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Über dieses Buch

Readers of this work will find examinations of the current status and future status for energy sources and technologies, their environmental interactions and the relevant global energy policies. The work begins with an overview of Energy Technologies for a Sustainable Future, which examines the correlation between population, economy and energy consumption in the past, and reviews the conventional and renewable energy sources as well as the management of them to sustain the ever-growing energy demand in the future. The rest of the chapters are divided into 3 parts; the first part of the book, “Energy Sources, Technologies and Environment”, consists of 12 chapters, which include research on new energy technologies and evaluation of their environmental effects. The second part “Advanced Energy Materials” includes 7 chapters devoted to research on material science for new energy technologies. The final section titled “Energy Management, Economics and Policy” is comprised of 10 chapters about planning, controlling and monitoring energy related processes together with the policies to satisfy the needs of increasing population and growing economy. The chapters are selected works from the International Conference on Energy and Management, which was organized by Istanbul Bilgi University Department of Energy Systems Engineering and PALMET Energy to share the knowledge on the recent trends, scientific developments, innovations and management methods in energy, and held on 5–7th June 2014 at Istanbul Bilgi University.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. An Overview of Energy Technologies for a Sustainable Future

Population and the economic growth are highly correlated with the energy demand. The world population was multiplied by a factor of 1.59 (reaching above 7 billion) from 1980 to 2013, while the total energy consumption of the world was multiplied by 1.84 (getting beyond 155,000 TWh) in the same time interval. Furthermore, the demand for energy is expected to increase even more with an average annual rate of 1.2 % in the near future. However, for the last 30 years, about 85–90 % of the energy demand is supplied by petroleum, natural gas, and coal, even though they are harmful for the environment and estimated to be depleted soon. Hence, building energy policies to satisfy the needs of increasing population and growing economy in a sustainable, reliable, and secure fashion has become quite important. This may involve optimizing the energy supplies, minimizing the environmental costs, promoting the utilization of clean and renewable energy resources and diversifying the type of energy sources. Thus, not only the conventional energy generation technologies must be developed more, but also environmentally friendly alternative energy sources (such as wind, solar, geothermal, hydro, and bio) must become more widespread to sustain the energy needs for the future. However, this requires a significant amount of research on energy technologies and an effective management of the energy sources.
Ayse Nur Esen, Zehra Duzgit, A. Özgür Toy, M. Erdem Günay

Energy Sources, Technologies and Environment

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. Thermal Pollution Caused by Hydropower Plants

Thermal pollution is the change in the water temperatures of lakes, rivers, and oceans caused by man-made structures. These temperature changes may adversely affect aquatic ecosystems especially by contributing to the decline of wildlife populations and habitat destruction. Any practice that affects the equilibrium of an aquatic environment may alter the temperature of that environment and subsequently cause thermal pollution. There may be some positive effects, though, to thermal pollution, including the extension of fishing seasons and rebounding of some wildlife populations. Thermal pollution may come in the form of warm or cold water being dumped into a lake, river, or ocean. Increased sediment build-up in a body of water affects its turbidity or cloudiness and may decrease its depth, both of which may cause a rise in water temperature. Increased sun exposure may also raise water temperature. Dams may change a river habitat into a lake habitat by creating a reservoir (man-made lake) behind the dam. The reservoir water temperature is often colder than the original stream or river. The sources and causes of thermal pollution are varied, which makes it difficult to calculate the extent of the problem. Because the thermal pollution caused by Hydropower Plants (HPPs) may not directly affect human health, it is neglected in general. Therefore, sources and results of thermal pollution in HPPs are ignored in general. This paper aimed to reveal the causes and results of thermal pollution and measures to be taken in HPPs.
Alaeddin Bobat

Chapter 3. Comparing Spatial Interpolation Methods for Mapping Meteorological Data in Turkey

