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This book gathers an in-depth collection of 45 selected papers presented at the Global Conference on Global Warming 2014 in Beijing, China, covering a broad variety of topics from the main principles of thermodynamics and their role in design, analysis, and the improvements in performance of energy systems to the potential impact of global warming on human health and wellbeing. Given energy production’s role in contributing to global warming and climate change, this work provides solutions to global warming from the point of view of energy. Incorporating multi-disciplinary expertise and approaches, it provides a platform for the analysis of new developments in the area of global warming and climate change, as well as potential energy solutions including renewable energy, energy efficiency, energy storage, hydrogen production, CO2 capture and environmental impact assessment. The research and analysis presented herein will benefit international scientists, researchers, engineers, policymakers and all others with an interest in global warming and its potential solutions.



Renewable Energy


Chapter 1. Development of Supercritical CO2 Solar Rankine Cycle System

A supercritical CO2 solar Rankine cycle system, an innovation of a new concept for global warming solution by using CO2 as a natural working fluid is introduced and the development of the novel system is presented. The system consists of solar collectors, power generation turbine, heat exchangers, and mechanical feed pump (or a novel concept the so-called thermally driven pump). This system is particularly characterized by CO2 transcritical Rankine cycle with newly developed system elements, which include evacuated tube solar collector, turbine, gas–liquid heat exchanger, feed pump and other flow regulating elements. In this article much attention is given to the thermally driven pump, which shows promising performance data, when replacing for a mechanical feed pump in the system. Preliminary results gained from a prototype system installed for an actual operation under extracting solar thermal energy, producing electric and heat energy, indicate that the system has more advantages against a fossil fueled cogeneration system. The developed system represents highly potential solution and idea to solve the global warming crisis, and also can give a clue to a path of future energy creation technique for green energy resources.

Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Xin-Rong Zhang

Chapter 2. Study on the Solar Energy Heat Pump Space Heating System in the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas in Inner Mongolia

An investigation on the space heating conditions in the agricultural and pastoral areas in Baotou city in Inner Mongolia has been carried out to study the heating energy resources and devices. It is found that using fossil fuels directly is the main heating form, which is inefficient, costly, and may cause higher energy consumption, poor indoor air quality, and serious environmental contamination. The solar energy heat pump space heating system is proposed for the specific use in the agricultural and pastoral area on the basis of the previous studies. The principle, control strategy, and operation modes of the system are studied and analyzed. In order to further validate the feasibility of this system, the economic benefits, social benefits, and environmental benefits of the solar energy heat pump space heating system are investigated and analyzed. Using this solar energy space heating system, about 15 tons CO2 emission per year could be avoided for a 100 m2 house in the agricultural and pastoral area, as well as a great amount of other noxious gases.

Xin-Rong Zhang

Chapter 3. LNG Cold Energy Utilization Technology

A large amount of cold energy is discarded without being utilized during natural gas transmission process. In this chapter, available cold energy in LNG and LNG cold energy application areas are analyzed. LNG cold energy can be used for power generation, air separation, liquefaction of CO2, production of dry ice, cold storage and rapid cooling, district cooling and other applications. The schematics and characteristics for those application systems are described in detail. As for the case study, an organic Rankine cycle based power system which is attached with natural gas fueled LNG carrier is designed and an analysis of proper working fluid selection is conducted.

Taehong Sung, Kyung Chun Kim

Chapter 4. Cold Thermal Energy Storage Materials and Applications Toward Sustainability

Cold thermal energy storage (TES) has been an active research area over the past few decades for it can be a good option for mitigating the effects of intermittent renewable resources on the networks, and providing flexibility and ancillary services for managing future electricity supply/demand challenges. In this chapter, three available technologies for cold storage: sensible, latent and sorption storage have been reviewed and summarized from both the materials and application aspects. Issues and possible solutions are introduced and discussed in detail for the storage materials. Cold storage applications can be widened from building and vehicle air conditioning application to fresh and frozen food storage and transport. Sensible storage is a comparatively mature technology that has been implemented and evaluated in many large-scale demonstration plants. Latent storage and sorption have much higher energy storage densities than sensible storage, which are currently still in the stages of material investigations and lab-scale experiments. Heat transfer and performance enhancement are also discussed. These are beneficial for researchers and engineers to design the more cold sustainable thermal systems.

Gang Li, Yunho Hwang, Reinhard Radermacher

Chapter 5. Economic Analysis of LNG Cold Energy Utilization

Global warming has been widely concerned in the world. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy utilization would generate the obviously economic benefits, and demonstrably reduce CO2 emissions. The industrialization of China National Offshore Oil Corporation showed the necessity and feasibility of LNG cold energy utilization. Based on the discussion of the world LNG cold energy utilization, the paper analyzes the direct economic, social, and macro-economic efficiency of LNG cold energy utilization. In the global energy saving background, the article suggests that LNG cold energy utilizations should make reasonable processes and avoid potential market risks rationally. Furthermore, it should comprehensively analyze the economic feasibility of LNG cold energy projects from the economic benefits, energy saving efficiency, and macro-economic benefits. Based on the existent LNG cold energy utilization technologies in China, about 2.356 million tons of the standard coals will be saved and 6.173 million tons CO2 emissions will be reduced in 2020.

Kezhong Jiang

Chapter 6. Zeotropic Mixture and Organic Ranking Cycle

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported in 2014 that scientists were more than 95 % certain that most of global warming is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases [1]. Since the Second Industrial Revolution, steam Rankine cycle driven by fossil fuel has become the dominant method of power supply, and the accelerated consumption of fossil fuel has increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, leading to increased radiative forcing from CO2, methane and nitrous oxide.

