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This book constitutes the proceedings of the Fourth International IFIP Working Conference on Enterprise Interoperability (IWEI 2012) , held in Harbin, China, September 6-7, 2012. The theme for IWEI 2012 was “Collaboration, Interoperability and Services for Networked Enterprises”, so submissions and discussions focused on these three areas critical for enterprise interoperability.

The 10 full papers, 3 short papers, and 4 invited papers presented in this volume were carefully selected from 21 submissions, following a thorough reviewing process, during which each paper was scrutinized by at least three experts in the field. The papers cover a wide spectrum of enterprise interoperability issues, ranging from foundational theories, frameworks, architectures, methods and guidelines to applications, and case studies. In addition, this volume also includes the two invited keynotes.

The 10 full papers, 3 short papers, and 4 invited papers presented in this volume were carefully selected from 21 submissions, following a thorough reviewing process, during which each paper was scrutinized by at least three experts in the field. The papers cover a wide spectrum of enterprise interoperability issues, ranging from foundational theories, frameworks, architectures, methods and guidelines to applications, and case studies. In addition, this volume also includes the two invited keynotes.




From Enterprise Interoperability to Service Innovation: European Research Activities in Future Internet Enterprise Systems

The speech will describe the recent evolutionary paths of European research about Enterprise Interoperability. In 2006, the Enterprise Interoperability cluster of European projects coined the term ISU (Interoperability Service Utility) as the new IT infrastructure able to provide interoperability services to all SMEs, at low cost and under non-rivalry and non-discriminatory principles. This concept has been studied and developed further by the COIN flagship Integrated Project (COllaboration and INteroperability for networked enterprises), coordinated by TXT e-solutions, which started in 2008 and developed a first prototype of ISU by means of a dynamic federation of open and trusted Generic Service Delivery Platforms as well as envisaging a set of innovative business models for Enterprise Interoperability as a Service-Utility. More recently, the advent of EU 2020 Strategy and Digital Agenda for Europe confirmed the importance of having “interoperability and standards” as one of the most important pillars for a single digital market for European citizens and enterprises. This evident commoditization trend could induce readers to think that in 10 years time interoperability will not matter anymore (N. Carr “IT does not matter”) and that it will soon be absorbed by Cloud Computing and Future Internet as one of the fundamental services of a so-called Universal Business System. However, more and more eminent scientists tend now to agree that it is when a technology really becomes a utility and apparently does not matter anymore (Z. Turk calls it sedimentation) that innovation could find the most fertile and promising ground to develop and grow. Based on the sound and solid base of Future Internet core platform and enterprise interoperability utility infrastructure, a new project, MSEE (Manufacturing SErvice Ecosystem), coordinated by TXT and started in October 2011, is now trying to explore how the commoditization and openness of IT could become an enabler for service innovation in the manufacturing industry, allowing virtual factories and enterprises to adopt a value co-creation and service dominant logic instead of a traditional perspective of producing and selling just physical goods. It is thanks to Enterprise Modelling and Interoperability as an integrated part of a Universal Business System that a milling machine industry could sell “holes per minute” or that an aircraft engine industry could sell “flying hours” or that a traditional car manufacturer could sell “mobility kilometers”. As a future perspective, the speech will also address the key question whether technical-service-business innovation, implemented for instance by the Factories of the Future and the MSEE project, could be sufficient for European manufacturing industry to overcome the current economic crisis or, instead, a re-thinking of skills and competencies of employees is needed in order to implement and take up the changes imposed by innovation. In this perspective, a new research initiative, coordinated by TXT and called TELL ME (Technology Enhanced Learning Livinglab for Manufacturing Environments), is going to be launched in November 2012 with the aim of implementing human-centric manufacturing and innovative methods and solutions for blue collar workers lifelong training, via open innovation and participative creativity Living Labs.
Sergio Gusmeroli

Building a New Eco-System to Transform a Smarter Logistics Industry with Smarter Logistics Cloud

China is well known as a "World Factory", where logistics is one of the key service industries. The market of logistics in China is huge. The logistics cost is over 18% of Chinese GDP, and it is rapidly growing at 14% increasing rate yearly. However,the logistics industry in China is inefficient and fragmentary. The rate of total logistics cost of entire GDP is even twice times bigger than developed countries. IBM is now working with the Chinese Government and local business partners to deliver a "Smarter Logistics Cloud" by applying IBM technologies such as Smarter Commerce, Cloud, Business Optimization, Business Analytics, Mobile technologies etc. Ningbo is one of the largest ports in China. We will implement in market innovation and start the transformation of service industry from Ningbo, roll it out it China, and eventually spread out to other emerging countries.
Lei Qin