Determining the potentials of the renewable energy sources provides realistic assumptions on useful utilization of the energy. Wind speed  and solar radiation are the main meteorological data used in order to estimate renewable energy potential. Stated data is considered as point source data since it is collected at meteorological stations. However, meteorological data can only be significant when it is represented by surfaces. Spatial interpolation methods help to convert point source data into raster surfaces by estimating the missing values for the areas where data is not collected. Besides the purpose, the total number of data points, their location, and their distribution within the study area affect the accuracy of interpolation. This study aims to determine optimum spatial interpolation method for mapping meteorological data in northern part of Turkey. In this context, inverse distance weighted (IDW), kriging, radial basis, and natural neighbor interpolation methods were chosen to interpolate wind speed and solar radiation measurements in selected study area. The cross-validation technique was used to determine most efficient interpolation method. Additionally, accuracy of each interpolation method were compared by calculating the root-mean-square errors (RMSE). The results prove that the number of control points affects the accuracy of the interpolation. The second degree IDW (IDW2) interpolation method performs the best among the others. Thus, IDW2 was used for mapping meteorological data in northern Turkey.
Merve Keskin, Ahmet Ozgur Dogru, Filiz Bektas Balcik, Cigdem Goksel, Necla Ulugtekin, Seval Sozen

Chapter 4. Energy Storage with Pumped Hydrostorage Systems Under Uncertainty

Energy storage is becoming an important problem as the difference between supply and demand becomes sharper and the availability of energy resources is not possible all the time. A pumped hydrostorage system (PHSS) which is a special type of hydroelectric power plant can be used to store energy and to use the water more efficiently. When the energy demand and the energy price are high (peak hours), the water at upper reservoir is used to generate electricity and the water is stored in the lower reservoir. Revenue is gained from the power sale to the market. When the demand and the energy price are low (off-peak hours), the water at lower reservoir is pumped back to the upper reservoir. Cheap electricity is used to pump the water. The hourly market price and water inflow are uncertain. The main objective of a company is to find an operation schedule that will maximize its revenue. The hourly electricity prices and the water inflow to the reservoir are important parameters that determine the operation of the system. In this research, we present the working mechanism of the PHSS to store energy and to balance the load changes due to demand.
Ahmet Yucekaya

Chapter 5. Telelab with Cloud Computing for Smart Grid Education

As the demand for energy increases, the need to generate and distribute energy to the customers with greater efficiency also increases. Introduction of smart grids provides platform for the utilities to collect and analyze consumption data in real time. This helps them to define the generation profile and offer competitive energy prices to the customers. Customer on the other hand can use the knowledge of his own consumption profile to define and tune his energy usage. Education about smart grid environment which involves software, hardware devices, and network technologies for data collection and analysis is important for both utilities and customers. Research and development in Internet technologies promote remote laboratory as a cost-effective solution for users located across the globe. Cloud computing platform can further reduce costs involved in data storage and software used. This paper presents the idea of developing the remote laboratory located at South Westphalia University in Soest, Germany, further by integrating cloud computing and smart grid simulation environment. This will educate people across the globe by offering them hands on experience on smart grid technology and thus will contribute to the field of power engineering education.
Pankaj Kolhe, Berthold Bitzer

Chapter 6. A Decomposition Analysis of Energy-Related CO2 Emissions: The Top 10 Emitting Countries

Climate change, caused by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, is one of the hot topics all around the world. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion account for more than half of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions. The top 10 emitting countries accounted 65.36 % of the world carbon dioxide emissions in 2010. China was the largest emitter and generated 23.84 % of the world total. The objective of this study is to identify factors that contribute to changes in energy-related CO2 emissions in the top 10 emitting countries for the period 1971–2010. To this aim, a decomposition analysis has been employed. Decomposition analysis is a technique used to identify the contribution of different components of a specific variable. Here, four factors, namely population, per capita income, energy intensity, and carbon intensity, are differentiated. The results show that the economic activity effect and the energy intensity effect are the two biggest contributors to CO2 emissions for all countries with a few exceptions.
Aylin Çiğdem Köne, Tayfun Büke

Chapter 7. Turkey’s Electric Energy Needs: Sustainability Challenges and Opportunities

In order to satisfy its electric energy demand for the next 20 years (440–484 TWh projected demand for year 2020), Turkey has embarked on a series of major investment programs involving energy generation and distribution. A wide variety of energy generation projects are being implemented or will be executed in the near future involving nuclear, coal-, and natural gas-fired thermoelectric plants, combined cycle plants, hydroelectric dams, geothermal plants, and wind and solar energy farms. The engineering and scientific communities along with decision makers at the technical, financial, and political level are facing both, huge challenges (e.g., reduce energy dependence, financial feasibility, environmental protection, social acceptance, and resources management) and a once in a lifetime opportunity for improvement of the Turkey’s social welfare and the environment for several generations. This paper presents a view of some of these challenges and opportunities along with a review of the energy–water nexus from a holistic life cycle perspective. Furthermore, it explores different scenarios of technology integration in order to improve the sustainability of the electric energy generation matrix by the sustainable use of available resources and minimization of the carbon and environmental footprint of energy generation.
Washington J. Braida

Chapter 8. Shale Gas: A Solution to Turkey’s Energy Hunger?

