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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the proceedings of two events held in conjunction with the CAiSE conferences and related to the areas of enterprise, business-process and information systems modeling: the 18th International Conference on Business Process Modeling, Development and Support, BPMDS 2017, and the 22nd International Conference on Evaluation and Modeling Methods for Systems Analysis and Development, EMMSAD, 2017. They took place in Essen, Germany, in June 2017.
The focus theme for BPMDS 2017 papers was “Enabling Business Transformation by Business Process Modeling, Development and Support". From 24 submitted papers, 11 were finally accepted and organized by: Non-functional considerations in business processes; new challenges in business process modeling and support; testing business processes; business process model comprehension; an experience report on teaching business process modeling.
The EMMSAD conference focuses on evaluating, exploring and enhancing modeling methods and techniques for the development of information and software systems, enterprises, and business processes. It received 25 submissions, from which 9 full and 2 short papers were selected and organized: evaluation and comparison of modeling languages and methods; modeling approaches to support decision making; behavioral specification and business process modeling; and modeling languages and methods in evolving context.



Non-functional Considerations in Business Processes


Towards a Data-Driven Framework for Measuring Process Performance

Studies have shown that the focus of Business Process Management (BPM) mainly lies on process discovery and process implementation & execution. In contrast, process analysis, i.e., the measurement of process performance, has been mostly neglected in the field of process science so far. However, in order to be viable in the long run, a process’ performance has to be made evaluable. To enable this kind of analysis, the suggested approach in this idea paper builds upon the well-established notion of devil’s quadrangle. The quadrangle depicts the process performance according to four dimensions (time, cost, quality and flexibility), thus allowing for a meaningful assessment of the process. In the course of this paper, a framework for the measurement of each dimension is proposed, based on the analysis of process execution data. A trailing example is provided that reflects the expressed concepts on a tangible realistic scenario.
Isabella Kis, Stefan Bachhofner, Claudio Di Ciccio, Jan Mendling

Supporting Secure Business Process Design via Security Process Patterns

Security is an important non-functional characteristic of the business processes used by organisations for the coordination of their activities. Nevertheless, the implementation of security at the operational level can be challenging due to the limited security expertise of process designers and the delayed consideration of security during process development. To overcome such issues, expert knowledge and proven security solutions can be captured in the form of process patterns, which can easily be reused and integrated to business processes with minimal security-related knowledge required. In this work we introduce process-level security patterns, each of which contains the main activities required for the operationalisation of different security requirements. The introduced patterns are then used as a component of an existing framework for the creation of secure business process designs, the application of which, is illustrated through a working example. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed patterns is conducted via a workshop session.
Nikolaos Argyropoulos, Haralambos Mouratidis, Andrew Fish

NFC-Based Task Enactment for Automatic Documentation of Treatment Processes

In nursing homes documentation is a mandatory yet time consuming task: typically, nurses document their work after performing the treatments at the end of their shifts which might lead to a decline in the quality of the documentation. The utilization of process-oriented technology in the care domain has already been shown to have high potential in support for documentation of treatment tasks. We want to further this idea, by transforming physical objects into smart objects through equipping them with NFC tags. They can then be used to automatically register their usage with NFC readers specific to care residents. Our analysis shows that many treatment tasks are using care utilities and are candidates for automatic task documentation. We present three scenarios for automatic documentation in nursing homes, an implementation through a proof-of-concept prototype, and an evaluation through expert interviews in the care domain. The interviews indicate an average decrease in documentation time per shift of more than 60%.
Florian Stertz, Juergen Mangler, Stefanie Rinderle-Ma

New Challenges in Business Process Modeling and Support


Discovering Social Networks Instantly: Moving Process Mining Computations to the Database and Data Entry Time

Process mining aims to turn event data into insights and actions in order to improve processes. To improve process performance it is crucial to get insights into the way people work and collaborate. In this paper, we focus on discovering social networks from event data. To be able to deal with large data sets or with an environment which requires repetitive discoveries during the analysis, and still provide results instantly, we use an approach where most of the computation is moved to the database and things are precomputed at data entry time. Differently from traditional process mining where event data is stored in file-based system, we store event data in relational databases. Moreover, the database also has a role as an engine to compute the intermediate structure of social network during insertion data. By moving computation both in location (to database) and time (to recording time), the discovery of social networks in a process context becomes truly scalable. The approach has been implemented using the open source process mining toolkit ProM. The experiments reported in this paper demonstrate scalability while providing results instantly.
Alifah Syamsiyah, Boudewijn F. van Dongen, Wil M. P. van der Aalst