Li Zhao

Chapter 7. Methane Production from Napier Grass by Co-digestion with Cow Dung

Methane could substitute for fossil-fuel-derived energy and reduce environmental impacts including global warming. Grass can be transformed into energy by anaerobic digestion. The objective of this study was to investigate the co-digestion of napier grass with cow dung. Digestion of napier grass at a cutting interval of 60 days was investigated in single-stage, semi-continuous anaerobic reactors. Four reactors were operated at 30 °C with 5-day feeding. The first two reactors were fed with a slurry of napier grass alone at 10 % (napier grass:water = 10:90) and 20 % (napier grass:water = 20:80) by fresh weight. The other two reactors were fed with a mixture of napier grass and cow dung at separate concentrations of 10 % (napier grass:cow dung:water = 5:5:90) and 20 % (napier grass:cow dung:water = 10:10:80), respectively. Mixed ruminal microorganisms of approximately 8.5 g mixed liquor volatile suspended solids per litre were used as the inoculum. Each reactor working volume was 5 L and the feeding rate was 625 ml per 5 days resulting in a hydraulic retention time of 40 days. The pH was initially adjusted to be neutral in all reactors and the reactors functioned without any further pH control. The results showed that co-digestion of the mixture of napier grass and cow dung gave a higher yield than that of napier grass alone. The highest methane yield was obtained from the reactor that contained the 20 % mixture of napier grass and cow dung (napier grass: cow dung:water = 10:10:80) with 143 L at STP per kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) added and 169 L at STP per kg total volatile solids (TVS) added. The pH of the reactor was just over 7.

Suriya Sawanon, Piyanee Sangsri, Suchat Leungprasert, Nusara Sinbuathong

Chapter 8. Possibilities for Biogas Production from Waste—Potential, Barriers, and Legal Notices

Concentration of population and enhancement of the socio-economic development of society is related to the generation of large amounts of waste. Their accumulations have negative impact on the environment and create risks to human health. The main responsible for greenhouse gas emissions is fossil fuels, where renewable energy sources provide one of the leading solutions to the climate change issue. By providing ‘carbon-neutral’ sources of power, heat, cooling, and transport fuels, renewable energy options such as wind, solar, biomass, hydro, wave, and tidal offer a safe transition to a low-carbon economy. The report provides information on appropriate organic waste for biogas production in Bulgaria—waste from animal, plant, and domestic origin. It is shown which type of biomass has the highest energy potential and the average gas productivity of certain biological waste. Barriers and legal standards for biogas production in Bulgaria and financial conditions for the construction of biogas plants are shown in detail.

Viktor Kolchakov, Vera Petrova, Totka Mitova, Plamen Ivanov, Svetla Marinova

Chapter 9. Research on Tidal Current Energy Converter Using Artificial Muscles and VIV Theory

As a kind of renewable energy, tidal current energy has a good perspective of application. Promoting the use of tidal current energy to reduce the use of fossil fuels is an effective way to alleviate the global warming. Considering relatively low speed tidal current in most of China sea areas, concept of a new type of tidal current energy converter using artificial muscle based on vortex induced vibration (VIV) was put forward in this paper. By vortex induced vibrating the kinetic energy of sea water was converted to kinetic energy of the motion parts of the converter then converted to electric energy by dielectric elastomer. Principle of VIV was given, mathematical model of the vibration system was studied by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, model test was performed and the results showed agreement with simulation. Basic performance test of the dielectric elastomer was also elaborates in this paper, as well as some brief description of the next step of relative research work.

Shuang Wu, Peng Yuan, Shujie Wang, Junzhe Tan, Dongwang Chen, Omer Rauf

Chapter 10. The Energy Capture Efficiency Increased by Choosing the Optimal Layout of Turbines in Tidal Power Farm

In recent years, with the development of global economy, many environmental issues, such as energy shortage and global warming are becoming more and more serious all over the world, and more attention was paid on the better use of marine renewable energy. Among all the variety of marine renewable energy, tidal power generation technology is relatively mature. In order to gain more tidal energy for the purpose of commercial application, one of the best ways is to make turbine arrays in tidal power farm. Because of the wake effects on tidal steam turbines in tidal power farm, the performance of the flow field around the turbines was changed and has impact on the capture efficiency of electric power. Therefore, study on the interaction effects on tidal stream turbines and the optimization of the layout of the tidal stream turbine array becomes one of the key problems in the construction of tidal power farm, which directly influences the economic benefits of tidal power farm. There are many parameters that have impact on turbines in tidal farms, such as the distance between turbines, the longitudinal and lateral layout, the rotation direction of rotors, and so on. In this paper, different approaches (such as numerical calculating and simulation, model test, etc.) to study on the optimizing the layout of the horizontal axis tidal steam turbines in tidal power farm were introduced. These research works will provide theoretical basis for the construction of tidal power farms in the future. Optimized layout of turbines in tidal power farm can increase the capture efficiency of tidal turbines, and it has great sense to relieve energy shortage and global warming problem by obtaining more marine renewable energy.

Junzhe Tan, Shujie Wang, Peng Yuan, Dandan Wang, Hepan Ji

Chapter 11. Modelling Analysis of the Influence of Wave Farm to Nearshore Hydrodynamics Forces

The gradually growing demands of energy and global warming are series problems the globe facing. Facing this condition, renewable and green energy sources may play a key role in both of meeting the growing demand for energy and preventing global warming. Among the novel renewable and green energy sources, wave energy is one of the most promising marine energy sources. However, utility of wave energy resource might cause environment evolutions, which has to be paid much attention. So we can balance environment and resources. The present work focuses on the evolution of wave climate and wave-induced longshore current. To demonstrate effects of wave farm on evolution of the two parameters mentioned above more clearly, Zhangjiapu (ZJP) nearshore areas are regarded as the potential wave farm location. There are large wetland areas having sensitive environment problems. Therefore, this chapter studied the evolution of nearshore hydrodynamic environment in ZJP nearshore areas, including wave climate and wave-induced longshore current, which was caused by the installation of wave farm. Numerical simulation has been adopted to investigate the effects induced by wave farm on nearshore hydrodynamic environment. The wave and wave-induced longshore current have been simulated by flow model Delft3D. The significant wave height and period gotten by numerical model agree with measured data generally. There are obvious changes occurring when wave farm is installed along 20-m-depth contour in ZJP. This chapter is structured as the following five parts: First, theories of wave modelling and methods of wave energy resources assessment and hydrodynamic environment are introduced. Second, the model setting and validation are discussed. Third, wave energy resources were investigated based on wave parameters outputted by wave numerical modelling. Fourth, evolution of wave climate and longshore current induced by the potential wave farm is analysed by hydrodynamic modelling. Finally, some summaries about the evolution of hydrodynamic environment when wave farm is set up are given.

