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Über dieses Buch

The editors provide a roadmap for preserving biodiversity despite the threats of energy sprawl. Their strategy—development by design—brings together companies, communities, and governments to craft blueprints for sustainable land development. This commonsense approach identifies and preemptively sets aside land where biodiversity can thrive while consolidating development in areas with lower biodiversity value. This approach makes sense for energy industries and governments, which can confidently build sustainability into their energy futures.



A Glimpse into Future Sprawl


Chapter 1. Geography of Risk

Human populations have a tendency to sprawl. Just look out the plane window as you leave any airport and you will likely see a city blending with agricultural fields for miles. With the aid of satellite imagery, this pattern can be witnessed on a global scale, revealing that urban and agricultural areas now make up over 40 percent of the Earth’s land surface. Sprawl is also a critical issue for the energy sector. Energy sprawl is the product of the amount of energy produced and the land-use intensity of production. Production is the terawatt hours per year of energy and intensity is the square kilometers of habitat given over to that production.
James Oakleaf, Christina M. Kennedy, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Joseph M. Kiesecker

Chapter 2. Challenges of a Green Future

In the book Nature’s Economy, the intellectual historian and writer Donald Worster describes how humans’ view of nature has been bookended by two different intellectual traditions through the centuries: Arcadianism and imperialism. The idea of Arcadia is inspired by humans’ desire to live in harmony with nature, while imperialism represents the equally human urge to dominate it. Most of us are torn between the two, dreaming about and striving for harmony with nature, yet in our actions we are utter imperialists.
Gert Jan Kramer

Solutions for Reducing Energy Sprawl


Chapter 3. Energy Sprawl and Wildlife Conservation

North American wildlife conservation in the twentieth century often progressed under the implicit assumption that full recovery and conservation of species was possible. In the twenty-first century, society’s increased energy demands are a wake-up call to facilitate conservation in the face of massive new development objectives. These two case studies from the sagebrush and boreal ecosystems of North America illustrate the benefits of proactive, rather than retrospective, conservation planning using triage frameworks.
Mark Hebblewhite

Chapter 4. Win-Win for Wind and Wildlife

Throughout the world, countries are planning how to satisfy growing energy demands and, in the shadow of an increasingly changing climate, how to advance alternatives to fossil fuels. The International Energy Agency’s 2040 forecast predicts renewable energy generation reaching 17,970 terawatt hours (51 percent of global electricity demand), with a significant portion of that coming from a tenfold increase in wind energy. In the United States, the world’s largest cumulative producer of greenhouse gases, federal and state renewable energy policies moved forward rapidly, culminating in the Department of Energy’s (DOE) vision for 35 percent of the United States’s electricity generation from wind by 2050—we’ll refer to this as the “DOE vision.”
Joseph M. Kiesecker, Jeffrey S. Evans, Kei Sochi, Joe Fargione, Dave Naugle, Kevin Doherty

Chapter 5. Solar Energy Development and Regional Conservation Planning

Solar energy development has experienced rapid growth across the world, with a cumulative total of nearly 230 gigawatts (GW) of photovoltaic solar energy generating capacity installed by the end of 2015. Utility-scale projects (those greater than 20 megawatts) have largely shifted toward photovoltaic (PV) systems, away from an earlier preference for concentrated solar power technology owing to the rapid decline in the cost of photovoltaic technology. Storing the energy generated by PV is a challenge because cost-effective battery technology is still in its early stages of development. Despite this limitation, PV has its advantages: it can generate electricity in a broader range of conditions than concentrated solar and is highly scalable.
D. Richard Cameron, Laura Crane, Sophie S. Parker, John M. Randall

Chapter 6. Planning for Offshore Oil

The long shadow cast by British Petroleum’s 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, perhaps the largest environmental disaster wrought by the petroleum industry to date, brings into question the calculation of costs against gains earned from offshore oil and gas drilling. Truthfully, however, the question is moot. Today’s industrial nations depend on oil. The inevitable shift of balance away from fossil fuels toward renewables is likely decades away. In the interim, fossil fuels will remain an important part of the energy mix driving global development.
Eduardo Klein, Juan José Cardenas, Roger Martínez, Juan Carlos González, Juan Papadakis, Kei Sochi, Joseph M. Kiesecker

Chapter 7. Energy and Ecosystem Services in Latin America

Three major trends are on a collision course in Latin America: growth in the energy sector, increasing national support for nature, and strong movements for equality and indigenous rights. Surprisingly, accounting for ecosystem services in energy development could help settle this building storm.
Heather Tallis

Chapter 8. Biofuels Expansion and Environmental Quality in Brazil

Rising energy demands, volatile oil prices, and concerns about climate change have led countries to look for alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels, or fuels produced from organic matter, have been embraced as a promising alternative to oil, because in principle they can lower carbon emissions, enhance domestic energy security, and revitalize rural economies. More than sixty countries have biofuel targets or mandates, which have led global production to grow from 16 to 120 billion liters over the last decade.
Christina M. Kennedy, Peter L. Hawthorne, Kei Sochi, Daniela A. Miteva, Leandro Baumgarten, Elizabeth M. Uhlhorn, Joseph M. Kiesecker

Chapter 9. Sustainable Energy and Healthy Rivers

We know that the world must develop energy systems that support healthy, prosperous lives for people, allow the world to remain within safe climate boundaries, and accomplish those goals without causing unacceptable impacts on ecosystems and their services, vulnerable communities, and irreplaceable natural values. Hydropower is a clear illustration of this central challenge and opportunity.
Jeff J. Opperman

Making Best Practice Common Practice


Chapter 10. Policies, Practices, and Pathways for Sustainable Energy

In part I of this book, we provided an overview of the challenges for meeting future energy demand, demonstrating that regardless of the future energy mix, energy sprawl will be significant and likely lead to land-use conflict. In part II we highlighted best-practice options for reducing this conflict, offering innovative solutions to improve the future energy footprint. Now in this chapter we turn our attention to steps that establish those best practices as common practice for achieving sustainable energy landscapes that meet energy, economic, social, and environmental goals.
Linda Krueger, Bruce McKenney, Graham Watkins, Amal-Lee Amin

Chapter 11. The Last Word

Wrapping up, we reflect on our three primary motivations for writing this book:
Joseph M. Kiesecker, David E. Naugle


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Die Entwicklung des mitteleuropäischen Energiesystems und insbesondere die Weiterentwicklung der Energieinfrastruktur sind konfrontiert mit einer stetig steigenden Diversität an Herausforderungen, aber auch mit einer zunehmenden Komplexität in den Lösungsoptionen. Vor diesem Hintergrund steht die Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen symbolisch für das ganze sich in einer Umbruchsphase befindliche Energiesystem: denn der Notwendigkeit einer Schaffung und Bildung der Hybridnetze aus systemischer und volkswirtschaftlicher Perspektive steht sozusagen eine Komplexitätsfalle gegenüber, mit der die Branche in der Vergangenheit in dieser Intensität nicht konfrontiert war. Jetzt gratis downloaden!