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Über dieses Buch

This open access book presents the proceedings of the 3rd Indo-German Conference on Sustainability in Engineering held at Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India, on September 16–17, 2019. Intended to foster the synergies between research and education, the conference is one of the joint activities of the BITS Pilani and TU Braunschweig conducted under the auspices of Indo-German Center for Sustainable Manufacturing, established in 2009. The book is divided into three sections: engineering, education and entrepreneurship, covering a range of topics, such as renewable energy forecasting, design & simulation, Industry 4.0, and soft & intelligent sensors for energy efficiency. It also includes case studies on lean and green manufacturing, and life cycle analysis of ceramic products, as well as papers on teaching/learning methods based on the use of learning factories to improve students’problem-solving and personal skills. Moreover, the book discusses high-tech ideas to help the large number of unemployed engineering graduates looking for jobs become tech entrepreneurs. Given its broad scope, it will appeal to academics and industry professionals alike.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 1. Indo-German Center for Sustainable Manufacturing: A Collaboration Between Birla Institute of Technology and Science Pilani and Technische Universität Braunschweig

Abstract
The global challenge of sustainable engineering needs a global community. Together, the Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS) Pilani, and Technische Universität (TU) Braunschweig enable their students and researchers to advance the necessary methods and tools to achieve sustainability goals. Through joint projects in India and Germany, students and researchers have the opportunity to visit another academic environment and experience working in intercultural teams as well as living in a different culture. For both sides, the exchange enables a change of perspective and allows seeing different challenges in sustainable engineering.
Benjamin Uhlig, Alexander Leiden, Kuldip Singh Sangwan, Christoph Herrmann

Open Access

Chapter 2. Oxygen Enrichment Technology—An Innovation for Improved Solid Fuel Combustion and Sustainable Environment

Abstract
There is an absolute need to adopt innovative technologies to improve energy efficiency with minimum possible environment emission and conservation of natural resources. Oxygen-enriched combustion is one of the latest technologies that may improve combustion efficiency depending on the exhaust gas temperature and percentage of oxygen in the combustion air. Cement industry is responsible for approximately 8% of the global anthropogenic CO2 emissions (IPCC, 2006) and the cement market is expected to grow with increased industrialization and urbanization. In typical cement manufacturing process, 60% of CO2 emissions are due to the transformation of limestone to lime (the calcination process) and rest 40% is due to fuel combustion in pyro processing. The air is used as an oxidizing agent content in industrial combustion processes that has maximum nitrogen component (78–79%) by volume. The chemically inert nitrogen dilutes the reactive oxygen and carries away some of the energy in the hot combustion exhaust gas during the air-fuel combustion process. An increase in oxygen in the combustion air can reduce the energy loss in the exhaust gases and increase the fuel combustion efficiency. Oxygen enrichment is helpful in curbing gaseous emission. By increasing oxygen content in air, N2 content is limited that leads to less NOx in exhaust gases. In this condition exhaust gases are more CO2 rich that are partially recirculate along with combustion air. In CO2 rich exhaust gases, water vapour is removed though condensation process and remaining CO2 is captured through CCS technology.
Ankur Mittal, Ashutosh Saxena, Bibekananda Mohapatra

Open Access

Chapter 3. Lean Manufacturing Implementation in Ceramic Industry: A Case Study

Abstract
This paper aims at proving that lean manufacturing can be successfully implemented in a semi-process industry, to reduce defects, waste, waiting time, processing time, inventory, and space. A case study was performed on a medium sized ceramic industry which resulted in waiting time reduction by 32%, processing time reduction by 1.02%, reduction in inventory by 36%, defects reduction (average) by 40.51%, reduction in manpower by 6.85% and cost saving of US $ 0.61 million in one financial year. It might represent new opportunities for lean practitioners/researchers who are interested in substantiating their lean endeavors in semi-process industries.
Jaiprakash Bhamu, Jagdish Bhadu, Kuldip Singh Sangwan

Open Access

Chapter 4. Choosing Products for Decentralized Manufacturing: Utilizing Recycled 3D Printing Filament in India and Germany