Bingchen Liang, Zhaoyan Xu, Hongda Shi, Fei Fan

Utilization of Waste


Chapter 12. Energy Saving and Emission Reduction from the Steel Industry: Heat Recovery from High Temperature Slags

The steel industry is an energy-intensive and CO2-intensive industry and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in the steel industry was more than 2.95 billion tons in 2012, which faces the great challenge of energy saving and CO2 emission reduction in the context of global warming. The heat recovery from high temperature slags (1450–1650 °C) from the metallurgical process represents one of the greatest potential to reduce the carbon emission in the steel industry (460 million tons of blast furnace slags (BFS) and 150 million tons of steel slags (SS) in 2012). The basic constraints of slag heat recovery include the low thermal conductivity and the easy crystallization trend. To meet these constraints and achieve the aim of heat recovery, many methods have been proposed and investigated during the past few decades, which could be divided into physical method, chemical method, and other method based on the working mechanism. The fundamental property of the hot slags that the cooling path of the slags could be composed of three regions, namely the liquid region, the crystallization region and the solid region, determined that a two-step physical method composed of a granulation atomizer and a fluidized bed for heat transfer and a two-stage process combined with physical dry granulation and chemical reaction are theoretically reasonable, which represents the research trend nowadays. The combination of the phase change material (PCM) heat storage and chemical methods could make up another research trend in the future especially when the crystallization behavior of the molten slags could be ignored. Besides, in the integrated system proposed recently, the obtained glassy blast furnace slags could be utilized in the cement industry because of the severe challenge of GHG emission reduction in the cement industry (3.7 billion tons of CO2 in 2013). Only by employing a reasonable and efficient method, could the waste heat in the high temperature slags be effectively recovered and target of the GHG emission reduction in the steel industry be achieved.

Yongqi Sun, Zuotai Zhang

Chapter 13. The Feasibility Study on Blast Furnace Low Temperature Heat Source Refrigeration for Dehumidified Blast

Global climate change has become the focus of national attention and iron and steel enterprises, which have the feature of high energy consumption and high emissions, have an extremely significant influence on global climate change in Chinese modern industrialization process. The technology of blast furnace low-temperature heat source refrigeration for cooling dehumidifying uses huge amount of waste heat during blast furnace iron making process as the driving force of absorption refrigerator, and then the cooling capacity of preparation is used to reduce the moisture in blast furnace blowing to make the air humidity reduce to optimum value required for the operation, so as to save coke and increase the output. This article takes a certain Chinese large-scale blast furnace as an example, and has determined the technological process of using hot blast stove gas as a driving heat of absorption refrigerator to dehumidify blast furnace. We have determined the optimal outlet air humidity range by establishing system energy consumption model in different blast humidity. We select a certain iron and steel enterprise’s 450 m3 blast furnace and analyze the energy and economy efficiency after using dehumidifying blast system and calculate the equipment’s investment recovery period. The results show that in Liaoning Province when the blast humidity is about 8 g/m3, the system has the best energy economy efficiency and can save 3.06 kgce/t compared with the traditional technological process, and the equipment investment recovery period is 1.8 years, Reasonably use a large number of low temperature waste heat and reduced heat emissions has a significant impact on energy conservation and emissions reduction and climate change.

Zongwei Han, Fengyuan Zhang, Jing Zhao, Weiliang Li

Chapter 14. Sludge Treatment by Low-Temperature Heat

Sludge is precipitated pollutants generated from the treatment of sewage. The reduction, stabilization, and harmless recycle of sludge have become one of the major social and environmental issues. Low-temperature heat treatment of sludge can take advantage of solar energy, heat pumps, and other renewable thermal energy as well as waste heat from industries. Furthermore, it can reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and the environmental pollution problems caused by high- or middle-temperature sludge treatment process which is above 100 °C. The application of low-temperature sludge heat treatment can not only achieve the reduction and recycle of sludge, but also reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the sludge treatment process which contributes to slow down global warming.

Qiu-Yun Zheng, Xin-Rong Zhang, Shuang Han

Chapter 15. Resourceful Treatment of Seawater Desalination or High Concentrated Sewage by Renewable Energy

With the development of modern agriculture and industry and population expansion, it is discovered that many countries and regions are not only in short of water resources, but also are faced with serious water pollution and the shortage of water resources by studying the status of water resources. Meanwhile with the increasing of energy consumption in the worldwide, the price of fossil energy is more high and the pressure on prices is only growing more intense. Nowadays, energy crisis has been a problem and attracting more attention. A large number of industrial waste heat and waste water or high concentrated sewage discharged to the environment in the global scope and causing the global environment change. It is an urgent task for us to effectively to prevent and control water pollution. At the same time, human beings’ economic development depends too much on non-renewable fossil energy, energy utilization rate is low in industrial production and a large amount of industrial waste heat or residual-heat is wasted, Energy consumption is not reasonable and the fossil energy becomes less and less and will go exhausted sooner or later. So researcher engineers and technicians should spent effort in wastewater treatment, seawater desalination and sewage purification technologies which can be driven by synergistic effect of industrial waste heat or residual-heat and renewable energy. How can we improve energy efficiency and make effort in the resourceful treatment of seawater desalination or high concentrated sewage by utilizing renewable energy such as energy from industrial waste heat, solar energy, and other forms of energy can be assembled arbitrarily? In this chapter we will give the possible answer how to solve this problem based on a possible combination of these techniques.