The aim of this short analysis is to answer whether shale gas can be a sustainable solution to Turkey’s long-term energy needs. Turkey, with no significant hydrocarbon reserves of her own, is vulnerable to the risks and challenges associated with energy import dependency. Having a fast-growing natural gas demand has caused Turkey to undertake many gas import contracts. In 2013, 98 % of the natural gas consumption is imported. Globally increasing natural gas prices and volatile Turkish Lira/US Dollar exchange rate have a series of ramifications, including a substantial burden on national budget and balance of payments. It is crucial for Turkey to reduce the share of imports in energy and to develop domestic resources in order to avoid exposure to relevant risks. In short, Turkey needs gas supply security. However, conventional natural gas reserves of Turkey are far from meeting its needs. Shale gas, in this frame, emerges as a buoyant potential for secure future gas deliveries. Given the example of unconventional gas frenzy in the USA, Turkey is now discussed as a long-term candidate for shale gas production. This possibility triggers high hopes, as well as unsupported expectations. Shale gas production has a long list of requirements: distinct geological formations, concordant conditions in surrounding area, advanced exploration and production technology, and capital-intense investments. Even if these conditions are fulfilled, environmental challenges of this production method are yet to be addressed and tackled diligently. Turkey is still on exploration phase of shale gas experience. It will take Turkey at least another decade to meet the requirements for tangible results and to name the shale gas as an answer to its energy hunger.
Ilknur Yenidede Kozçaz

Chapter 9. Assessment of Adsorption Parameter Effectiveness for Radio-Selenium and Radio-Iodine Adsorption on Activated Carbon

Selenium and iodine are found in human body and primarily used in nutrition, and excess or absence of them can lead to diseases. Therefore, their possible dispersion to environment through mining and reprocessing of metals, combustion of coal and fossil fuel, nuclear accidents, or similar activities needs remediation. Adsorption is one of the useful techniques to remove pollutants. In this study, a factorial design is used to determine the effect of pH, concentration of adsorbate, and contact time upon adsorption. Adsorption capacities of radio-selenium and radio-iodine were evaluated for factorial design using activated carbons. The used activated carbon samples were prepared by chemical and physical activation methods. Radioactivity measurements were carried out by using high-resolution gamma spectroscopy system. Results of the research lead to provide useful information about energy generation and management processes by preventing hazardous elements’ dispersion to the environment.
A. Beril Tugrul, Nilgun Karatepe, Sevilay Haciyakupoglu, Sema Erenturk, Nesrin Altinsoy, Nilgun Baydogan, Filiz Baytas, Bulent Buyuk, Ertugrul Demir

Chapter 10. Assessment of Sustainable Energy Development

In this study, optimum solutions and action plans for sustainable energy development are discussed. Reduction of CO2 emission could be realized with increasing nuclear and renewable energy usage, and efficiencies on fuel, power, electricity, and fossil fuels. In here, “ecosystems approach” is vital importance. Worldwide cooperation is the most important with the concepts of 6 Cs (credibility, capability, continuity, creativity, consistency, and commitment). Therefore, it can be successfully developed on sustainability, sharing with public, strategy and culture, procedures and evaluation together with 6 Cs.
A. Beril Tugrul, Selahattin Cimen

Chapter 11. Geothermal Energy Sources and Geothermal Power Plant Technologies in Turkey

Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in Turkey. The highest enthalpy geothermal sources are located in Western Anatolia; thus, geothermal power generation projects have also been realized in Western Anatolia since 1984. The present installed gross capacity for electric power generation is 345 MWe from 11 geothermal power plants in 2014, while new 395 MWe of capacity is still under construction or projected at 19 geothermal fields and will be completed in 2016–2017. In Turkey, flash cycle power plants are situated in Kızıldere (Denizli) and Germencik (Aydın) geothermal fields because of over than 230 °C geothermal reservoir temperatures. There are two different geothermal power plants in Kızıldere geothermal field that one is 17.2 MWe single-flash system and the new one consists of 60 MWe triple-flash + 20 MWe binary cycle, as total 80 MWe capacity. In Germencik, 47.4 MWe double-flash geothermal power plant uses power generation. Except from these three geothermal power plants, binary cycle (organic Rankine cycle, ORC) plants use under 200 °C geothermal reservoir temperatures in all installed capacities in Western Anatolia. New geothermal reservoir studies are still under investigation for the eastern part of Turkey. Because of the lower reservoir temperature values at these regions, the possible power generation cycle may be required to binary system (Kalina cycle).
Fusun Servin Tut Haklidir

Chapter 12. Structural Health Monitoring of Multi-MW-Scale Wind Turbines by Non-contact Optical Measurement Techniques: An Application on a 2.5-MW Wind Turbine

Optical measurement systems utilizing photogrammetry and/or laser interferometry are introduced as cost-efficient alternatives to the conventional wind turbine/farm health-monitoring systems that are currently in use. The proposed techniques are proven to provide an accurate measurement of the dynamic behavior of a 2.5-MW, 80-m-diameter wind turbine. Several measurements are taken on the test turbine by using four CCD cameras and one laser vibrometer, and the response of the turbine is monitored from a distance of 220 m. The results of the infield tests show that photogrammetry (also can be called as computer vision technique) enables the 3-D deformations of the rotor to be measured at 33 different points simultaneously with an average accuracy of ±25 mm while the turbine is rotating. Several important turbine modes can also be extracted from the recorded data. Similarly, laser interferometry (used for the parked turbine) provides very valuable information on the dynamic properties of the turbine structure. Twelve different turbine modes can be identified from the obtained response data. The measurements enable the detection of even very small parameter variations that can be encountered due to the changes in operation conditions. Optical measurement systems are very easily applied on an existing turbine since they do not require any cable installations for power supply and data transfer in the structure. Placement of some reflective stickers on the blades is the only preparation that is necessary and can be completed within a few hours for a large-scale commercial wind turbine. Since all the measurement systems are located on the ground, a possible problem can be detected and solved easily. Optical measurement systems, which consist of several CCD cameras and/or one laser vibrometer, can be used for monitoring several turbines, which enables the monitoring costs of the wind farm to reduce significantly.
Muammer Ozbek, Daniel J. Rixen

Chapter 13. Stability Control of Wind Turbines for Varying Operating Conditions Through Vibration Measurements

Wind turbines have very specific characteristics and challenging operating conditions. Contemporary MW-scale turbines are usually designed to be operational for wind speeds between 4 and 25 m/s. In order to reach this goal, most turbines utilize active pitch control mechanisms where angle of the blade (pitch angle) is changed as a function of wind speed. Similarly, the whole rotor is rotated toward the effective wind direction by using the yaw mechanism. The ability of the turbine to adapt to the changes in operating conditions plays a crucial role in ensuring maximum energy production and the safety of the structure during extreme wind loads. This, on the other hand, makes it more difficult to investigate the system from dynamic analysis point of view. Unexpected resonance problems due to dynamic interactions among aeroelastic modes and/or excitation forces can always be encountered. Therefore, within the design wind speed interval, for each velocity increment, it has to be proven that there are no risks of resonance problems and that the structure is dynamically stable. This work aims at presenting the results of the dynamic stability analyses performed on a 2.5-MW, 80-m-diameter wind turbine. Within the scope of the research, the system parameters were extracted by using the in-operation vibration data recorded for various wind speeds and operating conditions. The data acquired by 8 strain gauges (2 sensors on each blade and 2 sensors on the tower) installed on the turbine were analyzed by using operational modal analysis (OMA) methods, while several turbine parameters (eigenfrequencies and damping ratios) were extracted. The obtained system parameters were then qualitatively compared with the results presented in a study from the literature, which includes both aeroelastic simulations and in-field measurements performed on a similar size and capacity wind turbine.
Muammer Ozbek, Daniel J. Rixen

Advanced Energy Materials

Frontmatter

Chapter 14. Evaluation of HFO-1234YF as a Replacement for R134A in Frigorific Air Conditioning Systems