Abstract
As additive manufacturing technologies become widely available as desktop 3D printers, opportunities for decentralized manufacturing arise. The goal of the 3-CYCLE project is to produce plastic filament for 3D printing by recycling waste plastics and thus moving towards sustainable decentralized manufacturing. Leading to the question which product should be produced within the paradigm of sustainable distributed manufacturing using 3D printing with locally recycled filament. Therefore, this work proposes a framework to rate potential products regarding fabrication with recycled filament. A hierarchical criteria-system is developed covering important properties and constraints linked to the 3-CYCLE process and its characteristics. A weighting process to assign different importance levels to the proposed criteria-system by experts is created. Subsequently, a decision-making process is developed to rank in accordance of the assessed alternatives to the criteria-system. The multi-attribute process includes decision-making techniques (TOPSIS, WSM and WPM), an aggregation step and a verification approach. In a case study, ten products are compared with the developed approach. Resulting into four different rankings, differentiating between India, Germany and the inclusion of educational aspects.
Lennart Büth, Max Juraschek, Sebastian Thiede, Christoph Herrmann

Open Access

Chapter 5. Design and Simulation of Solar Thermal Based Trigeneration System with 520 m2 Dish Collector

Abstract
Use of solar thermal devices has proved a viable option for power generation in many countries that have abundant solar radiation throughout the year. Power Tower and Parabolic Trough collectors are the most common and commercially proven technologies in such solar thermal power plants. This paper presents the design and simulation of 1 MWe solar thermal power plant in which the steam is generated by Australian Nation University’s (ANU) 520 m2 solar parabolic dish concentrators. The plant also powers a vapour absorption-chilling unit that uses steam extracted from the turbine to produce a cooling effect. This paper discusses the design of the power cycle, and through the simulation, estimates the annual power generation from the power block and tonnes of refrigeration produced by vapour absorption chiller. Apart from the design of the power cycle, the layout of dishes is also designed for maximum steam generation from the solar field. The waste heat from the vapour absorption system may be used for low-grade heating applications.
Manoj Kumar Soni, Aditya Soni

Open Access

Chapter 6. Continuous Kaizen Implementation to Improve Leanness: A Case Study of Indian Automotive Assembly Line

Abstract
This study aims at introducing the concept of continuous kaizen to improve the leanness by enhancing productivity, line balancing and line efficiency of an automotive component assembly line. The present study shows the implementation of continuous kaizen at an assembly line using case study methodology. The proposed continuous kaizen implementation methodology illustrates how the top management specified goals/targets for the overall improvement of the line are achieved. The quality control techniques of Gemba walk, 3M (muda, mura, muri) analysis and ECRS (eliminate, combine, reduce, or eliminate) study are used for the micro analysis of the activities. It is found that the continuous kaizen can be effectively implemented in assembly lines to improve leanness by enhancing productivity, line balancing and line efficiency. It has been shown through the case study that the new concept of continuous kaizen decreased cycle time from 80 to 75 s, increased productivity by 6.7%, and line efficiency by 2.9%. The line balancing is also improved by decreasing the cycle time variation (standard deviation) from 4 to 2.84 σ.
Narpat Ram Sangwa, Kuldip Singh Sangwan

Open Access

Chapter 7. Time Series Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average Model for Renewable Energy Forecasting

Abstract
Due to the rapid pace of industrialization and growing demand for energy consumption, forecasting of renewable energy has become an inevitable focus of many recent studies. In this paper, our aim is to develop a univariate auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model to forecast daily and monthly wind speed and temperature based on 15 years (2000–2014) of hourly data at Charanka Solar Park, Gujarat. To check the stationarity of time series, Dickey fuller test and rolling statistics plots are employed. Autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation plots are used to determine potential models, whereas Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) are utilized to establish ARIMA (2, 1, 2) model. After rigorous training, model performance is validated using root means square (RMS) errors. The entire methodology is implemented in python using pandas for data exploration, and stats and scikit-learn libraries for model building and validation. On comparing results based on the log-likelihood, AIC and BIC values, we conclude that the ARIMA model provides better accuracy to the wind power forecasting as compared to solar power on the selected dataset.
Sumanta Pasari, Aditya Shah

Open Access

Chapter 8. 3-CYCLE—A Modular Process Chain for Recycling of Plastic Waste with Filament-Based 3D Printing for Learning Factories