Xin-Rong Zhang, JiaTing Fu, Yong Liu

Chapter 16. Microbiological Assessment of Sewage Sludge in Terms of Use as a Fertilizer

Sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plant was examined for the existence of microorganisms of several major groups such as Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, E. coli, Clostridium perfringens, the genera Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, fungi, and the total number of microorganisms, in order to assess the epizootiological safety of the final product. In parallel similar study was made of composted cattle manure and a comparison of the results was made with the ready for manuring compost in order to assess the possibilities for the use of sludge for fertilizing. It was found that the examined sewage sludge were rich in microorganisms from studied groups and their direct application in soils without prior treatment is not recommended of epizootiological point of view. Methods of processing of sewage sludge should be consistent with epidemiological safety of the final products, but also be aimed at reducing the pollutants’ emissions released during the cycle of wastewater sludge, which contribute to global warming.

Teodora P. Popova, Botjo S. Zaharinov, Adelina Gentcheva, M. Pejtchinova, S. M. Marinova-Garvanska, Bayko D. Baykov

Chapter 17. Establishment of Changes in the System “Soil-Fertilizer-Plant” as a Result of Fertilization with Sludge from Wastewater Treatment Plant

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are based on natural processes and provide organic carbon, nutrients and pathogenic microorganisms from wastewater. Wastewater treatment generates significant amount of greenhouse gases mainly methane and nitrous oxide. Reducing these emissions from the treatment process and the contribution of the wastewater treatment (WWT) processes to global warming are major concerns. On the other hand, WWTPs allow recovering energy, and nutrients, thus the reuse of treated wastewater in developing and developed countries can be appropriated (Anastasios and Athanasia, Managing water resources under climate uncertainty, pp 197–220, 2015; Casey, Greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment plants get closer scrutiny. Scientific American, 2010; Gallaher, Global mitigation of non CO2 greenhouse gases. Section-III, Waste, 2006; Gupta and Singh, J Water Sustain 2(2):131–139, 2012; Plósz et al., Water Sci Technol 60(2):533–541, 2009) [1, 2, 7, 9, 28]. Under intensive use of chemical fertilizer, the balance of organic matter is disturbed and chemical and physical properties of soil are degraded. To maintain and improve soil fertility it is necessary to import organic fertilizer periodically. Incorporation of organic material contributes to the increase of soil organic matter and preserves the quality and quantity of soil nitrogen. The lack of organic fertilizers requires seeking of alternative options. Such reserve is sludge obtained during biological wastewater treatment. Despite the existence of legislation on the use of sludge in agricultural practice, there is still mistrust among farmers for their use. The aim of the study is to establish the changes in system “soil-fertilizer-plant” as a result of fertilization with sludge. In 2006 and 2007 on selected arrays of cultivated soils of Sofia region, sludge from WWTP—Kubratovo as soil improver, accordance with the legislation was imported. Crops are corn and sunflower. The rate of sludge was calculated on the basis of chemical analysis for nitrogen content, soil differences, requirements of crops, etc. In 2013 (after 5–6 years of cultivation) the same arrays are taken as average samples and analyzed for the same chemical properties. During the whole period in this area the chemical fertilizer is not imported. The results found that the use of sludge as a soil improver does not represent environmental risk and can be used in agricultural practice to maintain and improve soil fertility and crop yields, according to legal requirements

Elena Zlatareva, Svetla Marinova, Bayko Baykov, Totka Mitova, Vera Petrova, Viktor Kolchakov

Chapter 18. Agrochemical and Chemical Assessment of Waste from Livestock Farms

With the development of industrial farming a number of problems occur. One of these is pollution of soil, water and environment by improper storage and usage of manure. The great difficulties create liquid manure generated during water cleaning of the premises. In our country, many livestock farms are left without technology solutions for storage and use of manure, this may lead to environment pollution. Increase of the concentrations of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide—CO2, methane—CH4 and nitrous oxides—N2O) has been observed since the end of the nineteenth century. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the global average temperature of the land surface has risen by 0.4–0.8 °C for the last 100 years due to the increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (CO2 emissions by 29 %, CH4 emissions by 150 % and N2O emissions by 15 %) (Mitova and Petrova, International symposium INMATEH agricultural engineering, 2013; Thorne, Environ Health Perspect 115:296–297, 2007; Topping,, 2007) [15, 31, 32]. The FAO found that the animal agriculture sector emits 18 %, or nearly one-fifth, of human-induced GHG emissions, more than the transportation sector (Proorocu et al., Bull USAMV Agric 67(2), 2010; Silverstein, Energy Biz Insider, 2007; Steinfeld et al., Livestock’s long shadow: environmental issues and options. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United 314 Nations, Rome, 2006; Storck, More farms find unlikely power source: manure., 2007) [25–27, 29]. In order to reduce the pollutant effect of livestock and reduction of greenhouse gases is necessary to carry out properly storage and recovery of waste from animal farming. Waste management from livestock is related to their location, the cleaning of the premises, characteristics, availability of enough space in the area, periods of storage, utilization of manure, etc. The aim of this study is to analyze and evaluate the manure from livestock farms in the region of Veliko Tarnovo and recommend technology solutions for proper utilization, to reduce pollution and gas emissions into the atmosphere. Fourteen farms in Veliko Tarnovo region were surveyed. The comparative agrochemical, chemical and environmental assessment of stayed and fresh manure, found that the greatest nutritional value has poultry manure, followed by pig and cattle manure. Poultry manure is highly concentrated and fast-acting. Depending on the way of cleaning, we recommended technology solutions for proper storage and use of manure for each farm.

