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## Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics, EPCE 2017, held in Vancouver, Canada, in July 2017. HCII 2017 received a total of 4340 submissions, of which 1228 papers were accepted for publication after a careful reviewing process. The papers thoroughly cover the entire field of Human-Computer Interaction, addressing major advances in knowledge and effective use of computers in a variety of application areas.

The two volumes set of EPCE 2017 presents 58 papers which are organized in the following topical sections: cognition and design, cognition in aviation and space, cognition and driving, mental workload and performance, psychological and emotional issues in interaction, situation awareness and control.

## Inhaltsverzeichnis

### System Latency Guidelines Then and Now – Is Zero Latency Really Considered Necessary?

Latency or system response time (i.e., the delay between user input and system response) is a fundamental factor affecting human-computer interaction (HCI). If latency exceeds a critical threshold, user performance and experience get impaired. Therefore, several design guidelines giving recommendations on maximum latencies for an optimal user experience have been developed within the last five centuries. Concentrating on the lower boundary latencies, these guidelines are critically reviewed and contrasted with recent empirical findings. Results of the review reveal that latencies below 100 ms were seldom considered in guidelines so far even though smaller latencies have been shown to be perceivable to the user and impact user performance negatively. Thus, empirical evidence suggests a need for updated guidelines for designing latency in HCI.

Christiane Attig, Nadine Rauh, Thomas Franke, Josef F. Krems

### Evaluation of Interface Modality for Control of Multiple Unmanned Vehicles

The U.S. Air Force envisions future applications in which a single human operator manages multiple heterogeneous unmanned vehicles (UVs). To support this vision, a range of play-based interfaces were designed by which an operator can team with autonomy (consisting of several intelligent agents/services) to manage twelve air, ground, and sea surface UVs performing security defense tasks for a simulated military base. To enable flexible delegation control, the interfaces were designed to enable the operator to use one or more of three control modalities in calling and editing plays that define UV actions. Specifically, each step defining a play could be completed: (1) manually, via mouse/click inputs, (2) by touching a touchscreen monitor, or (3) via speech commands. This paper reports results relevant to input modality from two experiments where operators were free to choose which modality to employ. Operators overwhelmingly used the mouse compared to the touchscreen or speech and were faster and more accurate with the mouse. Subjective data also favored the mouse modality with operators commenting that it was more intuitive to use with the play calling interfaces. Results are discussed and recommendations for further multimodal research are provided.

Gloria L. Calhoun, Heath A. Ruff, Kyle J. Behymer, Clayton D. Rothwell

### Research on User Mental Model Acquisition Based on Multidimensional Data Collaborative Analysis in Product Service System Innovation Process

The core of innovation design for product service system is to provide products and services meeting the needs of users. Traditional user research methods have many drawbacks, such as data interference, fuzzy feedback, single-dimensional indicators lack mutual verification, these issues have not been effectively resolved. If the designer can’t understand the users’ needs in time and objectively, and accurately construct the users’ mental model, it will make the design decision blurred and slow, and the design scheme lacks the utility. Taking into account the drawbacks of traditional user research methods, we use the multidimensional data collaborative analysis technology to obtain user, environment, tasks and other context information. The interaction between the user and the product service system is selected, and the context data of the target user is acquired by using the wearable device, the eye movement measurement and behavior analysis system. These methods can assist the designer discover the product service system usability problem, understand the users’ needs, build the users’ mental model. This paper focuses on the research of user mental model acquisition mechanism in Product Service System Innovation Process. Based on context awareness multidimensional data collaborative analysis, the users’ mental model is constructed accurately. To promote the effective matching between the design conceptual model and the user mental model to produce the optimal design, avoid the waste of the design process resources.

