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Über dieses Buch

Engineering Asset Management 2010 represents state-of-the art trends and developments in the emerging field of engineering asset management as presented at the Fifth World Congress on Engineering Asset Management (WCEAM).

The proceedings of the WCEAM 2010 is an excellent reference for practitioners, researchers and students in the multidisciplinary field of asset management, covering topics such as:

Asset condition monitoring and intelligent maintenanceAsset data warehousing, data mining and fusionAsset performance and level-of-service modelsDesign and life-cycle integrity of physical assetsEducation and training in asset managementEngineering standards in asset managementFault diagnosis and prognosticsFinancial analysis methods for physical assetsHuman dimensions in integrated asset managementInformation quality managementInformation systems and knowledge managementIntelligent sensors and devicesMaintenance strategies in asset managementOptimisation decisions in asset managementRisk management in asset managementStrategic asset managementSustainability in asset management

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Plant Asset Management Today and Tomorrow

Korea has been achieving the world best safety and economic performance of nuclear power plants through continuous technology development and asset management optimization since its first nuclear power reactor was introduced in the late 1970s. While most countries have stopped building new nuclear power plants since the severe accident in TMI nuclear plant in 1979, Korea has been steadily developing its own reactor models and constructing new nuclear plants. In addition, Korea won recent new nuclear plant project of United Arab Emirates (UAE) as a result of these efforts. A nuclear power plant consists of a great variety of complex equipment having state-of-the-art technologies, and the highest nuclear safety and equipment reliability are required. Therefore, the most sophisticated systematic engineering asset management is essential to the nuclear power plant. As a responsible company of operating and constructing all nuclear power plants in Korea, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP) has developed its own asset management model for the nuclear power plants in operation and expanded the model into the new plants under construction. Since the asset management model was developed for the various equipment types in the nuclear power plant, it can be easily utilized in other industries as a highly effective asset management model. This paper presents new and innovative methods to refine and improve existing asset management practices in general plants by diagnosing KHNP’s physical asset management model. It contributes to the development and improvement of an advanced asset management model for general plant industries and utilities to meet the objectives of securing a clean environment, improved public health and safety, and general community well being.

Woo Bang Lee, Sang-Young Moh, Hong-Jung Choi

A Prognostics and Health Management for Information and Electronics-Rich Systems

Prognostics and systems health management (PHM) is an enabling discipline of technologies and methods with the potential of solving reliability problems that have been manifested due to complexities in design, manufacturing, environmental and operational use conditions, and maintenance. Over the past decade, research has been conducted in PHM of information and electronics-rich systems as a means to provide advance warnings of failure, enable forecasted maintenance, improve system qualification, extend system life, and diagnose intermittent failures that can lead to field failure returns exhibiting no-fault-found symptoms. This paper presents an assessment of the state of practice in prognostics and health management of information and electronics-rich systems. While there are two general methods of performing PHM, model-based and data–driven methods, these methods by themselves have some key disadvantages. This paper presents a fusion prognostics approach, which combines or “fuses together” the model-based and data–driven approaches, to enable markedly better prognosis of remaining useful life. A case study of a printed circuit card assembly is given in order to illustrate the implementation of the fusion approach to prognostics.

Michael Pecht

Acoustic Emission Technology for Assessing Gas Void Fraction Levels in Two-Phase Flow

The gas–liquid two-phase slug flow regime phenomenon is commonly encountered in the chemical engineering industry, particularly in oil and gas production transportation pipelines. Slug flow regime normally occurs for a range of pipe inclinations, and, gas and liquid flow rates. A pipeline operating in the slug flow regime creates high fluctuations in gas and liquid flow rates at the outlet. Therefore, the monitoring of slugs and measurement of their characteristics, such as the gas void fraction, are necessary to minimise the disruption of downstream process facilities. In this paper, the detection of slugs and the estimation of the gas void fraction within the slug were achieved by using a non-invasive Acoustic Emission (AE) sensor.

A. Addali, D. Mba

The Role of Very Detailed Soil Environment (VDSE) Maps in Assessing the Performance of Buried Water Pipes

In almost every city in every country, water reticulation assets are buried in the ground. These fail at different rates for reasons that include asset material, age, technique of manufacture and the soil environment they are buried in. Very detailed system wide soil environment information has long been the missing component of asset failure models. In this paper I relate 20 unique soil environments to 7½ years of failure data recorded for 1,688 km of cast iron and 309 km of asbestos cement water reticulation assets. Results show that to understand which aging assets will perform badly, it is not necessary to understand either the corrosive or mechanical soil characteristics that might lead to variations in asset performance. When correctly formatted, Very Detailed Soil Environment (VDSE) maps and sufficient historical failure records coupled with custom GIS software can be used to report quantitatively on both the spatial and temporal aspects of asset performance regardless of asset material. Such knowledge has tremendous implications for the short, medium and long term management of aging assets.

Ian Allan

Managing Public Assets Towards Service Delivery Compliance

Public assets need to be managed to satisfy service delivery requirements and in compliance to the provisions of applicable statutory legislation which may be defined in terms of environmental, financial, and social constraints. Court infrastructural facilities are required to be functional not only for the purpose of resolving legal matters but also to promote access to justice in a manner that affirms human dignity, equality, and freedom. Based on a survey of facilities available, this paper discusses both the service delivery functionality and the level of compliance of existing court infrastructure to the requirements of statutory legislation. Although a worrying number of courts in the case study environment did not respond to the survey so that the inferences could not be generalised in a manner to accentuate asset management policy making, however, the findings not only illustrate the lag between policy and reality but, more importantly, they also highlight the unintended, and oftentimes underestimated impacts of legislation on the management of public infrastructure assets.

Joe Amadi-Echendu, Tshilidzi Ramanyimi

Risk Modeling and Analysis for Sustainable Asset Management

Sustainability has become a key driver in defining how companies are expected to operate. To adapt to this new industrial setting, companies are now broadening their focus from emphasis on economical gains to include environmental and societal issues. Within the field of asset management, the application of sustainable practices, in a way, can imply adopting a total lifecycle approach; i.e. managing the activities of assets in pre-manufacturing, manufacturing, use and post-use stages. To ensure a competitive approach, this requires risk modeling and analysis to support decision making processes to maximize return and to avoid negative environmental and societal impacts. Though some considerable work has been done in the field of risk modeling involving developments within information management, much work is still needed to develop models that can provide effective comprehensive overview for decision makers. Such information is especially important when dealing with hidden risks. This requires risk management tools that capture, the factors that affect asset performance, the interdependence of these factors, their likelihood, and their possible impacts. This paper briefly presents a framework for sustainable asset management. This framework is guided by sustainability principles to improve the triple bottom line (economy, society and environment) perspective following a total lifecycle approach.

Fazleena Badurdeen, Mohannad Shuaib, Jayantha P. Liyanage

An Approach to Estimate the Probability in Meeting Army Maintenance Personnel Requirements

Estimating the maintenance workforce requirements of the Australian Army is a process of matching maintenance demand, resources, cost, and risk. Analysis of the equipment-specific demand has been historically undertaken within Army using a static mean-based estimate of tradesperson effort, known as work value units (WVU). An alternative to the mean-based approach is to consider a quantile methods where the analyst can either calculate the probability of meeting liabilities over the course of the year with a fixed capability, or conversely determine the number of hours to achieve a certain probability of meeting a fixed fleet liability. A difficulty of this approach is that the annual maintenance liability for different equipment types are represented by the sum of non identical random variables and an analytical description of a distribution of this type is impossible to obtain in general. This paper proposes a bootstrap simulation approach and an approximated analytical distribution to estimate the annual total maintenance time for a range of different equipment types. From this we can estimate the probability in not being able to support multiple fleets of arbitrary size, and hence allow a baseline for workforce development.

Thang Cao, Benjamin Francis, Nick Brealey

Wear Mechanisms in Pneumatic Conveying of Sand and Analysis of Predictive Model for Pipeline Thickness Loss

Pneumatic conveying is a process of transportation of powder and granular materials through pipelines using high pressure gas. It is a frequently used method of material transport particularly for in-plant transport over relatively short distances, although long distance pipelines are becoming more common with technological advancements in this area. The major advantages of the system are the degree of flexibility it offers in terms of pipeline routing, dust minimization within the factory environment as well as automation. A large percentage of industrial systems are traditionally dilute phase system, which use relatively large amounts of air that lead to high particle velocities. Dense phase systems are designed to operate at relatively low velocity regimes which reduced the wear to some extent. Yet the problem of wear remains a major issue with these conveying systems. Service life of a pneumatic conveying system is dictated primarily by the wear in pipelines and bends due to the interactions between the particles and the surfaces. Depending on the conveying conditions or modes of flow, wear mechanism can be abrasive or erosive or a combination of both. The locations of the high wear areas also varies, depending on the ratio of the solids mass flow rate and the air velocity along the pipeline. Wear tests have been conducted using sand through a 50 mm diameter, 25 m pipeline fitted with a short radius bend to study the wear mechanisms associated within the critical wear area of the pipeline. The pipeline thickness loss has also been monitored using an ultra sonic thickness gage to generate the wear profile inside the pipeline. Surface analysis has been conducted using a scanning electron microscope to determine the associated wear mechanisms in the area. Finally, experimental results have been compared with the output of an energy based predictive model and the associated variations have been discussed.

A. A. Cenna, K. C. Williams, M. G. Jones

Novel Application of Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope in Analysis of Single Particle Impact on Ductile Surfaces

Removal of surface material by action of impinging particle is known as erosion. Material removal mechanisms in ductile and brittle materials are completely different. Material removal in ductile material occurs primarily through cutting and deformation, whereas, formation of cracks and crack propagation are believed to be responsible for material removal in brittle materials. Based on the interaction between surface and particle, material is removed through a combination of cutting and deformation. Scanning electron Microscopes (SEM) are usually used for analysis of wear mechanisms responsible for material removal in any wear situations. Recognizing dominant wear mechanism as well as quantifying effects of individual impact can help in developing predictive models for specific application. Even though the SEM can clearly identify the wear mechanisms, the analysis is primarily qualitative in nature. As a result the application of the wear mechanisms into predictive models remains sensitive to the perception of the analyst. To overcome this limitation, a novel technique has been developed to analyse surface craters and to quantify the effects of cutting and deformation at the University of Newcastle using. Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope (LSCM) is a conventional microscope equipped with a laser light source, a laser scanning head and an automatic focusing stage. Through a special technique, called optical sectioning, three dimensional image of any surface feature can be developed using the LSCM. Single particle impact tests were conducted on a high pressure gas gun to study the effects of particle velocity and impact angles on ductile material. Impact tests on aluminium and mild steel surfaces with particle sizes from 50 to 200 μm and impact velocity of up to 200 m

−1

s have been conducted. Using specially developed software to work with the LSCM, the depth of crater and the crater volumes were determined. Particle impact parameters and displacement volumes are used to determine unit energy factors for material removal, a critical parameter in predictive models. Finally the advantages and limitations of using the technique have been discussed with future challenges to make the technique more effective.