Svetla Marinova, Dimitranka Sticheva, Elena Zlatareva, Vera Petrova, Viktor Kolchakov

Methods and Techniques


Chapter 19. Super Clean Marine Diesel Engines with Nonthermal Plasma Aftertreatment Technology

Diesel engine is an attractive energy conversion device that emits low CO2 from the viewpoint of the global warming and is widely used for various industries. The problem is that the emission contains air pollutants such as NOx and particulate matter. Regulations governing marine diesel engine NOx emissions have recently become more stringent. As it is difficult to fulfill these requirements by combustion improvements alone, effective aftertreatment technologies are needed to achieve efficient NOx reductions. In this study, we develop an effective NOx reduction aftertreatment system for a marine diesel engine that employs combined nonthermal plasma (NTP) and adsorption. Compared with selective catalytic reduction, the proposed technology offers the advantages of not requiring a urea solution or harmful heavy-metal catalysts and low operating temperatures of less than 150 °C. The NOx reduction comprises repeated adsorption and desorption flow processes using NTP combined with NOx adsorbents made of MnOx–CuO. High concentrations of NOx are treated by NTP after NOx adsorption and desorption, and this aftertreatment system demonstrates excellent energy efficiencies of 161 g(NO2)/kWh, which fulfills the most recent International Maritime Organization emission NOx standards in the Tier II to III regulations for 2016 and requires only 4.3 % of the engine output power.

Takuya Kuwahara, Masaaki Okubo

Chapter 20. Natural Convection Supercritical Fluid Systems for Geothermal, Heat Transfer, and Energy Conversion

Natural convective flow of supercritical fluids has become a hot topic in engineering applications. Natural circulation thermosyphon (or NCL: natural circulation loop) using supercritical/transcritical CO2 can be a potential choice for effectively transportation of heat and mass without pumping devices. This chapter presents a series of numerical/experimental investigations into the fundamental features in a supercritical/transcritical CO2 based natural circulation loop systems as well as possible applications and innovations in engineering fields. New heat transport model aiming at transcritical thermosyphon heat transfer and stability is proposed with supercritical/transcritical turbulence model incorporated. The effects from various system parameters, operation conditions, accident analysis, apparatus developments as well as control strategies are also included with detailed explanations in this chapter. It is clearly found that such novel fluids and systems would be one promising candidate for future development of energy solutions to global warming issues.

Lin Chen, Xin-Rong Zhang

Chapter 21. Numerical Analysis of Air Flow Around a Hot Water Radiator for Its Structure Improvement

Hot water radiators are widely used for indoor heating mainly in North China and a large quantity of fossil fuels are needed for heating energy use every year. Therefore, it is important to analyze thoroughly the characteristic of this type of radiators in order to reduce energy use and associated carbon emissions in the building sector of China. Improper design of heating radiator results in excessive energy consumption with uneven temperature distribution, and dust mark on the wall may occur. For the purpose of energy saving and carbon emission reduction, the numerical simulation of the heat transfer and air flow around radiators within heating rooms is necessary to understand the reason for this dust mark and furthermore to modify the radiator configuration. In this paper, the two-dimensional and three-dimensional models were set up, in which both the Navier–Stokes equations and energy equations were solved by using FLUENT® software, with the standard κ-ε turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm. By analysis of the indoor air velocity field and the distribution of temperature field, the influence on fine dust particles distribution due to air flow around the radiator was discussed to explain the cause of dust formation. Then, the external structure of the radiator was modified to change the flow field patterns using numerical simulation, and consequently to minimize the dust formation for energy reduction and improve indoor beautiful appearance.

Juan Wang, Zhanyong Li, Ruifang Wang, Qing Xu, Wei Tian, Miaomiao Li

Chapter 22. Sustainability Assessment of a Turboprop Engine: Exergy-Based Method

Sustainable energy utilization is a necessary to reduce environmental impact and combat global warming in twenty-first century. For this purpose, sustainability parameters of a turboprop engine are presented with exergetic approach in this study. At first, commonly used sustainability assessment methods are summarized. Then, fundamentals of exergy analysis and sustainability terms are explained in details. After all, a turboprop engine is evaluated from this viewpoint to exemplify the explained methodology. As a result of the component based exergy analysis, exergy efficiency of the air compressor, combustion chamber, gas turbine and power turbine are found to be 87.04 %, 74.50 %, 89.0 % and 92.23 %, respectively, whereas exergy efficiency of the overall engine is 38.09 %. In the sustainable framework; waste exergy ratio, recoverable exergy rate, exergy destruction factor, environmental effect factor and exergetic sustainability index of the overall engine are found to be in order of 0.43, 0.00, 0.20, 4.38 and 0.23.

Yasin Şöhret, M. Ziya Sogut, Onder Turan, T. Hikmet Karakoc

Chapter 23. Exergy Approach to Evaluate Performance of a Mini Class Turboprop Engine

In this chapter, performance assessment of a mini class turboprop engine is presented. Exergy analysis is used for this purpose on the basis of applicability on thermal systems. As a result of the component-based exergy analysis, relative irreversibility of the combustion chamber is higher relatively. Exergy destruction rates within the air compressor, combustion chamber and gas turbine components are 24.08 kW, 100.76 kW and 15.80 kW respectively. Additionally, exergy efficiencies of the components are 74.11, 69.68 and 98.99 % in order of air compressor, combustion chamber and gas turbine.