Jinhua Dou, Jingyan Qin

### Are 100 ms Fast Enough? Characterizing Latency Perception Thresholds in Mouse-Based Interaction

The claim that 100 ms system latency is fast enough for an optimal interaction with highly interactive computer systems has been challenged by several studies demonstrating that users are able to perceive latencies well below the 100 ms mark. Although a high amount of daily computer interactions is still characterized by mouse-based interaction, to date only few studies about latency perception thresholds have employed a corresponding interaction paradigm. Therefore, we determined latency perception thresholds in a mouse-based computer interaction task. We also tested whether user characteristics, such as experience with latency in computer interaction and interaction styles, might be related to inter-individual differences in latency perception thresholds, as results of previous studies indicate that there is considerable inter-individual variance in latency perception thresholds. Our results show that latency perception thresholds for a simple mouse-based computer interaction lie in the range of 60 ms and that inter-individual differences in latency perception can be related to user characteristics.

Valentin Forch, Thomas Franke, Nadine Rauh, Josef F. Krems

### Design and Evaluation of an Assistive Window for Soft Keyboards of Tablet PCs that Reduces Visual Attention Shifts

In general, soft keyboards are used for tablet PCs much as they are for smartphones. However, since the screen size is larger than for smartphones, user gaze is dispersed. In this paper, we propose a new keyboard for tablet PCs, in which an assistive window is introduced to decrease visual shifts, and evaluate the usability and usefulness of the keyboard. Results of an experiment are reported confirming that the gaze dispersion showed a reduction of 90% compared to an existing keyboard, although the typing error rates and typing time did not greatly improve. These results indicate a way to reduce visual dispersions on larger screen devices.

Bomyeong Kim, Kyungdoh Kim, Jinho Ahn, Robert W. Proctor

### Integrated Information Visualization and Usability of User Interfaces for Safety-Critical Contexts

Safety-critical systems are often designed from a technical point of view. This technocentric approach causes usability problems and, hence, hinders the protection or restoration of safe conditions, such as in emergency response, or even implies safety risks. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify key aspects for a more human-centered design for higher usability and safer system use. General emergency management and response literature as well as study results from various other fields, such as police work, firefighting and nuclear power plants were analyzed. Communalities and differences were contrasted and important overarching design recommendations for safety-critical user interfaces were deduced.

Sonja Th. Kwee-Meier, Marion Wiessmann, Alexander Mertens

### The Study of Presentation Characteristics of the Warning Information and Its Influence on User’s Cognitive Process Based on Eye Tracking

This research has adopted eye movement technique to study the influence of warning character on the information processing, which involves in two experiments. With our study, we have made our focus of research on the warning position, warning icon and warning border as a visual stimulus means. In our investigation, we have been keeping on with such commonly-made eye-movement recording parameters, such as the Fixation Count, the First Fixation and Duration by using an Eye Link II eye tracker, which is in a position to reflect the subject’s attention and conversion of the attentions. What is more, we have done a single factor variance analysis (ANOVA) in hoping to work out the experimental data due to the kinds of eye movement parameters, and the following conclusions were drawn: (1) The warning position on the warning interface affects the machining process of the warning. When the warning is embedded in text, the warning is more noticeable and the perceived hazard level is higher. (2) Consistent with the results of the relevant studies on warnings on product labels, there are also icon effects on the warning interface, and the icon can improve the salience of the warning itself and the level of perceived danger. (3) There are also border effects on the warning interface. The appearance of the border makes the warning more significant and the perceived hazard level can be improved. The research results of this paper can also be adopted as the warning message design reference, which has had a great significance in improving the identification of warning message and reducing the rate of visual accidents on interface.

Yun Lin, Chengqi Xue, Qi Guo, Jing Zhang, Ningyue Peng, Yafeng Niu

### Cognitive Task Analysis for Interface Designs to Assist Medical Engineers in Hemodialysis Machine Troubleshooting

With the aim of designing an interface that supports troubleshooting of a dialysis machine, a medical-engineer (ME) cognitive task analysis was conducted in this study, with the error messages currently provided by a hemodialysis machine also being analyzed and evaluated. First, we developed the “error-message mechanism diagram” for the given problem, indicating the relationship between the error message and the notifying conditions of this message (corresponding to the candidate for the cause of the problem). Next, we developed the “cognitive task flow diagram,” which shows the cause candidates generated by the ME until the source of the problem was detected. This diagram also clarifies the manner in which the ME verifies the cause candidates and the information or knowledge employed by the ME. Then, for the given problem, we compared the cognitive task flow diagram of an ME who successfully detected the problem cause and corresponding error-message mechanism diagram to evaluate the efficacy of the error messages currently provided by the device.