A. A. Cenna, M. G. Jones

The Study of Gearbox Condition Maintenance Policy Based on Proportional Hazards Model

The Weibull proportional hazards model (PHM) is utilized to establish failure model based on the vibration data. Frequency spectrum growth index (FSGI), which can describe machine health condition, is considered to process the raw vibration data. Then the optimal maintenance interval is determined under economic objective. Finally, the vibration data obtained from gearbox is used in the PHM modeling as a case study.

Hanyu Chen, Qiang Miao, Liu Liu, Dong Wang, Lin Cong

Statistical Activity Cost Regression Analysis of a Scheduling Problem

Regression analysis of accounting costs on physical activity levels for a number of vessels is used to estimate optimum cost and capability of fleet schedules. Quarterly accounting and activity data is used, the regression analysis showing the existence of lags of 3–9 months between the occurrence of an engineering activity and the recording of the associated costs. When the lags are taken into account simple multivariable linear regression models of the fixed-variable cost type provide indicators of future costs based upon planned engineering activity levels. This information is employed in Monte Carlo experiments to determine minimum cost, maximum engineering capability, fleet maintenance and deployment schedules.

Andrew Colin, Peter Lambrineas, Terence Weir, Roger J. Willett

Fault Diagnosis of Gearbox Based on Interpolated DFT with the Maximum Sidelobe Decay Windows

As a flexible maintenance strategy, condition based maintenance (CBM) has been accepted by industry due to its efficiency in many engineering practices. Fault character extraction and diagnosis is a very important step in the process of CBM implementation. In order to enhance the efficiency and accuracy of diagnosis, it is a crucial task to improve the estimation accuracy of amplitude, frequency, and phase of signal. In this paper, zoom IpDFT is proposed to decompose signal and extract dominant signatures, which can reflect fault condition variation of machinery. Moreover, a novel index called Fault Index is established to describe condition development trend. In order to detect occurrence of early fault, a dynamic threshold is defined. Then, one set of vibration data collected from gearbox is used to validate the proposed method. Through comparison with other indices using gearbox vibration data, the proposed index with its dynamic threshold can not only describe the gear condition development trend with fast computation speed, but also detect the occurrence of early fault both automatically and artificially.

Lin Cong, Qiang Miao, Zhimin Liu, Liu Liu, Chao Tang

Diagnostics of Internal Combustion Engine Mechanical Faults Masked by Adaptive Control Systems

We have to admit that the modern car engine is now a device of much higher level of reliability than it used to be some years ago, and the microprocessor—based control system, supported by the board diagnostic equipment, makes this reliability even higher. However, it doesn’t mean that mechanical failures caused by manufacturing errors, operation of the device, its exploitation or premature wearing cannot appear at all. Neither it means that the failures will be always recognized by diagnostic equipment. The OBD systems were actually created for environmental purposes and their development to the form that could guarantee proper diagnosing in the case of typical mechanical faults is currently a subject of many studies. However, the main topic of the paper does not consist of listing the cases of difficult or unidentifiable faults but of showing that there is a group of failures (mainly of a mechanical type) that stimulate the developed adaptive control system to regulate and weaken typical exterior symptoms, and subsequently to make the damage—in a certain propagation range—unidentifiable even for an experienced mechanic. Therefore, the main objective of the paper constitutes answering the question about the direction of the development of diagnostic systems, and suggesting some additional vibroacoustic symptoms that could be taken into account, as well as the way they should be analysed in order to minimize the possibility of such occurrences.

Zbigniew Dąbrowski, Henryk Madej

Indentation Size Effect and Strain Rate Sensitivity of Nanocrystalline MG–AL Alloys

Deformation behaviour of microcrystalline and nanocrystalline (

nc

) Mg-5%Al alloys were investigated using instrumented indentation tests. The hardness values exhibited significant indentation size effect (ISE), with

nc

alloys showing weaker ISE. Relative higher strain rate sensitivity and inverse Hall–Petch relationship were observed in the

nc

alloys. This is attributed to highly localized dislocation activities and relative smaller activation volume, as compared to their

mc

counterparts. It is believed there is an increasing role of grain boundaries in plastic deformation mechanisms with decreasing the grain size.

Hui Diao, Cheng Yan, John Bell, Li Lu, Guangping Zhang

Council Building Management Practices, Case Studies and Road Ahead

Community building assets in Australia represent a vast investment built up over many generations, and are valued at approximately 15 billion dollars. Further, the second largest class of infrastructure assets owned by councils is the community buildings. It is vital to develop strategic directions for efficient management of these buildings to guarantee the best value and the maximum benefit to the community by delivering the best possible service to the community. Efficient building management should address the aspects of assessing long term performance and developing long term management strategies. This paper investigates the significant aspects of efficient building management through a holistic look at the whole of life infrastructure management process. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, the paper presents a typical building management process together with the identification of specific elements and/or various stages of the process. This can be easily converted to be applicable to any other infrastructure system. Second, the initial study and data collection conducted at six Victorian city councils covering the council building management practices are presented. These six current practices are analysed and presented as case studies. Third, the paper identifies knowledge/practice gaps between the theoretical foundation of building management process and current practices in the industry. The paper highlights the lessons learnt through the analysis of case studies. Further, it proposes the road ahead of council building management strategy through a holistic analysis of the whole of life infrastructure management process.

R. Edirisinghe, S. Setunge, G. Zhang, R. Wakefield

Managing Offshore Wind Energy Assets: On the Systematic Development of an Integrated Architecture

Offshore wind turbines are being used in a number of countries to harness the energy of the moving air over the oceans and convert it to electricity. Commercial-scale offshore wind facilities are currently in operation in shallow waters off the coasts of Europe, but technology development is further needed for use in the deeper waters of the outer continental shelf. However, this shift to offshore will surely bring a number of functional, physical and operational challenges much similar to the oil and gas sector. Nowadays, the real activities within offshore wind power sector show considerable interests for rapid development and new applications, but still far from much needed innovative and holistic solutions. This is particularly so in the asset management area, where the current level of awareness within the sector is largely limited and the developments remain isolated and fragmented. Thus, this paper elaborates on a systematic approach to develop an integrated architecture to manage wind energy assets from a systems perspective. Such an approach is a timely important matter as it has impacts in different levels, for instance, strategic decisions in developing offshore wind farms, innovation and applicability of varied solutions, engineering trade-offs in comparison to commercial feasibility, current assumptions and their associated rationale concerning how the wind energy systems need to meet multiple requirements, etc. This is a part of an ongoing study where various experiences from different stakeholders of wind energy systems were collected. The paper also presents a reference framework for asset management to guide the current work in progress within the wind power area that can also be useful as an available platform for stakeholders, researchers, etc. for their development work.

Idriss El-Thalji, Jayantha P. Liyanage

Identifying Differences in Wet and Dry Road Crashes Using Data Mining

It is commonly accepted that wet roads have higher risk of crash than dry roads; however, providing evidence to support this assumption presents some difficulty. This paper presents a data mining case study in which predictive data mining is applied to model the skid resistance and crash relationship to search for discernable differences in the probability of wet and dry road segments having crashes based on skid resistance. The models identify an increased probability of wet road segments having crashes for mid-range skid resistance values.

D. Emerson, R. Nayak, J. Weligamage, N. Piyatrapoomi

Maintenance Management of Concrete Infrastructure Considering Extent of Corrosion-Induced Damage

Civil Infrastructures are prone to deterioration processes. Amongst others corrosion of reinforcement in concrete structures is the main challenge of asset owners worldwide. In this paper using a fracture mechanics based analytical model the corrosion induced crack width is calculated. To account for spatial and temporal variation of concrete properties and environmental factors random fields are utilized. Then extent of damage as a random variable is simulated during lifetime of structure employing Latin Hypercube Sampling. This analysis gives an insight of future condition of these infrastructure upon which maintenance planning can be accomplished more realistically with due respect to extent of damage.

A. Firouzi

Field-Force Enablement in Australian Asset Management Organisations—A Complete Study

This research has investigated a broad range of issues associated with the use of mobile information systems for field-force enablement in Australian utility companies. In particular, special consideration has been given to the existing infrastructure, business processes and information systems used in the participating organisations to support its field workers. This research has used a Technology, Organisation and People (TOP) multi-perspective model to conduct five case studies obtaining various technical, organisational and personal issues associated with the adoption of mobile information systems. These findings will help other large organisations to better manage their geographically distributed assets and workforce.

Jing Gao, Andy Koronios

Reliability Prediction Using the Non-Parametric Explicit Hazard Model: A Case Study

Survival probability prediction using covariate-based hazard approach is a known statistical methodology in engineering asset health management. We have previously reported the semi-parametric Explicit Hazard Model (EHM) which incorporates three types of information: population characteristics; condition indicators; and operating environment indicators for hazard prediction. This model assumes the baseline hazard has the form of the Weibull distribution. To avoid this assumption, this paper presents the non-parametric EHM which is a distribution-free covariate-based hazard model. In this paper, an application of the non-parametric EHM is demonstrated via a case study. In this case study, survival probabilities of a set of resistance elements using the non-parametric EHM are compared with the Weibull proportional hazard model and traditional Weibull model. The results show that the non-parametric EHM can effectively predict asset life using the condition indicator, operating environment indicator, and failure history.

Nima Gorjian, Murthy N. Mittinty, Yong Sun, Prasad K. D. V. Yarlagadda, Lin Ma

An Architectural Concept for the CIEAM Enterprise Bus

The University of South Australia is investigating the highly complex integration of information systems within the CRC for integrated engineering asset management (CIEAM) and develops techniques and tools to simplify the data exchange between enterprise critical systems. Recent research outcomes include a service oriented integration architecture, an integration toolbox and a service interface for the integration of asset management information systems. In this paper we also propose an extension on the architecture level for enabling a secure data exchange between multiple systems. It allows the secure information sharing internally within an enterprise but also externally with business partners and supports the current trend towards an open service oriented environment by protecting critical asset management data on a shared communication infrastructure.

