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Über dieses Buch

The expanded 4th edition of this classic optics text is aimed at those wishing to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, and provides a sound introduction to the basic principles of optics for engineering students. It describes fundamental material including Fourier optics, diffraction theory, geometrical optics, and lenses, and goes on to cover important topics such as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, integrated optics, 3D imaging and optical distance measurement.

Comprehensively updated throughout, this new edition features a major additional section on optical measurement techniques, including chapters on scanning methods, structured light pattern projection methods, depth measurement using a microscope, coherent as well as incoherent interferometry and distance mapping using CCD cameras.

Fully illustrated, the text includes numerous practical examples, together with worked exercises and end-of-chapter problem sets.

From the reviews of the third edition:

"It is intended not only for the physics and engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics, but also for researchers and engineers who use optics in their research and/or professional activity. For all these people, this book will be a valuable source of scientific information. ..."
- Optica Applicata

"Iizuka managed to intermingle lively and exciting ideas, humorous and enthusiastic presentations, eye-catching and tasteful cartoons, significant backbone optics materials and even some frontier state-of-the-art optics information. I did not have a dull moment reading this book. It has a very attractive style: educational, yet entertaining…."
- IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine

"I found this book most helpful in demonstrating an effective teaching approach that was especially suited for engineering students. … The examples and problem sets at the each chapter are also helpful to students and instructors …. Overall, it is a delightful book, and I would definitely recommend it to students starting out on the path of exploring optical technologies and educators who want to enlighten young engineers fascinated by optics."
- Optics and Photonics News

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. History of Optics

Abstract
This chapter gives a historical prospective of the field of optics in general. It is amazing that, even though light has always been a source of immense curiosity for ancient peoples, most principles of modern optics had to wait until the late eighteenth century to be conceived, and it was only during the mid-nineteenth century with Maxwell’s equations that modern optics was fully brought to birth. The century following that event has been an exciting time of learning and a tremendous growth which we have been witnessing today.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 2. Mathematics Used for Expressing Waves

Abstract
Spherical waves, cylindrical waves and plane waves are the most basic wave forms. In general, more complicated wave forms can be expressed by the superposition of these three waves. In the present chapter, these waves are described phenomenologically while leaving the more rigorous expressions for later chapters. The symbols which are frequently used in the following chapters are summarized.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 3. Basic Theory of Diffraction

Abstract
In order to explain the diffraction phenomenon of light sneaking into shaded regions C. Huygens (1678) claimed “In the process of propagation of thewave new wave fronts are emanated from every point of the old wave front”.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 4. Practical Examples of Diffraction Theory

Abstract
This chapter tests the knowledge obtained in Chaps. 2 and 3. A series of practical examples and their solutions involving diffraction phenomena are collected in this chapter. Such subjects as antenna array, optical discs and Fresnel zone plate are covered.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 5. Geometrical Optics

Abstract
This chapter develops geometrical optics which is the counterpart of wave optics appearing in Chap. 3. The power of geometrical optics is convincingly demonstrated when working with inhomogeneous transmission media because, for this type of media, other methods are more complicated. Various practical examples related to fiber optics are presented so that the basic knowledge necessary for fiber-optical communication in Chap. 13 is developed.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 6. Lenses

Abstract
This chapter deals with the Fourier transformable and image formable properties of a lens using Fourier optics. A special emphasis is placed on the detailed explanation of the Fourier transformable properties of a lens. These properties of a lens are abundantly used in optical signal processing appearing in Chap.11.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 7. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

Abstract
This chapter explains the principle of the fast Fourier transform (FFT). In order to construct a versatile system, the merits of both analog and digital processing have to be cleverly amalgamated. Only through this hybrid approach can systems such as computer holography, computer tomography, hologram matrix radar, 3D Laser Micro-vision or step frequency radar where high-speed processing is essential become possible.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 8. Holography

Abstract
This chapter covers both coherent and white-light holography. A photograph records the real image of an object formed by a lens. A hologram, however, records the field distribution that results from the light scattered by an object. Actually, the recording of the scattered field provides much more information about the object than that of the real image recorded in a photograph. For instance, one hologram can readily generate different real images that correspond to different viewing angles. While holography is popularly identified with its ability to create three-dimensional images, it is used for measuring minute changes and vibrations, as a machining tool, and for profiling the shape of an object.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 9. Laboratory Procedures for Fabricating Holograms

Abstract
This chapter shows a pictorial cookbook for fabricating a hologram. This chapter is intended as a step-by-step guide to the experiment, complete with several illustrative photographs. What may seem simple and easy to understand in theory can often be difficult to put into practice. Experience in fabricating a hologram could be a memorable initiation for a student who wishes to be a pioneer in the field of engineering optics.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 10. Analysis of the Optical System in the Spatial Frequency Domain