Kahraman Coban, Yasin Şöhret, M. Ziya Sogut, Onder Turan, T. Hikmet Karakoc

Chapter 24. The Efficient Use of the Water Resources and the Global Warming: The Case of North Cyprus “Water of Peace Project”

The island of Cyprus has always been in a very critical geography and recently the changing strategic relations in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East has further increased the importance of this beautiful island. Recently, a strategic step has been taken by the Turkish government to transport water from Turkey to the North Cyprus. For decades, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) has been fighting with the water shortages, which also negatively influenced its agricultural production and economic development. The impact of the un-ending economic embargos on this part of the island by international community has been further exacerbated with the lack of sufficient water resources in the past decades. The recent move by the Turkish government includes building of a dam in the South-eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey (Alaköprü Dam) and the transfer of the water resources of a major river to the island by pipelines to be built under sea, floating at the depth of 250 m. It is anticipated that the project will meet the TRNC’s water needs in the next 50 years. Undoubtedly, water is a crucial resource for all the countries of the region (and the mankind) and it is predicted that in the near future it can be as important as oil and gas reserves. This unique and innovative project in Northern Cyprus may inspire several similar endeavours in the region in future. Additionally, the water provision to the relatively poorer North Cyprus may change the political dynamics of the island, as it will be a catalyst for its economic development. Furthermore, the improper use of the water resources create several environmental problems and leads to global warming and draught, particularly in the Middle East, North Africa, and Asia; and because of that the scientific analysis of the Turkish government’s “Water of Peace” project in TRNC is extremely important. In this context, this chapter first assesses the potential impact of the project on the ecology, climate, agriculture, economy and politics of the island. Subsequently, at the macro level, the project’s potential impact on the efficient use of the world’s water resources (and the global warming) is studied. Here, the research has shown that the project will increase the water resources of the island and thus positively influence its habitat. Furthermore, the humidity will also increase and thus precipitation will rise. The efficient use of potable water in a needy geography will partially eliminate the negative impact of the global warming on the region. Also, the necessary energy consumption for producing potable and irrigation water (possibly from the Sea) will cease to exist and this will positively influence the slowing down of global warming. Additionally, the potential—environment friendly—electricity production with the transported water (without necessitating a major dam or nuclear power plant) will solve the energy problem of the island and also positively influence the slowing down of the global warming. Finally, the project comparison with the “South East Anatolia Irrigation and Electricity Production Project of Turkey” is also made. In analyzing the TRNC “Water of Peace Project,” the potential risks and the maintenance requirements of the project, its engineering and design are also analyzed.

Munir Suner, Levent Kırval

Chapter 25. Investigation and Analysis of New Energy Technology Application Status in Beijing—Water Source Heat Pump System

Because of impact of climate change, limitation of resource, high cost of buildings, the energy conservation has became the important content in the buildings energy strategy of every country in the world. Therefore, considering the application of renewable energy such as water source heat pump systems in the construction field is necessary, which can effectively reduce the consumption of energies and will produce large economic benefit and environmental benefit while satisfying the living comfortableness required by the users. In reducing CO2 emissions, ease global warming, implementing energy conservation, and emissions reduction has achieved good effect. This paper begin with the principle and characters of water source heat pump technology and the needs of energy and environmental in Beijing area. Based on the analysis of previous data, we summarize that the water source heat pump in Beijing overall to underground water based, and gradually to the soil source, sewage and reclaimed water source heat pump system development, and presents the regional distribution characteristics. Second, we evaluate operate effect of the water source heat pump, and show out that the advantages of it, which is in the aspects of energy conservation and emission reduction, economic, improve energy structure, and any others. Third, we point out that the water source heat pump development in Beijing still exist problems. In the last, put forward the suggestions so as to further clarify the application of water source heat pump development direction in Beijing and it has a good application prospect.

Li Zhou, Sun Juan

Chapter 26. Analysis of the Thermal Effect About Groundwater Flowing to the Nest of Tubes Heat Transfer

Traditional way of heating is mainly by high grade fossil energy, as a device which consume part of high energy, heat pump can lead the heat flow from low temperature heat source to high temperature heat source as reported by Li (Conserv Environ Prot 11:66–67, 2004) [1], which is the most economic and effective technology to reduce CO2 emissions, is one of the key technology of building energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions. With the large-scale application of soil source coupling heat pump, the influence factors are also appeared. Accordingly, the effect of the groundwater flow on nest of tubes heat transfer performance is especially obvious. This paper simulated the fluid in the tube,the nest of tubes,the surrounding soil under storage conditions, based on the nest of tubes of heat seepage coupling heat transfer model. This paper studied the influences of groundwater seepage to the heat of nest of tubes, at the same time make a comparison to the no seepage condition. It shows that groundwater seepage compared to no seepage condition can effectively reduce the outlet temperature of the buried pipe. In the 80–400 m/y seepage velocity range, unit well depth in heat changes linearly with the seepage flow velocity roughly. If the seepage velocity is 500 m/y, its unit well depth in heat increases about 79.73 %. In the system design; we should consider this influence factor. Otherwise, there will be a great bias. When considering seepage factor, the heat transfer rate of per unit length increase, so we can reduce the design capacity, and thus make the system better and save the resources.

Zongwei Han, Jun Yang, Min Lin, Yanhong Zhang

Chapter 27. Hydraulic Characteristics of the Francis Turbine with Various Groove Shapes of Draft Tube

The small hydropower is a renewable energy technology, because the energy resource ‘falling water’ is replenishable as the fuel (falling water) is part of the hydrological cycle. This technology is being a form of renewable energy with no gaseous emissions, the small hydropower systems are among the options for climate change mitigation and therefore, they are candidates for international carbon trading opportunities such as the Clean Development Mechanism. The draft tube is an important component of a Francis turbine which is one of the small hydropower systems, influences the hydraulic performance. Moreover, as the swirl flow in the draft tube of the Francis turbine decreases pressure at the inlet region, the suppression of swirl flow can be a useful method of minimizing the occurrence of cavitation. In this study, the flow characteristics in a Francis turbine on the 15 MW hydropower generations have been investigated numerically with various shapes of draft tube. Numerical analysis was conducted by using the commercial code, ANSYS CFX. Results showed that the grooved model has relatively uniform distribution of pressure field compared with basic model. Hence, the stability of flow is enhanced, which may attribute to the suppression of draft surge and cavitation.