Georg Grossmann, Gerald Quirchmayr, Markus Stumptner

The Characteristic of the Acoustic Emission Signal in Rotating Shaft with Crack

Condition monitoring (CM) is a method based on Non-destructive test (NDT). So, recently many kinds of NDT were applied for CM. And acoustic Emission (AE) is widely used for the early detection of faults in rotating machinery in these days also. Because its sensitivity is higher than normal accelerometers, and it can detect low energy vibration signals. And crack is considered one of severe fault in the rotating machine. In this paper, therefore, early detection has done by AE about the shaft of low-speed rotating machine. There is a seeded initial crack on the shaft; the AE signal had been measured with low speed rotation and application of load-condition. And the signal of crack in rotating machine was detected by the AE transducer, then the trend of crack growth had found out by using some of the feature values such as the peak value, skewness, kurtosis, crest factor, frequency center value (FC), variance frequency value (VF) and so on that are used in the mechanical vibration field.

Dongsik Gu, Jaegu Kim, Won Cheol Kim, Byeong-Keun Choi

Managing Complex Engineering Projects with Design Structure Matrix Methods

In this paper, ways of improving planning, execution and management of complex engineering projects using design structure matrix (DSM) methods: path searching, powers of the adjacency matrix, and reachability matrix are presented. This is done by identifying loops or circuits in the project. The application of the DSM methods to minimize loops or circuits is discussed. As a case study, these methods are implemented to reduce design iterations or rework in a complex engineering project. By applying the DSM methods, the project duration can be minimized and hence the total cost of the project is reduced significantly.

Indra Gunawan

An Object Oriented Road Asset Information Model

Preservation and enhancement of transportation infrastructure is critical to continuous economic development in Australia. Of particular importance are the road assets infrastructure, due to their high costs of setting up and their social and economic impact on the national economy. Continuous availability of road assets, however, is contingent upon their effective design, condition monitoring, maintenance, and renovation and upgrading. However, in order to achieve this data exchange, integration, and interoperability is required across municipal boundaries. On the other hand, there are no agreed reference frameworks that consistently describe road infrastructure assets. As a consequence, specifications and technical solutions being chosen to mange road assets do not provide adequate detail and quality of information to support asset lifecycle management processes and decisions taken are based on perception not reality. This paper presents a road asset information model, which works as reference framework to, link other kinds of information with asset information; integrate different data suppliers; and provide a foundation for service driven integrated information framework for community infrastructure and asset management.

Abrar Haider, Andy Koronios, Arun Kumar

Information and Operational Technologies Governance Framework for Engineering Asset Management

Engineering asset management is dependent on a variety of information and operational technologies. These technologies have significant role as they support primary as well as secondary activities in the asset lifecycle management value chain. Management of these technologies must be viewed as a control function which is critical to asset managing organisation in order to organise, manage, and execute business processes efficiently and effectively. However, where information technology infrastructure is considered the core enabler of the business, there is little consideration given to operational technologies. However, operational technologies are as important as information technologies, as they capture, process, and provide foundation information for a variety of information technologies that manage asset lifecycle. This also underscores the critical role of information and operational technologies in risk management, quality compliance, and asset lifecycle regime continuous improvement and development. Therefore, there needs to be a holistic approach to these technologies and their alignment with overall assert lifecycle objectives. This paper builds the case for consolidated governance of information and operational technologies aimed at managing implementation, operation, and management issues, and related resources and risk management. This paper provides insights into the ways in which governance of information and operational technologies respond to or account for organisation development in terms of their structure and management, which requires effective management and improvement of technological capabilities and integration between business and technologies.

Abrar Haider

Enterprise Architectures for Information and Operational Technologies for Asset Management

With the advancements in technology, information systems are continually increasing in size and complexity. More and more businesses are looking to these systems to provide them with greater business efficiencies and services through consolidation and integration. Businesses are also using information systems to provide governance and directions by enabling quality decision support through system information analysis and related capabilities. The ability to successfully deliver these complex information systems is creating greater challenges for businesses and system developers. As a result, businesses are turning to a variety of enterprise architectures for policies and technical choices to achieve business standardization and integration requirements of the firm’s operating model. It is particularly important for asset management, since the operational technologies utilised in asset lifecycle management can also be classed as information systems. Technology management for asset management, thus, calls for an all encompassing architecture that caters for the individual needs of operational and information technologies, as well as that of their integration. There are a number of recognised architecture frameworks available today, many of which providing similar principles and strategies. However, all of these frameworks are unique in regards to how their frameworks are used and implemented. This paper develops the case for enterprise IT architectures in asset management and provides a comparison of architecture frameworks in relation to the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The paper focuses on three recognised architecture frameworks and provides recommendations for additional considerations of each with reference to operational and information technologies for asset lifecycle management.

Abrar Haider

Contracting and Asset Management: Establishing an Asset Specificity Framework for Determining the Optimal Management of Tourism Infrastructure

Infrastructure and engineering asset management strategies are offered to develop the asset base of the tourism industry. This paper explores options for asset management approaches to develop and extend strategic decision-making for infrastructure and engineered assets in the tourism sector.

Paul Harpur, Kerry Brown

Inspection Intervals, Risk and Bushfires

The author’s recent experience of the reliability of electricity distribution systems in relation to bushfires has highlighted the need for awareness of the impact of secondary events when assessing inspection or condition monitoring intervals. In terms of reliability centered maintenance, the risk aspects of the P-F interval and the failure finding interval need to be brought together in an integrated perspective. The concept of risk time is introduced. This is time when an item subject to condition monitoring has an as-yet-undiscovered defect. Typically this occurs after the item enters the P-F interval and before it is inspected, but can also extend beyond the first inspection time if the inspection or monitoring process is less than 100% effective. If a secondary event, such as high wind on a day of high fire danger, occurs during the risk time, it can cause system failure.

Nicholas Hastings

Safety Critical Elements in Asset Management

Safety critical elements (SCEs) are those systems and components (e.g. hardware, software, procedures etc.) that are designed to prevent, control, mitigate or respond to a major accident event (MAE) that could lead to injury or death. The effective identification, design, installation, operation and maintenance of SCEs presents one of the most challenging aspects of modern asset management especially when the effectiveness of the SCE must be achieved and maintained over an extended time period. SCEs require high levels of equipment design and implementation, high levels of reliability, high levels of management control over extended time periods and high levels of skill and work performance. Identification of SCEs must be based on a formal assessment system that is both practical and credible. Once identified, SCEs must have detailed performance standards, critical function tests, maintenance plans, documentation etc. all of which must integrate with other maintenance and operations tasks conducted for non-safety critical reasons (e.g. economic risk criteria). Unlike maintenance activities on non-safety critical equipment where we wish to optimise on the basis of reliability/availability or cost, with SCEs we wish to prevent the ‘first event’. This paper looks at the challenges presented by SCEs and what is required of the asset management system if SCEs are to perform effectively over the life of the plant.

J. A. Healy

Ferromagnetism in Compression Stressed Transitional Bulk Nanostructured FE50AL50 Alloy

Mechanically alloyed powders were consolidated to produce bulk polycrystalline Fe-50 at.%Al alloy. Consolidation was achieved by cold compaction and sintering. Annealing was applied to the consolidated samples to obtain an ordered structure. Annealed samples were further deformed plastically by a range of compression stresses. Combination of characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, vibrating sample magnetometer and Vicker’s micro hardness were used to examine different properties. Results indicated that annealed sample exhibits ordered and non-magnetic phase while deformation induces simultaneously a transition to both disorder and ferromagnetism. The transitional alloy at intermediate state possesses partial disorder and low magnetization. Ferromagnetism is governed by anti site in the ordered matrix, in fact, the long range order and lattice expansion contribute to the increase in magnetism at low compression stresses while it is only due to the lattice expansion at higher stresses. The nano grain refinement inhibits plastic flow of metals, causing an increase in micro hardness while the order to disorder transition can be assessed by micro hardness measurements. Furthermore, several other factors like vacancy and dislocation also influence micro hardness behaviour.

M. M. Rajath Hegde, C. E. Wen, Yuncang Li, P. D. Hodgson

Life Cycle Costing in High Complex Industries—Developing and Applying a Life Cycle Costing Approach in the Railway Industry

In terms of sustainable thinking, life cycle costing attracts major notice among railway industries all over Europe. Europe’s railway companies reconsider several reasons for the special need of life cycle costing investigations within the railway infrastructure. Ultimately, the railway companies address the question “how can life cycle costs of a signalling system be measured, considering the special circumstances in the railway industry”. Due to the reason that railway industries are bound to various regulatory rules and because of the high complexity of a signalling system, life cycle costs cannot be evaluated by simple cost measurement approaches. To analyse life cycle costs among European railway industries and to gain cost reductions by deriving consolidated findings from a cost comparison among industries of different countries, a special methodology to analyse life cycle costs has been applied within the European funded research project Integrated European Signalling System (INESS). Both life cycle phases, the product structure of interlocking systems itself and most important cost categories have been considered. Therefore, the whole life cycle of signalling systems has been analysed with a special view on railway operators. This paper describes an approach how life cycle costs have been evaluated based on the European norm DIN EN 60300-3-3 and how other industries can learn from this application.

Christian Hoffart, Philipp Stüer

Molecular Mechanics Investigations on Interfacial Properties in Nano-Materials due to Van der Waals and Electrostatic Coulombic Interactions

Recently, it is a hot topic about the interfacial properties in various nano-materials, especially, the pull-out process of various nanofillers (e.g., carbon nanotubes (CNTs)) from various matrix phases (e.g., polymers), and the corresponding interfacial shear strength. Although some previous studies based on molecular mechanics or molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to explore this problem, it has not been comprehensively or even correctly understood to the authors’ knowledge. In general, the pull-out force is mainly contributed by the frictional sliding force caused by various pre-formed statistical defects or mechanical interlocking, and capillary interfacial force due to van der Waals (vdW) and electrostatic Coulombic interactions. In this work, without consideration of the frictional effect, we focus on the interfacial properties and pull-out process of various nano-materials using molecular mechanics simulations due to vdW and electrostatic Coulombic interactions. Three objects, i.e., the pull-out process of some outer walls against other nested inner walls in a multi-walled carbon nanotube, the pull-out processes of a single-walled carbon nanotube from a polyethylene polymer matrix and from an alumina (α-Al

2

O

3

) matrix, respectively, are studied. The effects of some geometrical parameters of CNT, i.e., nanotube length, chirality and diameter, on this pull-out behavior are explored systematically for the first time. It is found that the energy increment between two adjacent pull-out steps, which corresponds to the pull-out force, is independent of nanotube length, but is proportional to nanotube diameter at the sliding interface. This unique characteristic indicates that the interfacial shear stress in this problem exists only at the two ends of CNT, and the conventional definition of interfacial shear strength based on the total length of nanotube is inapplicable here. Finally, a simple theory is proposed to predict this pull-out force based on the information of the nanotube diameter at the sliding interface.