Yoshitaka Maeda, Satoshi Suzuki, Akinori Komatsubara

### Design of a Decision-Making Task for a Collaborative Brain-Computer Interface System Based on Emotiv EEG

This article presents lessons learned in the design, implementation and evaluation of a task of computerized decision-making to be used in a non-invasive collaborative and hybrid brain-computer interface, which used the Emotiv EEG for extract neural feature and response time as behavioral feature. The task developed was based on RSVP and has controlled levels of difficulty that can cause uncertainty. It is believed that the participants’ general satisfaction was good, since the majority indicated that they had an easy understanding of the task. The task proved to be efficient for the initial purpose, that is, to generate difficulty to the participants and the experiment can be balanced with respect to the difficulty of executing the task. However, it was not possible to find relationships between the emotions felt by the participants in their subjective answers and in their emotions collected through the Emotiv EEG. It was possible to verify that the participants with less response time tend to answer more correctly, which can indicate their level of confidence, as expected.

Ânderson Schuh, Márcia de Borba Campos

### Effects of Key Size, Gap and the Location of Key Characters on the Usability of Touchscreen Devices in Input Tasks

Touchscreen technology has gained increasing popularity over the last decade in a variety of personal, public and occupational settings. It is of great significance to investigate the effects of interface design factors that may affect the use of the technology. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of key size (ranged from 10 to 25 mm with 5-mm increments), gap (presence and absence) and the location of key characters (upper left, upper right, central, lower left and lower right) on usability metrics (i.e., task completion time, accuracy rate and user preference) in touchscreen input tasks. Fourteen undergraduate students (8 male and 6 female) participated in this study and were required to complete letter input tasks. The results indicated that there was a significant effect of key size on task completion time and accuracy rate, while gap and the location of key characters yielded no measurable effect on user performance. The performance was better for larger key sizes ($$\ge$$ 15 mm) than smaller ones. The location of key characters significantly interacted with gap on accuracy rate. Users preferred 15 mm key size, the presence of gap and centrally located key characters. The results may help with the design of more usable and safe touchscreen technology.

Da Tao, Qiugu Chen, Juan Yuan, Shuang Liu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Xingda Qu

### Natural, Multi-modal Interfaces for Unmanned Systems

The prospect of using unmanned systems in dull, dirty, or dangerous jobs to save work or even lives has drawn increasing attention in the DoD. Unmanned ground vehicles are used in theatre to get views into buildings or to destroy suspected IEDs. Unmanned air vehicles are used to get views over the next hill or to deliver munitions on targets thousands of miles away. While the automation and sensing capabilities have increased, interaction with these systems is still fairly rudimentary. Deployed systems typically use tele-operation or waypoint control, in some cases requiring operators to carry heavy operator control units. These approaches place a high burden on the operator in terms of the added weight and the constant attention required to operate the systems. In fact, many of these systems require more than a single operator to control a single platform, which increases the cost and logistics of using them. This paper describes natural, multi-modal interfaces as an alternative to the current state of the practice in controlling unmanned systems, with the goal of leveraging how people already communicate with each other in order to reduce the physical and cognitive burdens of interacting with unmanned systems. We describe approaches and challenges in designing, building, and evaluating natural interfaces. We present our Smart Interaction Device (SID) as an example natural interface for interaction with unmanned systems, and highlight some use cases we have applied it to in the air and ground domains.