The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the frigorific air conditioning system using HFO-1234yf and R-134a as a refrigerant. For this aim, an experimental frigorific air conditioning system using both refrigerants was developed and refrigerated air was introduced into a refrigerated room. The performance parameters determined were the change of the air temperature in the condenser inlet and time. The performance of frigorific air conditioning system has been evaluated by applying energy analysis. Experiments were conducted for a standard frigorific air conditioning system using the R134a as a refrigerant. Airflow has been introduced to the refrigerated room for 60 min for each performance test. From the result for both refrigerant, the temperature gradient in time was comparable. The HFO-1234yf refrigerant can use the standard frigorific air conditioning system that is currently being used by the R134a refrigerant, without any changes needing to be made.
Mehmet Direk, Cuneyt Tunckal, Fikret Yuksel, Ozan Menlibar

Chapter 15. Biodiesel Production Using Double-Promoted Catalyst CaO/KI/γ-Al2O3 in Batch Reactor with Refluxed Methanol

A benign process for biodiesel production has been developed using heterogeneous γ-alumina base as catalyst. This study was conducted using double-promoted catalyst CaO/KI/γ-Al2O3 to improve the activity of catalyst and this research was the first one which employs that kind of catalyst for biodiesel production. The preparation of the catalyst was conducted by precipitation and impregnation methods. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, and the ratio of oil to methanol on the yield of biodiesel were studied. The reactions were carried out in a batch-type reactor system which consists of three-neck glass flask with 1000-ml capacity equipped with reflux condenser and hot plate stirrer. Results showed that CaO/KI/γ-Al2O3 catalyst effectively increased the biodiesel yield about 1.5 times than that the single-promoted catalyst. The optimum condition for the production of biodiesel is as follows: the reaction temperature is 65 °C, the reaction time is 5 h, and the ratio of oil to methanol is 1:42. Under this optimum condition, the highest biodiesel yield of 95 % was obtained.
Nyoman Puspa Asri, Bambang Pujojono, Diah Agustina Puspitasari, S. Suprapto, Achmad Roesyadi

Chapter 16. I–V Characterization of the Irradiated ZnO:Al Thin Film on P-Si Wafers By Reactor Neutrons

ZnO:Al/p-Si heterojunctions were fabricated by solgel dip coating technique onto p-type Si wafer substrates. Al-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) thin film on p-Si wafer was irradiated by reactor neutrons at ITU TRIGA Mark-II nuclear reactor. Neutron irradiation was performed with neutron/gamma ratio at 1.44 × 104 (n cm−2 s−1 mR−1). The effect of neutron irradiation on the electrical characteristics of the ZnO:Al thin film was evaluated by means of current–voltage (I–V) characteristics for the unirradiated and the irradiated states. For this purpose, the changes of I–V characteristics of the unirradiated ZnO:Al thin films were compared with the irradiated ZnO:Al by reactor neutrons. The irradiated thin ZnO:Al film cell structure is appropriate for the usage of solar cell material which is promising energy material.
Emrah Gunaydın, Utku Canci Matur, Nilgun Baydogan, A. Beril Tugrul, Huseyin Cimenoglu, Serco Serkis Yesilkaya

Chapter 17. The Characteristic Behaviors of Solgel-Derived CIGS Thin Films Exposed to the Specific Environmental Conditions

This study was performed to determine the time effect on optical properties of solgel-derived Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films at the specific environmental conditions. For this purpose, solgel-derived CIGS thin films were exposed to a variety of environmental conditions at different steps of the production process from the preparation of solution to deposition of substrate. The optical properties of the CIGS thin films changed with the rise of time at the specific environmental conditions such as the increase of the aging time of solgel solution (from 18 to 35 days) and the rise of the annealing time of the thin film (from 15 to 60 min). The CIGS solution was aged with the rise of time to investigate the effect of the aging time on optical properties of the thin film. The films were deposited by aged colloidal solution which kept at −5 °C in a dark environment in order to extend the useful life of solution. The color of the colloidal solution changed slightly with the increase in the elapsed time after the preparation of the solution. The increase of the annealing time has affected the optical behaviors of the CIGS thin films with the changes of the surface morphology.
Utku Canci Matur, Sengul Akyol, Nilgun Baydogan, Huseyin Cimenoglu