Re-evaluation of Decisions Based on Events

Business operations include decisions having impact on their success and performance. The digital world provides access to massive amount of data being relevant in decision making. After a decision, often succeeding activities are not immediately started or preparation activities are conducted. Meanwhile new information could be received which lead to a different decision output. Considering this can save organizations process cost or flow time. In this paper, we provide a concept to realize the re-evaluation of decisions based on event processing. We integrated a re-evaluation scope in business processes in which change of decision is still accepted and which dynamically subscribes to those events leading to new decision output. The concept is evaluated by a proof-of concept implementation and a single-case experiment on a logistic use case. There, re-evaluation was relevant for almost a quarter of the transports reducing the traveling time.
Luise Pufahl, Sankalita Mandal, Kimon Batoulis, Mathias Weske

Requirements Framework for Batch Processing in Business Processes

Business process automation improves organizations’ efficiency. In existing systems for business process automation, process instances run independently from each other. However, synchronizing instances for particular activities in a business process can reduce process execution costs. Only a few works exist to enable the so-called batch processing in business processes, which also lack a complete understanding of requirements. This paper provides a requirements analysis based on a literature review and real-world scenarios, taken from different domains. The resulting requirements framework gives an overview of aspects which need to be considered when developing a concept to integrate batch processing into business processes. Further, it fosters the comparison of existing solutions. The application of the framework shows that current approaches could be extended in terms of flexibility, user involvement, and multi-process support.
Luise Pufahl, Mathias Weske

Testing Business Processes


Performance Comparison Between BPMN 2.0 Workflow Management Systems Versions

Software has become a rapidly evolving artifact and Workflow Management Systems (WfMSs) are not an exception. WfMSs’ changes may impact key performance indicators or resource consumption levels may change among different versions. Thus, users considering a WfMS upgrade need to evaluate the extent of such changes for frequently issued workload. Deriving such information requires running performance experiments with appropriate workloads. In this paper, we propose a novel method for deriving a structurally representative workload from a given business process collection, which we later use to evaluate the performance and resource consumption over four versions of two open-source WfMSs, for different numbers of simulated users. In our case study scenario the results reveal relevant variations in the WfMSs’ performance and resource consumption, indicating a decrease in performance for newer versions.
Vincenzo Ferme, Marigianna Skouradaki, Ana Ivanchikj, Cesare Pautasso, Frank Leymann

BPMN-Based Model-Driven Testing of Service-Based Processes

Executable Business Processes realized in WS-BPEL and BPMN2 are used more and more for automating digitalized core processes in organizations. Due to their critical nature for the organization, these processes need to be developed with high quality standards. Existing literature concentrates on testing such processes, but do not offer integration into the development lifecycle and validation with other stakeholders. Our approach is based on Test Models that allow both the easier definition of automated test cases as well as discussion with non-technical stakeholders and, thus, can be used for business process validation and process modeling support. We define a meta-model for the BPMN-based Test Models that has been validated in a case study in an industrial project.
Daniel Lübke, Tammo van Lessen

Business Process Model Comprehension


Cognitive Insights into Business Process Model Comprehension: Preliminary Results for Experienced and Inexperienced Individuals

Process modeling constitutes a fundamental task in the context of process-aware information systems. Besides process model creation, the reading and understanding of process models is of utmost importance. To better understand the latter, we have developed a conceptual framework focusing on the comprehension of business process models. By adopting concepts from cognitive neuroscience and psychology, the paper presents initial results from a series of eye tracking experiments on process model comprehension. The results indicate that experiences with process modeling have an influence on overall model comprehension. In turn, with increasing process model complexity, individuals with either no or advanced expertise in process modeling do not significantly differ with respect to process model comprehension. The results further indicate that both groups face similar challenges in reading and comprehending process models. The conceptual framework takes these results into account and provides the basis for the further experiments.
Michael Zimoch, Rüdiger Pryss, Thomas Probst, Winfried Schlee, Manfred Reichert

Eye Tracking Experiments on Process Model Comprehension: Lessons Learned

For documenting business processes, there exists a plethora of process modeling languages. In this context, graphical process models are used to enhance the process comprehensibility of the stakeholders involved. The large number of available modeling languages, however, aggravates process model comprehension and increases the knowledge gap between domain and modeling experts. Upon this, one major challenge is to identify factors fostering the comprehension of process models. This paper discusses the experiences we gathered with the use of eye tracking in experiments on process model comprehension and the lessons learned in this context. The objective of the experiments was to study the comprehension of process models expressed in terms of four different modeling languages (i.e., BPMN, eGantt, EPC, and Petri Net). This paper further provides recommendations along nine identified categories that can foster related experiments on process model comprehension.
Michael Zimoch, Rüdiger Pryss, Johannes Schobel, Manfred Reichert

An Experience Report on Teaching Business Process Modeling


Teaching and Learning State-Oriented Business Process Modeling. Experience Report