Glenn Taylor

### UI-Design and Evaluation for Human-Robot-Teaming in Infantry Platoons

The military benefit of unmanned reconnaissance for infantry as the most exposed military branch is obvious. Furthermore, unmanned systems can also support by transporting heavy equipment, including sensor payloads usually not fielded by infantry units. While larger assets are typically controlled from afar, smaller assets can be controlled directly by nearby troops and satisfy immediate reconnaissance needs. In this work, the design, implementation and evaluation of a user interface (UI) for integrating unmanned platforms into the German army’s infantry platoons is presented. More specific, two unmanned aerial vehicles and two unmanned ground vehicles were to be integrated into a platoon. This work highlights the user interface aspects, training effort and organizational changes. German paratroopers and mountain infantry assisted with the requirements analysis and UI evaluation. In addition, the German Army Concepts and Capabilities Development Center supported the evaluation. The effort to bring unmanned systems into infantry units is motivated, related work concerning the control of unmanned systems is presented, the results of the requirements elicitation for this undertaking is reported, the design and implementation as well as the instruction strategy are outlined and the results of a test campaign reported. The paper concludes by summing up the current state and outlining future work regarding UI development for soldier-multi-robot-teams.

Martin Westhoven, Christian Lassen, Irmtrud Trautwein, Thomas Remmersmann, Bernd Brüggemann

### “Smooth” or “Intermittent”? The Necessity of Halt in the Dynamic Visualization Due to the Features of Working Memory

With the improvement of computer capability and the development of visualization technology, dynamic visualization could be displayed smoothly. However, the span limitation of human’s working memory is a natural barrier to obtain the massive information in parallel. Here, we designed a simple psychological experiment to validate the necessity of the halt in the dynamic visualization. In this 2 × 2 between-subjects design test, 21 graduate students participated in the control group and experimental group respectively to compare the influence of the halt in the visualization under the conditions of the simple search task and the complex search task. The eye movement data of number of fixation points and total fixation duration of each single material were recorded to investigate the real-time cognitive load. The results showed that the performance improved significantly when the halt added in the complex search task, along with the real-time workload reduced. However, the performance and cognitive load have no significant change in the simple search task. It demonstrated the need for the appropriate halt in the complex data visualization.

Xiaozhou Zhou, Chengqi Xue, An Li, Yafeng Niu, Jing Zhang

### Study on the Astronaut Error Criteria of a Manually Controlled Rendezvous and Docking Operation

Objective: In this paper, some manual control rendezvous and docking operations were researched, astronaut manual rendezvous and docking cognitive decision-making process and its operational characteristics were analyzed, and then the manual rendezvous and docking operations mistakes criteria was determined. Method and Result: By capturing operation errors during the operations, it can be easy to find weak points in astronaut’s training to provide future reference Conclusion: It can accumulate the basis data for further process optimization rendezvous and docking procedure evaluation methods.

Jiayi Cai, Weifen Huang, Jie Li, Wang Liu, Haipeng Jing, Dong Chen, Yanlei Wang, Xiang Zhang

### Multi-modal Interaction Between Pilots and Avionic Systems On-Board Large Commercial Aircraft

A lot of work has been carried out over the last decade to apply touchscreen technology to the flight deck of large commercial passenger aircraft. In fact, several industry solutions are now available and aircraft equipped with touchscreen solutions will be flying in the very near future. In contrast, Direct Voice Input (DVI) technology is still several years away from entering commercial service on large transport aircraft; nevertheless, it has a lot of potential and can even overcome some of the limitations associated with touchscreen technology. This paper presents a prototype application based on DVI which enables pilots to interact with the autopilot by means of voice commands. This application is composed of a speaker dependent speech recognition module and a command recognition module. The results of an evaluation of the DVI application are presented and discussed in detail and areas of improvement are outlined. The DVI application is part of a bigger solution which is intended to combine the benefits of touchscreen technology and DVI into a single multimodal interface.