Chapter 18. Effect of Curing Time on Poly(methacrylate) Living Polymer

Self-healing materials increase the reliability and life span of the overall systems that they are incorporated to. This capacity of the material enhances the credibility of the in-flight health assessment in aerospace platforms. Such platforms do not require visual or acoustic inspections to recover from the damages that occur during flight. This reduces the energy requirements associated with maintenance, replacement of parts, and off-line time. Poly(methacrylate) (PMMA) living polymer mixed with nanoparticles possesses miraculous properties such as minimized gas permeability, improved heat resistance, and boosted physical performance. In this study, PMMA is synthesized by the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method and the mechanical properties of the material have been manipulated by changing the curing time. The effects of curing time on mechanical properties are examined by the stereomicroscope images and Shore D hardness tests satisfying ASTM D785 test standards.
Tayfun Bel, Nilgun Baydogan, Huseyin Cimenoglu

Chapter 19. Effects of Production Parameters on Characteristic Properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Film Derived by Solgel Process

Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films were obtained by solgel method on soda-lime glass substrates, economically. The optimum optical properties of CIGS thin films are obtained by varying the film layers. Besides, the solgel-derived CIGS thin films were thermally treated at different temperatures from 135 °C up to 200 °C. These results indicate that the transparent CIGS thin films derived by solgel process can be good candidates for the applications in optoelectronic devices.
Sengul Akyol, Utku Canci Matur, Nilgun Baydogan, Huseyin Cimenoglu

Chapter 20. Production of Poly(Imide Siloxane) Block Copolymers

This work aims some challenges in the manufacturing of flexible substrates which will be used in solar cells as a substrate. Poly(imide siloxane) block copolymers were produced with the same bis(aminopropyl) polydimethylsiloxane (APPS). The polyimide hard blocks were composed by using 4,4′-oxydianiline (ODA) and benzofenon-3,3,4,4-tetrakarboksilik dianhydride (BTDA). Besides, the polysiloxane soft blocks were derived by using APPS and BTDA. APPS and BTDA formed the polysiloxane soft block in the structure. The length of polysiloxane soft block increased with increase in the length of polyimide hard block. Hence, it was possible to obtain copolymer structure and the changes in physical properties of the copolymers. These copolymers were characterized by using FT-IR analysis to evaluate the structure of flexible substrates.
Turkan Dogan, Nilgun Baydogan, Nesrin Koken

Energy Management, Economics and Policy

Frontmatter

Chapter 21. Government Incentives and Supports for Renewable Energy

Although energy is part of our life, we paid big amount of cost for it. As it has a great economic value, we produced energy in an unconscious way, so we polluted earth. At the end, we understood the value of environment and gave up our bad habit of extreme producing methods including pollution. Secondly, we realized that energy resources are not unlimited. These situations delivered us into clean energy consuming and producing. Governments must promote for renewable energy consumption and production. Renewable energy consumption and production cannot increase without government help or government actions so governments have to be a pioneer for renewable energy. Legal provisions are also important for civil rights (both public and private). Renewable energy actions may violate fundamental rights and freedoms such as property, health right, and also commercial rights like competition and right of initiation. These issues must be regulated by governments under the administrative law principles. Clean energy sector is not only a need but also it is a market. Although it is mostly in private sector area, it still has public interest notion.
Münci Çakmak, Begüm İsbir

Chapter 22. Comparison of the Relationship Between CO2, Energy USE, and GDP in G7 and Developing Countries: Is There Environmental Kuznets Curve for Those?

The increasing attention to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission all around the world has led researchers to investigate its causes. Energy use and economic growth can be categorized as the most important roots for this problem. The objective of this study is to investigate the causal relationship between energy use (EU), economic growth (GDP), and CO2 emission within two groups of countries: The G7 and the developing countries. Then, we examined the environmental Kuznets curve for these countries to see whether this hypothesis (EKC) is proved for these countries or not. To do so, seven developed and six developing countries are selected, and the annual data samples covering the period between 1993 and 2011 are gathered. To investigate the casual relationship between the variables, EU, GDP, and CO2, we applied the techniques of panel data analysis, examining unit root and cointegration tests, based on EKC equation. The results show the casual and long-term relationship for the two groups of countries. Also, the hypothesis of Kuznets curve is proved for G7 countries and it is shown that the relationship between these variables is inverted U shaped, with a nonzero negative coefficient for the square of GDP. However, for developing countries, this hypothesis is rejected, because the coefficient of \( {\text{GDP}}^{2} \) is found close to zero, and thus, a linear relationship is proved between these variables.
Mahdis Nabaee, G. Hamed Shakouri, Omid Tavakoli