Abstract
Closed-loop manufacturing enables the integration of waste material and end-of-life products into the manufacturing processes of new products. As additive manufacturing in the form of filament-based 3D printing is becoming more frequently used, this process can be utilized to create a closed-loop process chain for the recycling of plastic waste material. Within the 3-CYLCE project, a modular process chain was developed for treating end-of-life products and extruding printable filament out of shredded waste material. This filament can then be utilized to create new products with 3D printers substituting virgin material. The implementation of the process chain in learning environments is discussed and the possible learning content presented.
Max Juraschek, Lennart Büth, Sebastian Thiede, Christoph Herrmann

Open Access

Chapter 9. Exploring Sustainability in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

Abstract
Use of technology in this era requires organizational goals to be met more than just maximizing profit and capturing more and more market share. The aim of this research is to explore sustainability awareness in Indian pharmaceutical industry by considering social well-being along with economic and environmental aspects and attainment of key drivers. Despite moving towards 21st century, it is a fact that sustainability and related practices in Indian pharmaceutical industry is still in its infancy. Thus, looking at sustainability comprehensively, its awareness and related practices needs to be explored by incorporating them at strategic, tactical and operational level functions of a pharmaceutical organization. Once these aspects are explored, this will not only help to improve the environmental performance of an organization but also enhance managerial capability and decision-making capacity. This work has been carried out as a part of an ongoing research to identify and establish theoretical relationship between sustainability awareness, triple bottom line and key drivers. Therefore, it is expected that its practical implementation can be achieved in future with greater clarity.
Monica Sharma, Umesh Chaturvedi, Govind Saran Dangayach, Prabir Sarkar

Open Access

Chapter 10. Wind Energy Prediction Using Artificial Neural Networks

Abstract
Renewable energy sources are one of the most vital alternatives to the conventional non-replenishable energy generating systems. Among several renewable power sources, the installed wind power capacity contributes to almost half of the total capacity. However, the variability and seasonality in wind speed, wind direction, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity and precipitation cause wind power generation to be highly volatile. In this regard, the present study aims to develop a wind speed prediction scheme using artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. Single step and multistep recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are implemented. The long short term memory (LSTM), rectified linear unit (ReLU) activation function and Adam optimization algorithm are considered to carry out daily to monthly prediction using the RNN process. Results, based on the data from Charanka solar energy park in Gujarat, indicate that root means square (RMS) errors for univariate single layer, multivariate single layer and univariate two-layer models are 0.601, 0.782 and 1.120, respectively. Therefore, a univariate single layer RNN architecture is recommended for wind speed prediction. We envisage that a multilayer RNN model may improve the prediction accuracy over longer period.
Sumanta Pasari, Aditya Shah, Utkarsh Sirpurkar

Open Access

Chapter 11. Data Analytics of Energy and Compressed Air Flows for Process and Quality Monitoring in Electro-Pneumatic Handling Systems

Abstract
Ensuring constant high process and product quality is one of the decisive competitive factors in today’s industrial production. Industry 4.0 by means of the analysis of production data is seen as a viable approach to achieve zero defects production. Due to their sensitive behavior, energy data, which is often acquired independently of the machine control, can provide an adequate data source for quality-related analysis tasks. An analysis based on energy data reduces the effort for accessing machine controls and enables scalability. This paper shows the concept and implementation of a data-driven process and quality monitoring tool based on energy data for an electro-pneumatic handling system.
Maximilian Rolinck, Sebastian Gellrich, Christoph Herrmann, Sebastian Thiede

Open Access

Chapter 12. Development of an Electric-Load Intelligence System for Component Level Disaggregation to Improve Energy Efficiency of Machine Tools

Abstract
Energy and resource efficient manufacturing has become a key priority due to higher energy cost, market competition and environmental regulations. Better transparency and higher levels of disaggregation of energy data are necessary for energy efficiency improvement of machine tools. Since the beginning of the 21st century, some attempts have been made by the researchers to quantify the energy data but only up to the operational state of the machine tool. Better accuracy and transparency require disaggregation up to the component level. This study proposes an Electric-Load Intelligence (E-LI) system for identification of machine tool operating state and disaggregation of time and energy consumed up to the component level. The energy profile is obtained at the power input of a machine tool and analyzed using a set of signal processing techniques and load-disaggregation algorithms. The proposed methodology is validated through a case study of milling process. Various classifiers used in the disaggregation algorithms are compared for their accuracies using the case study data. The results reveal that only a small portion of the total cutting energy (782.24 kJ) was used for actual material removal (40.73 kJ). The proposed study provides accurate data in user friendly format to assist designers and manufacturers for strategic and economic decision making.
Nitesh Sihag, Kuldip Singh Sangwan