Jason Gauci, Matthew Xuereb, Alan Muscat, David Zammit-Mangion

### A Study for Human-Machine Interface Design of Spacecraft Display & Control Device Based on Eye-Tracking Experiments

The display & control device is the hub of human-machine interaction in the whole spacecraft’s human-machine environment system. The rationality of its design affects the level of integration between human and machine directly. Therefore, the optimization design studies of manned spacecraft cabin’s display & control device plays an important role on the development of spaceflight. The paper researches the design methods of manned spacecraft cabin’s display & control device from the perspective of human-machine ergonomics. The specific steps of research are: Firstly, we will refine the design principles of human-machine interface by constructing the user behavior model; Secondly, we will work out the design and layout solutions of spacecraft cabin’s display & control device based on the information from user behavior model; Finally, an eye-tracking experiment will be proposed to verify and optimize the solutions.

Qi Guo, Chengqi Xue, Yun Lin, Yafeng Niu, Mo Chen

### The Future Flight Deck

The future commercial flight deck will need to consider the effects of global economic drivers in its design. These issues will considerably alter operating concepts and have a knock-on effect to the human aspects of design and operations. It is argued that ‘user-centered’ design is limited in considering such factors and a more ‘use centered’ design approach is required.

Don Harris

### Automated Online Determination of Pilot Activity Under Uncertainty by Using Evidential Reasoning

The objective of a workload-adaptive associate system is to support human pilots in critical workload situations to avoid excessive demands on their mental capacity. Since workload strongly depends on the current activity of the pilots, i.e. the tasks the pilots are performing in a specific task situation, a key feature of an adaptive associate system is to determine the activity of the pilots online in real-time. This contribution presents a method for determining the activity of helicopter pilots automatically in an uncertain and complex environment like military manned-unmanned teaming missions (MUM-T), where multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are commanded from the cockpit of a manned helicopter. We use a pilot observation system with different measurement sensors to collect evidences and apply an evidential reasoning algorithm to draw conclusions on the actual activity of the pilots. Our method is based on a simplified version of Dempster-Shafer theory and is capable of collecting and combining even contradictory evidences.By providing a means of implicit deliberative communication, this method lays a foundation for improving human-machine team performance in complex task situations. The implementation of this method in a helicopter mission simulator is explained in detail.

Fabian Honecker, Axel Schulte

### Assessing Human-Computer Interaction of Operating Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) in Attitude (ATTI) Mode

The addition of relatively cheap, yet accurate and reliable automated flight controllers, to even the most basic sub 20 kg (KG) RPAS/drone, has revolutionised the use of these systems, and made them widely accessible to the general public. Because of this, drone use covering a wide variety of applications has increased in recent years, and is set to continue to increase at an exponential pace. While drone automation allows novices to easily control and operate their aircraft, it can also however create a false sense of confidence, that the drones can be operated with little or even no training at all! When automation fails, however, drone pilots may find themselves having to control their unmanned/remotely piloted aircraft with greatly reduced technological assistance. This mode of operation is known as Attitude (ATTI) Mode and occurs when the flight control system loses Global Positioning System (GPS) accuracy. Currently, in the UK, drone pilots wishing to operate a platform below 20 kg in weight, need to undergo a practical assessment, which requires the drone to be flown in ATTI Mode. However, there is no clear guidance on what test flight profiles they may be asked to be fly. This creates a situation where drone pilots may be subjected to an extremely wide variance of practical assessments. This research consolidates from UK CAA-approved drone operators the types of flight profiles that they had been asked to demonstrate in ATTI Mode during their practical assessments. From all the profiles reported, the seven most frequently reported flight profiles were further analysed to rank their effectiveness in assessing drone pilots’ flight operation competency. It has been found that some of these flight profiles are not statistically significantly different from one another. Accordingly, it is proposed that assessors may consider selecting flight profiles that are significantly different to be performed during the practical assessment for a drone pilot, so that time and effort will not be wasted, but more importantly, the assessment of the SUA pilots’ competency may become more comprehensive.