N. Hu, Y. Li, S. Liu

Development of Diagnostic and Prognostic Algorithms from Vacuum Circuit Breaker Restrike Review and its Validation Proposal

The CIGRE WGs A3.20 and A3.24 identify the requirements of simulation tools to predict various stresses during the development and operational phases of medium voltage vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) testing. This paper reviews the modelling methodology [

13

], VCB models and tools to identify future research. It will include the application of the VCB model for the impending failure of a VCB using electro-magnetic-transient-program with diagnostic and prognostic algorithm development. The methodology developed for a VCB degradation model is to modify the dielectric equation to cover a restriking period of more than 1 mm.

S. Kam, G. Ledwich

Asset Management Key Areas for Financial Success

Asset management practices and processes focus on sustainability. Developing and implementing five key areas (organisational leadership, acquisitions, operations and maintenance, evidence assessments and capital works planning) cost effectively will lead to financial success and sustainability. This paper provides an experience in developing and implementing the key areas through leadership to achieve financial success. Better strategic planning and acquisition improves operations and maintenance in order to maintain the level of service. Effectiveness of the planning processes takes into consideration infrastructure per person (or per household) per year, renewal/new capital ratio, renewal/depreciation ratio, the impact on service costs and quadruple bottom line prioritisation. Efficient operations and proactive maintenance improves the costs of the services and the service standards. Operations and maintenance focuses on planned maintenance, preventive maintenance, reactive maintenance and lifecycle analysis which include maintaining the agreed levels of services and improving the remaining life of assets. Dynamic and effective evidence based assessments, such as maintenance costs and frequency, failure analysis, risks, conditions, service calls, asset utilisation, remaining life, current value and replacement value improve the asset operations, level of services and renewal planning. Finally, the functions of asset management; strategic planning, operations and maintenance and evidence assessments, leads to deliverable, sustainable capital work planning. An evidence based treatment projections (EBTP) system and asset information consolidation and evaluation (AICE) system are useful for capital works planning, remaining life assessment, maintenance improvements, consolidation and prioritisation for the whole council.

Vivek Kangesu

A Study on the Use of Acoustic Emission Technique as a Structural Health Monitoring Tool

As civil infrastructures such as bridges age, there is a concern for safety and a need for cost-effective and reliable monitoring tool. Different diagnostic techniques are available nowadays for structural health monitoring (SHM) of bridges. Acoustic emission is one such technique with potential of predicting failure. The phenomenon of rapid release of energy within a material by crack initiation or growth in form of stress waves is known as acoustic emission (AE). AE technique involves recording the stress waves by means of sensors and subsequent analysis of the recorded signals, which then convey information about the nature of the source. AE can be used as a local SHM technique to monitor specific regions with visible presence of cracks or crack prone areas such as welded regions and joints with bolted connection or as a global technique to monitor the whole structure. Strength of AE technique lies in its ability to detect active crack activity, thus helping in prioritising maintenance work by helping focus on active cracks rather than dormant cracks. In spite of being a promising tool, some challenges do still exist behind the successful application of AE technique. One is the generation of large amount of data during the testing; hence an effective data analysis and management is necessary, especially for long term monitoring uses. Complications also arise as a number of spurious sources can give AE signals, therefore, different source discrimination strategies are necessary to identify genuine signals from spurious ones. Another major challenge is the quantification of damage level by appropriate analysis of data. Intensity analysis using severity and historic indices as well as b-value analysis are some important methods and will be discussed and applied for analysis of laboratory experimental data in this paper.

Manindra Kaphle, Andy C. C. Tan, David P. Thambiratnam, Tommy H. T. Chan

Integrated Approach for HP-LNG Pump Diagnostics and Prognostics Based on Health State Probability Estimation

This paper presents an innovative prognostics model based on health state probability estimation embedded in the closed loop diagnostic and prognostic system. To employ an appropriate classifier for health state probability estimation in the proposed prognostic model, the comparative intelligent diagnostic tests were conducted using five different classifiers applied to the progressive fault levels of three faults in HP-LNG pump. Two sets of impeller-rubbing data were employed for the prediction of pump remnant life based on estimation of discrete health state probability using an outstanding capability of SVM and a feature selection technique. The results obtained were very encouraging and showed that the proposed prognosis system has the potential to be used as an estimation tool for machine remnant life prediction in real life industrial applications.

Hack-Eun Kim, Andy C. C. Tan, Joseph Mathew

Acoustic Emission for Diesel Engine Monitoring: A Review and Preliminary Analysis

Vibration analysis has been a prime tool in condition monitoring of rotating machines, however, its application to internal combustion engines remains a challenge because engine vibration signatures are highly non-stationary that are not suitable for popular spectrum-based analysis. Signal-to-noise ratio is a main concern in engine signature analysis due to the severe background noise being generated by consecutive mechanical events, such as combustion, valve opening and closing, especially in multi-cylinder engines. Acoustic Emission (AE) has been found to give excellent signal-to-noise ratio allowing discrimination of fine detail of normal or abnormal events during a given cycle. AE has been used to detect faults, such as exhaust valve leakage, fuel injection behaviour, and aspects of the combustion process. This paper presents a review of AE application to diesel engine monitoring and preliminary investigation of AE signature measured on an 18-cylinder diesel engine. AE is compared with vibration acceleration for varying operating conditions: load and speed. Frequency characteristics of AE from those events are analysed in time–frequency domain via short time Fourier transform. The result shows a great potential of AE analysis for detection of various defects in diesel engines.

Eric Y. Kim, Andy C. C. Tan, Bo-Suk Yang

Characteristic Analysis of AE Signal Caused by Crack Growth

Acoustic emission (AE) is a well established non-destructive test technique. In this paper fatigue crack growth tests were performed using SM53C to evaluate the AE signals caused by crack. AE system was used to detect the crack signals. Feature values were calculated based on the AE signal analysis to evaluate the crack growth in three steps. The steps are divided into initiation, growth and breakage; and were classified according to the velocity of the crack growth. Both time and frequency plots were created using the AE signals of each step. In the feature domains, it was found that AE values changed rapidly as the velocity of crack increases.

J. G. Kim, D. S. Gu, H. J. Kim, B. K. Choi

ASSET: Appropriate Spares Supply and Efficient Transportation Management

The aim of this paper is to present a new integrated logistic concept for a maintenance supply chain (MSC) exemplified by a case study about spare parts management and logistic chains. Under pressure of international competition in spite of different grades of technology development, nowadays maintenance organisations have to provide the same well quality services even for old expanded and unstructured equipment. Sporadic machine break downs make it difficult to calculate proper and reliable material requirement forecasts. In order to prevent an inventory shortage, large quantities of diverse spare parts are consequently purchased in advance. Long time analysis of machine break down frequencies, evaluation of spare parts and human resources costs show that an aligned strategic procurement concept integrating even suppliers can reduce the stock and transportation level (respectively stock and transportation costs) rapidly and enable a high technical availability at the same time. Furthermore maintenance organisations operate in complex supply chains confronted with strong interdependencies between spare parts suppliers and logistics providers. By the use of stand-alone computerized maintenance management systems (CMMS) material orders are frequently sent manually to the suppliers and therefore the resulted delivery time has been proven to be insufficient leading to long dead times and rising production costs. To overcome this obstacle of company orders an overall reference model for the optimization of processes and organisational structures of all participants in the spare parts distribution network has been elaborated. Moreover an open IT-platform has been developed in order to establish well and reliable communication between all MSC-participants (starting with the end-customer via maintenance service provider, spare parts retailer, spare parts producer and ending with the logistics service provider) and their business software solutions (i.e. enterprise resource planning (ERP), CMMS and so on). At last an appropriate business model was established in order to assure the efficient utilisation of the IT-platform. Within this concept new condition monitoring and mobile device technologies have been integrated in the (semi-) automatic generation of spare part orders by the CMMS, directly injected into the suppliers’ ERP-system. Due to the connection to real-time order processing the order-to-deliver time of spare parts can be notably reduced. Consequently maintenance tasks can be managed more reliable and break-down times and rates are decreasing.

G. Klimek, C. Meier

How to Develop a Practical Asset Management Tool?

Asset management is a process of optimising the asset lifecycle. Due to the advancement of information technology, organisations have started using sophisticated software without understanding its calibrations and the detailed processes involved. Usage of software should be limited and the software should be simple to use. Asset Management cannot be performed in isolation from the field staff. No software can give us a perfect solution; in fact the field data is the most important information which must be incorporated in our asset management model/plan. The asset management team and field staff should work together in refining the asset management model and they should understand the implications of each input variable. Hence there is a great need to define a simple process in order to get an effective asset management model which can be used by an ordinary asset management practitioner. The objective of this paper is to develop a strategy which can assist to simplify the asset management process.

Dhirendra Kumar, Sujeeva Setunge, Indubhushan Patnaikuni

Developing Knowledge–Intensive Product–Service Systems–Interview Results from Finnish Manufacturing Companies

Product manufacturers have increasingly started moving into the service business by introducing services along with their core products. However, there seem to be difficulties in the transition from product-based to service-based business. Manufacturers have strongly focused on planning and producing physical products, and services have been compulsory add-ons to products. Moreover, the design of industrial services is predominantly done with little or no systemization. We have started a research project the main objective of which is to outline a framework for the concurrent design of physical product and knowledge-intensive services. We consider it essential to develop support and service processes in parallel with the design of the product. Interviews among Finnish product manufacturers confirm this assumption. In this paper we will introduce the main results from our interviews, which focused on product and service development.