Full Papers

Session 1: Requirements Engineering and Enterprise Integration

Innovation Management Needs an Interoperable Requirements Management

In a world of fast changing environments for business, the need for innovation is one of the most stable items. On the other hand, innovation is influenced by more and more factors, like increasing products and service complexity ore growing numbers of partners, involved into a single product innovation. This paper introduces interoperability problems related to simultaneous business and product development.
Purpose – This paper introduces the L-modelAgile, an advancement of the V-model. Due to interoperability is essential during the product development process, overall aim of the L-modelAgile is to improve the quality and rate of innovation within complex systems during the early stages of a stable and simultaneously agile innovation process.
Design/methodology/approach – The basis of the L-modelAgile consists of the interoperability between the innovation process and the requirements management & engineering process (RM&E process) as well as the agile method Scrum. To link these processes, a best practice model inclusive a capability model and a performance measurement system has been developed. Findings – An increase of innovation quality and innovation speed at complex systems during the early stage of a reliable and simultaneous agile innovation process.
Originality/value – The paper focuses on the innovation process during the product development and how to improve its quality.
Katja Landgraf, Roland Jochem

A Goal Decomposition Approach for Automatic Mashup Development

Automatic mashup aims to discover desired mashlets according to user goals automatically and combine them into an entirely new application. However, the user goals are usually high-level and coarse-grained while the mashlets are low-level and fine-grained. How to fill in the gap becomes a challenge when addressing automatic mashup development. This paper proposes a novel goal decomposition and refinement approach to handle this problem. We defined a goal model based on which we proposed a history heuristic based algorithm to build a Mashup Goal Ontology repository to enable the auto-decomposition of user goals. Then mashlets which are matching with the refined user goals can be found out and mashed up. We evaluate our approach through experimental results which demonstrate acceptable performance of the decomposition.
Lin Bai, Dan Ye, Jun Wei

Benefits of Enterprise Integration: Review, Classification, and Suggestions for Future Research

This article reports the findings of a literature review concerning the potential benefits of Enterprise Integration (EI) for organizations. The review reveals the current state of the scientific literature concerning the potential benefits of EI, classified using a conceptual model of the enterprise. We believe that the results provide a consolidated and comprehensive picture of such potential benefits, useful as a baseline for future research. Additionally, the review is expected to assist practitioners in establishing business cases for EI by means of scientifically grounded reasoning about how EI benefits can contribute to the achievement of certain business goals. Additionally, results could be employed to develop methods or models capable of measuring such benefits in financial terms.
Ariyan Fazlollahi, Ulrik Franke, Johan Ullberg

Session 2: Manufacturing Applications and Enterprise Planning

A Resource Virtualization Mechanism for Cloud Manufacturing Systems

Virtualization is critical for resource sharing and dynamic allocation in cloud manufacturing, a new service-oriented networked collaborative manufacturing model. In this paper, an effective method is proposed for manufacturing resources & capabilities virtualization, which contains manufacturing resources modeling and manufacturing cloud services encapsulation. A manufacturing resource virtual description model is built, which includes both nonfunctional and functional features of manufacturing resources. The model provides a comprehensive manufacturing resource view and information for various manufacturing applications. The OWL-S is adapted to an upper level ontology model, according to which manufacturing resources & capabilities are encapsulated into manufacturing cloud service. The proposed method is applied to the virtualization process of an aerospace company. Effectiveness and efficiency are illustrated for the manufacturing cloud services discovery and management.
Ning Liu, Xiaoping Li

Manufacturing Software Interoperability Services Which ISO 16100 Brings about

ISO 16100 series provides a standardized methodology for the interoperability of manufacturing software using capability profiling. The method for describing software capability as Capability Profile and the way for exchanging software capability as information through Capability Profile are provided by ISO 16100. By using these two fruits from ISO 16100, two new interoperability services are proposed. One is a new manufacturing application developing method using the manufacturing software capability catalogue as cloud service. The other is a new manufacturing system configuration method by plug-and-play of manufacturing software. Finally, further enhancement of interoperability services are discussed.
Michiko Matsuda

A Confidentiality-Guarantee Mechanism for SaaS

In SaaS Applications, the data of tenants are stored in the untrusted service provider side, this case increases the risk of data leakage, and becomes the brief reason to prevent people and enterprise from taking SaaS mode for their applications. Correspondingly, confidentiality-guarantee has become the key factor of its large scale promotion. In this paper we propose a general secure mechanism that allows the sensitive data of tenants to be stored in encrypted mode, which guarantees data confidentiality on the assumption that application server is trusted, and then put forward the analysis of its security and performance.
Guozhen Ren, Qingzhong Li, Yuliang Shi, Lizhen Cui

