been carried out. On the basis of the performed study, the future installation place of the pilot plant of microhydrostation was chosen, that satisfies the following conditions: adequate harvest of low level speed of the water flows; existence of the energy consumers nearby; geological characteristics of the water front, which would permit the connective foundation installation of the microhydrostation with the river bank.

Ion Bostan, Adrian V. Gheorghe, Valeriu Dulgheru, Viorel Bostan, Anatol Sochireanu, Ion Dicusară

On the Modelling and Evaluation of Security of Energy Supply in Regional Environments

This paper presents some approaches used in the modelling of the Security of Energy Supply for the case of regional environments, with some specific results obtained for specific cases from the European environment

Dan Serbanescu

Energy Security: A Problem of Complex Systems and Complex Situations

This paper addresses the following aspects: Identifies the domain of energy security, describes the energy security in relation to a concept of Homeland Security, identifies issues of energy security in relation to complex systems, such as the risk of nuclear installations and the availability of resources at national level, such as oil, and identifies the vulnerability of the national economy to a lack of energy security.

Eric Bosworth, Adrian Gheorghe

Cyber Security: Threat Identification, Risk and Vulnerability Assessment

The task of preventing unauthorized users from compromising the confidentiality, the integrity, or the availability of sensitive information is increasingly difficult in the face of the growth in Internet use, the increasing skill level of attackers, and the technological advances in their tools and methods of attack. The threats and risks are real and increasingly frequent, with high potential to critical energy infrastructures. The Department of Homeland Security needs to have a clear plan in place to help better mitigate the problems faced with cyber and energy security.

Harold Umberger, Adrian Gheorghe

Critical Energy Infrastructures: Operational Efficiency, Security, and Governance

Frontmatter

Asset Criticality in European Gas Pipeline Systems – Increasing Challenges for NATO, Its Member States and Industrial Protection of Critical Energy Infrastructure

The paper focuses on the critical infrastructure security of the European gas supply systems. First, it analyses the changing international security environment for CEIP (i.e. towards cyber attacks) and their critical assets, in particular energy control centers, of gas supply systems under varying conditions – i.e. specific conditions that may impact on the effectiveness and security of critical assets, such as gas control centers. Second, the paper also summarizes and highlights some results of the EU’s OCTAVIO- and INSPIRE-research projects. Third, it also tries to identify new emerging risks in the European gas supply system along the EU’s evolving common Energy Security Strategy, and subsequent measures, and initiatives on energy security adopted as of spring of 2010. Finally, against this background, some conclusions and recommendations are made for the future role of NATO for protecting CEI.

Frank Umbach, Uwe Nerlich

Operational Analysis Support to Energy Security in South East Europe: A Bulgarian Academic Community Approach

This paper presents the authors’ understanding of the problem of energy security in South East Europe (SEE) and the Wider Black Sea Area (WBSA) as a result of the region’s geo-strategy; the development of the relevant capabilities in Bulgarian academic community linked with administration, industry, and non12 governmental organizations in the area of analytical support to energy security, as well as the concept of a Center of Excellence for Military Support to Civilian Authorities as an instrument for addressing: energy security, cyber defense, and other new challenges to security through the concept of an integrated security sector; and finally – the integration of national capabilities in the international network for operational analysis and foresight/strategic planning.

Zlatogor Minchev, Velizar Shalamanov

Energy Security for Industrial and Military Installations: Emergent Conditions that Influence the Strategic Selection of Technologies

We describe recent efforts integrating scenario analysis with multiple criteria decision analysis in support of strategic planning for the energy security of industrial and military installations. Energy security is an increasingly important issue for industrial and military installations. Disruptions of the grid and other outages for key buildings, facilities, and entire installations jeopardize critical activities and missions. Cost and supply volatilities of traditional energy sources and backup technologies increase the need for innovation in meeting energy demands. Part of such demands should be met with renewable energy sources. Each of the hundreds of installations of a large industrial or military organization presents a unique challenge in the attainment of energy security goals. This Chapter describes a framework to highlight what science, engineering, and other conditions most influence the planning of strategic investments in innovation for energy security. The framework aims to avoid surprises that could result from a failure to account systematically for the emergent conditions that affect industrial and military installations, including emergent conditions of regulation, technologies, economics, geopolitics, environment, and other topics. Science, engineering, and other investigative resources can be focused on the future conditions that most matter to the selection of technologies and their operations plans.

James H. Lambert, Christopher W. Karvetski, Renae D. Ditmer, Tarek Abdallah, Melanie D. Johnson, Igor Linkov

The Energy Incident Data Base

The Energy Incident Data Base (EIDB) is concerned solely with the activities of sub-national actors directed against government and private sector energy enterprises worldwide. It is unclassified and its contents are drawn from a wide array of sources developed over more than 35 years of monitoring and analyzing these activities.

Robert K. Mullen

An Energy Security Strategy for Romania: Promoting Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

The national interests reflect the most important, stable, and institutionalized perception of the values that the Romanian nation aims to preserve, promote, protect, and defend by legitimate means, the values on which the Romanian nation builds its future, through which it guarantees its existence and identity, and for which it is integrated in the European and Euro-Atlantic community and takes part in the globalization process.

Adrian Gheorghe, Liviu Muresan, Sergiu Celac, Septimiu Caceu, Claudiu Degeratu, Leonela Lenes, Cristian Kanovits, Radu Bores, Chris Prebensen, Trygve Refvem

Backmatter

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