S. Kunttu, T. Välisalo, M. Reunanen, H. Kortelainen

Towards an Asset Management Framework of Asset Characteristics, Asset Environment, Lifecycle Phases, and Management

In 2007 “the state of asset management in the Netherlands” for infrastructures was established by a national study conducted by the Next Generation Infrastructures research programme (NGInfra). This study showed that within the Netherlands different interpretations of asset management exist. The way asset management is implemented in practice differs widely. Differences included tools, processes, organizations and value systems. Within the EURENSEAM network, a European network of asset management research groups, an asset overview was created in November 2009 consisting of the characteristics of the assets and the context of the assets, and the asset lifecycle phases. We have developed this overview into a framework and interviewed Dutch asset management practitioners. The intention was to see if the practitioners could fill in the framework and relate to it. In this paper we report the findings of these interviews and discuss this onset for an asset management framework that allows for the comparison of different perspectives on asset management. Foreseen future work is the development of taxonomies for assets and for asset management.

T. E. Van der Lei, Y. C. Wijnia, P. M. Herder

The Fault Diagnosis and Monitoring of Rotating Machines by Thermography

The thermography is a convenient and versatile diagnosis method for many types of physical asset such as electric equipments, buildings, and mechanical equipments. However, the interpretation of measurements is just by experts until now. This paper describes an intelligent system for rotating machine fault diagnosis based on statistical feature of thermal images through automated algorithm that can detect and classify those defects. It will be evaluated by experimental dataset. By this, the expert system for condition monitoring and diagnosis will be more effective and the scope of discrimination by Expert system will be better with combining the result of automated diagnosis of vibration data.

Gang-Min Lim, Younus Ali, Bo-Suk Yang

The Electromechanical Impedance Method and its Application for Paint Coating Damage Detection

This paper reports research findings of a corrosion sensing project for applying the electromechanical impedance method for paint coating damage detection. A piezoceramic patch attached to a structure can excite micro and local structural vibration when an alternating or random low voltage signal is applied. The resistance of the structure to the vibration excitation can be measured in terms of the electromechanical impedance. When a structure is damaged the impedance will change. This has been used for structural damage detection. The application of the impedance method for paint coating damage detection is a new exploration. In this paper, the impedance method is first introduced and then research findings on the feasibility of paint coating damage detection by the method is both theoretically and experimentally studied and results discussed.

Xianhua Liu, Roshun Paurobally

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Single Crystallin Strontium Titanate Nanocubes

Strontium titanate nanocubes with an average edge length of 150 nm have been successfully synthesized from a simple hydrothermal system. Characterization techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays were used to investigate the products. The results showed that the as-prepared powders are pure SrTiO

3

with cubic shape, which consists with the growth habit of its intrinsic crystal structure. These uniform nanocubes with high crystallinity will exhibit superior physical properties in the practical applications. Furthermore, during the experimental process, it has been found that the dilute acid washing process is very important to obtain high pure SrTiO

3

.

M. Liu, C. Yan, J. Bell

Diesel Engine Problems, Acoustic Emission Signals and Simulated Misfire Faults

This paper discusses commonly encountered diesel engine problems and the underlying combustion related faults. Also discussed are the methods used in previous studies to simulate diesel engine faults and the initial results of an experimental simulation of a common combustion related diesel engine fault, namely diesel engine misfire. This experimental fault simulation represents the first step towards a comprehensive investigation and analysis into the characteristics of acoustic emission signals arising from combustion related diesel engine faults. Data corresponding to different engine running conditions was captured using in-cylinder pressure, vibration and acoustic emission transducers along with both crank-angle encoder and top-dead centre signals. Using these signals, it was possible to characterise the diesel engine in-cylinder pressure profiles and the effect of different combustion conditions on both vibration and acoustic emission signals.

D. P. Lowe, Weiliang Wu, Andy C. C. Tan, Richard J. Brown

Road Networks Management Under Uncertainty: A Stochastic Based Model

Current pavement management systems (PMS) adopted by the Road Authorities are often very complex and data intensive. Other challenges also faced by Road Authorities in managing road networks include budget constraints and the uncertainty associated in predicting the future performance of pavements. In addition, the emphasis in pavement management has shifted from reconstructing completely new roads towards preservation of existing networks. In many cases, existing PMS do not meet these requirements. Thus, an efficient model that is able to accommodate all of those challenges needs to be developed. This paper outlines the development of a stochastic based PMS that includes a performance prediction model using Markov chains and an optimization model based on Markov Decision Processes (MDP). Combinations of pavement preservation strategies and maintenance budget levels are applied as action criteria in contrast to other stochastic models. Despite the apparent influence of uncertainty in road pavement performance during their service live, stochastic models provide promising results for enhancing current PMS. By analysing historical data, the future behaviour of road pavements under different expenditure levels and combination of routine and periodic maintenance measures can be predicted. From an optimization point of view, the utilization of constrained MDP will potentially result in cost savings. This is due to the optimality principal of the model which is capable of finding a optimal multi-year maintenance policy through the direct inclusion of additional constraints into the optimization problem. Hence, the model considers constraints and incorporates relationships between historical maintenance actions and costs. This paper also presents a methodology for developing rationale for long-term maintenance policies by integrating stochastic based performance prediction and optimization models with the experience of Road Authorities in managing roads networks.

I. P. Mandiartha, C. F. Duffield, R. G. Thompson

The Exemplification of Governance Principles within State Asset Management Laws and Policies: The Case of Indonesia

Efficient state asset management is crucial for governments as they facilitate the fulfillment of their public functions, which include the provision of essential services and other public administration support. In recent times economies internationally and particularly in South east Asia, have displayed increased recognition of the importance of efficiencies across state asset management law, policies and practice. This has been exemplified by a surge in notable instances of reform in state asset management. A prominent theme in this phenomenon is the consideration of governance principles within the re-conceptualization of state asset management law and related policy, with many countries recognizing variability in the quality of asset governance and opportunities for profit as being critical factors. This issue is very current in Indonesia where a major reform process in this area has been confirmed by the establishment of a new Directorate of State Asset Management. The incumbent Director-General of State Asset Management has confirmed a re-emphasis on adherence to governance principles within applicable state asset management law and policy reform. This paper reviews aspects of the challenge of reviewing and reforming Indonesian practice within state asset management law and policy specifically related to public housing, public buildings, parklands, and vacant land. A critical issue in beginning this review is how Indonesia currently conceptualizes the notion of asset governance and how this meaning is embodied in recent changes in law and policy and importantly in options for future change. This paper discusses the potential complexities uniquely Indonesian characteristics such as decentralisation and regional autonomy regime, political history, and bureaucratic culture.

Diaswati Mardiasmo, Charles Sampford, Paul Barnes

Bringing the MIMOSA OSA-EAI into an Object-Oriented World

Despite being poised as a standard for data exchange for operations and maintenance data, the database heritage of the MIMOSA OSA-EAI is clearly evident from using a relational model at its core. The XML schema (XSD) definitions, which are used for communication between asset management systems, are based on the MIMOSA common relational information schema (CRIS), a relational model, and consequently, many database concepts permeate the communications layer. The adoption of a relational model leads to several deficiencies, and overlooks advances in object-oriented modelling and XSD itself. A decision was made to adopt an object-oriented approach for an upcoming version of the specification, and the common conceptual object model (CCOM) sees a transition to fully utilising object-oriented features for the standard. Unified modelling language (UML) is used as a medium for documentation as well as facilitating XSD code generation. This paper details some of the decisions faced in developing the CCOM and provides a glimpse into the future of asset management data exchange standards.

Avin Mathew, Ken Bever, Michael Purser, Lin Ma

Ontology-Based Implementation of an Advanced Method for Time Treatment in Asset Lifecycle Management

In asset lifecycle management (ALM) there are a number of information systems different to each other which contain and collect data about the asset, its processes, activities etc. In the case of extended enterprises this involves collaboration between the systems of the suppliers and the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). To make these systems work together is a major open issue. This work is an attempt to implement a method for exploiting the characteristics of time in ALM systems. The concept is that since time exists naturally in all parts of these systems, it could be used as the universal common reference-basis for providing a first level of integration among the systems. The concept is implemented in a model focusing in maintenance and at the same time considers the entire lifecycle. A case study demonstrates the applicability and the advantages of the concept in a complex industrial environment.

A. Matsokis, D. Kiritsis

Availability of a General Repairable k-out-of-n:G System Considering Shut-Off Rules

The

k

-

out-of-n:G

system is a common form of redundancy, widely used in reliability and maintenance engineering. The

k

-

out

-

of

-

n:G

system has a wide range of applications in industrial systems, military services and communication systems. In this work, the number of repairmen is assumed to be

r

(1 ≤

r

n

k

+ 1) and the shut-off rule could involve suspended animation, continuous operation, or a mixture of these two shut-off rules. Components can have different or similar repair priorities. The objective of this work is to address the problem of efficient evaluation of the system’s availability in a way that steady state solutions can be obtained systematically in a reasonable computational time. This problem is modeled as a finite state-dependent non-homogeneous quasi-birth-death (QBD) process. An algorithm is introduced to automatically generate the system state vectors and transition rate matrix. An iterative solution procedure based on the Block Gauss–Seidel method is employed to determine the steady state measures of the system. Numerical examples are applied to demonstrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed method. Our method exhibits very high efficiency on large problems in terms of correctness and computational time. Our result can facilitate the analyses of similar reliability models in terms of finding the optimum design for a repairable system.

Ramin Moghaddass, Ming J. Zuo, Wenbin Wang

The Evaluation Method of Human–Machine–Environment Systems Operation Quality

In the paper the issues of the systems operation quality assessment are considered. The studies take into consideration the real complex socio-technical <H–M–E> (human–machine–environment) systems. The assessment quality of the systems operation is based on the changes of the systems features values. The features describe the operation of the systems operators, controlled technical objects (vessels, trains, planes or cars) and the environment influence. The assessment and the support the demand quality of the systems operation from the safety, efficiency, ecology, economic and reliability point of view is the basic factor of the executed exploitation process. The paper deals with description of rules, on the basis of which the method has been developed. Algorithm of mathematical model of the systems operation quality evaluation has been built. Metrics have been elaborated, essential concepts of metric space have been used and partial order relation as well as appropriate setting systems in order in terms of their operation quality have been applied. This model is supposed to serve as a general abstract form for operation quality assessment of a wide class of real transport systems different in terms of their features, structure and operation. The further part of the paper deals with possibilities of quality control in order to provide the desired level of the transport system operation quality which will be an effect of the carried out research, especially, the results, obtained on the basis of the proposed assessment method.