Open Access

Chapter 13. Energy Efficiency Analysis for Machining Magnesium Metal Matrix Composites Using In-House Developed Hybrid Machining Facilities

Abstract
Adoption of sustainable machining techniques shall offer the local industry a cost-effective route to improve its environmental, economic and social footprint when it comes to machine difficult-to-cut materials. This experimental study investigates the behavior of sustainable cutting fluid approaches on active cutting energy (ACE), active energy consumed by machine tool (AECM) and energy efficiency (EE) for machining PMMCs (particulate metal matrix composites) of magnesium at different combinations of rotational speed and feed. Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL), cryogenic and CryoMQL machining are performed on in-house developed MQL and cryogenic experimental setups and the results obtained from them are compared with dry machining. The L36 orthogonal array is employed to design the experiments. It is observed that cryogenic machining consumes comparatively lower ACE and AECM among the four cutting fluid approaches. It is found that dry machining provides comparatively lower EE among four cutting fluid approaches. From the main effects plot, it is observed that cryogenic assistance further improves the machining performance of the MQL technique and offers better EE. The results of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) suggest that rotational speed, cutting fluid approach and feed are the significant parameters that affect the EE in descending order respectively.
Navneet Khanna, Prassan Shah

Open Access

Chapter 14. Modeling Eco-Industrial Networks—A Representative Literature Review and Design Requirements

Abstract
The development of industrial clusters has, until recently, been guided solely by economic considerations. Recent advances in measuring and assessing the environmental and social consequences of industrial production have revealed the impact of human activity on the environment and society. Eco-Industrial Networks (EINs) are being viewed as a possible solution for reducing the environmental consequences of industrial production. In this paper, we review existing approaches used for analyzing and designing EINs. Based on salient works, design requirements for models to facilitate the organization of EINs are presented and discussed.
Manbir Sodhi, Fabian Schulze, Callum Bissett, Mercedes Rivero-Hudec

Open Access

Chapter 15. A Comparative Analysis of Surface Roughness Prediction Models Using Soft Computing Techniques

Abstract
Surface roughness is one of the significant index to measure the product quality of the machined parts. The objective of this work is to contribute towards the development of prediction models for surface roughness. In this work, the predictive models were developed for turning operations using soft computing techniques; support vector regression (SVR) and artificial neural network (ANN). The turning experiments are conducted to obtain the experimental data. The developed predictive models were compared using relative error and validated using hypothesis testing. The results indicate that both techniques provide a close relation between the predicted values and the experimental values for surface roughness and are appropriate to predict the surface roughness with significant acceptable accuracy. It is found that ANN performs better as compared to SVR.
Girish Kant Garg, Shailendra Pawanr, Kuldip Singh Sangwan

Open Access

Chapter 16. Statistical Modeling of Solar Energy

Abstract
Renewable energy comprises solar, wind, tidal, biomass and geothermal energies. Use of renewable energy resources as a substitute for fossil fuels inevitably reduce environmental footprint. Therefore, integration of renewable energy to the power grid, smart grid planning and grid-storage preparations are some of the major concerns in all developing countries. However, unpredictability in renewable energy resources makes the situation challenging. In light of this, the present study aims to develop a solar energy forecasting model to estimate future energy supply for a smooth integration of solar energy to the current electric grids. A suite of eight probability models, namely exponential, gamma, normal, lognormal, logistic, log-logistic, Rayleigh and Weibull distributions are used. While the model parameters are estimated from the maximum likelihood estimation method, the performance of the candidate distributions is tested using three goodness of fit tests: Akaike information criterion, Chi-square criterion, and K-S minimum distance criterion. Based on the sample data obtained from the Charanka Solar Park, Gujarat, it is observed that the Weibull model provides the best representation to the observed solar radiations. The study concludes with the analysis of forecasted solar energy and its possible role in replacing thermal energy resources.
Sumanta Pasari, Venkata Satya Siva Koundinya Nandigama

Open Access

Chapter 17. Sustainability Assessment of Sanitary Ware Supply Chain Using Life Cycle Assessment Framework—A Case Study