Hyeon-Seok Seo, Jae-Won Kim, Youn-Jea Kim

Energy Storage


Chapter 28. Progress in Sorption Thermal Energy Storage

There are various ways for thermal energy storage, such as sensible, latent, sorption, and chemical reaction. Sensible thermal energy storage and latent thermal energy storage are already in use. However, the drawbacks of bulk size (small energy storage density) and the strict requirement for thermal insulation have hindered their wide applications. Sorption and thermochemical reactions used for thermal energy storage have been considered as a future great potential product for thermal energy storage of solar energy, waste heat. or even electric heating, etc. The market thus needs such a “thermal battery,” which should be with a variety of kWhs capacities. Several key challenges remain in the way of the development of an efficient sorption thermal battery: sorption materials with high storage density and low cost, sorption bed with good heat and mass transfer to ensure charging power and discharging power, being stable after repeated cycles, minimum heat capacity ratio between the inert materials to the sorption thermal energy; control of the output temperature and power to meet the use demand. In this chapter, recent progress in sorption thermal energy storage, including materials, systems, and demonstrations, were described. The detailed future researches and developing maps were also discussed.

N. Yu, R. Z. Wang, T. X. Li, L. W. Wang

Chapter 29. Mitigating Global Warming by Thermal Energy Storage

The use of fossil fuel facilitates the economic development of society, yet brings about global warming that put much of the world population at risk. Governments and organizations are seeking ways to mitigate the anomaly of the atmosphere temperature. Thermal energy storage is one of them. It can not only make use of low-grade heat during electricity production, but also adjusts the mismatch between energy demand and supply. Here, a detailed description on the mechanism and technology status of thermal energy storage is given. Comparison on the industrial complexity of different storage methods is discussed. Some prototype in different countries with efficiency evaluation is also presented. It is expected that after system optimization and cost control, thermal energy storage can significantly improve the efficiency of energy utilization.

Ruqiang Zou, Xinyu Huang

Chapter 30. Enhance the Wind Power Utilization Rate with Thermal Energy Storage System

A novel thermal energy storage system that can store large amounts of wind power by high temperature phase change materials (PCMs) has been developed. Wind power is growing rapidly due to the global environmental concern regarding green and clean energy. However, the extent of concerns become greater of wind curtailed loss due to insufficient transmission capacity, which contributes to serious wind power curtailment and reduction in economic benefits of wind farms. Large-scale thermal energy storage provides a solution to enhance wind power utilization. On the basis of high thermal capacity PCMs and cogeneration technologies, the uncertain wind power is converted into thermal energy, which can be stored in thermal energy storage. An optimized storage system and heat/electric cogeneration system is designed for wind power system. The stored thermal energy can be used for residents, such as hot water, heating, etc. In particular, it can satisfy heating demands such as household heating in the north of china. This system could be used instead of conventional heating boilers and reduce fossil fuel consumption.

Yi Jin, Pengxiang Song, Bo Zhao, Yongliang Li, Yulong Ding

Chapter 31. A Review of PCM Energy Storage Technology Used in Buildings for the Global Warming Solution

The phase change material (PCM) using in buildings, a significant technology for the global warming solution, has received considerable attention over the last decade. PCM depending on the phase state change can passively store the solar energy or excess heats as latent heat and release the heats to the indoor environment within a specific temperature range, leading to building energy consumption reducing, and indoor thermal comfort enhancing by smoothing indoor temperature fluctuations. They can also be coupled using with active building energy supply systems to increase the system efficiency and shift peak loads. This study has reviewed the state-of-the-art PCM applications in buildings found on the researches and markets. First, PCM classification, PCM thermal properties, PCM study, and selection methods have been introduced. Second, PCM passively used in building envelops, inclusive of PCM wall, PCM roof, PCM floor, PCM concrete, PCM gypsum board, PCM window, and so on, have been detailedly analyzed. Thirdly, PCM coupled with active system, such as PCM and solar energy hot water/air systems, PCM and floor heating system, PCM and GSHP system, and PCM and air condition and ventilation system, etc., have been extendedly reviewed. Lastly, the potential further researched area for PCM used in buildings has also been presented in conclusion.

Shilei Lu, Yiran Li, Xiangfei Kong, Bo Pang, Yafei Chen, Shaoqun Zheng, Linwei Sun

Energy Integration and Management


Chapter 32. Transition Engineering

Change Projects for the Energy Transition

We cannot predict the future. However, we know that development in this century will be different from the last, and the fundamental problem will be energy. World consumption and population growth have been accompanied by growth in total energy supply, and by improvements in productivity and efficiency. More than 90 % of current energy supply is fossil hydrocarbons, finite resources that produce a potent green house gas, CO2. Resource, environmental and social limits to growth have been studied since the 1970s, and a wide range of factors indicate that the drivers of growth in the previous century are slowing [1]. The energy transition is the only realistic approach to mitigating the most destructive climate impacts of increased green house gas concentrations [2].