L. Muślewski, M. Woropay, P. Bojar

Use Rule Based to Predict Dirty Values

Nowadays business organizations and large companies are dealing with huge datasets. A main problem with these datasets is dirty data. Dirty data reduce the quality of information management. Data quality is improved by data cleaning. In data cleaning process dirty data are predicted by various mechanisms. Rule based is one of the main techniques for predicting dirty values. Rule based is a human understandable and easily interpretable method. In this paper we build a classifier using association rules to predict dirty values in large datasets. Our classifier is built from multiple target rules (MTR) to identify dirty data. MTR are an extension of association rules.

Kalaivany Natarajan, Jiuyong Li, Andy Koronios

Stochastic and Jerky Nature of Plasticity in Small Material Volumes

Established experimental results indicate that material deformation is often jerky with discrete events occurring in a stochastic manner. In micron-sized material volumes, such discrete events may correspond to very large strain changes so that the overall behaviour may no longer be describable by smooth constitutive laws. In this paper, the corresponding experimental observations are surveyed. The stochastic and jerky nature of the plastic events calls for new approaches to model plasticity in small volumes, and attempts based on statistical ensembles are discussed.

A. H. W. Ngan

Temperature Dependent Electrical Resistivity in Epoxy—Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

Thin films of epoxy nanocomposites modified by multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared by shear mixing and spin casting. The electrical behaviour and its dependence with temperature between 243 and 353°K were characterized by measuring the direct current (DC) conductivity. Depending on the fabrication process, both linear and non-linear relationships between conductivity and temperature were observed. In addition, the thermal history also played a role in dictating the conductivity. The implications of these observations for potential application of these films as strain sensors are discussed.

M. K. Njuguna, C. Yan, J. Bell, P. Yarlagadda

An Integrated Software for Machine Diagnostics and Prognostics Using Wireless Sensors

This study presents an integrated software for machine health diagnosis and prognosis based on signals measured by wireless sensors. This software consists of four sequential modules: data processing, data analysis and condition monitoring, diagnosis, and prognosis. The algorithms used in the diagnostics and prognostics modules are developed based on our recent studies. Additionally, some methods for feature representation, feature selection, feature extraction, etc are also introduced in this study. The aim of this software is to offer comprehensive system for industrial problems. In order to verify, a measured the data from K-Water pump and simulated data of induction motors are used. The results indicate that this software will can be used as a reliability tool to real application.

Jun-Seok Oh, Jung-Min Han, Min-Chan Shim, Jong-Duk Son, Bo-Suk Yang

Structurally Integrated Thick Film Acoustic Emission Sensors

Interest is growing in the field of structural health monitoring by Acoustic Emission (AE). AE monitoring of component health enables maintenance to be scheduled when it is needed thus preventing frequent and unnecessary servicing or unplanned downtime due to component failure. AE testing has many applications including monitoring civil engineering structures and validating component quality post-production. A novel thick film Acoustic Emission sensor is presented. AE sensors were fabricated by creating and pattering thick film lead zirconate titanate (PZT), a piezoelectric ceramic; using a powder/sol composite ink deposition technique in conjunction with mechanical patterning of the subsequent films. The resultant AE sensors exhibit a comparable response to commercially available AE sensors. Comparative thick film and commercial sensors results will be reviewed and discussed.

A. J. Pickwell, R. A. Dorey, D. Mba

Estimation of Rail Failure Parameters for Developing Rail Maintenance Models

Large industries such as mining, jute and sugarcane and steel plants need to use rail networks for transportation of material over wide geographically distant areas. Maintenance strategy of rail network is developed by understanding reliability of rails used in the rail track system. Reliability analysis of rails can be carried out by understanding the failure mechanism of rail through modelling and analysis of failure data. These failure data are time or usage dependent for certain conditions. In a probabilistic sense, rail failure is a function of its usage in terms of Million Gross Tonnes (MGT) for certain conditions. This paper is to analyse real life rail industry data, deal with the limitations of available data and develop predictive models for maintenance and replacement decisions. Parameters of the model are estimated using real world data with an application of non-homogeneous Poisson process.

A. Rahman, G. Chattopadhyay

Human Dimensions in Integrated Asset Management

There have been two major Queensland State Government reforms: the Local Government reform of 2008 and the Water Distribution and Retail reform of 2009. These have increased the size of the community served to 897,000 and the area served to 3135 square kilometres. (These numbers were summed up from the estimated numbers in the fact sheets of the three councils. The corresponding numbers from Allconnex Water are around 850,000 people and 2800 square kilometres). The communities, previously served by four independent and separate councils, will from July 2010 be served by one entity, Allconnex Water, solely for water and waste water infrastructure. Since Allconnex Water only deals with water services, the concept of IAM as used in most other municipalities to integrate systems of other infrastructures (roads, parks, transport etc.) is not valid. In the case of Allconnex Water, however, the integration can apply to the amalgamation of different Asset Management Systems (AMS) and GIS systems used by the parent councils for the water and sewer network. This would exclude all other infrastructure systems, but include billing, meter-data collection, telemetry, SCADA and human resources. The service entities need to make great efforts in advancing IT tools to increase capacity, organisational changes, technical changes, business management, effectiveness and efficiency. While these can be achieved through IAM, the issues relating to human organisational behaviours will be a greater challenge. The most challenging of these is non-comprehensive record keeping, the ability of individuals to adapt from their basic educational and training backgrounds to working on completely automated systems and the general reluctance to accept change. These cannot be accomplished without educating the operations, maintenance and data acquisition staff, their supervisory staff and their managers of the benefits of integrating all systems seamlessly. Adequate funding would also be required to guarantee the success of the system. A one-off training session is totally insufficient; given the ongoing management problems would require continual education with suitable IT support. The full paper will address all these challenges with the dual threat posed by the aging infrastructure and work force, and the herculean efforts required in the implementation and the ongoing management of the IAM.

Appiah Raveenthiran

Simulation of AE Wave Propagation in Thin Plate for Source Identification

In most materials, short stress waves are generated during the process of plastic deformation, phase transformation, crack formation and crack growth. These phenomena are applied in acoustic emission (AE) for the detection of material defects in a wide spectrum of areas, ranging from non-destructive testing for the detection of materials defects to monitoring of microseismical activity. AE technique is also used for defect source identification and for failure detection. AE waves consist of P waves (primary/longitudinal waves), S waves (shear/transverse waves) and Rayleigh (surface) waves as well as reflected and diffracted waves. The propagation of AE waves in various modes has made the determination of source location difficult. In order to use acoustic emission technique for accurate identification of source location, an understanding of wave propagation of the AE signals at various locations in a plate structure is essential. Furthermore, an understanding of wave propagation can also assist in sensor location for optimum detection of AE signals. In real life, as the AE signals radiate from the source it will result in stress waves. Unless the type of stress wave is known, it is very difficult to locate the source when using the classical propagation velocity equations. This paper describes the simulation of AE waves to identify the source location in steel plate as well as the wave modes. The finite element analysis (FEA) is used for the numerical simulation of wave propagation in thin plate. By knowing the type of wave generated, it is possible to apply the appropriate wave equations to determine the location of the source. For a single plate structure, the results show that the simulation algorithm is effective to simulate different stress waves.

A. Roy, A. C. C. Tan, Y. T. Gu, M. Kaphle

Strategic Maintenance Improvement: Driving forces and Obstacles

Global trade, increased levels of automation and ambitions to apply lean production increases the demand for effective maintenance of production equipment. Still, the maintenance function is often regarded as having mainly a tactical role for the assets. The fact that many companies have no clear goals for their maintenance activities is serious since goals and strategies are driving forces for increasing the maintenance effectiveness. Several studies have recognized that the absence of clear strategies obstruct maintenance development initiatives. Also, maintenance strategies should support the corporate strategy and business drivers considered critical success factors of the company. Maintenance development is the discipline of development of strategies, methods, and tools to be applied in any organization. However, well defined maintenance strategies have to be well implemented in order to contribute to the competitiveness of the company. The aim of this paper is to identify some of the driving forces and obstacles that have to be dealt with when implementing maintenance strategies. In the paper, three industrial cases are presented to exemplify which implications to be dealt with when implementing maintenance strategies. The paper is based on interviews and direct observations in three manufacturing companies in Sweden. All three companies have used the same method, within the same time frame to formulate maintenance strategies, fully aligned with their overall strategic goals. All three companies have their own specific challenges, but share the ambition to improve their maintenance programs. The case studies show that implementation of maintenance strategies to a large amount resembles a typical change project with all its challenges. However, some of the obstacles, and also some of the driving forces are more likely to appear in the maintenance context such as the organizational and cultural barriers between the maintenance and production departments.

A. Salonen

Towards Policy-Driven Performance Reporting: The Case of Waterway Infrastructure

Infrastructure managers at public agencies experience increasing pressure to align maintenance operations with organizational policies. Their performance reporting is often weak for coping with future developments. Politicians require more control on maintenance expenditures. Budget cuts put many governments under pressure to answer for resource allocation decisions. Moreover, infrastructure stakeholders want to be informed on the fulfillment of their interests. They expect higher service standards and transparency from public agencies that manage infrastructure assets. The political and social pressure on public agencies requires a more objective, goal-directed and easily measurable performance reporting scheme that connects the policy and operational levels in public agencies. Few studies pay attention to the relation between the policy and operational sides of infrastructure management. The aim of this paper is to propose and discuss a four-layered performance reporting scheme to connect policy and operations in public agencies. Central to the discussion are the challenges in the design and application of the proposed scheme. The discussion is based on three case studies on the current performance reporting design in the waterway sector in the Netherlands. The results of the study include a list of key challenges in the design and application of the policy-driven performance reporting schemes.

D. F. J. Schraven, A. Hartmann, S. Bosveld, G. P. M. Dewulf

A Technical Architecture Development of Social Infrastructure Asset Managmement Information Systems in Korea

The demands of introducing preventive-maintenance-based asset management systems in replacement of the existing facility management systems are recently increased in maintaining the facilities systematically and improving their values. A number of facility management systems including pavement and bridge management systems have been developed and operated. Therefore, functions of the existing facility management systems must be integrated into the new asset management information systems in a seamless manner. A technical architecture of the asset management information systems was proposed as a part of the study of asset management information system development project. It includes the relationship among the hardware, network, communication and application systems, as well as the interface with the existing facility management systems. The results of this study will be an example of a technical architecture, including the systems interface and network configuration when anyone develops asset management information systems.