Session 3: Model Manipulation and Ontology Building

A QoS-Aware Hyper-graph Based Method of Semantic Service Composition

Semantic service composition is an important issue in web service based systems. It is about how to build a new, reusable and value-added service by combining existing semantic web services. In this paper we propose a new hyper-graph based method supporting semantic service composition, which model the service composition problem as a hyper-graph. Then the hyper-graph based service composition algorithm has been implemented and evaluated. The evaluation results have shown that the method can effectively reduce the composition time and has good robustness, especially in the case of large number of web services and concepts.
Cui Lizhen, Xu Meng

Towards Information Customization and Interoperability in Food Chains

Food supply chain networks are characterized by clouds of various partners providing required products or services to meet customer demands. The coordination of the SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprise) is a major challenge that food chain networks are facing. Delivering the right information to partners and providing semantic interoperability play key roles in effective coordination. This paper proposes an efficient framework to help these SMEs to easily negotiate and shape the profiles of the traceability information products. It tries to involve various tools to model the contexts of SMEs, and then adopt the concepts of mass customization to suggest optimal profiles for the desired information. In supply chain level, agents and governance boarders are supposed to negotiate and determine the profiles of needed information products. The customized information profiles are then employed to map and integrate various information sources to produce the required information products.
Kai Mertins, Frank-Walter Jaekel, Quan Deng

A Value-Oriented Iterative Service Modeling Process

In order to help service designers build high-quality service models quickly and accurately, this paper presents a value-oriented iterative service modeling process. This modeling process combines service business perspective and service value perspective together, and it is executed interactively between service model space and service value space, simultaneously, some value-awareness activities (e.g. value proposition, value analysis, value optimization, etc) are executed iteratively among different layers in the whole model process, so as to make service models can support the implementation of the expected values to a great extent. At last the rationality of the modeling process is explored.
Xiaofei Xu, Chao Ma, Zhongjie Wang

Session 4: Model-Driven Service Engineering in Enterprise Ecosystems

Principles of Servitization and Definition of an Architecture for Model Driven Service System Engineering

European manufacturing enterprise will progressively migrate from traditional product-centric business to product-based service-oriented virtual enterprise and ecosystems However, the changes in this servitization process must be accompanied using specific techniques. This paper aims at presenting the principles of migration from traditional tangible product company to a set of virtual organisations ensuring the various steps of a Product2service life cycle as well as a preliminary result to develop service modelling architecture. The proposed Model Driven Service Engineering (MDSE) architecture is adapted from MDA/MDI approaches as developed in INTEROP Network of Excellence. This architecture defines the various modelling levels and the related constructs to model based on servitization principles. The potential modelling languages to represent these constructs at each level of MDSE will be presented at the same time. Conclusions are given in the end of the paper.
Yves Ducq, David Chen, Thècle Alix

Control-Flow Pattern Based Transformation from UML Activity Diagram to YAWL

Business process verification is an important topic in business process management (BPM). The verification of standard UML Activity Diagram is not easy due to lack of mature tools. YAWL (yet another workflow language) has a formal semantics based on Petri net; verification of YAWL model seems easier than other modeling languages such as UML-AD. A series of mature verification tools has been released (Woflan, WofYAWL, ProM) based on YAWL to find structural errors, such as deadlocks in the model. These tools can be used for verifying UML-AD models if they can be transformed to YAWL models.
The most challenging problem is that some control-flow patterns in UML-AD can’t be transformed via an element-to-element mapping. To solve this problem we provide a control-flow pattern based method for transforming a UML-AD model to YAWL. We regard these patterns that need to be transformed as whole model segments, pick them out from the UML-AD model and transform the left part using an element-to-element mapping as well as an object flow transforming method. We subsequently transform the picked-out patterns via patterns-based transformation and combine all the transformed YAWL segments to a new YAWL net.
Categories and Subject Descriptors: D.2.1 [Requirements]: Requirements –Methodologies.
General Terms: Theory.
Zhaogang Han, Li Zhang, Jiming Ling, Shihong Huang

MDA-Based Interoperability Establishment Using Language Independent Information Models

Nowadays, more and more enterprises realize that one important step to success in their business is to create new and innovative products. Many times the solution to do that is to abandon the idea of an enterprise as an “isolated island”, and get collaboration with others: worldwide non-hierarchical networks are characterized by collaboration and non-centralized decision making. This paper proposes a conceptual model common to the entire business network, in a framework that enables the abstraction of individual models at their meta-level and increase language independency and interoperability, keeping all the enterprise software’s integrity intact. The strategy presented allows an incremental mapping construction, to achieve growing integration.
Carlos Agostinho, Jaroslav Černý, Ricardo Jardim-Goncalves