Susan P. Krumdieck

Chapter 33. Optimal Operation of a Self-regulating Smart Distribution System with Wind Energy Integration and Demand Response

As an integral part of a smart grid, the smart distribution system is an important concept that employs advanced communication, control and information technologies to manage and optimize the resources of a feeder in order to (1) improve energy efficiency and customer power consumption patterns, (2) increase penetration and storage of Renewable Energy (RE) thereby decreasing GHG emissions, and (3) enable markets, consumer motivation, and participation. For electrical distribution systems and demand-side management, demand response (DR) control is an emerging concept to manage customer power consumption patterns in response to system operation conditions, and to minimize (or provide) system ancillary services while maintaining customer-side comfortable usage requirements. Reliable bidirectional smart grid communications and customer’s grid-friendly participation provide new opportunities that enable DR to be employed to optimize grid operation utilizing the energy storage capability of modern homes via control of heat pumps and, in the near future, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Considering the complex interactions between an electrical distribution network and grid resources, in a quasi-steady-state simulation environment, optimal operation and management requires robust global optimization techniques that also incorporate distribution load flow simulations to optimally integrate RE generation, loads and corresponding DR control strategy. System power loss reduction was selected as an objective for the optimal distribution load flow optimization and the optimization process simulates load calculations and demand-side DR resource control. Residential heat pumps with thermal energy storage were chosen as typical DR resources to help regulate system power balance. An advanced metamodel-based global optimization (MBGO) search tool, recently presented, named space exploration and unimodal region elimination (SEUMRE) algorithm, was applied to determine minimum system power losses and optimal DR resources operation to offset wind fluctuations. This MBGO tool solves complex global design optimization problems with black-box objective/constraint functions and is ideally suited to this complex, computationally intensive application. The optimal control solution was compared with the unoptimized results to show the benefit of the proposed advanced optimizer. The inability to achieve an optimized solution and the poor computational efficiency of conventional optimization approaches in identifying the correct global optimum are also illustrated.

Adel Younis, Trevor Williams, Dan Wang, Zuomin Dong, Curran Crawford, Ned Djilali

Chapter 34. Greenization Factor as a Sustainability Measure for Energy Systems

In this study, both utilization and importance of a greenization factor are emphasized. This factor is defined based on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of greenized energy system with respect to the base case of the reference system. Energy system with greenization factor of 1 reflect a fully greenized system with no or minimum negative environmental impact, when greenization factor of 0 indicates the reference system. The usefulness of greenization factor is demonstrated through a case study of a steam Rankine power plant for which various options of system greenization are assessed and compared based on greenization factor criterion. Exergy efficiency, improvement potential and exergetic sustainability index are also used in the comparative assessment. It is concluded that greenization factor can play a relevant role for energy system assessment in view of environmental impact reduction, greenhouse gas emission reduction and improved sustainability. This will definitely contribute to identification and promotion of those solutions which lead to global warming effect reduction.

Rami S. El-Emam, Ibrahim Dincer, Calin Zamfirescu

Chapter 35. Home Energy Management Systems: A Review of Modelling and Complexity

Innovations in the residential sector are required to reduce environmental impacts, as the sector is a contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The increasing demand for electricity and the emergence of smart grids have presented new opportunities for home energy management systems (HEMS) in demand response markets. HEMS are demand response tools that shift and curtail demand to improve the energy consumption and production profile of a dwelling on behalf of a consumer. HEMS usually create optimal consumption and productions schedules by considering multiple objectives such as energy costs, environmental concerns, load profiles and consumer comfort. The existing literature has presented several methods, such as mathematical optimization, model predictive control and heuristic control, for creating efficient operation schedules and for making good consumption and production decisions. However, the effectiveness of the methods in the existing literature can be difficult to compare due to diversity in modelling parameters, such as appliance models, timing parameters and objectives. The present chapter provides a comparative analysis of the literature on HEMS, with a focus on modelling approaches and their impact on HEMS operations and outcomes. In particular, we discuss a set of HEMS challenges such as forecast uncertainty, modelling device heterogeneity, multi-objective scheduling, computational limitations, timing considerations and modelling consumer well-being. The presented work is organized to allow a reader to understand and compare the important considerations, approaches, nomenclature and results in prominent and new literary works without delving deeply into each one.

Marc Beaudin, Hamidreza Zareipour

Chapter 36. The Micro-cogeneration and Emission Control and Related Utilization Field

Micro-cogeneration is a developed technology aiming to produce electricity and heat close to the final users, with the potential, if designed and operated correctly, to reduce both the primary energy consumption as well as the associated greenhouse gas emissions when compared to traditional energy supply systems based on separate energy production. The distributed nature of this generation technology has the additional advantages of (i) reducing electrical transmission and distribution losses, (ii) alleviating the peak demands on the central power plants, and (iii) diversifying the electrical energy production, thus improving the security of energy supply. Micro-cogeneration devices are used to meet both electrical requirements and heat demands (for space heating and/or hot water production) of a building; they can be also combined with small-scale thermally fed or mechanically/electrically driven cooling systems. Many micro-cogeneration units are already commercialized in different countries (such as Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, etc.) and in recent years several researches have been carried out in order to advance the design, operation, and analysis of this technology. Currently the use of commercial micro-cogeneration units in applications such as hospitals, leisure facilities, hotels, or institutional buildings is well established. The residential cogeneration industry is in a rapid state of development; the market remains not fully mature, but interest in the technology from manufacturers, energy utilities, and government agencies remains strong.

Antonio Rosato, Sergio Sibilio, Giovanni Angrisani, Michele Canelli, Carlo Roselli, Maurizio Sasso, Francesco Tariello

Chapter 37. Coping with Global Warming: Compliance Issue Compliance Mechanisms Under MEAs

The main aim of this paper is to discuss the potential role of ensuring compliance to struggle against the challenges of global warming. For this purpose, a detailed examination on the ways of ensuring compliance is made under two dimensions: traditional and new means of dealing with compliance problems under multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). In this respect, in the paper, firstly the traditional means and their limitations in ensuring compliance are studied on. In the second part, it is focused on the basic features of the new means—Compliance Mechanisms (CMs)—making them more preferable to invoke in the eyes of the MEAs’ parties. Third, their three main components, namely,—gathering information, procedures/institutional structure and responses—are examined on the basis of their potential weaknesses undermining the efforts to ensure compliance giving examples from CMs under Montreal Protocol and under Kyoto Protocol. Finally, based on the findings, it is argued that, although the traditional means have important weaknesses in ensuring compliance of parties with their commitments under MEAs, these new means have also some weaknesses and so they require improvement for better compliance to cope with the problems of global warming more efficiently.

Zerrin Savaşan


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