Myoung-Bae Seo, Seong-Yun Jeong, Won-Sik Choi, Hei-Suk Nah

Enhanced Kernel Method for Modelling Failure Probability Density Functions

The kernel method is a nonparametric density function estimation method of random processes. This paper proposes some improvements of the characteristics of the method and shows its application to failure data recorded on industrial facilities. The use of this method for building models for maintenance decisions has always been hampered by the data availability and quality. We show how we have improved the accuracy of the estimations and coped with the edge effects. The idea of using nonparametric methods enables to evaluate the behavior of components in their environment and to provide a new decision support tool for assets’ maintenance management.

I. B. Sidibé, K. H. Adjallah

Risk Analysis of Diagnostic Facilities–Man–Machine–Environment System

It is assumed that the

decision analysis

is to be used to create rational premises of safe operation of controlled systems under uncertainty conditions.

Diagnosis and Decision System

is described on the system which consists of the environment diagnostic facilities human being controlled system. The function of this system is to recognise

dangerous

operating situations and to generate a warning that some

danger

might occur as well as to create rational premises for prevention of incorrect decisions that are made during the operation of the controlled system. The processing of messages is carried out in compliance with the

conventional Calculus of logic

including the

double negation law.

The Diagnosis and Decision model presented in this paper is universal to a great extent.

Z. Smalko, J. Żurek, M. Zieja

SIMPLE—Sustainable Infrastructure Management Program Learning Environment

Sustainable Infrastructure Management Program Learning Environment (SIMPLE) is a web based asset management knowledge tool set hosted by the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF). It is an intuitive and user-friendly set of on-line process and practice guidelines, templates and decision support tools designed for asset management practitioners, SIMPLE can: (1) Simplify and guide the development of effective Enterprise-Wide Asset Management plans, and (2) provide practical implementation guidelines for agencies to assess and drive meaningful improvements in asset management for Water and Wastewater Infrastructure. As a knowledge management system, it also makes asset management principles and practices comprehensible and promotes information exchange among practitioners with various needs and experience levels (through chat rooms, technical forums etc.). The SIMPLE on line knowledge base has undergone a favourable peer-review and validation process through a beta testing program involving utility agencies from around the world. WERF and the Water Research Foundation (WRF) have also partnered to create an Asset Management Self Assessment Tool (SAM-GAP) tailored to the North American water utility industry. Through the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC), WERF and the Water Research Foundation have partnered with other international research organisations, United Kingdom Water Industry Research (UKWIR) and the Water Services Association Australia (WSAA) to create a Benefit-Cost Tool and a Risk Management Tool now incorporated into SIMPLE. Life Cycle Costing, Capital Investment Planning, Asset Registers and Hierarchies, Condition Assessment, Valuation and Failure Mode Analysis are also in development for the future.

Andrew Sneesby, Duncan Rose, Roger Byrne, Walter Graf, Maureen Hodgins

Research into Infrastructure Systems Vulnerability, Risk Exposure, and Sustainable Adaptive Capacity to Hazardous Conditions

Many physical infrastructure systems in the built environment, as well as facilities and utilities (transportation, water, power, and telecommunications) are complex adaptive systems with emergent systemic behaviour patterns that result from dynamic interactions among their inter-related components. Infrastructure systems can be viewed as a structured network of interdependent mechanisms that enable service delivery capability of physical assets, predominantly inherent to infrastructure. Infrastructure interdependencies in effect means a bi-directional relationship between multiple different infrastructures in a ‘system of systems’ through which the state of each infrastructure influences, or is influenced by, the state of another. This paper considers research into infrastructure systems interdependencies with regard to vulnerability risks induced by natural, technological and intentional hazards. The vulnerability of infrastructure, and infrastructure systems, is their exposure and sensitivity to potential impacting changes or hazards that affect their adaptive capacity. Infrastructure and most infrastructure systems have a designed adaptive capacity or resilience to impacting status changes or hazards. Such an adaptive capacity represents the capability and scope in being able to modify the infrastructure to increase its capacity to cope with change impacts or natural hazards, either in the short-term (such as with severe climate conditions), or in the long-term (such as with progressive climate change). The long-term adaptive capacity of infrastructure systems to impacting changes or hazards is viewed as the sustainable adaptive capacity of infrastructure and infrastructure systems—or simply, its sustainability. The complexity and interconnectedness of infrastructure systems raises research challenges in the modelling and analysis of such impacting status changes or hazards. A broad systemic assessment of the vulnerability, risk exposure, and adaptive capacity of infrastructure systems is thus required, which is ideally suited to systems dynamic modelling.

Rudolph Frederick Stapelberg

Renewal Decision Support for Linear Assets

Linear (or continuous) assets are engineering infrastructure that usually spans long distances and can be divided into different segments, all of which perform the same function but may be subject to different loads and environmental conditions. Typical linear assets include railway lines, roads, pipelines and cables. How and when to renew such assets are critical decisions for asset owners as they normally involves significant capital investment. Through investigating the characteristics of linear asset renewal decisions and identifying the critical requirements that are associated with renewal decisions, we present a multi-criteria decision support method to help optimise renewal decisions. A case study that concerns renewal of an economiser’s tubing system in a coal-fired power station is adopted to demonstrate the application of the method. Although the paper concerns a particular linear asset decision type, the approach has broad applicability for linear asset management generally.

Yong Sun, Lin Ma, Warwick Robinson, Michael Purser, Avin Mathew, Colin Fidge

To Keep Transport Device Availability Base on RCM Approach

The paper is focusing on availability model of interoperability transport system with support quality tools and RCM approach. The key elements of the work contain interoperability and availability model of transport device, which is possible to extend to the transport system composed with the

m

th number of devices. The presented model is useful to modelling the transport devices cooperation in large-scale complex control systems. Paper is focusing on selected transport device availability presentation and keeping in operation process.

J. Szpytko

To Ensure Transport System Availability Based on Maintenance Decision Solutions

The paper is focusing on decision solutions based on maintenance to ensure transport system availability. The paper outcomes with solution to design set of key operation parameters of the device and device qualification to the maintenance approach. The proposed solutions have significant impact to the transportation system availability and less failure frequency.

J. Szpytko, M. Woropay, E. Dulcet

Asset Management: Middle East Style

“Past, Present and Future” is the theme for growth on the Arabian Peninsular in the Middle East. As new, modern cities, airports, shipping ports, international airports and railways are built in, around and out from the old residential and commercial trade centres, management of both old assets and modern structures and infrastructure systems brings together both old and new thinking to asset management.

C. Teske

Through-Life Management of Engineering Assets

Effective through-life management of physical (engineering) assets is essential for any asset-intensive organisation to reach and maintain sustainable levels of growth and value creation. The asset lifecycle starts when the organisation decides to acquire (purchase/lease) an asset to deliver products/service to meet the requirements of the market. Currently, these decisions are made commonly from a price perspective, and increasingly from a through-life cost perspective. However, frequently changing and highly uncertain market requirements can jeopardize the profitability of any organisation whose economic results strongly rely on the effective and efficient utilization of physical assets, when the capability installed in these assets is not matching, over time, the evolution of the market requirements. In such an environment, it is essential to ensure not only that the initial configuration would meet the current requirements, but to be able to reconfigure the assets as market requirements evolve over time. However, this need for reconfiguration and its impact on through-life costing is not accounted for today. This paper takes a first step towards addressing this problem, and presents a modelling approach for incorporating reconfiguration issues in making optimised asset acquisition decisions.

M. Tomasella, A. K. Parlikad

Strategic Infrastructure Asset Management: The Way Forward

Organisations owning and managing infrastructure asset are constantly striving to obtain the greatest lifetime value from their infrastructure assets. Many such organisations have adopted the concept of “asset management” with the aim of improving the performance of their infrastructure assets. This paper evaluates the adoption of asset management to improve performance in the context of organisations managing infrastructure assets. Relevant previous research studies on main barriers to the adoption of asset management are reviewed. Analysis of these findings, together with deductive reasoning, leads to the development of the proposed improvement strategies. Three issues were identified as barrier to the advancement of the concept of asset management. They are (1) lack of recognition (2) fragmentation; and (3) growing complexity. To overcome these issues, this paper suggests that the organisations manage infrastructure assets must (1) adopt a more strategic approach in the management of infrastructure assets (2) develop a framework of strategic infrastructure asset management processes, and (3) identify the core capabilities needed in the management of infrastructure assets. This paper presents the direction for further research to advance the concept of asset management in the management of infrastructure asset.

Eric G. Too

Machine Performance Degradation Assessment and Remaining Useful Life Prediction Using Proportional Hazard Model and SVM

This paper proposes a three-stage method involved system identification techniques, proportional hazard model, and support vector machine for assessing the machine health degradation and forecasting the machine remaining useful life (RUL). In the first stage, only the normal operating condition of machine is used to create identification model to mimic the dynamic system behaviour. The machine degradation is indicated by degradation index which is the root mean square of residual errors. These errors are the difference between identification model and behaviour of system. In the second stage, the Cox’s proportional hazard model is generated to estimate the survival function of the system. Finally, support vector machine, one of the remarkable machine learning techniques, in association with direct prediction method of time-series techniques is utilized to forecast the RUL. The data of low methane compressor acquired from condition monitoring routine are used for appraising the proposed method. The results indicate that the proposed method could be used as a potential tool to machine prognostics.

Van Tung Tran, Hong Thom Pham, Bo Suk Yang, Tan Tien Nguyen

Factors Influencing Local Government Capital Works Procurement: Developing a Research Agenda

Capital works procurement policies and processes have a wide variation in type and style, however it is unclear whether and how the different types of procurement approaches impact on delivery and operational outcomes for capital works projects. This paper reviews the extant literature on procurement, focusing particularly on capital works procurement, to examine the range of relevant factors that contribute to procurement decisions. It concludes with offering a testable framework to assist in determining the elements included in optimal capital works procurement processes.

P. Vitartas, M. Flynn, K. Brown, F. D’lima

Managing Metadata Towards Enhanced Data Quality in Asset Management

In engineering asset management (AM) organisations, a variety of data types ranging from asset monitoring data to asset documentation needs to be constantly managed to ensure optimal performance of the underlying infrastructure and engineering assets. The same data are often perceived just as another kind of asset—an information asset. To support the management of information assets, organisations utilise metadata. Popularly defined as data about data, metadata help discover, access, share and maintain information assets. Little research has been conducted on the value that metadata management can add in AM. In this paper, a particular model centred on data quality is proposed. The model suggests that an efficient and effective managed metadata environment is instrumental in enhancing data and metadata quality to allow for timely and well-informed decision-making, data reuse, change management as well as better interoperability across systems and teams. The paper introduces multiple metadata perspectives that AM organisations could apply to facilitate metadata management, and discusses metadata management frameworks.