An Approach for Validating Semantic Consistency of Model Transformation Based on Pattern

The correctness of model transformation is an import research field in model-driven architecture. Syntactic correctness and semantic consistency are hot topics in the field of model transformation. Syntactic correctness has many mature solutions. However the validation of semantic consistency has some problems. Therefore, how to validate semantic consistency of model transformation is a major problem in model-driven development. In this paper, we propose a validation approach for semantic consistency of model transformation, which is based on pattern. We analyze some patterns in models and make these patterns as transformation pattern. We define transformation rule with transformation pattern and analyze three parts of semantic transformation. We present two theorems to validate semantic consistency of model transformation. Finally, we give a case to illustrate the effectiveness of our approach.
Jin Li, Dechen Zhan, Lanshun Nie, Xiaofei Xu

Negotiations Framework for Monitoring the Sustainability of Interoperability Solutions

The competition inherent to globalisation has led enterprises to gather in nests of specialised business providers with the purpose of building better applications and provide more complete solutions. This, added to the improvements on the Information and Communications Technologies (ICT), led to a paradigm shift from product-centrism to service-centrism and to the need to communicate and interoperate. Traditional segments like banking, insurance and aerospace subcontract a large number of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) that are undergoing this change, and must ensure the criticality and accuracy of their business is not affected or impacted in any way. This paper proposes a methodology and a framework that provide critical businesses a control mechanism over the interoperability solutions in place on their subcontracted enterprises, imposing negotiations which formalise the solutions applied. It then focuses on its application on the business case of the Concurrent Design Facility of the European Space Agency (ESA-CDF).
Carlos Coutinho, Adina Cretan, Ricardo Jardim-Goncalves

Short Papers

A Hypergraph Partition Based Approach to Dynamic Deployment for Service-Oriented Multi-tenant SaaS Applications

In a service-oriented multi-tenant SaaS application, all tenants share services and user requests of the service change dynamically. In order to provide high-quality web services, we must solve the problem of the load unbalance caused by dynamic user requests’ change. This paper proposes an approach based on hypergraph partition to keep load balance for service-oriented multi-tenant SaaS application. A hypergraph-based service model is used to present hierarchical services and multi-tenant applications. This approach adjusts service distribution on the servers based on hypergraph partition to keep load balance. According to the experiments, this approach effectively solves the problem of load unbalance caused by the change of user requests.
Ying Pan, Lei Wu, Shijun Liu, Xiangxu Meng

Service-Oriented Digital Identity-Related Privacy Interoperability: Implementation Framework of Privacy-as-a-Set-of-Services (PaaSS)

Protecting digital identity is crucial aspect in order to successfully enable collaboration between heterogeneous and distributed information systems. In this context, privacy could play a key role for digital identity protection and security. Thus, an identity layer in which interoperable privacy is delivered in the shape of a set of services, rather than monolithic applications, would be inevitably responding to the need of collaboration. In this article, we suggest a novel layered service-oriented implementation framework that information systems security projects’ members could borrow to successfully turn digital identity-related privacy requirements into a set of services. Several blocks are distributed amongst five layers and three mapping gateways determine the roadmap of the implementation effort governance. Seven loosely coupled, publicly hosted and available to on-demand calls services are specified to accommodate service-oriented architectures. OMG SoaML diagrams, BPMN process descriptions and SOA-artifacts specifications are provided and explained.
Ghazi Ben Ayed, Solange Ghernaouti-Hélie

Research on Semantic Interoperability for Business Collaboration

In order to deal with the heterogeneous systems and variety of business data, business model and description of different enterprises in the interoperation process, a semantic interoperability framework for business collaboration is proposed in this paper. In the framework, a multi-facet ontology system supporting business collaboration is introduced to give unified understanding throughout interoperation process. Based on the framework, a method to extract ontologies from multi sources quickly and to realize semantic mapping based on mixed ontologies is utilized to resolve the semantic conflicts. Web service is employed to eliminate the system-level heterogeneity and is semantically enhanced to meet the requirements of service discovery. After that, the on-demand business construction is achieved through services dynamic combination. Finally, a prototype platform is developed and the feasibility of our framework was verified. Our proposed framework provides beneficial references for SMEs to realize inter-enterprise business collaboration in China.
Zhan Jiang, Lanfen Lin, Fei Xie

Erratum to: Enterprise Interoperability

Erratum to: M. van Sinderen et al. (Eds.) Enterprise Interoperability DOI: 10.​1007/​978-3-642-33068-1
The book was inadvertently published with an incorrect name of the copyright holder. The name of the copyright holder for this book is: © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing. The book has been updated with the changes.
Marten van Sinderen, Pontus Johnson, Xiaofei Xu, Guy Doumeingts


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