Though experience on teaching and learning workflow-based business process modeling exists and is partly documented, this is not true for other types of business process modeling. Even if such experience exists, it is not documented in research publications devoted to process modeling or BPM education. This paper tries to fill the gap by reporting on experience of teaching and learning state-oriented business process modeling, which does not belong to the mainstream. The report gives both the teacher’s and learner’s perspective from a course where state-oriented process modeling was in the focus. The material is partly based on the reflections from the authors, one of whom is a learner, and the other - a teacher, and partly – on an investigation of opinions of other learners via interviews and a small-scale survey. The paper considers difficulties of teaching/learning state-oriented modeling, of which some does not exist for other types of process modeling, and gives suggestions on how they can be overcome.
Georgios Koutsopoulos, Ilia Bider

Evaluation and Comparison of Modeling Languages and Methods


On the Requirement from Practice for Meaningful Variability in Visual Notation

This research-in-progress paper proposes the need for a move towards more meaningful variability of visual notations. Evidence accumulated via an online survey on the requirements practitioners have for visual notations, indicate the need for variability of a modeling language’s visual notation. Widely used modeling languages in practice such as UML and BPMN do not support redesign of the visual notation of core constructs without modifying or extending the underlying abstract syntax and semantics (e.g., UML stereotypes, BPMN extensions). The expressed need to vary commonly used visual notations depending on particular users or contexts, while not changing the underlying modeling language itself, poses a set of research challenges discussed here.
Dirk van der Linden, Irit Hadar, Anna Zamansky

Balanced Scorecard for Method Improvement: Approach and Experiences

Modelling methods provide structured guidance for performing complex modelling tasks including procedures to be performed, concepts to focus on, visual representations, tools and cooperation principles. Development of methods is an expensive process which usually involves many stakeholders and results in various method iterations. This paper aims at contributing to the field of method improvement by proposing a balanced scorecard based approach and reporting on experiences from developing and using it in the context of a method for information demand analysis. The main contributions of the paper are (1) a description of the process for developing a scorecard for method improvement, (2) the scorecard as such (as a tool) for improving a specific method, and (3) experiences from applying the scorecard in industrial settings.
Kurt Sandkuhl, Ulf Seigerroth

Modeling Exchange Agreements with DEMO/PSI and Core Component of Communication

Intervac Home Exchange is an international club, created in 1953, where members exchange their house during a limited period without money transfers between them. Both parties negotiate and establish an exchange agreement with specific terms of the exchange. This club requested our collaboration to improve their existing online exchange agreement, as it doesn’t fully satisfy their members. We show that it is hard to model this kind of exchange agreement with existing state of the art in enterprise engineering modeling methods (DEMO/PSI). We propose the usage of Core Component of Communication (CCC), which is an evolution of the existing DEMO/PSI theory done by the authors. We show how CCC can be applied to this real-life organization and better solve the challenges posed by this kind of agreements. Analytical evaluation is performed to compare both approaches.
Duarte Gouveia, David Aveiro

Modeling Approaches to Support Decision Making


Towards a Decision-Support System for Selecting the Appropriate Business Process Modeling Formalism: A Context-Aware Roadmap

Business Process Modeling (BPM) is the cornerstone of the Business Process Management field, which has become a crucial topic in the competitiveness of enterprise information systems. The importance of BPM to Business Process Management can be justified by the serious problems, which may arise in the latter, if the former is not conducted correctly. This can take place, inter alia, when an inappropriate choice of a BPM formalism for a given BPM context has been made. Such an improper choice is due not only to the availability of a huge number of BPM formalisms but also to the lack of guidelines assisting in the selection process. Our aim in this paper, is to propose a context-aware roadmap with associated methodological guidelines underpinning the selection of the appropriate BPM formalism. To this end, a systematic literature review (SLR) of studies on BPM formalisms quality has been undertaken. The contribution of this paper is threefold viz. the SLR itself, a context-aware roadmap, along with a context model inspired by the Zachman framework, and is a first step towards a decision support system for selecting the appropriate BPM formalism.
Afef Awadid, Selmin Nurcan, Sonia Ayachi Ghannouchi

Designing a Decision-Making Process for Partially Observable Environments Using Markov Theory

This paper is motivated by the problem of deciding how to proceed in a business process when a workaround occurs. In addition to this problem, most of the times, the exact state of the business processes is not fully available to the industrial organization. Therefore, it means that something wrong happens during automatic (or manual) operation; however, the managers do not know exactly the state of the operating systems. Usually, the combination of these problems drives to management decision without enough information and thus error prone. This paper integrates Markov theory with business processes design to predict the impact of each decision in the operational environment. The solution is tested in an agro-food industrial company that transforms fresh fruit to preparations that are sold to others companies. The paper shows that anticipating the production processes changes has the benefit of minimizing lot infections or stock disrupts. The main identified limitations are the compute intensive process involved and the effort required to estimate the business processes details. In future research, this work might be (i) extended to friendly software interfaces in order to facilitate the interaction with end-users, (ii) optimized to the algorithm of informed decision-making computation, and (iii) automatic estimation of business processes details using machine learning techniques.
Sérgio Guerreiro