Abstract
Sanitary wares are the integral part of construction materials but there is hardly any study in the literature which shows the environmental impacts from the sanitary ware. This paper aims at assessing sustainability of a ceramic sanitary ware supply chain by quantifying the environmental impacts from materials and resources used throughout the different phases of a sanitary ware life cycle. The impacts are quantified using ReCiPe endpoint and midpoint assessment methods with Umberto NXT Software and eco-invent 3.0 database. This study uses climate change, fossil depletion, human toxicity, metal depletion, ozone depletion, terrestrial acidification, water depletion, damage to ecosystem quality, human health, and resources assessment categories to quantify the environmental impacts. The life cycle assessment finds that consumption of heavy fuel oil, electricity, grass, and cement mortar is primarily responsible for the negative impacts on the environment. It is also found that manufacturing and transportation phases of the supply chain have maximum contribution to the environmental degradation. The methodology, assessment methods and impact categories used in the study can be used by the other ceramic enterprises for the identification and benchmarking of environmental hotspots in their supply chains. It is expected that this study will be useful for the policy makers as well as the manufacturer to find the key areas for decreasing the environmental impacts and enhancing sustainability of a sanitary ware supply chain.
Kuldip Singh Sangwan, Kailash Choudhary, Shilpi Agarwal

Open Access

Chapter 18. Indian Cement Industry: A Key Player in the Circular Economy of India

Abstract
Indian cement industry is rated as one of the best performing industry across various industrial sectors in terms of energy efficiency, quality control, environmental sustainability and adaptive in venturing into new technology. Indian cement industry is contributing to circular economy primarily by (i) Circular Supply Chain, (ii) Recovery and Recycling. Waste from various industries is being utilized by the cement industry as alternative fuels and raw materials (AFR). As cement manufacturing process itself supports the environmentally sustainable waste utilization due to high temperature incineration without leaving any residue, hence it is acting as backbone for waste generating industries. National Council for Cement and Building Materials (NCB) being a leading R&D organization in the field of Cement and Building Materials in India is working to support the cement industry to enhance the waste utilization and sustainable manufacturing for clean and green India. This paper highlights the efforts of Indian cement industry, contribution of NCB towards circular economy and futuristic potential.
Kapil Kukreja, Prateek Sharma, Bibekananda Mohapatra, Ashutosh Saxena

Open Access

Chapter 19. Improving Classroom Delivery of Engineering Education Through Design Thinking

Abstract
Teaching is an art which requires systematic exploration in manifestations, be it curriculum design, pedagogical strategies and theories, teaching material and practices, and technological interventions. Due to the interface of technology and the mitigating attention span of the students, teachers have realized that the old method of teaching is not relevant anymore. As a result in the different courses offered at the Engineering institute, the teachers are adopting divergent thinking, synectics and design thinking for better understanding of the concepts. Design thinking offers better solutions to the problems and includes analogies and synectics to clarify the concepts. Design thinking aids better student participation and fosters teacher-student relationship. The students are encouraged for team based learning, which make them more attentive. This paper discusses how design thinking has been applied in two popular courses at Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences, BITS Pilani namely General Biology and Computational Fluid Dynamics. The feedback suggests that through analogies and design thinking the profound concepts are made easy to grasp.
Sangeeta Sharma, Priya Christina Sande

Open Access

Chapter 20. Use of Metacognitive Awareness for the Optimal Utilisation of Competencies in Ill-Defined Situations: A Study of Oskar Schindler (Schindler’s List)

Abstract
A grasp over the theoretical concepts directs learners to the comprehension of basic learning but mere acquisition of knowledge does not ensure the path to its applicability in the given situation. Formal education provides engineering students with an environment that allows them to have proper facilities, experts to guide, and well thought -of and critically analysed problems. Awareness of, exposure to, and practice in self-reflective and self-directed learning also known as metacognitive awareness may be put to an incredible use. Engineering education, along with technical aspects, focuses on metacognitive awareness. This qualitative case study attempts to explore knowledge and skills of the character Oskar Schindler in the highly acclaimed real life incident based movie, Schindler’s List. Oskar Schindler uses the concept of ‘simple engineering’ and makes his workers understand or execute a task by helping them understand and implement this concept successfully. This paper also documents the findings of an initiative where Oskar Schindler practically uses his competencies and metacognitive awareness to handle ill-defined or unthought-of problems efficiently, using ignorant and untrained hands.
Punita Raj, Devika

