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Regardless of punitive strategies such as fines and demerit points, drivers continue to bring their own devices into cars and use them while driving. In this chapter, we explore the opportunities for gamified safe-driving apps provided by real-time data gathered from mobile and wearable devices. The study is grounded in our interest in providing engaging experiences for drives that otherwise lack engagement, both in manual and semi-automated vehicles. We developed BrakeMaster, a smartphone app built around vehicle and road data, and evaluated it in a simulator study looking at system performance, usability, and affect. We found the app to perform responsively and accurately, and self-reported data indicate good usability and increased pleasure. Besides exploring vehicle and road data, we investigated wearable activity monitors for gathering driver data such as arousal. Consumer wearables are more cost and size effective than advanced biofeedback systems and are capable of revealing heart rate patterns and trends across drives. We conclude that road and particularly vehicle data can be leveraged to develop novel driving experiences, whereas driver data is more challenging to exploit in this unique design context.
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- Engaged Drivers–Safe Drivers: Gathering Real-Time Data from Mobile and Wearable Devices for Safe-Driving Apps
- Chapter 2