Know-How Mapping – A Goal-Oriented Approach and Evaluation

Information system developers have to cope with a continually changing technological landscape. Knowing what each kind of technique or technology can do and how well they perform under various conditions constitute an important kind of know-how that systems professionals seek. In this paper, we claim that such know-how information can be structured as a map, so as to facilitate understanding and decision making about what technology to adopt or develop. Recent work has proposed to use a goal-oriented approach to address the challenge of constructing such a map. In this paper, we examine the hypothesis that a goal-oriented approach can be used for mapping and analyzing technological domains. First, we apply the approach to several domains, to verify the applicability and expressiveness of the approach. Second, we perform a feature-based analysis and examine the extent to which the approach addresses the desired characteristics of a know-how map. Third, we conduct a controlled experiment in which the comprehension of goal-oriented know-how maps in comparison to a textual summary from a literature review was examined. The evaluation results indicate that the goal-oriented know-how maps have sufficient expressiveness, are easy to read and understand, and address a number of desired characteristics.
Arnon Sturm, Eric Yu, Sadra Abrishamkar

Behavioral Specification and Business Process Modeling


Controlled Experiment in Business Model-Driven Conceptual Database Design

The paper presents the initial results of a controlled experiment that we conducted with professional database designers in order to evaluate an approach to automated design of the initial conceptual database model based on collaborative business process models. The source business process model is represented by BPMN, while the target conceptual model is represented by UML class diagram. The preliminary results confirm already obtained results in case-study based evaluation, as well as the results of an earlier controlled experiment conducted with undergraduate students. The evaluation implies that the proposed approach and implemented automatic generator enable the generation of the target conceptual model with a high percentage of completeness and precision.
Drazen Brdjanin, Goran Banjac, Danijela Banjac, Slavko Maric

Incorporating Data Inaccuracy Considerations in Process Models

Business processes are designed with the assumption that the data used by the process is an accurate reflection of reality. However, this assumption does not always hold, and situations of data inaccuracy might occur which bear substantial consequences to the process and to business goals. Until now, data inaccuracy has mainly been addressed in the area of business process management as a possible exception at runtime, to be resolved through exception handling mechanisms. Design-time analysis of potential data inaccuracy has been mostly overlooked so far. In this paper we propose a conceptual framework for incorporating data inaccuracy considerations in process models to support an analysis of data inaccuracy at design time and empirically evaluate its usability by process designers.
Yotam Evron, Pnina Soffer, Anna Zamansky

Structured Behavioral Programming Idioms

Behavioral Programming (BP) is a modelling and programming technique proposed for specifying and for implementing complex reactive systems. While effective, we report on a weakness that stems from the verbosity and from the complexity of the programming constructs in BP. Our analysis, described in this paper, shows that developers who work with BP use specific patterns that allow them to control the complexity of their specification. Thus, the main contribution of this paper is a set of specification constructs that represent those patterns. We report on the design of the new idioms, termed structured constructs for behavioral programming and on an empirical evaluation in a controlled experiment that proved their effectiveness. In particular, the experiment examined the comprehensibility differences between behavioral specifications with non-structured BP programming idioms and with the structured ones. The results indicate that the new structures improve the comprehension of the behavioral specification.
Adiel Ashrov, Michal Gordon, Assaf Marron, Arnon Sturm, Gera Weiss

Modelling Languages and Methods in Evolving Context


A Security Requirements Modelling Language to Secure Cloud Computing Environments

This paper presents a cloud-enhanced modelling language for capturing and describing cloud computing environments, enabling developers to model and reason about security issues in cloud systems from a security requirements engineering perspective. Our work builds upon concepts from the Secure Tropos methodology, where in this paper we introduce novel cloud computing concepts, relationships and properties in order to carry out analysis and produce cloud security requirements. We illustrate our concepts through a case study of a cloud-based career office system from the University of the Aegean. Finally we discuss how our cloud modelling language enriches cloud models with security concepts, guiding developers of cloud systems in understanding cloud vulnerabilities and mitigation strategies through semi-automated security analysis.
Shaun Shei, Haralambos Mouratidis, Aidan Delaney

On Valuation of Smart Grid Architectures: An Enterprise Engineering Perspective

This paper presents the initial design of a method to value smart grid (SG) architectures from a business point of view. The proposed design relies on the use of the Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM) and an adapted version of Bedell’s method to assess the strategic importance and effectiveness of SG elements. As an attempt to automate such valuation, we also propose the use of a survey and a decision support system (DSS) that can determine the overall value of SG architectures.
Iván S. Razo-Zapata, Anup Shrestha, Erik Proper


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