Open Access

Chapter 21. Capacity Building Through Cross Cultural Skills Among Engineering Graduates of India: A Case Study of Cross Cultural Skills Course at BITS Pilani

Abstract
Multiculturalism being a global reality of the present world, it has become imperative to develop Cross-Cultural Competence (CCC) to become successful as a professional and function effectively as an individual in personal and social interactions. Considering the fact that India with 60 percent of its population being under 25 years of age, it must educate its young generation to succeed in a globalized world. Another vital fact that endorses the need for change is revealed in a study, which states that about 20–33% of the 1.5 million engineers who pass out every year in India, run the risk of not getting a job at all. Among the multiple reasons for their being unemployable, one of the strongest is their lack of exposure to “other” cultures and their nuances that makes it hard for the leading MNCs to hire them. Keeping these facts in mind the present study argues the need for capacity building of engineering graduates through cross cultural skills. This paper recommends a course on Cross Cultural Skills to be offered to engineering students in order to inculcate in them the desired global competency among them. Besides this, the paper also discusses the different types of activities and tasks that are done in Cross Cultural Skills (CCS) classroom at BITS Pilani with a view to grooming students as effective University ambassadors. It also shares the feedback given by students to highlight the need for developing cross cultural skills and the success of the training during the course.
Pushp Lata

Open Access

Chapter 22. Innovative Teaching and Learning Climates—Is Germany Indeed Ahead of India? How Do These Relate to Sustainable Thinking?

Abstract
An innovative teaching and learning climate (ITLC) describes the positive attitudes of teachers and students towards developing and applying innovation, i.e., new ways of thinking and practices at their university. ITLC is assumed to positively affect many aspects of teaching and learning outcomes, e.g., sustainable thinking. Contrary to the hypothesis, the German university TU Braunschweig (N = 394) did not score higher in ITLC than BITS Pilani (N = 484). Sustainable thinking correlated with ITLC. This is the first study to provide insights into how ITLC relates to sustainable thinking. Thus, the results supplement existing research on sustainable thinking.
Luise Mayer, Elena Stasewitsch, Simone Kauffeld

Open Access

Chapter 23. Role of Self-efficacy in the Learning Output of Engineering Education

Abstract
Self-efficacy, one’s perception and self-belief in their abilities to do a particular task successfully, plays a crucial part in engineering education. It helps students enhance and strengthen their learning skills. The recent research has added multifaceted and integrated self-efficacy as the main factor of learning, both theoretical and practical. When placed in the professional situation, engineering students seem to face challenges to make significant use of their knowledge despite rigorous exposure to and training in core competency, communication skills, multidisciplinary team work, etc. The paper aims to study the concept of self-efficacy and trace its role in shaping the engineering skills of students. The study is descriptive in nature. The findings indicate that self-efficacy has an essential role in reinforcing the learning output of engineering education.
Abhijith Venugopal, Rajni Singh, Devika

Open Access

Chapter 24. Incorporating Experiential and Collaborative Learning into Instructional Design of Solar Energy Related Course—A Social Experiential Approach

Abstract
The conventional teaching method is mostly as a one-way communication be-tween instructor and students, where students go through rote learning and then appear for written exam. Based on their performance in written exam they are graded and judged. This type of system inculcates exam oriented learning approach than to actual knowledge gain. This is a major issue in the present era where students are fed up with exam oriented approach. So there is immense need to bring innovation in teaching methods. Also, along with education, among the students, there is need of growing social awareness specially towards weaker section of society. In order to impart effective learning experiential and collaborative learning has been incorporated in solar energy related courses by the authors at BITS Pilani. During these courses, the students fabricated do-it-yourself type solar cookers and tested the performance of these cookers in normal conditions. In order to have feel of the usage of the fabricated cookers the students were asked to cook some food items using those cookers. After successful completion of these activities, with the help of a NGO students helped the authors to conduct cheap solar cooker workshop for village women at a village near the institute. During the workshop the students helped the village women to fabricate cheap solar cookers. All the activities fabrication, testing and involvement in the workshop was the part of evaluative components for the courses. It was overall a very successful experiential and collaborative learning experiment with social angle involved in it.
Manoj Kumar Soni, Tamali Bhattacharya