Pete McCarthy, Guan Kiat Teo

### Multi-UAV Based Helicopter Landing Zone Reconnaissance

Information Level Fusion and Decision Support

This article presents an information fusion and decision-support system for the multi-UAV based landing zone reconnaissance and landing point evaluation in manned-unmanned teaming (MUM-T) helicopter missions. For this, numerous and heterogeneous data from variety of sensors must be gathered, fused and evaluated. However, payload capacity and on-board processing capabilities are often restricted. Thus, the teaming of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) offers a promising way to overcome these limitations and allows to benefit from heterogenous sensor payloads. Furthermore, measurement and sampling processes are never completely reliable. Hence, achieved observations must be interpreted very carefully, especially if the reliability of such functions is relatively low. Thus, the fusion system presented in this paper is based on a Bayesian network to specifically address this problem. Therefore, information needs of the pilots on safe landing zones are determined and required perceptive capabilities are derived. Consequently, reliability estimations of the applied perceptive capabilities are incorporated. Modelling aspects of the evaluation mechanism are explained and implications of incorporated export knowledge are set out. The feasibility of the implemented system is tested in an exemplary rescue mission, outlining the importance of incorporating automation reliability in automated decision-support systems.

Marc Schmitt, Peter Stütz

### Factors Influencing Cargo Pilots’ Fatigue

In recent years, cargo pilots’ training and reserves in China have been unable to meet the needs of the development of cargo aviation, due to the rapid development of the country’s cargo aviation and the continuing increase in air traffic. Frequent night and cross-time-zone flights in particular worsen the severity of pilots’ fatigue situation. At present, cargo pilots’ fatigue is a key problem that affects the development of China’s cargo aviation. In this study, a survey was carried out with Cargo Pilot’s Fatigue Survey Scale, and the factors influencing cargo pilots’ fatigue were analyzed and compared with the fatigue of the airline pilots. The results indicated that: compared with the airline pilots, cargo pilots have a higher degree of fatigue and are more likely to be conscientious and open; we also determined that number of night flights, workload, and health history are highly correlated with pilots’ degree with fatigue. Nevertheless, no significant difference in workload, age, or sleep quality was noted between cargo pilots’ and airline pilots’ fatigue.

Rui-shan Sun, Zi-li Chen, Guang-xia Huang-fu, Guang-fu Ma, Di Wu, Zhen Liu

### A Landing Operation Performance Evaluation System Based on Flight Data

Pilots’ operation performance is closely correlated with flight safety, particularly in the final landing phase. The main purpose of this study is to develop a flight landing operation performance evaluation system based on flight data and a risk evaluation model. In this model, 3 flight parameters, including landing touchdown distance, vertical acceleration, and pitch angle of each flight, were used to objectively evaluate the performance of flight landing operations. The system is expected to be used to evaluate, analyze, and pre-alarm the performance of the landing operation of the pilot after the flight task, to provide practical technical support for airlines to monitor and control landing risk, and to provide a more accurate and objective basis for an airline’s performance rewards and punishments.

Lei Wang, Yong Ren, Hui Sun, Chuanting Dong

### Dynamic Measurement of Pilot Situation Awareness

This study mainly concentrated on ergonomics evaluation of the pilot situational awareness (SA) based on flight simulation platform and validation of prediction dynamic model according to the experimental result. The experiment scenario was designed as typical right-hand traffic pattern flight task. And situation awareness global assessment technique (SAGAT) method was used to measure the changing tendency of SA during the entire flight task, that the effectiveness of prediction model was verified by regression analysis. Moreover, online test of cognition capability was adopted to examine the relevance of SA under flight simulation task. The experiment revealed that the prediction model was validated with reasonable effectiveness, and SA of different subject varied, which was correlated with characteristics of cognition capability.