Chapter 23. Identification and Analysis of Risks Associated with Gas Supply Security of Turkey

In this study, a detailed risk assessment study was done for the purpose of identifying risks associated with the security of gas supply in Turkey. Moreover, analysing the risks of the state according to the regulation 994/2010 was issued by European Parliament to safeguard security of gas supply that is accepted after suffering gas supply interruptions. One of the means considered in the regulation to achieve this target is performing a full risk assessment. Recent disruptions took place in Turkish gas network call for performing an extensive risk assessment for Turkey as well. With this paper, gas supply security of Turkey is discussed and its impacts on the security in the state is evaluated in the context of regulation 994/2010 issued by European Union (EU).
Umit Kilic, A. Beril Tugrul

Chapter 24. The Social Cost of Energy: External Cost Assessment for Turkey

The social or full costs of energy sources, which include the external cost plus the private cost, are the most important criteria for energy and environmental policy making. Energy policy making is concerned with both the supply side and the demand side of energy provision. On the energy supply side, deciding on alternative investment options requires the knowledge of the full cost of each energy option under scrutiny. On the demand side, social welfare maximisation should lead to the formulation of energy policies that steer consumers’ behaviour in a way that will result in the minimisation of costs imposed to society as a whole. Demand-side policies can benefit significantly from the incorporation of full energy costs in the corresponding policy formulation process. The geographical dimension is also important since environmental damage from energy production crosses national borders. Hence, a consistent set of energy costs allows a better understanding of the international dimensions of policy decisions in these areas. This paper, focusing on classical pollutants, tries to assess external costs from human health damages, damages to buildings, crop losses and from biodiversity impacts. To this aim, first, emissions data have been drawn from European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) database. Then, these emissions data have been transformed into monetary terms using the results of cost assessment for sustainable energy systems (CASES) project for the years 2000 and 2010. The results have been discussed in the context of energy and sustainability.
Aylin Çiğdem Köne

Chapter 25. Energy Infrastructure Projects of Common Interest in the SEE, Turkey, and Eastern Mediterranean and Their Investment Challenges

European Union’s energy strategy for the period up to 2020 builds on eight priority corridors for electricity, gas, and oil. Accordingly, on October 2013, 248 energy infrastructure projects were selected and assessed from a European perspective as the most critical to implement. Particularly, for a project to be included in the list, it has to bear significant benefits for at least two member states, contribute to market integration and further competition, enhance security of supply, and reduce CO2 emissions. Furthermore, by the characterization of “projects of common interest” (PCI), they are indented to benefit from more rapid and efficient permit granting procedures and improved regulatory treatment (European Union, 2014a). The aims of this working paper are, firstly, to introduce and briefly discuss the priority corridors and thematic areas that must be implemented in the coming decade to assist the EU meet its short- and long- term energy and climate objectives; secondly, to outline the key projects of common interest specifically in the South East European, Turkey, and eastern Mediterranean regions; finally, to present the major investment and financial challenges associated with the undertaking and implementation of these projects.
Panagiotis Kontakos, Virginia Zhelyazkova

Chapter 26. Incorporating the Effect of Time-of-Use Tariffs in the Extended Conservation Supply Curve

The conservation supply curve (CSC)—a plot of the cost of conserved energy (CCE) versus cumulative energy conserved—allows for an economic comparison of multiple Energy conservation measures (ECMs) leading to the identification of economically feasible ones. Its major advantages are separation of the cost of implementing such measures from their benefit and its independence from the fuel price. Different ECMs save different amounts of energy during different periods of the day. Hence, TOU tariffs, implemented to incentivise electrical load management and energy conservation, affect their cost-saving potentials. The CSC, in its present form, does not incorporate the effect of such tariffs. The primary objective of this work was to propose a methodology to extend and to modify the CSC to incorporate the effects of these tariffs, while being able to draw the same inferences as can be drawn from the original CSC. In doing so, energy profiles of the measures (a set of saving potentials over a particular time period, e.g. 24 values for 24 h of the day) and TOU charges (rates over and above the base energy charge, calculated over the same time period) are used to arrive at a value indicating the impact of the TOU rates on said measures. These values, along with the CCEs of the measures, are used to generate the modified CSC. Applicability of the proposed methodology is demonstrated with an illustrative example. Current research is focused on accounting for multiple types of fuels saved by conservation measures.
Aakash Jhaveri, Santanu Bandyopadhyay