Open Access

Chapter 25. Lateral Thinking in Learning Computational Fluid Dynamic Methods

Abstract
Although a traditional engineering education system is good in imparting the intended know-how, it does not focus much on the delivery system. Applying lateral thinking techniques can provide a value addition to delivery as illustrated in this work, for the course of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFD is a powerful engineering simulation tool and a trending elective course taught at several universities. CFD methods build on numerical methods to resolve flows and design flow related equipment. Here several methods form the core of the course, making teaching and learning them all a rigorous mathematical exercise. Hence lateral thinking techniques were applied to sustain and enhance student interest. A basic CFD method (Lax-Wendroff) was first taught. It was then illustrated how suspended judgment, generation of alternatives and fractionation were applied to further elucidate closely related CFD methods, namely those of Maccormack and Richtmyre. Hence lateral thinking was successfully applied for value addition to delivery in the class room, and a framework was thereby suggested to explore other CFD methods in this way. The work demonstrates the possibilities in amalgamating lateral thinking with analytical content in engineering education.
Priya C. Sande

Open Access

Chapter 26. Enhancing Employability Skills of Engineering Graduates

Abstract
Engineering education demands numerous challenges in the present context due to the difficulties posed by the placement scenario. Demand for competent engineering professionals has made the selection process highly challenging giving rise to a need for comprehensive education pedagogy not just confined to inculcating hard core technical attributes but also human skills. Hence there is an urgent need to continuously upgrade the curriculum design of engineering courses so as to better equip the technical graduates with employability skills. BITS, Pilani, one of the premiere technical institutes in India has a well-designed pool of structured courses such as Business Communication, Technical communication, etc. which do incorporate modules such as Professional Presentations, Group Discussions, Interviews, etc. so as to hone the soft skills of the students. The paper attempts to deal with the experiential innovative methodology adopted in the course Business communication so as to enhance the employability skills of the Engineering students.
Sushila Shekhawat

Open Access

Chapter 27. Mergers and Acquisitions as Enabler of Digital Business Transformation: Introducing an Integrated Process

Abstract
Digitalization requires business development agents to align their business models to meet customer demands and competition requirements. To achieve this transformation however is a challenge for incumbent organizations, since over time they have often developed rigidity and they might suffer under lack of necessary competencies. Acquiring digital start-ups is an often used and promising strategy to close these feasibility gaps. However, digitalization and mergers and acquisitions have not yet been brought together in business sciences. Therefore, this paper aims on identifying process steps of both, digital business transformation and mergers and acquisition models and to relate these process steps for designing a new integrated process. Finally, the resulting process is described in terms of main tasks and their sequence. The paper concludes that future research should focus on integrating operative methods to provide further support for incumbents when facing digitalization.
Leonhard Riedel, Reza Asghari

Open Access

Chapter 28. Investigating the Role of Motivation in Strengthening Entrepreneurial Intention Among Women Entrepreneurs in India

Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to explore the key factors, which motivate women to take up entrepreneurial activity and to understand its role in increasing Entrepreneurial intention towards women entrepreneurs in Indian micro, small and medium enterprises. This paper attempts to develop a scale for measuring motivational factors, entrepreneurial potential that leads to entrepreneurial intention among women entrepreneurs in India and hence testing its validation. In addition, it will help in understanding the relationship between motivation, entrepreneurial potential and intention through hypothesis testing. The paper adopts an exploratory and descriptive research design capitalizing on authentic and reliable secondary data through exhaustive studies of reputed journals/literatures, government sources. A sample of 397 respondents from all across the India has been collected from women entrepreneurs for this study in order to understand the motivational factors and its role in increasing entrepreneurial intention, using cluster and snowball sampling on self-administered questionnaire. The accumulated data were than analyzed using descriptive analysis for validity and reliability checks. Strong correlations were found between motivational factors, perceived desirability, entrepreneurial potential and intention and hence confirmed that all the measures in the instrument were well constructed. Hypothesis testing using Spearmen’s correlation test (two tailed) explains the significance of relationship between the variables.
Sakshi Chhabra, Rajasekaran Raghunathan, Navuluru Venkata Muralidhar Rao
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