Xu Wu, Chuanyan Feng, Xiaoru Wanyan, Yu Tian, Shoupeng Huang

### An Approach for Assessing the Usability of Cockpit Display System

Since the interaction between pilot and cockpit becoming more complicated and frequent, the usability of cockpit man-machine interface is directly related to the efficiency and safety of the cockpit. Among many human-computer interaction interfaces, the usability of the display system has become an important factor affecting flight efficiency and safety. However, the current study seldom pay sufficient attention on the usability evaluation. The limited research cannot report believable results to construct design. The paper is aimed to propose an evaluation model to evaluate the usability of displays.To construct a quantitative model the first step is to establish a usability evaluation model composed of nine evaluation indicators. In this paper, factor analysis method is used to remove the overlapping factors. First of all, the raw data from the usability test was normalized to form a correlation matrix. Then the cumulative contribution rate of each factors is obtained from the eigenvalues of the matrix. And factors whose eigenvalues are greater than 1 are chosen as the primary index of the model. And then the paper establishes the factor load matrix, and the rotation load matrix is obtained by rotating it orthogonally. Removing the factors whose load less than 0.5, the rest of factors are chosen as the secondary index of the model. The multiple linear regression method is used to obtain the weight coefficient of every indicator in the usability evaluation model. The solution of equations is the weight coefficient matrix of each index. Score of the whole display system is figured out by weighting the score of each indicator. The evaluation result is the function of indicators of different displays built. Through the calculation and analysis of indictors, the usability of different systems can be acquired. Finally, the paper interchanges independent variables and the dependent variables, using linear regression analysis again. The validation and verification of the usability model had been executed by the questionnaires of flight simulation task based on typical flight scenes according to the A320 flight manual. The evaluation model of usability is helpful to the design of the new display system and the improvement of current system. And the evaluation model proposed in this paper can also be extended to evaluate the usability of other airborne systems and it will drive the development of civil aircraft cockpit usability.

Hongjun Xue, Tao Li, Xiaoyan Zhang

### Partial-autonomous Frenzy: Driving a Level-2 Vehicle on the Open Road

Partial-autonomous vehicles are among us and represent a prominent testing ground for assessing the human interaction with autonomous vehicles. One main limitation of the studies investigating would-be users’ attitude toward partial to full autonomous driving stems from their indirect experience with such technology. In this study, participants drove a partial-autonomous vehicle on the open road and interacted with both Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) and Lane Keeping Assist (LKAS) systems. Preliminary results show participants rating level-2 autonomous features as possible sources of stress. Participants had issues engaging these systems with denser traffic and thought these systems to be more beneficial in traffic-free driving. Compared to ACC, engaging LKAS and monitoring its functioning represented a more challenging task and participants’ ratings of stress toward this system increased over time. Findings obtained in this study are of importance for exploring user interaction with future highly-autonomous vehicles and designing effective countermeasures to make the human-machine interface of these systems more informative and easier to use.

Francesco Biondi, Rachel Goethe, Joel Cooper, David Strayer

### The Human Element in Autonomous Vehicles

Autonomous vehicle research has been prevalent for well over a decade but only recently has there been a small amount of research conducted on the human interaction that occurs in autonomous vehicles. Although functional software and sensor technology is essential for safe operation, which has been the main focus of autonomous vehicle research, handling all elements of human interaction is also a very salient aspect of their success. This paper will provide an overview of the importance of human vehicle interaction in autonomous vehicles, while considering relevant related factors that are likely to impact adoption. Particular attention will be given to prior research conducted on germane areas relating to control in the automobile, in addition to the different elements that are expected to affect the likelihood of success for these vehicles initially developed for human operation. This paper will also include a discussion of the limited research conducted to consider interactions with humans and the current state of published functioning software and sensor technology that exists.

Jerone Dunbar, Juan E. Gilbert

### How Do Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drivers Acquire Ecodriving Strategy Knowledge?

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have the potential to accomplish high energy efficiency (i.e., low fuel consumption) given that drivers apply effective ecodriving control strategies (i.e., ecodriving behavior). However, HEVs have a relatively complex powertrain and therefore require a considerable knowledge acquisition process to enable optimal ecodriving behavior. The objective of the present research was to examine the acquisition of ecodriving strategy knowledge in HEV drivers who are successful in achieving a relatively high energy efficiency. To this end, we recruited 39 HEV drivers with above-average fuel efficiencies and collected interview data on the ecodriving strategy acquisition process. Drivers reported the acquisition of different types of knowledge as important for ecodriving, namely specific strategy knowledge and general technical system knowledge. They acquired this knowledge both with system-interaction (e.g., actively testing specific strategies, continuous monitoring of energy consumption) and without system-interaction (e.g., internet forums, consulting experts). This learning process took drivers on average 6.4 months or 10062 km. The results show the high diversity of the means that HEV drivers use to develop their ecodriving knowledge and the considerable time it takes HEV drivers to develop their ecodriving strategies.