Abstract
This chapter introduces analysis in the spatial frequency domain. The treatment of optics can be classified into two broad categories: One is the space domain, which has been used up to this chapter, and the other is the spatial frequency domain, which is newly introduced here. These two domains are related by the Fourier transform relationship. The existence of such dual domains connected by Fourier transforms is also found in electronics and quantum physics.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 11. Optical Signal Processing

Abstract
This chapter covers optical signal processing of various sorts. Knowledge of diffraction, lenses, FFT, and holography, covered in Chaps. 3, 6, 7, and 8, respectively, is used extensively in this chapter. In addition to coherent and inco- herent optical processing, this chapter also includes a section on tomography. Many examples are given in this chapter with the hope that they will stimulate the reader’s imagination to develop new techniques.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 12. Applications of Microwave Holography

Abstract
This chapter is a separate chapter on microwave holography. While Chap. 8 concerns itself primarily with light wave holography, Chap. 12 extends the principles of holography to the microwave region. It should be pointed out that many of the techniques mentioned here are also applicable to acoustic holography.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 13. Fiber Optical Communication

Abstract
This chapter describes fiber-optical communication systems which combine the technologies of optics and those of communications. Since a first demonstration of the guiding of light by total internal reflection was given by John Tyndall in 1870, tremendous progress has been made and thin glass fiber is now a viable means of transmission of light for communications. Many of the components developed for fiber-optical communication systems are introduced. A step by step procedure for designing a fiber optical communication system is presented.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 14. Electro and Accousto Optics

Abstract
This chapter provides the basics necessary to fully understand integrated optics. Many an integrated optics device uses the fact that an electro- or acousto-optic material changes its refractive index according to the external electric field or mechanical strain. The index of refraction of these materials, however, depends upon the direction of the polarization of the light (anisotropic), and the analysis for the anisotropic material is different from that of isotropic material. This chapter deals with the propagation of light in such media.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 15. Integrated Optics

Abstract
This chapter begins with a fundamental waveguide analysis and an introduction to coupled mode theory. Following this analysis is a description of the basic thin film devices which form the building blocks of integrated optics. A summary of the thin-film techniques that were specifically developed in connection with integrated optics is also included.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 16. 3D Imaging

Abstract
This chapter begins with a brief history of 3D imaging from the ancient Greek era to modern times followed by a discussion of physiological factors contributing to 3D vision. The chapter then expands on basic principles of 13 different types of 3D displays.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 17. Scanning Methods

Abstract
This chapter begins by laying some mathematical foundations that are based upon triangulation as well as analytic geometry, followed by discussions of optical distance measurement methods that involve the scanning of a light beam. Scanning methods are popular because they are non-contact, simple, straightforward and robust. They sometimes, however, suffer from slow measurement speeds, which make them unsuitable for real-time measurement. Various distance measuring schemes utilized by autofocus cameras are compared and summarized.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 18. Structured-Light Pattern Projection Methods

Abstract
Various methods described in this chapter rely on the projection of a structured light pattern. For instance, an array of light stripes (light sheets) is projected over the object. From the distorted image of the array of stripes, the 3D surface of the object is profiled. The advantages of structured light methods are speed, accuracy and robustness.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 19. Light Beam Range Finders

Abstract
This chapter covers the subject of Lidar (Light Detection And Ranging) which is a kind of radar that uses a laser beam instead of radio waves. The most significant advantage of lidar over microwave radar is the narrow beam spread. Typically, a lidar beam spreads to 30 cm in diameter at distance of 300 m, while an X band microwave radar with a \( 30 \times 30 \) cm2 aperture horn antenna spreads to 60 m at the same distance.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 20. Depth Measurement Using a Microscope

Abstract
This Chapter, the focus shifts to depth measurement under the microscope. Even though a microscope has a high power of resolution in the lateral plane, it has only limited depth resolution. By adding the capability of measuring the depth dimension, the microscope becomes capable of obtaining 3D images of minute objects. Various ways of adding depth resolution to a microscope are presented in this chapter.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 21. Interferometry

Abstract
In this chapter various kinds of coherent as well as incoherent interferometric methods of distance measurement are covered. Instrumentation of a laser interferometer, observation of gravitational waves, application of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to ophthalmology, and basics of radio astronomy are also explored.
Keigo Iizuka

Chapter 22. Distance Mapping Cameras

Abstract
In this chapter distance-mapping cameras that utilize charged coupled device (CCD) video cameras as their basis of operation are described. The lens of the CCD video camera projects the image of the object onto a pixel array. The individual distance to the object is measured for each pixel in the array. They are fairly compact, portable, easy to use, operate in real time and provide good power of resolution. Examples of applications that are only made possible by using this type of distance mapping camera are also included.
Keigo Iizuka

Backmatter

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