Chapter 27. Management of Distribution System Protection with High Penetration of DGs

As a result of deregulation and emerging distributed generation (DG) in distribution networks, some protection problems and challenges emerge which need immediate solutions by design engineering. The present generation of numerical protection relays allows the implementation of adaptive settings for distribution system protection especially with systems of a high penetration of DG. This chapter presents an overview of the use of communication infrastructure to improve some aspects of distribution system protection, especially adaptive protection. One of the key issues has been to verify that traditional network protection schemes and settings are simply not adequate when there are DG systems connected to the network. The impact of the DG unit increases with the size of the generator and with the length of the line section between the DG unit and the fault. Results have provided a clear indication of the potential protection problems that need to be solved by careful protection design. Some solutions have been proposed in this chapter through communication and intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) based on power system simulation studies using ETAP software. The results will be used to focus further research and development in protection systems and concepts.
Abdelsalam Elhaffar, Naser El-Naily, Khalil El-Arroudi

Chapter 28. Assessment of Total Operating Costs for a Geothermal District Heating System

District heating system (DHS), especially geothermal, is an important class of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems. This is due to the fact that in many countries and regions of the world, they have been successfully installed and operated, resulting in great economic savings. In recent years, such systems have received much attention with regard to improving their energy efficiency, equipment operation, and investment cost. Improvement in performance of a geothermal district heating system (GDHS) is a very effective mean to decrease energy consumption and to provide energy saving. To perform the potential energy savings in a GDHS, the advanced exergoeconomic analysis is applied to a real GDHS in the city of Afyon/Turkey. Then, it is evaluated based on the concepts of exergy destruction cost and investment cost. The results show that the advanced exergoeconomic analysis makes the information more accurate and useful and supplies additional information that cannot be provided by the conversional analysis. Furthermore, the Afyon GDHS can be made more cost effectiveness, removing the system components’ irreversibilities, technical-economic limitations, and poorly chosen manufacturing methods.
Harun Gökgedik, Veysel İncili, Halit Arat, Ali Keçebaş

Chapter 29. How the Shadow Economy Affects Enterprises of Finance of Energy

The aim of this paper was to present how shadow economy and corruption can affect the enterprises which operate in the sector of finance of energy. The economic damage is extensive in every national economy where increased levels of shadow economy and corruption exist. Accordingly, this study presents possible measures that can decrease shadow economy and corruption. Enterprises in energy finance can provide reliable, competitive, and consistent delivery of customized solutions according to the client’s needs. Some of them are finance projects, recapitalizations, single assets, or portfolio credits. Many countries have started to target shadow economy and corruption, since they impede the achievement of their fiscal targets, and harm the overall business environment and the country’s attractiveness for foreign investments. In the article, the operation of the energy service companies (ESCOs) is used as a case study.
Aristidis Bitzenis, Ioannis Makedos, Panagiotis Kontakos

Chapter 30. Energy Profile of Siirt

Siirt Province has various natural and fossil energy sources such as solar, hydropower, biogas, geothermal, and petrol in terms of energy potential, by contrast with other provinces in Turkey. The data collected in Siirt Province indicate that Siirt has a strong potential for solar energy. The average sunshine duration and total solar radiation in Siirt are about 7.5 h-day and 4.3 kWh/m2-day, respectively. In Siirt, there are two hydropower plants with a total installed power of 263 MW. In addition, more than 10 hydroelectric power plants with a total installed capacity of 1094 MW of power generation will be established by means of the planned dam to be installed. Considering the establishment of biogas systems, Siirt has an annual biogas production of 20,000 m3 with around 500,000 small ruminants. Siirt Province is believed to be rich in geothermal care, but there has not been enough research on this topic, yet. And also, petroleum is an important energy source in Siirt Province, lately. As a result, Siirt Province has a rich variety of energy resources, and in case of investment, it would be an energy basin center in the southeast Anatolia region.
Omer Sahin, Mustafa Pala, Asım Balbay, Fevzi Hansu, Hakan Ulker
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