Thomas Franke, Matthias G. Arend, Neville A. Stanton

### Design and Evaluation of a Mixed-Initiative Planner for Multi-vehicle Missions

The command and control of multiple vehicles in highly dynamic scenarios by a single operator require high situation awareness and can result in excessive workload. In this article, we argue why the introduction of automated planners instead induces new human factors related problems such as complacency, opacity, and loss of situation awareness. In order to avoid such issues, we propose a mixed-initiative approach. The article describes our concept and the technical implementation of a mixed-initiative multi-vehicle mission planner. The planner serves as cognitive agent and supports a human operator du-ring planning and re-planning processes. The article focuses on the interaction concept. A first experimental evaluation of the described interaction concept is presented. Our application comprises the teaming of manned and unmanned helicopters in complex military missions.

Fabian Schmitt, Gunar Roth, Axel Schulte

### A Field Study of Multimodal Alerts for an Autonomous Threat Detection System

Every year, inattentive or impaired drivers strike law enforcement officials, emergency personnel, and other workers by the roadside. Preventative efforts include making at-risk parties more conspicuous to oncoming motorists in order to prompt safer driving behaviors. In contrast, this work evaluates active alerting mechanisms designed to induce defensive action from at-risk roadside personnel once a hazardous situation has been autonomously detected. This paper reports on field investigations with state police to capture their cognitive requirements for this dynamic environment, as well as the design of four alert prototypes for a high noise, low-light environment such as a highway shoulder. We discuss implications for such future autonomous systems and argue that such active defensive alert mechanisms could improve roadside safety and save lives.

Erin T. Solovey, Pallavi Powale, M. L. Cummings

### Clustering of in-Vehicle User Decision-Making Characteristics Based on Density Peak

In this paper, we designed the simulated combat experiment to obtain the decision of the participants. Combining with the characteristics of the decision - making in the combat procedure and combat task, the fuzzy recognition model was established to obtain the model user characteristic matrix. The decision-making characteristics clustering analysis of density peak is the foundation for the design of adaptive in-vehicle user interface based on user decision-making characteristics.

Qing Xue, Qian Zhang, Xuan Han, Jia Hao

### Driver’s Multi-Attribute Task Battery Performance and Attentional Switch Cost Are Correlated with Speeding Behavior in Simulated Driving

Speeding is one of the leading factors for traffic casualties. It is important to identify underlying factors related with speeding behavior. Present study aimed to explore the relationship between speeding and two general cognitive abilities: multi-tasking and attention-switching abilities. We measured multi-tasking ability using Multi-Attribute Task Battery (MATB). The MATB performance includes hit rate and RT for monitoring task, track error for tracking task and control rate for resource management task. We used the attentional blink (AB) task to measure attention-switching ability. The AB refers to people’s inability to detect a second target (T2) that follows within about five hundred milliseconds of an earlier target (T1) in the same location. The attentional switch cost, specifically AB magnitude, is the difference between the highest and lowest accuracy of T2 given correct report of T1 across five T1-T2 intervals. Finally, a driving simulator was used to measure drivers’ speeding behavior. The results showed (1) max speeding ratio was significantly correlated with RT for monitoring task, control rate for resource management and AB magnitude; (2) regression analysis show that MATB performance and Attentional switch cost played the key role in predicting max speeding ratio while controlling the demographic variables, but only MATB performance had a significant effect on speeding duration. Thus MATB performance and attentional switch costs is important to predict speeding behavior in simulated driving.

Jie Zhang, Mengnuo Dai, Feng Du

### Backmatter

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