Lubos Vnuk, Andy Koronios, Jing Gao

Technology Development for Application in Indian Railways

The Government of India launched a Technology Mission on Indian Railways recently. The Ministry of Human Resource Development, Ministry of Railways and a consortium of private industries sponsored the effort jointly. The goals and objectives of the mission included (i) development and adoption of state-of-art safety and control technologies through projects aimed towards achieving higher throughput, lower cost of transmission and safer train movement (ii) encouraging and initiating R & D activities pertinent to Railways in academic institutions and laboratories and establish convergence and synergy among them (iii) dissemination of technologies through participatory approach to other application areas. The paper describes some projects in technical detail and discusses issues pertaining to mission implementation and monitoring.

Nalinaksh S. Vyas, T. V. K. Gupta

Thin Film Solar Cells Based on Cu2ZnSnS4 Absorber

Cu

2

ZnSnS

4

(CZTS) is considered to be one of the most promising light absorbing materials for low cost, high efficiency thin film solar cells. Compared to conventional CuIn(S, Se)

2

(CIS) and Cu(InGa)(S, Se)

2

(CIGS) light absorber, CZTS is only composed of earth-abundant non-toxic elements, ensuring the price competitiveness in the future PV market. However, the research in this area is still at early stage compared to CIS and CIGS. Detailed studies of both material property and device characterization are rare, which significantly restricts the R and D in this area. This paper reviews the progress in the research field of CZTS, particularly the methods which were employed to prepare CZTS absorber material.

Hongxia Wang, John Bell

Atomic Force Microscopy Investigation on Young’s Modulus of Cartilage for Osteoarthritis Study

Wear occurs between two contacting cartilage surfaces of knee joints, resulting in osteoarthritis (OA), a wear and tear related disease worldwide. Young’s modulus describes the elastic properties of a material. With OA progression, Young’s modulus reveals information about the changes in the elastic behaviour of cartilage which is important to its function. This research used atomic force microscopy to investigate the elastic behaviour of sheep knee cartilage on nanometre scale for OA study. All indentation tests were conducted in a hydrated mode. The results have shown that the Young’s modulus of a healthy joint cartilage ranges from 0.39 to 1.10 MPa and 0.14 to 2.00 MPa for the most severe OA grade. The corresponding indentation depth was 800–1,560 nm for a healthy joint and 420–1,106 nm for a severe OA grade. This study has also revealed that no significant change of the elastic property occurs to early OA. A sharp rise of the Young’s modulus of OA grade 2 indicates that the cartilage is rapidly stiffening in advanced OA. This research has demonstrated that the Young’s modulus measured on a nanometre scale has the potential to be used for monitoring and discriminating early and advanced OA.

M. Wang, Z. Peng, J. A. Watson, G. S. Watson, B. N. Morris, B. A. Rayner

Preliminary Study on Bridge Health Prediction Using Dynamic Objective Oriented Bayesian Network (DOOBN)

The availability of bridges is crucial to people’s daily life and national economy. Bridge health predication plays an important role in bridge management because maintenance optimization is implemented based on prediction results of bridge deterioration. Conventional bridge deterioration models can be categorised into two groups, namely condition states models and structural reliability models. Optimal maintenance strategy should be carried out based on both condition states and structural reliability of a bridge. However, none of existing deterioration models considers both condition states and structural reliability. This study thus proposes a Dynamic Objective Oriented Bayesian Network (DOOBN) based method to overcome the limitations of the existing methods. This methodology has the ability to act upon as a flexible unifying tool, which can integrate a variety of approaches and information for better bridge deterioration prediction. Two demonstrative case studies are conducted to preliminarily justify the feasibility of the methodology.

Ruizi Wang, Lin Ma, Cheng Yan, Joseph Mathew

Asset Risk Management: Issues in the Design and Use of the Risk Matrix

Within the profession of asset management many practitioners use a risk matrix in order to prioritize attention. As a risk matrix is an expression of the value system, each organization has own version: there is no universal truth. However, in developing such a custom made matrix, many things may go wrong. Wrong in this sense is that the decisions made with the matrix are not generally perceived as being good decisions. This is often due to errors in the design of the matrix, and misconceptions about its use. In this paper, guidelines for the correct design and use of a risk matrix will be presented and report on some common errors found in the asset risk management practice will be given.

Ype Wijnia

Benchmarking Information Quality Performance in Asset Intensive Organisations in the UK

Maintaining good quality information is a difficult task and many leading asset management (AM) organisations have difficulty planning and executing successful information quality management (IQM) practices. The aim of this work is, therefore, to provide guidance on how organisations can improve IQM practices within the AM unit of the business. Using the case study methodology, the current level of IQM maturity was benchmarked for ten AM organisations in the UK by focussing on the AM unit of the organisation. By understanding how the most mature organisations approach the task of IQM, specific guidelines for how organisations with lower maturity levels can improve their IQM practices are presented. Five ‘critical success factors’ from the IQM-CMM maturity model were identified as being significant for improving IQM maturity: IQ management team and project management, IQ requirements analysis, IQ requirements management, information product visualisation and meta-information management.

Philip Woodall, Ajith Kumar Parlikad, Lucas Lebrun

Use of Analytic Hierarchy Process for Assessment of Transport System Operation Safety

Transport systems are socio-technical systems in which accomplishment of a direct task is the responsibility of an executive subsystem made up of elementary subsystems of the type—technical object (operator–transport means) carrying out tasks within the system surroundings. Due to the presence of people in the transport system, the most significant criterion for the assessment of carried out rides is their safety. The safety level of carried out transport tasks is affected by threats posed by forcing factors which have an influence on the elementary executive system. These factors can be divided into: (1) operational; (2) external; and (3) antropotechnical. Due to the complex nature of the analyzed systems, the authors of the paper have made an attempt to evaluate the influence of these factors on the system operational safety.

M. Woropay, P. Bojar, L. Muslewski, E. Dulcet

Integrated Management Asset Approach to Human–Device Set

Authors have been concentrated at hybrid human–device process control system that is endangered at external influences with stress character. A model of reliability shaping of human–device set has been considered in the paper.

D. A. Wozniak, J. Szpytko, Z. Smalko, J. Zurek

Separation of Acoustic Emission Signals From Small Size Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engine

This paper presents techniques which can lead to diagnosis of faults in a small size multi-cylinder diesel engine. Preliminary analysis of the acoustic emission (AE) signals is outlined, including time–frequency analysis and selection of optimum frequency band. The results of applying mean field independent component analysis (MFICA) to separate the AE root mean square (RMS) signals and the effects of changing parameter values are also outlined. The results on separation of RMS signals show this technique has the potential of increasing the probability to successfully identify the AE events associated with the various mechanical events within the combustion process of multi-cylinder diesel engines.

Weiliang Wu, A. C. C. Tan

Analysis of Conical-Cylinder Shells Fundamental Characteristics for Structural Health Diagnostics

This paper describes the formulation for the free vibration of joined conical–cylindrical shells with uniform thickness using the transfer of influence coefficient for identification of structural characteristics. These characteristics are importance for structural health monitoring to develop model. This method was developed based on successive transmission of dynamic influence coefficients, which were defined as the relationships between the displacement and the force vectors at arbitrary nodal circles of the system. The two edges of the shell having arbitrary boundary conditions are supported by several elastic springs with meridional/axial, circumferential, radial and rotational stiffness, respectively. The governing equations of vibration of a conical shell, including a cylindrical shell, are written as a coupled set of first order differential equations by using the transfer matrix of the shell. Once the transfer matrix of a single component has been determined, the entire structure matrix is obtained by the product of each component matrix and the joining matrix. The natural frequencies and the modes of vibration were calculated numerically for joined conical–cylindrical shells. The validity of the present method is demonstrated through simple numerical examples, and through comparison with the results of previous researchers.

D. J. Yeo, M. S. Choi, A. C. C. Tan

Time–Frequency Energy Spectrum Analysis Technique in Main Joints Fault Diagnosis of Quayside Container Crane Track Based on Hilbert–Huang Transform

Based on the introduction of the Hilbert–Huang transform, the technique of time–frequency energy spectrum is presented in this paper. According to the features including heavy-load, high-speed and huge-impact of the trolley-track vibration, the fault information can be extracted effectively by means of this technique. The application to the large-scale container crane belonged to a Shanghai container company shows that this technique is an on-line and real-time method for the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of the crane.

Y. Yin, X. Hu, C. Deng

Handling Incomplete Data in Survival Analysis with Multiple Covariates

This paper studies the missing covariate problem which is often encountered in survival analysis. Three covariate imputation methods are employed in the study, and the effectiveness of each method is evaluated within the hazard prediction framework. Data from a typical engineering asset is used in the case study. Covariate values in some time steps are deliberately discarded to generate an incomplete covariate set. It is found that although the mean imputation method is simpler than others for solving missing covariate problems, the results calculated by it can differ largely from the real values of the missing covariates. This study also shows that in general, results obtained from the regression method are more accurate than those of the mean imputation method but at the cost of a higher computational expensive. Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) method is found to be the most effective method within these three in terms of both computation efficiency and prediction accuracy.

Yi Yu, Lin Ma, Yong Sun, Yuantong Gu

Development of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels for High Temperature Nuclear Structural Applications

Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are the most promising candidate materials for high temperature nuclear applications. Mechanical alloying and subsequent thermomechanical treatments are applied to manufacture the ODS steels. Recently improved chemical composition and manufacturing processes have been developed to produce ultrafine grain size with high number-density of nanoscale oxide particles and high dislocation density in the microstructure. Usually, fine grains degrade creep resistance at elevated temperatures. However, the fine-grained ODS steels exhibit not only good radiation resistance, but also superior creep properties. The present paper reviews the chemical compositions, manufacturing processing, microstructural features, thermal creep properties and radiation resistance of recently developed ODS steels. Special attention is paid to the effects of the fine-scale microstructural features on thermal creep and radiation resistance.

Hanliang Zhu, Tao Wei, Robert Harrison, Lyndon Edwards, Kouichi Maruyama
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