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## Über dieses Buch

This book systematically introduces engineering fluid mechanics in a simple and understandable way, focusing on the basic concepts, principles and methods. Engineering fluid mechanics is necessary for professionals and students in fields such as civil, environmental, mechanical, and petroleum engineering. Unlike most of the current textbooks and monographs, which are too complicated and include huge numbers of math formulas and equations, this book introduces essential concepts and flow rules in a clear and elementary way that can be used in further research. In addition, it provides numerous useful tables and diagrams that can be quickly and directly checked for industry applications. Furthermore, it highlights the connection between free flow and porous flow, which can aid advanced interdisciplinary research such as nanotech and environmental science. Last but not least, each chapter presents a variety of problems to offer readers a better understanding about the principles and applications of fluid mechanics.

## Inhaltsverzeichnis

### Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Fluid mechanics is a discipline which focuses on the fluid equilibrium and its movement. It has great significance on our daily lives. In this chapter, we will first introduce the developing trends and research methods of fluid mechanics. Then we will give definitions of continuum model for fluids. Finally, we will discuss major properties of fluid, such as specific weight, viscosity, compressibility and so on.
Hongqing Song

### Chapter 2. Fluid Statics

Abstract
Fluid statics focuses on equilibrium problems of forces exerting on a motionless fluid and corresponding application in practical situations. In this chapter, we will first discuss Eulerian equilibrium equation of fluids and its integral. In addition, we will introduce pressure calculation and measurement. Finally, according to the principles of pressure distribution, we can calculate forces acting on a plate.
Hongqing Song

### Chapter 3. Fluid Dynamics

Abstract
Fluid dynamics, the study of fluid flow, is an important subset of fluid mechanics. It is based on the conservation laws of mass and momentum, moment of momentum to study the velocity and pressure of fluid flow, influential factors and their applications. In this chapter, we will first introduce the studying approaches (Lagrangian approach and Eulerian approach) and basic concepts of fluid flow. Then we will present continuity equation of fluid motion. Furthermore, we also show differential equations of motion for inviscid/viscous fluid and their corresponding Bernoulli’s integral. Finally, we discuss momentum equation for steady flow and its application.
Hongqing Song

### Chapter 4. Head Loss of Incompressible Viscous Flow

Abstract
Actual fluids have different flow regimes due to viscosity. The regimes include laminar flow and turbulent flow. The regimes, viscosity, and pipe wall surface have influence on flow resistance, which leads to head loss for fluids flow. In this chapter, we will firstly introduce types of head loss (friction loss and minor head loss) and two regimes of fluids flow. Then we will study characteristics of laminar flow and turbulent flow in circular pipe. Furthermore, we will present the definition of friction factor and discuss ways to determine value of friction factor in order to calculate friction loss. Finally, we will give determination of minor head loss.
Hongqing Song

### Chapter 5. Pipe Network and Orifice, Nozzle Flow

Abstract
For pipe flow calculation, the piping system can be divided into two parts, that is single pipe flow and multiple pipes flow. The combination of multiple pipes can make up the pipe network. The researches on orifice and nozzle flow are also meaningful in engineering application. In this chapter, we will first introduce single pipe flow and multiple pipes flow. For multiple pipes flow, we mainly discuss series flow, parallel flow and uniformly variable mass outflow. Then we will figure out characteristics of orifice flow and nozzle flow. For them, we will pay more attention to their discharge coefficients for velocity and flow rate.
Hongqing Song

### Chapter 6. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics Through Porous Media

Abstract
Fluid flow through porous media widely exists in nature and artificial materials, and its theory has been used in all sorts of scientific and technological fields, such as soil mechanics, petroleum engineering, mineral engineering, environmental engineering, geothermal engineering, water supply engineering, chemical industry, micro machine, and so on. In this chapter, we will first give some basic concepts of fluid flow through porous media, such as porosity and compressibility of porous media. Then we will introduce Darcy’s law and mathematical model of fluid flow through porous media. Finally, we will utilize some principles of seepage mechanics to discuss solutions for planar one-directional flow and planar radial flow.
Hongqing Song

### Chapter 7. Fluid Machinery

Abstract
Pumps and fans all belong to fluid machinery which can be used to transport fluids. Pumps are always used to transport liquids and fans are always used to transport gases. In this chapter, we will first discuss the characteristics of centrifugal pump, including its head rise, efficiency, performance curves. Then we will introduce system curve and pump selection. Finally, we will indicate some basic concepts about centrifugal fan.
Hongqing Song

### Chapter 8. Similitude and Dimensional Analysis

Abstract
Experiments are usually necessary to solve scientific and technologic problems because they can provide theoretical basis and criterion. The theoretical fundamentals for experimental design and evaluation are similitude and dimensional analysis. This chapter includes similitude, dimensional analysis, and its application. The learning goals are as follows. First, we should understand the concepts of mechanics similitude and similarity criterion. Then we have to master the applications of approximate similitude, the π theorem and dimensional analysis. Finally, three important approximate models should be grasped including Froude model, Reynolds model, and Euler model.
Hongqing Song

### Chapter 9. CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifer with Vertical Heterogeneity

Abstract
CCS (CO2 Capture and Storage) is a classical application of fluid flow in porous media. In recent years, CCS technology is considered an effective way to reduce CO2 emissions. Saline aquifer is given special affection for CCS because of its huge amount of storage. In this chapter, we will first discuss mathematics model for CO2 storage in terms of fluid flow theory, then introduce analytical solution to obtain percolating resistance and sweep efficiency. Finally, we evaluate and analyze storage effect of CO2.
Hongqing Song

### Backmatter

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